2,534,576 results match your criteria Reviews in Contemporary Pharmacotherapy[Journal]


Apolipoprotein CIII and diabetes. Is there a link?

Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2018 Dec 17:e3118. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece.

Apolipoprotein CIII (ApoCIII), a small protein that resides on the surface of lipoprotein particles, is a key regulator of triglyceride metabolism. The inhibition of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), the increased assembly and secretion of very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) and the decreased reuptake of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) by the liver are mechanisms associating elevated serum ApoCIII levels and hypertriglyceridemia. ApoCIII concentration is high in individuals with diabetes mellitus indicating a possible positive correlation with impairment of glucose metabolism. Read More

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December 2018

Towards Understanding the Molecular Basis of Nitric Oxide-Regulated Group Behaviors in Pathogenic Bacteria.

J Innate Immun 2018 Dec 17:1-11. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Pathogenic bacteria have many strategies for causing disease in humans. One such strategy is the ability to live both as single-celled motile organisms or as part of a community of bacteria called a biofilm. Biofilms are frequently adhered to biotic or abiotic surfaces and are extremely antibiotic resistant. Read More

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December 2018

EDUCATIONAL SERIES IN CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE: Tetralogy of Fallot: diagnosis to long-term follow-up.

Authors:
R Bedair X Iriart

Echo Res Pract 2019 Mar;6(1):R9-R23

Department of Pediatric and Adult Congenital Cardiology, Hôpital Cardiologique du Haut-Lévêque, CHU de Bordeaux, Pessac, France.

Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is the most common cyanotic congenital heart defect, affecting 3 in 10,000 live births. Surgical correction in early childhood is associated with good outcomes, but lifelong follow-up is necessary to identify the long-term sequelae that may occur. This article will cover the diagnosis of TOF in childhood, the objectives of surveillance through adulthood and the value of multi-modality imaging in identifying and guiding timely surgical and percutaneous interventions. Read More

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Current antifungal drugs and immunotherapeutic approaches as promising strategies to treatment of fungal diseases.

Biomed Pharmacother 2018 Dec 14;110:857-868. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Immunology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:

Invasive candidiasis (IC) can affect individuals with various underlying diseases hospitalized in different parts of hospitals. In recent decades, IC has caused 27-55% mortality in general population. Although Candida albicans (C. Read More

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December 2018

Flux modeling for monolignol biosynthesis.

Curr Opin Biotechnol 2018 Dec 14;56:187-192. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China; Forest Biotechnology Group, Department of Forestry and Environmental Resources, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, United States. Electronic address:

The pathway of monolignol biosynthesis involves many components interacting in a metabolic grid to regulate the supply and ratios of monolignols for lignification. The complexity of the pathway challenges any intuitive prediction of the output without mathematical modeling. Several models have been presented to quantify the metabolic flux for monolignol biosynthesis and the regulation of lignin content, composition, and structure in plant cell walls. Read More

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December 2018

Extracellular polymeric substances of biofilms: Suffering from an identity crisis.

Water Res 2018 Nov 28;151:1-7. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Biotechcnology, Delft University of Technology, Delft, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Microbial biofilms can be both cause and cure to a range of emerging societal problems including antimicrobial tolerance, water sanitation, water scarcity and pollution. The identities of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) responsible for the establishment and function of biofilms are poorly understood. The lack of information on the chemical and physical identities of EPS limits the potential to rationally engineer biofilm processes, and impedes progress within the water and wastewater sector towards a circular economy and resource recovery. Read More

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November 2018

Systematic review and meta-analysis of basal cortisol levels in Borderline Personality Disorder compared to non-psychiatric controls.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2018 Dec 10;102:149-157. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Monash Alfred Psychiatry Research Centre, Central Clinical School, Monash University and The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Australia.

Objective: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a prevalent, complex, and serious mental disorder involving multiple symptoms and maladaptive behaviour. The underlying psychobiological mechanisms involved are not yet fully understood, but increasing evidence indicates that changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress axis (HPA) activity may contribute to BPD. Whilst various studies have demonstrated elevated levels of cortisol (the end-product of the HPA axis) in BPD sufferers, others have presented opposite findings. Read More

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December 2018

The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice 2018 Highlights.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Allergy, Kaiser Permanente Southern California, San Diego, CA; Department Research and Evaluation, Kaiser Permanente Southern California, Pasadena, CA.

A large number of clinically impactful studies and reviews were published in this Journal in 2018. This article provides highlights of the original research published in 2018 issues of JACI: In Practice on the subjects of anaphylaxis, asthma, dermatitis, drug allergy, eosinophilic disorders, food allergy, immune deficiency, rhinitis/upper respiratory disease, and urticaria/angioedema. Within each topic, practical aspects of diagnosis and management are emphasized. Read More

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December 2018

Measuring the economic value of genetic counselling.

Eur J Med Genet 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Manchester Centre for Health Economics, Division of Population Health, Health Services Research & Primary Care, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK.

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December 2018

The Intestinal Lymphatic System: Functions and Metabolic Implications.

Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Cardiovascular Research Center and Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510-3221, USA; INSERM U970, Paris Cardiovascular Research Center, 75015 Paris, France.

The lymphatic system of the gut plays important roles in the transport of dietary lipids, as well as in immunosurveillance and removal of interstitial fluid. Historically, despite its crucial functions in intestinal homeostasis, the lymphatic system has been poorly studied. In the last two decades, identification of specific molecular mediators of lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) growth together with novel genetic approaches and intravital imaging techniques, have advanced our understanding of the mechanisms regulating intestinal lymphatic physiology in health and disease. Read More

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December 2018
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A systematic literature review and critical appraisal of epidemiological studies on outdoor air pollution and tuberculosis outcomes.

Environ Res 2018 Dec 7;170:33-45. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Queensland, Herston, Australia; Centre for Air Pollution, Energy and Health Research, Glebe, NSW, Australia.

Ambient air pollution is the leading environmental risk factor for disease globally. Air pollutants can increase the risk of some respiratory infections, but their effects on tuberculosis (TB) are unclear. In this systematic literature review, we aimed to assess epidemiological studies on the association between outdoor air pollutants and TB incidence, hospital admissions and death (collectively referred to here as 'TB outcomes'). Read More

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December 2018

Various strategies to improve efficacy of stem cell transplantation in multiple sclerosis: Focus on mesenchymal stem cells and neuroprotection.

J Neuroimmunol 2018 Dec 1;328:20-34. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Immunology Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address:

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) which predominantly affect young adults and undergo heavy socioeconomic burdens. Conventional therapeutic modalities for MS mostly downregulate aggressive immune responses and are almost insufficient for management of progressive course of the disease. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), due to both immunomodulatory and neuroprotective properties have been known as practical cells for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases like MS. Read More

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December 2018

Assessing the in vivo data on low/no-calorie sweeteners and the gut microbiota.

Food Chem Toxicol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

University of Reading, Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, PO Box 226, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6AP, UK.

Low/no-calorie sweeteners (LNCS) are continually under the spotlight in terms of their safety and benefits; in 2014 a study was published linking LNCS to an enhanced risk of glucose intolerance through modulation of the gut microbiota. In response, an in-depth review of the literature was undertaken to evaluate the major contributors to potential changes in the gut microbiota and their corresponding sequelae, and to determine if consuming LNCS (e.g. Read More

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December 2018

MALDI-TOF MS for rapid diagnosis of Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens, an unusual causative agent of bacteraemia in humans. Two case reports and literature review.

Anaerobe 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Clinical Microbiology Department, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid, Spain.

Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens is a gram-negative anaerobic spiral rod which is part of the normal flora of dogs and cats and can produce bacteraemia and diarrhoea in humans. In this report we describe two cases of bacteraemia caused by A. succiniciproducens which was successfully identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Read More

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December 2018

Quality-by-design approach as a systematic tool for the development of nanopharmaceutical products.

Drug Discov Today 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Education & Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi-110062, India. Electronic address:

In recent decades, extensive emphasis has been given on developing nanopharmaceutical products for improving the therapeutic performance of drugs, resulting in an increasing number of product approvals by drug regulatory agencies. Although nanopharmaceuticals are subjected to the same regulatory pathways as conventional pharmaceutical products, their biopharmaceutical characteristics at the nanoscale make them vulnerable to high variability in quality. Positive effects on drug quality assurance have resulted from adopting systematic quality-by-design (QbD) principles, boosting pharmaceutical manufacturing with improvements in the quality, safety, and efficacy of drugs. Read More

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December 2018

Effective Effectors: How T cells Access and Infiltrate the Central nervous System.

Pharmacol Ther 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Duke Brain Tumor Immunotherapy Program, Department of Neurosurgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710., United States; The Preston Robert Tisch Brain Tumor Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710., United States; Department of Neurosurgery, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC 27710., United States; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Pratt School of Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710, United States; Department of Pathology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC 27710., United States. Electronic address:

Several Phase II and III clinical trials have demonstrated that immunotherapy can induce objective responses in otherwise refractory malignancies in tumors outside the central nervous system. In large part, effector T cells mediate much of the antitumor efficacy in these trials, and potent antitumor T cells can be generated through vaccination, immune checkpoint blockade, adoptive transfer, and genetic manipulation. However, activated T cells must still traffic to, infiltrate, and persist within tumor in order to mediate tumor lysis. Read More

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December 2018

Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide 2B1 - More than a Glass-Full of Drug Interactions.

Pharmacol Ther 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

University of Washington, School of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutics, Seattle, WA, USA. Electronic address:

The importance of uptake transporters in determining drug disposition is increasingly appreciated. While the focus of regulatory agencies worldwide has been on the hepatic organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) 1B1 and 1B3, there is another isoform of the OATP sub-family, OATP2B1, which should be considered equally relevant. Unlike the other members of the OATP sub-family, OATP2B1 is expressed in multiple organs in humans, including in the intestine and the liver. Read More

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December 2018

KIT as a therapeutic target for non-oncological diseases.

Pharmacol Ther 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Aix Marseille Université, INSERM, INRA, C2VN, Marseille, France; Clinique des Bronches, Allergies et Sommeil, Hôpital Nord, AP-, HM, Marseille, France.. Electronic address:

KIT is a receptor tyrosine kinase that after binding to its ligand stem cell factor activates signaling cascades linked to biological processes such as proliferation, differentiation, migration and cell survival. Based on studies performed on SCF and/or KIT mutant animals that presented anemia, sterility, and/or pigmentation disorders, KIT signaling was mainly considered to be involved in the regulation of hematopoiesis, gametogenesis, and melanogenesis. More recently, novel animal models and ameliorated cellular and molecular techniques have led to the discovery of a widen repertoire of tissue compartments and functions that are being modulated by KIT. Read More

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December 2018
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Mechanisms of cardiac ethanol toxicity and novel treatment options.

Pharmacol Ther 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Internal Medicine II, University Medical Center Regensburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Ethanol can acutely and chronically alter cardiomyocyte and whole-organ function in the heart. Importantly, ethanol acutely and chronically predisposes to arrhythmias, while chronic abuse can induce heart failure. However, the molecular mechanisms of ethanol toxicity in the heart are incompletely understood. Read More

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December 2018

Exhaled and nasal nitric oxide measurement in the evaluation of chronic cough.

Nitric Oxide 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry, National Research Council, 80078, Pozzuoli, Naples, Italy.

Chronic cough is one of the most common and troublesome nonspecific respiratory symptom for which patients seek a general practitioner and specialist advice. It is conventionally defined as a cough lasting for more than 8 weeks. Exhaled nitric oxide has proven to be a specific biomarker capable to discriminate between differential diagnoses of chronic cough and simultaneously provide information about the response to specific treatment. Read More

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December 2018

Aquatic animal viruses mediated immune evasion in their host.

Authors:
Fei Ke Qi-Ya Zhang

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430072, China. Electronic address:

Viruses are important and lethal pathogens that hamper aquatic animals. The result of the battle between host and virus would determine the occurrence of diseases. The host will fight against virus infection with various responses such as innate immunity, adaptive immunity, apoptosis, and so on. Read More

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December 2018

A tale of two steroids: the importance of the androgens DHEA and DHEAS for early neurodevelopment.

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

School of Health & Biomedical Sciences, RMIT University - Bundoora Campus, Melbourne, 3083, Australia. Electronic address:

DHEA and DHEAS are neuroactive neurosteroids that interact with several major receptor system in the brain, including sigma (σ), glutamate, and GABA-A receptors. It has been recognized as early as 1952, that the loss of DHEA/DHEAS in adult life is associated with neuropsychiatric disorders (eg schizophrenia, depression). However, the mechanistic role for DHEA/DHEAS in any of these domains remains speculative, not the least because the presence of these androgens in the adrenal gland and brain is largely confined to humans and only some non-human primates. Read More

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December 2018

Stress hormones and eating disorders.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Aims: The aim of this paper is to emphasize the role of stress processes in the aetiology of eating disorders.

Methods: We have examined the literature for evidence that people with eating disorders might exhibit markers of stress and show signs of the "maltreated ecophenotype".

Results: Early adversity is more common among people with binge eating behaviours. Read More

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December 2018

Expression of immediate early genes in brain reward circuitries: Differential regulation by psychostimulant and opioid drugs.

Neurochem Int 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

NIDA Intramural Program, Molecular Neuropsychiatry Research Branch, 251 Bayview Boulevard, Baltimore, MD, 21224, USA. Electronic address:

Although some of the clinical manifestations of substance use disorders might be superficially similar, it is highly likely that different classes of abused drugs including opioids (heroin, morphine, and oxycodone, other opioids) and psychostimulants (cocaine and amphetamines) cause different neuroadaptations in various brain regions dependent in the distribution and concentration of their biochemical sites of actions. In fact, different molecular networks are indeed impacted by acute and chronic administration of addictive substances. Some of the genes whose expression is influenced by the administration of these substances are immediate-early genes (IEGs). Read More

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December 2018

Lung cancer stem cells: origin, features, maintenance mechanisms and therapeutic targeting.

Biochem Pharmacol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Medical Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths despite recent breakthroughs in immunotherapy. The widely embraced cancer stem cell (CSC) theory has also been applied for lung cancer, postulating that an often small proportion of tumor cells with stem cell properties are responsible for tumor growth, therapeutic resistance and metastasis. The identification of these CSCs and underlying molecular maintenance mechanisms is considered to be absolutely necessary for developing therapies for their riddance, hence achieving remission. Read More

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December 2018

The Optimal Treatment for Stage IIIA-N2 Non-small-cell Lung Cancer: A Network Meta-analysis.

Ann Thorac Surg 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Thoracic Surgery and Oncology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China; Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Disease & China State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease & National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Background: The optimal treatment for stage IIIA-N2 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is controversial. We aimed to address this important issue through a Bayesian network meta-analysis.

Methods: We performed a search of electronic databases for randomized controlled trials comparing the following treatments: surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and their multiple combinations before March 25, 2018. Read More

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December 2018

Variation in Implementation and Outcomes of Early Extubation Practices After Infant Cardiac Surgery.

Ann Thorac Surg 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Michigan Medicine C.S. Mott Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, 1540 E. Hospital Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109.

Background: The Pediatric Heart Network Collaborative Learning Study (PHN CLS) increased early extubation after infant Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) and coarctation repair overall at participating sites through implementing a clinical practice guideline (CPG). We evaluated variability across sites in CPG implementation and outcomes.

Methods: Patient characteristics and outcomes [time to extubation, length of stay (LOS)] were compared across sites, including pre- to post-CPG changes. Read More

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December 2018
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The Golden Section and beauty in nature: The perfection of symmetry and the charm of asymmetry.

Prog Biophys Mol Biol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Departamento de Botânica,Campus Universitário, S/N, C.P. 345 Capão do Leão, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:

It is not unanimous among scientists if there is beauty in science. Some deny it. Mental clarity of conclusions when captured in simple looking equations is mathematical beauty. Read More

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December 2018

Rooting of eucalypt cuttings as a problem-solving oriented model in plant biology.

Prog Biophys Mol Biol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Center for Biotechnology and Department of Botany, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), P.O. Box 15005, Porto Alegre, RS, 91501-970, Brazil. Electronic address:

Species of Eucalyptus are some of the most planted trees in the world, providing fiber, cellulose, energy, and wood for construction and furniture in renewable fashion, with the added advantage of fixing large amounts of atmospheric carbon. The efficiency of eucalypts in forestry relies mostly on the clonal propagation of selected genotypes both as pure species and interspecific hybrids. The formation of new roots from cambium tissues at the base of cuttings, referred to as adventitious rooting (AR), is essential for accomplishing clonal propagation successfully. Read More

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December 2018
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The problem of genetic code misreading during protein synthesis.

Yeast 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Maryland Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, 21228, United States of America.

Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been an important model for determining the frequency of translational misreading events, those in which a tRNA pairs incorrectly to the mRNA and inserts an amino acid not specified by the codon in the mRNA. Misreading errors have been quantified in vivo using reporter protein systems or mass spectrometry with both approaches converging on a simple model for most misreading. The available data show that misreading tRNAs must form stereotypical base mismatches that correspond to those that can mimic Watson-Crick base pairs when formed in the ribosomal A site. Read More

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December 2018

Movement Disorders in Treatable Inborn Errors of Metabolism.

Mov Disord 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Pediatric and Adult Movement Disorders and Neuropsychiatry, Institute of Neurogenetics, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany.

There are several hundred single-gene disorders that we classify as inborn errors of metabolism. Inborn errors of metabolism are often rare and highly heterogeneous multisystem diseases with non-neurological and neurological manifestations, commonly with onset during childhood. Movement disorders are among the most common neurological problems in inborn errors of metabolism, but, in many cases, remain poorly defined. Read More

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December 2018

Recombinant growth hormone therapy for cystic fibrosis in children and young adults.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 17;12:CD008901. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Division of Molecular Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University Medical Center, 630 West 168th St., New York, NY, USA, 10032.

Background: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited condition causing disease most noticeably in the lungs, digestive tract and pancreas. People with CF often have malnutrition and growth delay. Adequate nutritional supplementation does not improve growth optimally and hence an anabolic agent, recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH), has been proposed as a potential intervention. Read More

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December 2018

Analysing the Secretome of Gut Microbiota as the Next Strategy For Early Detection of Colorectal Cancer.

Proteomics 2018 Dec 17:e1800176. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

UKM Medical Molecular Biology Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Dysbiosis of gut microbiome can contribute to inflammation, and subsequently initiation and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). Throughout these stages, various proteins and metabolites are secreted to the external environment by microorganisms or the hosts themselves. Studying these proteins may help enhance our understanding of the host-microorganism relationship or they may even serve as useful biomarkers for CRC. Read More

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December 2018

Assessment of the ergonomic risk from saddle and conventional seats in dentistry: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208900. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Community Dentistry, School of Dentistry of Piracicaba, University of Campinas, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil.

Objective: This study aimed to verify whether the saddle seat provides lower ergonomic risk than conventional seats in dentistry.

Methods: This review followed the PRISMA statement and a protocol was created and registered in PROSPERO (CRD42017074918). Six electronic databases were searched as primary study sources. Read More

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December 2018

Effects of Structured Exercise Training in Children and Adolescents With Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis.

Pediatr Phys Ther 2019 Jan;31(1):3-21

Program in Physical Therapy-retired (Dr Klepper), Department of Rehabilitation and Regenerative Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York; University of Utah Health (Dr Mano Khan), South Jordan, Utah; Lucille Packard Children's Hospital (Dr Klotz), Palo Alto, California; Westside Dance Physical Therapy (Dr Gregorek), New York, New York; Sloane Stecker Physical Therapy (Dr Chan), New York, New York; University of Colorado School of Medicine/Children's Hospital Colorado (Dr Sawade), Aurora, Colorado.

Purpose: To examine safety and efficacy of exercise training (ET) for juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) to improve physical fitness, pain, functional capability, and quality of life.

Methods: Ovid Medline, PubMed, CINAHL, PEDro, and Web of Science were searched from 1995 to April 2018 to find English-language articles examining effects of ET in JIA, ages 4 to 21 years. Quality of evidence/strength of clinical recommendations were assessed using the Cochrane GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) system. Read More

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January 2019

Gender Differences in Binge Drinking.

Alcohol Res 2018 ;39(1):57-76

Richard W. Wilsnack, Ph.D., is a professor emeritus in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, North Dakota. Sharon C. Wilsnack, Ph.D., is the Chester Fritz Distinguished Professor in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, North Dakota. Gerhard Gmel, Ph.D., is a professor, University of Lausanne, and is affiliated with the Alcohol Treatment Center, University of Lausanne Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland. He is also an invited professor, University of the West of England, Bristol, United Kingdom. Lori Wolfgang Kantor, M.A., is a science writer at CSR, Incorporated.

Just as binge drinking rates differ for men and women, the predictors and consequences of binge drinking vary by gender as well. This article examines these differences and how binge drinking definitions and research samples and methods may influence findings. It also describes the relationship between age and binge drinking among men and women, and how drinking culture and environment affect this relationship. Read More

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January 2018

High-Intensity Drinking.

Alcohol Res 2018 ;39(1):49-55

Megan E. Patrick, Ph.D., is a research associate professor at the University of Michigan Institute for Social Research, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Beth Azar, M.A., is a science writer for Alcohol Research: Current Reviews.

Binge drinking thresholds have long been set at four or more drinks for women and five or more drinks for men over the course of a few hours. However, a significant number of people regularly consume much higher amounts of alcohol: double or even triple the standard binge drinking threshold. Researchers have begun to distinguish between typical binge drinking and this kind of "high-intensity drinking," which is common among certain types of binge drinkers and is often associated with special occasions, including holidays, sporting events, and, notably, 21st birthdays. Read More

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January 2018

"Maturing Out" of Binge and Problem Drinking.

Alcohol Res 2018 ;39(1):31-42

Matthew R. Lee, Ph.D., is research assistant professor, Department of Psychological Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri. Kenneth J. Sher, Ph.D., is curators' distinguished professor, Department of Psychological Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri.

This article reviews literature aiming to explain the widespread reductions in binge and problem drinking that begin around the transition to young adulthood (i.e., "maturing out"). Read More

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January 2018

The Epidemiology of Binge Drinking Among College-Age Individuals in the United States.

Alcohol Res 2018 ;39(1):23-30

Heather Krieger, M.A., is a graduate student; Chelsie M. Young, Ph.D., is a post-doctoral researcher; Amber M. Anthenien, M.S., is a graduate student; and Clayton Neighbors, Ph.D., is a professor, all in the Department of Psychology, University of Houston, Houston, Texas.

Rates of alcohol consumption continue to be a concern, particularly for individuals who are college age. Drinking patterns have changed over time, with the frequency of binge drinking (consuming four/five or more drinks for women/men) remaining high (30% to 40%). Young adults in the college age range are developmentally and socially at higher risk for drinking at binge levels. Read More

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January 2018

Drinking Patterns and Their Definitions.

Authors:

Alcohol Res 2018 ;39(1):17-18

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January 2018

Adolescent Binge Drinking.

Alcohol Res 2018 ;39(1):5-15

Tammy Chung, Ph.D., is an associate professor; Rachel Bachrach, Ph.D., is a postdoctoral fellow; Duncan B. Clark, M.D., Ph.D., is a professor; and Christopher S. Martin, Ph.D., is an associate professor, all in the Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Kasey G. Creswell, Ph.D., is an assistant professor in the Department of Psychology, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Binge drinking, commonly defined as consuming five or more standard drinks per occasion for men and four or more drinks for women, typically begins in adolescence. Adolescents, although they may drink less often, tend to consume higher quantities of alcohol per occasion compared with adults. This developmental difference in pattern of alcohol consumption may result, in part, from maturational changes that involve an adolescent-specific sensitivity to certain alcohol effects and greater propensity for risk-taking behaviors, such as binge drinking. Read More

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January 2018

What's wrong with neutrophils in lupus?

Clin Exp Rheumatol 2018 Nov 19. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan.

Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) act by promoting phagocytosis, and are regarded as the first line of defense against pathogen invasion. However, recent investigations have revealed that they have many previously unknown functions. These functions include mitogen-induced cell-mediated cytotoxicity, production of cytokines/chemokines/growth factors, and release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and ectosomes/exosomes. Read More

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November 2018

The effect of biologic agents on bone homeostasis in chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases.

Clin Exp Rheumatol 2018 Nov 19. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Rheumatology Unit, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Italy.

Osteoporosis (OP) and increased fracture risk are widely observed comorbidities in chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases (CIRDs). Improved knowledge of the immune/inflammatory pathways, which characterise the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and seronegative spondyloarthropathies (SpA), such as ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA), have provided the link between inflammation and bone loss, via a complex network of bone cells, T and B cells, pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL1, IL6, IL17, IL23, costimulator molecules, signalling pathways including both RANKL/RANK/OPG and Wnt signallings. The complex osteoimmunologic network in CIRDs suggested that the powerful anti-inflammatory activity of biologic drugs, beyond the control of the disease, was likely to reduce OP and fracture risk. Read More

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November 2018

Short-acting insulin analogues versus regular human insulin for adult, non-pregnant persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 17;12:CD013228. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Institute of General Practice, Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, Frankfurt am Main, Hesse, Germany, 60590.

Background: The use of short-acting insulin analogues (insulin lispro, insulin aspart, insulin glulisine) for adult, non-pregnant people with type 2 diabetes is still controversial, as reflected in many scientific debates.

Objectives: To assess the effects of short-acting insulin analogues compared to regular human insulin in adult, non-pregnant people with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Search Methods: For this update we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, the WHO ICTRP Search Portal, and ClinicalTrials. Read More

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December 2018

Tropolone natural products.

Nat Prod Rep 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology - Hans Knöll Institute, Beutenbergstraße 11a, 07745 Jena, Germany.

Covering: 2008 to 2018This review provides a comprehensive overview of newly discovered natural products containing a tropolonoid motif covering 2008 up to 2018 and depicts the ecological context in which they have been isolated. This review has a strong focus on describing the different analytical tools and molecular biological approaches used to identify the underlying biosynthetic pathways. Read More

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December 2018

Rational chemical doping of metal halide perovskites.

Chem Soc Rev 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou 350002, China.

Metal halide perovskites benefit from the combination of wide absorption, high carrier mobility, defect tolerance, moderate exciton binding energies, and versatility of solution processes, showing great promise in photovoltaics and optoelectronics. However, the issues of long-term instability and toxicity of lead are supposed to limit their further practical applications. Chemical doping of an impurity into metal halide perovskites was reported to be a relatively effective approach to solving these issues while providing additional tunable physical and chemical properties. Read More

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December 2018

Measurement of patient-reported outcomes. 2: Are current measures failing us?

J Med Econ 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

a Galen Research Ltd , Manchester , UK.

All instruments designed to measure latent (unobservable) variables, such as patient-reported outcomes (PROs), have three major requirements; a coherent construct theory, a specification equation and the applications of an appropriate response model. The theory guides the selection of content for the questionnaire and the specification equation links the construct theory to scores produced with the instrument. For the specification equation to perform this role, the patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) must employ a response model that generates values for its individual items. Read More

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December 2018

Overview of the blood compatibility of nanomedicines: A trend analysis of in vitro and in vivo studies.

Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2018 Dec 17:e1546. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Consumer Products Safety Unit, Directorate F - Health, Consumers and Reference Materials, European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC), Ispra (VA), Italy.

As nanomedicines have the potential to address many currently unmet medical needs, the early identification of regulatory requirements that could hamper a smooth translation of nanomedicines from the laboratory environment to clinical applications is of utmost importance. The blood system is especially relevant as many nanomedicinal products that are currently under development are designed for intravenous administration and cells of the blood system will be among the first biological systems exposed to the injected nanomedicine. This review collects and summarizes the current knowledge related to the blood compatibility of nanomedicines and nanomaterials with a potential use in biomedical applications. Read More

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December 2018
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