2,532,654 results match your criteria Reviews in Gastroenterological Disorders[Journal]
Gerontology 2018 Dec 12:1-9. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) affects nearly 50 million people worldwide, and currently no disease-modifying treatment is available. With continuous failure of anti-amyloid-beta- or tau-based therapies, identification of new targets has become an urgent necessity for AD prevention and therapy. Recently, conventional genetic approaches and computational strategies have converged on immune-inflammatory pathways as key events in the pathogenesis of AD. Read More
Horm Res Paediatr 2018 Dec 12:1-14. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis is a common site of unintended, acquired disease either during or after the treatment of cancer. Children treated with external radiation therapy are at the highest risk for developing a thyroid-related late effect, but thyroid dysfunction and second primary thyroid neoplasms can also occur after treatment with radiopharmaceutical agents such as 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine. Increasingly recognized is the development of early thyroid dysfunction as an off-target consequence of the more novel cancer therapeutics such as the tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immune checkpoint inhibitors. Read More
Dig Dis 2018 Dec 12:1-10. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Clinic for Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia.
Superficial neoplastic lesions of the digestive tract are usually asymptomatic, and often represent incidental findings on endoscopy. The Paris Classification was developed for the systematic evaluation of superficial lesions of the oesophagus, stomach and colon. The significance of this classification in clinical practice is that it allows the depth of invasion to be estimated. Read More
Dig Dis 2018 Dec 12:1-6. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Background: Colonoscopy is the gold standard for adenoma detection. All endoscopists who perform colonoscopy must by mandate be skilled to perform polypectomy. However, there are significant differences between endoscopists in terms of the polyp detection rate and in the effectiveness of polypectomy. Read More
J Crit Care 2018 Nov 30;50:144-154. Epub 2018 Nov 30.
Meridian HealthComms, Plumley Moor Road, Plumley, UK. Electronic address:
Purpose: Guidelines recommend crystalloids for fluid resuscitation in sepsis/shock and switching to albumin in cases where crystalloids are insufficient. We evaluated hemodynamic response to crystalloids/colloids in critically ill adults.
Materials And Methods: The primary research question was: "Are crystalloids sufficient for volume replacement in severe indications (intensive care unit [ICU]/critical illness)?" Randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) were identified using PubMed and EMBASE, and screened against predefined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Read More
J Crit Care 2018 Dec 5;50:138-143. Epub 2018 Dec 5.
Department of Critical Care Medicine (707), Radboud university medical center, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
The administration of β-blockers in patients with sepsis is a trending topic in intensive care medicine since the landmark study by Morelli and colleagues, showing a striking decrease in 28-day mortality compared to standard care. While the available evidence suggests that the use of β-blockers in septic shock is safe, the effects on hemodynamics are controversial. In this paper, we review the effect of β-blockade in septic shock on hemodynamics from animal models to critically ill patients. Read More
Stem Cell Reports 2018 Dec;11(6):1312-1323
Department of Surgery and Biochemistry, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA. Electronic address:
Cell-permeable compounds provide a convenient and efficient approach to manipulate biological processes. A number of compounds controlling stem cell self-renewal, survival, differentiation, and reprogramming have been identified through high-throughput/content screens. Using these powerful chemical tools, strategies have been developed to direct human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) differentiation to functional cells. Read More
Stem Cell Reports 2018 Dec;11(6):1306-1311
Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Leiden University Medical Centre, PO Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, the Netherlands. Electronic address:
Cardiovascular disease is still a major cause of ill-health and mortality, heart failure and arrhythmia being among the causes of sudden cardiac death. There are few drugs available for treatment or prevention and it remains difficult to predict who will develop these conditions, even when disease-causing mutations or associated gene variants are identified in individuals or families. This is in part because widely used rodent models may not fully capture the physiology of the human heart. Read More
J Pediatr (Rio J) 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.
Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Saúde da Criança, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; Centro Universitário da Serra Gaúcha (FSG), Caxias do Sul, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:
Objective: To perform a systematic review with meta-analysis and meta-regression to correlate the total scores of asthma control with the increase in the total scores of health-related quality of life levels of parents of asthmatic children.
Sources: The search was carried out in the following databases: PubMed (MEDLINE); Embase and ScienceDirect (Elsevier); SciELO and LILACs (Bireme) in June 2017. The included studies assessed asthma control through the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ), Asthma Control Test (C-ACT/ACT), and Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) questionnaires, whereas the Pediatric Asthma Caregiver's Quality of Life Questionnaire (PACQLQ) was applied to assess the HRQoL of parents and family members. Read More
Eur J Endocrinol 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.
A Tahrani, University of Birmingham, Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research, Birmingham, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a common disorder that is associated with serious co-morbidities with a negative impact on quality of life, life expectancy and health costs. As OSA is related to obesity and is associated with sleep disruption, increased inflammation and oxidative stress, it is not surprising that OSA has an impact on the secretion of multiple hormones and is implicated in the development of many endocrine conditions. On the other hand, many endocrine conditions that can affect obesity and/or upper airways anatomy and stability have been implicated in the development or worsening of OSA. Read More
Eur J Endocrinol 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.
B Clarke, Medicine, Mayo Clinic School of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA, Rochester, United States.
Purpose: To provide practice recommendations for the diagnosis and management of hypoparathyroidism in adults Methods: Key questions pertaining to the diagnosis and management of hypoparathyroidism were addressed following a literature review. We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases from January 2000 to March 2018 using keywords "hypoparathyroidism, diagnosis, treatment, calcium, PTH, calcidiol, calcitriol, hydrochlorothiazide and pregnancy". Only English language papers involving humans were included. Read More
Magy Seb 2018 Dec;71(4):163-169
Department of Organ Fabrication, Keio University School of Medicine 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan.
Introduction: Research has made progress in organ fabrication using an extracellular matrix, cell sheets, or organoids. Human liver tissue has been constructed using a 3-dimensional (3D) bioprinter and showed evidence that an in vitro generated liver bud was reformed in a rodent liver model. This study describes the stages of development of rat fetal organs and liver structure and reviews recent progress in liver organoid transplantation. Read More
Biomater Sci 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Department of Biomedical Sciences, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong, P. R. China. and City University of Hong Kong Shenzhen Research Institute, Shenzhen 518075, P. R. China.
In this review, we summarize the recent design strategies (2015-present) of nanomaterial-based vaccine delivery systems via multiple routes to induce robust protective immunity. The selected topics are focused on the novel design strategies of nanomaterial carriers for vaccine delivery. Inspired by recent advances, we also briefly introduce the emerging administration routes that may give rise to synergistic immune effects with advanced delivery systems. Read More
Physiol Rev 2019 Jan;99(1):807-851
Physiology Section, Otto Loewi Research Center for Vascular Biology, Immunology and Inflammation, Medical University of Graz , Graz , Austria ; Department of Biomedical Physiology and Kinesiology, Simon Fraser University , Burnaby, British Columbia , Canada ; Battlefield Health & Trauma Center for Human Integrative Physiology, Combat Casualty Care Research Program, US Army Institute of Surgical Research, JBSA Fort Sam Houston, Texas.
This review presents lower body negative pressure (LBNP) as a unique tool to investigate the physiology of integrated systemic compensatory responses to altered hemodynamic patterns during conditions of central hypovolemia in humans. An early review published in Physiological Reviews over 40 yr ago (Wolthuis et al. Physiol Rev 54: 566-595, 1974) focused on the use of LBNP as a tool to study effects of central hypovolemia, while more than a decade ago a review appeared that focused on LBNP as a model of hemorrhagic shock (Cooke et al. Read More
Expert Opin Drug Saf 2018 Dec 12:1-12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
a Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology , Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet & Stockholm University , Stockholm , Sweden.
Introduction: Polypharmacy, the use of multiple medications by one individual, is increasingly common among older adults. Caring for the growing number of older people with complex drug regimens and multimorbidity presents an important challenge in the coming years. Areas covered: This article reviews the international trends in the prevalence of polypharmacy, summarizes the results from previous reviews on polypharmacy and negative health outcomes, and updates a previous review on the clinical consequences of polypharmacy by focusing on studies published after 2013. Read More
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2018 Dec 12:271678X18818911. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
2 Department of Neurosurgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a common subtype of hemorrhagic stroke with devastating consequences with no specific treatment. There is, however, substantial evidence for iron-mediated neurotoxicity in animal ICH models. Non-invasive quantification of the peri-hematomal tissue iron based on MRI has shown some promise in animal models and is being validated for clinical translation. Read More
Histol Histopathol 2018 Dec 12:18073. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Clinical and Experimental Neuroscience Group (NiCE-IMIB), Department of Human Anatomy and Psychobiology, Institute for Aging Research, School of Medicine, University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain.
After Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most prevalent and incidental neurodegenerative disorder, affecting more than 2% of the population older than 65 years old. Since it was first described 200 years ago by Dr James Parkinson, great steps have been made in the understanding of the pathology. However, the cause(s) that initiates and perpetuates the neurodegenerative process is (are) still not clear. Read More
Rev Bras Enferm 2018 ;71(suppl 6):2824-2832
Hospital da Luz Lisboa. Lisboa, Portugal.
Objective: To identify the Nursing interventions, described in literature, in the ERAS® program.
Method: We defined a scoping review based on the recommendations of The Institute Joanna Brigs (JBI) and on research in electronic databases. We chose the studies through flow diagrams "Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA)" and presented them in a chart. Read More
Org Biomol Chem 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Chemical Biology Research Group, Institute of Organic Chemistry, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Magyar tudósok krt. 2, 1117 Budapest, Hungary.
Fluorogenic probes efficiently reduce non-specific background signals, which often results in highly improved signal-to-noise ratios. Although this implies improved resolution, fluorogenic probes in the context of super-resolution microscopy are somewhat overlooked. Several excellent reviews summarize recent developments in SRM techniques, labeling techniques or different aspects of small synthetic fluorophores, however there is no comprehensive review on fluorogenic probes suitable for super-resolution microscopy. Read More
J Cancer Res Ther 2018 Dec;14(Supplement):S937-S941
Department of Breast Surgery, Affliated Hospital of Taishan Medical University, Tai'an, China.
Lymph node metastasis is the most common form of metastasis in breast cancer and a crucial indicator influencing breast cancer treatment results. The biological process of lymph node metastasis involves deficiency and mutation of tumor suppressor genes. PTEN and SHIP are critical indicators used to detect occurrence, development, invasion, and metastasis of breast cancer. Read More
Neural Regen Res 2019 Mar;14(3):446-449
NYU Langone Eye Center, Department of Ophthalmology, NYU School of Medicine, NYU Langone Health; Department of Radiology, NYU School of Medicine, NYU Langone Health; Center for Neural Science, Faculty of Arts and Science, New York University, New York, NY, USA.
Glaucoma, the world's leading cause of irreversible blindness, is a condition for which elevated intraocular pressure is currently the only modifiable risk factor. However, the disorder can continue to progress even at reduced intraocular pressure. This indicates additional key factors that contribute to the etiopathogenesis. Read More
Neural Regen Res 2019 Mar;14(3):441-445
School of Pharmacy and Applied Science, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Sciences, La Trobe University, Bendigo, Australia.
As total life expectancy increases, the prevalence of age-related diseases such as diabetes and Alzheimer's disease is also increasing. Many hypotheses about Alzheimer's disease have been developed, including cholinergic neuron damage, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Acetylcholine is a major neurotransmitter in the brain and cholinergic deficits leads to cognitive dysfunction and decline. Read More
Neural Regen Res 2019 Mar;14(3):437-440
Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt; Department of Chemistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA.
Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, Huntington's and Parkinson's diseases have multifaceted nature because of the different factors contributing to their progression. The complex nature of neurodegenerative diseases has developed a pressing need to design multitarget-directed ligands to address the complementary pathways involved in these diseases. The major enzyme targets for development of therapeutics for Alzheimer's disease are cholinesterase and β-secretase enzymes. Read More
Neural Regen Res 2019 Mar;14(3):425-436
Department of Bioengineering, University of Colorado Denver | Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA.
Limb loss and spinal cord injury are two debilitating conditions that continue to grow in prevalence. Prosthetic limbs and limb reanimation present two ways of providing affected individuals with means to interact in the world. These techniques are both dependent on a robust interface with the peripheral nerve. Read More
Neural Regen Res 2019 Mar;14(3):413-424
Regenerative Bioscience Center; Department of Animal and Dairy Science, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major contributor of long-term disability and a leading cause of death worldwide. A series of secondary injury cascades can contribute to cell death, tissue loss, and ultimately to the development of functional impairments. However, there are currently no effective therapeutic interventions that improve brain outcomes following TBI. Read More
Neural Regen Res 2019 Mar;14(3):405-412
Institute of Clinical Neuroimmunology, Ludwig-Maximilians Universität München; Munich Cluster of Systems Neurology (SyNergy), Munich, Germany.
Spinal cord injury is a devastating condition that is followed by long and often unsuccessful recovery after trauma. The state of the art approach to manage paralysis and concomitant impairments is rehabilitation, which is the only strategy that has proven to be effective and beneficial for the patients over the last decades. How rehabilitation influences the remodeling of spinal axonal connections in patients is important to understand, in order to better target these changes and define the optimal timing and onset of training. Read More
Neural Regen Res 2019 Mar;14(3):399-404
Shriners Hospital Pediatric Research Center (Center for Neural Repair and Rehabilitation); Department of Neurology, the Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
Spinal cord injury leads to persistent behavioral deficits because mammalian central nervous system axons fail to regenerate. A neuron's response to axon injury results from a complex interplay of neuron-intrinsic and environmental factors. The contribution of axotomy to the death of neurons in spinal cord injury is controversial because very remote axotomy is unlikely to result in neuronal death, whereas death of neurons near an injury may reflect environmental factors such as ischemia and inflammation. Read More
Neural Regen Res 2019 Mar;14(3):395-398
North Texas Eye Research Institute, Department of Pharmacology and Neuroscience, University of North Texas Health Science Center at Fort Worth, Fort Worth, TX, USA.
Since the discovery of acid-sensing ion channels in 1997, their importance in the health of neurons and other non-neuronal cells has gained significant importance. Acid-sensing ion channels play important roles in mediating pain sensation during diseases such as stroke, inflammation, arthritis, cancer, and recently migraine. More interestingly, acid-sensing ion channels may explain the sex differences in pain between males and females. Read More
Neural Regen Res 2019 Mar;14(3):391-394
Visual Neurophysiology and Neurophthalmology Research Unit, IRCCS G.B. Bietti Foundation, Roma, Italy.
The pathogenesis of glaucoma is still not fully clarified but a growing body of evidence suggests that neuroinflammation and immune response are part of the sequence of pathological events leading to the optic neuropathy. Indeed, inflammation - involving the activation and proliferation of resident glial cells (astrocytes, Muller cells and microglia) and the release of a plethora of anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and reactive oxygen species - has been reported as common features in clinical and experimental glaucoma. In the insulted retina, as for other neuronal tissues, pathogenic and reparative aspects coexist in the inflammatory process, with extent and persistency affecting the final outcome. Read More
Neural Regen Res 2019 Mar;14(3):387-390
MRC Toxicology Unit, University of Leicester, Lancaster Road, Leicester, UK.
Neurodegenerative disorders are often associated with cellular dysfunction caused by underlying protein-misfolding signalling. Numerous neuropathologies are diagnosed at late stage symptomatic changes which occur in response to these molecular malfunctions and treatment is often too late or restricted only to the slowing of further cell death. Important new strategies to identify early biomarkers with predictive value to intervene with disease progression at stages where cell dysfunction has not progressed irreversibly is of paramount importance. Read More
Neural Regen Res 2019 Mar;14(3):373-386
Buffalo Neuroimaging Analysis Center, Department of Neurology, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences; Center for Biomedical Imaging at Clinical Translational Science Institute, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, USA.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of the central nervous system characterized by inflammation, demyelination, and neuronal damage. Environmental and genetic factors are associated with the risk of developing MS, but the exact cause still remains unidentified. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), vitamin D, and smoking are among the most well-established environmental risk factors in MS. Read More
Auton Neurosci 2018 Dec 4;215:126-128. Epub 2018 Jul 4.
Autonomic Dysfunction Center, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.
Our understanding about Postural Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS) has advanced significantly over the last 25 years. Despite the significant advances that have been made in defining the syndrome and finding some treatments for our patients, there is much work to be done to significantly improve our understanding of the disorder and improve therapeutics. In this article, 5 NEEDS are identified that will be required over the next several years if we want future care to move beyond where we are in the present. Read More
Cytokine 2019 Jan 24;113:13-20. Epub 2018 Oct 24.
Shanxi Medical University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Taiyuan 030001, China. Electronic address:
Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) is involved in the tissue repair and tumor progression effects, and act as a rapid and early effector cytokines which are released in response to pathogen-induced changes in the microenvironment. Recent researches have implicated PDGF-BB as a potential contributing factor to the spectrum of the cell signaling pathway of interrelated diseases, particularly mesangial cells, mesenchymal stem cells, human dermal fibroblasts, tumor pericytes and smooth muscle cells. In this review, we generalize the present literatures on the roles of PDGF-BB in the various interrelated diseases, providing insights or strategies into the underlying cellular and signaling mechanisms that will help guide future studies further into promising interventional targets with therapeutic potential. Read More
Cytokine 2019 Jan 28;113:1-12. Epub 2018 Jun 28.
Department of Orthopedics, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410011, China. Electronic address:
Osteoarthritis is the most prevalent form of aging-related joint diseases, and its etiology is still not fully understood. Obesity has been recognized as one of the most significant and potentially preventable risk factors for osteoarthritis. Beyond mechanical loading, adipokines, including leptin, visfatin, adiponectin, resistin and others, are demonstrated to have metabolic implications in the pathogenesis and progression in obesity-induced osteoarthritis by modulating the pro/anti-inflammatory and anabolic/catabolic balance, apoptosis, matrix remodeling and subchondral bone ossification. Read More
Schizophr Res 2018 Dec 7;202:17-25. Epub 2018 Jul 7.
Department of Psychiatry, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences (INI), Bengaluru 560029, Karnataka, India. Electronic address:
Background: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is reportedly associated with high mortality from mostly cardiovascular causes in patients with severe mental disorders (SMD). Lifestyle interventions augment effective management of MS in patients with SMD. The present meta-analysis aims at updating the recent evidence on the effectiveness of lifestyle intervention for MS in patients with SMD. Read More
Eur J Radiol 2018 Dec 21;109:235-247. Epub 2018 Oct 21.
Division of General Radiology, Department of Radiology, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 19/P, 8036 Graz, Austria; Research & Development, Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics GmbH, Strassgangerstrasse 315, 8054 Graz, Austria. Electronic address:
Non-invasive identification and differentiation of myocardial diseases represents the primary objectives of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) longitudinal relaxation time (T1) and extracellular volume (ECV) mapping. Given the fact that myocardial T1 and ECV values overlap throughout and within left ventricular phenotypes, a central issue to be addressed is whether and to what extent myocardial T1 and ECV mapping provides additional or superior diagnostic information to standard CMR imaging, and whether native T1 mapping could be employed as a non-contrast alternative to late gadolinium enhancement (LE) imaging. The present review aims to summarize physiological and pathophysiological alterations in native T1 and ECV values and summarized myocardial T1 and ECV alterations associated with cardiac diseases to support the translation of research findings into routine CMR imaging. Read More
Eur J Radiol 2018 Dec 13;109:223-234. Epub 2018 Oct 13.
Division of General Radiology, Department of Radiology, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 19/P, 8036 Graz, Austria. Electronic address:
While an enormous number of studies have documented pathological alterations of the myocardial native longitudinal relaxation time (T1) and the fraction of the extracellular myocardial volume (ECV), it has also become clear that continuously evolving T1 mapping sequence, acquisition and evaluation techniques have a substantial impact on quantitative results, making the translation of reported findings into routine clinical use particularly challenging. To provide a basis for the discussion of pathological myocardial T1 and ECV alterations, the present review aims to summarize the methodological aspects of myocardial T1 mapping along with technical and physiological factors influencing results and normal ranges of myocardial native T1 and ECV reported across studies. Read More
Reprod Biomed Online 2018 Nov 6;37(5):573-580. Epub 2018 Oct 6.
Unit for Human Reproduction, 1st Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Thessaloniki, Greece. Electronic address:
The use of testicular spermatozoa in men without azoospermia has been proposed as a means to increase the chances of pregnancy following assisted reproductive treatment. The purpose of this systematic review is to assess whether clinical outcomes are better when testicular rather than ejaculated spermatozoa are used for intracytoplasmic sperm injection in patients with abnormal semen parameters without azoospermia. A literature search identified four eligible studies out of 757 initially found. Read More
Semin Oncol 2018 Aug 24;45(4):236-248. Epub 2018 Oct 24.
Mayo Clinic Cancer Center, Rochester, MN, USA. Electronic address:
Lu-DOTATATE peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is now approved for patients with advanced gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NET), and it is therefore important to understand the efficacy and safety of PRRT in this patient population. PRRT efficacy and safety outcomes have frequently been summarized for patient populations with gastroenteropancreatic NET, but not specifically in patients with pancreatic NET (panNET). The pivotal phase 3 trial of Lu-DOTATATE PRRT in NET was restricted to patients with a midgut primary site. Read More