2,533,726 results match your criteria Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine[Journal]


DEPArray™ system: An automatic image-based sorter for isolation of pure circulating tumor cells.

Cytometry A 2018 Dec;93(12):1260-1266

Menarini Silicon Biosystems S.p.A, Bologna, Italy.

Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are rare cells shed into the bloodstream by invasive tumors and their analysis offers a promising noninvasive tool to predict and monitor therapeutic responses. CTCs can be isolated from patient blood and their characterization at single-cell level can inform on the genomic landscape of a tumor. All CTC enrichment methods bear a burden of contaminating normal cells, which mandate a further step of purification to enable reliable downstream genetic analysis. Read More

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December 2018
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Advances and opportunities for the design of self-sufficient and spatially organized cell-free biocatalytic systems.

Curr Opin Chem Biol 2018 Dec 11;49:97-104. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Heterogeneous biocatalysis laboratory, Instituto de Síntesis Química y Catálisis Homogénea (ISQCH-CSIC), University of Zaragoza, C/ Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009, Zaragoza, Spain; ARAID, Aragon I+D foundation, Zaragoza, Spain. Electronic address:

During the past decades, biocatalysis has made important contributions to chemical manufacturing by using both whole-cell and cell-free biotransformation reactions. More recently, multi-enzyme systems that can run step-wise reactions in one-pot with high selectivity are increasingly being developed. The use of multiple isolated enzymes to perform a series of reactions offers operational and process advantages over the use of living or resting cells, but such cell free processes need to be optimized to meet industrial productivity and titer requirements. Read More

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December 2018
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Pre-treatment patient characteristics as predictors of drop-out and treatment outcome in individual and family therapy for adolescents and adults with anorexia nervosa: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 2;271:484-501. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

Department of Clinical, Educational, and Health Psychology, University College London, 1-19 Torrington Place, London WC1E 7HB, UK; North East London Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Understanding variables predicting drop-out or unfavourable outcome following treatment for anorexia nervosa (AN) may help to improve upon intervention efforts. However, the current literature has demonstrated sparse and inconsistent significant findings. The current systematic review and meta-analysis summarised the evidence base examining baseline predictors of drop-out and outcome in AN treatment. Read More

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December 2018

Biosensing methods for determination of creatinine: A review.

Biosens Bioelectron 2018 Nov 25;126:707-724. Epub 2018 Nov 25.

Department of Zoology, M.D. University, Rohtak 124001, India.

Creatinine is a metabolic product of creatine phosphate in muscles, which provides energy to muscle tissues. Creatinine has been considered as indicator of renal function specifically after dialysis, thyroid malfunction and muscle damage. The normal level of creatinine in the serum and its excretion through urine in apparently healthy individuals is 45-140 μM and 0. Read More

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November 2018

Effects of antiplatelet therapy on the mortality rate of patients with sepsis: A meta-analysis.

J Crit Care 2018 Dec 5;50:162-168. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Intensive Care Unit, The First Hospital of China Medical University, Nanjing Bei Street 155, Shenyang 110001, Liaoning Province, PR China. Electronic address:

Purpose: Abnormal platelet activation plays an important role in the development of sepsis. The effect of antiplatelet drugs on the outcome of patients with sepsis remains unclear. This meta-analysis aimed to determine the effect of antiplatelet drugs on the prognosis of patients with sepsis. Read More

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December 2018

Ventilator-associated pneumonia: The central role of transcolonization.

J Crit Care 2018 Dec 6;50:155-161. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Medical and Surgical Intensive Care Unit, Groupe Hospitalier Paris Saint Joseph, Paris, France; Endotoxins, Structures and Host Response, Department of Microbiology, Institute for Integrative Biology of the Cell, UMR 9891 CNRS-CEA-Paris Saclay University, 98190 Gif-sur-Yvette, France. Electronic address:

Ventilator-associated pneumonia remain frequent and serious diseases since they are associated with considerable crude mortality. Pathophysiology is centered on modifications of regional bacterial flora, especially tracheobronchial tree and oropharyngeal sphere. Bacterial migration from an anatomical area to another seems to be the main explanation of these alterations which are called "transcolonization". Read More

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December 2018

Decreased risk of renal impairment in atrial fibrillation patients receiving non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants: A pooled analysis of randomized controlled trials and real-world studies.

Thromb Res 2018 Dec 6;174:16-23. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Cardiology, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200127, China.

Background: Patients with warfarin have a potential risk of warfarin-related nephropathy, which could result in the discontinuation of anticoagulation therapy. The question of whether non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) use is associated with increased risk of renal impairment in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients remains unanswered.

Methods: Studies were systematically searched through Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library databases, and ClinicalTrials. Read More

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December 2018
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B cell and B cell-related pathways for novel cancer treatments.

Cancer Treat Rev 2018 Dec 3;73:10-19. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Division of Medical Oncology, Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 1441 Eastlake Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90033, United States.

B cells are recognized as the main effector cells of humoral immunity which suppress tumor progression by secreting immunoglobulins, promoting T cell response, and killing cancer cells directly. Given these properties, their anti-tumor immune response in the tumor micro-environment (TME) is of great interest. Although T cell-related immune responses have become a therapeutic target with the introduction of immune checkpoint inhibitors, not all patients benefit from these treatments. Read More

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December 2018

Signal enhanced proteomics: a biological perspective on dissecting the functional organisation of cell proteomes.

Curr Opin Chem Biol 2018 Dec 11;48:114-122. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Laboratory of Quantitative Proteomics, Centre for Gene Regulation and Expression, School of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee, DD1 5EH, UK. Electronic address:

Proteomes are highly dynamic and can respond rapidly to environmental and cellular signals. Within cells, proteins often form distinct pools with different functions and properties. However, in quantitative proteomics studies it is common to measure averaged values for proteins that do not reflect variations that may occur between different protein isoforms, different subcellular compartments, or in cells at different cell cycle stages and so on. Read More

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December 2018

Nanostructured lipid carriers: A potential use for skin drug delivery systems.

Pharmacol Rep 2018 Oct 11;71(1):156-166. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Medical University of Bialystok, Białystok, Poland. Electronic address:

Skin application of pharmaceutical products is one of the methods used for drug administration. The problem of limited drug penetration via topical application makes searching for safe drug carriers that will provide an expected therapeutic effect of utmost importance. Research into safe drug carriers began with liposome structures, paving the way for work with nanocarriers, which currently play a large role as drug vehicles. Read More

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October 2018
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CircRNAs and cancer: biomarkers and master regulators.

Semin Cancer Biol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Molecular Oncology group, Biodonostia Research Institute, Paseo Doctor Begiristain, s/n San Sebastián, 20014, Spain; Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, OX3 9DU, United Kingdom; IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, María Díaz Haroko Kalea, 3, 48013, Bilbao, Spain. Electronic address:

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a novel class of regulatory RNAs that despite being relatively abundant have only recently begun to be explored. There are many thousands of genes that appear capable of producing circRNAs, however the function of all but a handful remain to be determined. What is emerging about these highly conserved molecules is that they play important roles in biology and cancer biology in particular. Read More

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December 2018
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Research Update and Opportunity of Non-hormonal Male Contraception: Histone Demethylase KDM5B-Based Targeting.

Pharmacol Res 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Animal Science & Technology and BET Research Institute, Chung-Ang University, Anseong, Gyeonggi-do, 17546, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

With the continued increase in global human population, diverse contraception approaches have become increasingly essential, including non-hormonal male contraception. Non-hormonal approaches to contraception are very convenient; however, such options are limited because data regarding the identification and characterization of tissue/cell-specific targets and appropriate small molecule candidate contraceptives are lacking. Based on in-silico studies of genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, performed by mining datasets in PubMed, we first reviewed testis-, epididymis-, and germline cell-specific genes/proteins, with the aim of presenting evidence that many of these could become 'druggable' targets for the development of non-hormonal male contraceptives in the future. Read More

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December 2018

Targeting STATs in neuroinflammation: the Road Less Traveled!

Pharmacol Res 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

JAK/STAT transduction pathway is a highly conserved pathway implicated in regulating cellular proliferation, differentiation, survival and apoptosis. Dysregulation of this pathway is involved in the onset of autoimmune, haematological, oncological, metabolic and neurological diseases. Over the last few years, the research of anti-neuroinflammatory agents has gained considerable attention. Read More

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December 2018
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Applications of π-π stacking interactions in the design of drug-delivery systems.

J Control Release 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Noncovalent forces are of considerable importance in the formation of self-assembled drug-delivery systems. In addition to non-destructively linking the delivery vehicle and guest drug, they provide multiple advantages, including protecting the structure of the drug, maintaining its functional effects, and facilitating its release. In particular, π-π stacking interactions have potential application in a comprehensive range of biomedical and biotechnological fields. Read More

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December 2018

Branching mechanisms shaping dendrite architecture.

Dev Biol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

The University of Queensland, Queensland Brain Institute, Brisbane, Queensland, 4072, Australia. Electronic address:

A neuron's contribution to the information flow within a neural circuit is governed by the structure of its dendritic arbor. The geometry of the dendritic arbor directly determines synaptic density and the size of the receptive field, both of which influence the firing pattern of the neuron. Importantly, the position of individual dendritic branches determines the identity of the neuron's presynaptic partner and thus the nature of the incoming sensory information. Read More

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December 2018

Metallic Endobronchial Stents - A Contemporary Resurrection.

Chest 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Respiratory Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, United States.

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December 2018

A primer on patient-based quality control techniques.

Clin Biochem 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Sengkang General Hospital, Singapore.

Background: Patient-based Quality Control techniques have been described for more than fifty years and have been widely used routinely in hematology for forty. However, because of practical issues they have not been widely utilised in clinical chemistry laboratories. But recently because of the availability of middleware and a greater appreciation of the benefits of these processes there has been a willingness to investigate their use as a QC tool. Read More

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December 2018

Recent insights on uncertainties present in integrated catchment water quality modelling.

Water Res 2018 Dec 5;150:368-379. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Pennine Water Group, Department of Civil & Structural Engineering, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD, UK.

This paper aims to stimulate discussion based on the experiences derived from the QUICS project (Quantifying Uncertainty in Integrated Catchment Studies). First it briefly discusses the current state of knowledge on uncertainties in sub-models of integrated catchment models and the existing frameworks for analysing uncertainty. Furthermore, it compares the relative approaches of both building and calibrating fully integrated models or linking separate sub-models. Read More

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December 2018

Upregulated levels and pathological aggregation of abnormally phosphorylated Tau-Protein in children with neurodevelopmental disorders.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department for NMR-based Structural Biology, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Am Faßberg 11, 37077 Göttingen, Germany; German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Von-Siebold-Str. 3a, 37075 Göttingen, Germany. Electronic address:

The tubulin-associated unit (Tau) protein is an intrinsically disordered protein that plays a well-established role in promoting microtubule assembly and stabilization in neuronal axons at all stages of development. Identification of new interacting partners and different sub-cellular localizations of Tau in recent years led to the discovery of novel physiological functions in regulation of neuronal activity, neurogenesis, long-term depression, iron export and genomic integrity. In addition, Tau gene mutations, aberrant mRNA splicing and abnormal post-translational modifications, such as hyperphosphorylation, lead to formation of pathological, insoluble Tau aggregates that are a hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases, collectively known as tauopathies. Read More

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December 2018

Challenges and Demand for Modeling Disorders of Consciousness following Traumatic Brain Injury.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Center for Brain Injury & Repair, Department of Neurosurgery, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States; Center for Neurotrauma, Neurodegeneration & Restoration, Corporal Michael J. Crescenz Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA, United States; Department of Bioengineering, School of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States. Electronic address:

Following severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), many patients experience coma - an unresponsive state lacking wakefulness or awareness. Coma rarely lasts more than two weeks, and emergence involves passing through a state of wakefulness without awareness of self or environment. Patients that linger in these Disorders of Consciousness (DoC) undergo clinical assessments of awareness for diagnosis into Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (no awareness, also called vegetative state) or Minimally Conscious State (periodic increases in awareness). Read More

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December 2018

The uncertain brain: A co-ordinate based meta-analysis of the neural signatures supporting uncertainty during different contexts.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Centre for Integrative Neuroscience and Neurodynamics, School of Psychology and Clinical Language Sciences, University of Reading, Reading, UK.

Uncertainty is often inevitable in everyday life and can be both stressful and exciting. Given its relevance to psychopathology and wellbeing, recent research has begun to address the brain basis of uncertainty. In the current review we examined whether there are discrete and shared neural signatures for different uncertain contexts. Read More

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December 2018

Asymptomatic Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection: Extent and implications for infection control: A systematic review.

Travel Med Infect Dis 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Aix Marseille Univ, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Marseille (AP-HM), Service de Santé des Armées (SSA), Microbes Vecteurs Infections Tropicales et Méditerranéennes (VITROME), Institut Hospitalo-Universitaire-Méditerranée Infection (IHU-Méditerranée Infection), Marseille, France.

Background: The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged in 2012 and attracted an international attention as the virus caused multiple healthcare associated outbreaks. There are reports of the role of asymptomatic individuals play in the transmission of MERS-CoV, however, the exact role is now known.

Method: The MEDLINE/PubMed and Scopus databases were searched for relevant papers published till August 2018 describing asymptomatic MERS-CoV infection. Read More

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December 2018

Relationships between Financial Toxicity and Symptom Burden in Cancer Survivors: A Systematic Review.

J Pain Symptom Manage 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

School of Nursing, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove, Q4059, Australia; Department of Physiological Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, 2 Koret Way - N631Y, San Francisco, CA 94143-0610.

Context: Financial toxicity (FT) is used to describe the financial distress/hardship associated with cancer and its treatment.

Objectives: The aim of this review was to explore the relationship between FT and symptom burden.

Method: A systematic review was performed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Read More

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December 2018

Basic chemical peeling-superficial and medium-depth peels.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Dermatology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA.

Chemical peeling, or chemexfoliation, has been used for centuries to improve signs of ultraviolet light-induced sun damage. Over the last 30 years, the science behind chemical peeling has evolved, increasing our understanding of the role of peeling ingredients and treatment indications. The depth of peels is directly related to improved results and to the number of complications that can occur. Read More

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December 2018

Advanced chemical peels: phenol-croton oil peel.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Dermatology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA.

Once considered the gold standard for deep facial resurfacing, the classical Baker-Gordon phenol-croton oil peel has largely been replaced by formulas with lower concentrations of phenol and croton oil. The improved safety profile of deep peels has ushered in a new era in chemical peeling. Wrinkles can be improved and skin tightened with more subtle and natural results. Read More

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December 2018
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Recovery of metabolic impairment of patients who cleared HCV infections after direct-acting antiviral therapy.

Int J Antimicrob Agents 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani-IRCCS- Via Portuense, 292- 00149 Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

Chronic Hepatitis C (CHC) is a complex disease that can affect different metabolic processes, including glucose and lipids metabolic pathways, with a significant impact on development of heart disease and stroke. The recent therapy with Direct Antiviral Agents (DAAs) beyond the high efficacy on CHC eradication, showed a beneficial impact on glucose and lipid metabolism. This review aims to describe current evidences about the association between HCV infection and impairment of glucose and lipids metabolism and discuss potential public health implications at the light of new DAA therapy and their availability at global level. Read More

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December 2018

Relaxin in liver transplantation: A personal perspective.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

The Dumont-UCLA Transplant Center, Department of Surgery, Division of Liver and Pancreas Transplantation, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA. Electronic address:

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December 2018

The role of neurogenesis in neurorepair after stroke.

Semin Cell Dev Biol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, Brazil. Electronic address:

Stroke consists of an abrupt reduction of cerebral blood flow resulting in hypoxia that triggers an excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation. After the ischemic process, neural precursor cells present in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle and subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus proliferate and migrate towards the lesion, contributing to the brain repair. The neurogenesis is induced by signal transduction pathways, growth factors, attractive factors for neuroblasts, transcription factors, pro and anti-inflammatory mediators and specific neurotransmissions. Read More

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December 2018

The role of the skin microbiome in atopic dermatitis.

Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Diego, CA,. Electronic address:

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December 2018
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Virus and host interactions critical for filoviral RNA synthesis as therapeutic targets.

Antiviral Res 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.

Filoviruses, which include Ebola virus and Marburg virus, are negative-sense RNA viruses associated with sporadic outbreaks of severe viral hemorrhagic fever characterized by uncontrolled virus replication. The extreme virulence and emerging nature of these zoonotic pathogens make them a significant threat to human health. Replication of the filovirus genome and production of viral RNAs requires the function of a complex of four viral proteins, the nucleoprotein (NP), viral protein 35 (VP35), viral protein 30 (VP30) and large protein (L). Read More

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December 2018

Cell Biology and Dynamics of Neuronal Na/K-ATPase in Health and Diseases.

Neuropharmacology 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

CNRS Neurodegenerative Diseases Laboratory (UMR9199), MiRCen, CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 18 route du Panorama, 92265, France.

Neuronal Na/K-ATPase is responsible for the maintenance of ionic gradient across plasma membrane. In doing so, in a healthy brain, Na/K-ATPase activity accounts for nearly half of total brain energy consumption. The α3-subunit containing Na/K-ATPase expression is restricted to neurons. Read More

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December 2018

The role of RNA adenosine demethylases in the control of gene expression.

Biochim Biophys Acta Gene Regul Mech 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Central European Institute of Technology (CEITEC), Masaryk University, Brno 625 00, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

RNA modifications are being recognized as an essential factor in gene expression regulation. They play essential roles in germ line development, differentiation and disease. In eukaryotic mRNAs, N-adenosine methylation (mA) is the most prevalent internal chemical modification identified to date. Read More

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December 2018

m6A modification of non-coding RNA and the control of mammalian gene expression.

Biochim Biophys Acta Gene Regul Mech 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QU, UK.

The biology of non-coding RNA (ncRNA) and the regulation of mammalian gene expression is a rapidly expanding field. In this review, we consider how recent advances in technology, enabling the precise mapping of modifications to RNA transcripts, has provided new opportunities to dissect post-transcriptional gene regulation. With this has come the realisation that in the absence of translation, the modification of ncRNAs may play a fundamental role in their regulation, protein interactome and subsequent downstream effector functions. Read More

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December 2018

Vaginal dysbiosis, and the risk of human papillomavirus and cervical cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

Objective: The vaginal microbiota proposedly influence the association between human papillomavirus and cervical cancer. Our aim was to assess if vaginal dysbiosis affects human papilloma virus acquistion, persistence, and progression to related cervical pre-malignancy.

Data Soruces: MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science (inception until June 2018). Read More

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December 2018

Postnatal management of growth failure in children born small for gestational age.

J Pediatr (Rio J) 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Universidade Federal da Bahia, Faculdade de Medicina, Pediatria, Salvador, BA, Brazil.

Objectives: To discuss the etiology and growth consequences of small size at birth and the indications, effects, and safety of biosynthetic growth hormone therapy in children born small for gestational age.

Source Of Data: A comprehensive and non-systematic search was carried out in the PubMed, LILACS, and SciELO databases from 1980 to the present day, using the terms "small for gestational age," "intrauterine growth restriction," and "growth hormone". The publications were critically selected by the authors. Read More

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December 2018

Significance of Obstetrical History with Future Cardiovascular Disease Risk.

Am J Med 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, Morsani College of Medicine 12901 Bruce B. Downs Blvd. Tampa, FL 33612.

The maternal cardiovascular system undergoes profound changes to support the increasing demands of fetal growth during pregnancy. An accumulating body of evidence has shown that common pregnancy complications, including gestational diabetes mellitus, preeclampsia, low birth weight, and preterm delivery, can be associated with future cardiovascular adverse events in mothers. Factors such as glucose metabolism, hyperlipidemia, inflammatory markers, large and small vessel stiffness/functionality have been linked with these pregnancy conditions. Read More

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December 2018

Plecanatide for Treatment of Chronic Constipation and Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

Authors:
Bryan L Love

Am J Med 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

University of South Carolina College of Pharmacy, Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Outcomes Sciences, Columbia, SC. Electronic address:

Chronic idiopathic constipation and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation are commonly encountered in ambulatory patients, but limited options exist for patients with persistent or severe symptoms following treatment with non-prescription products. Plecanatide (Trulance, Synergy Pharmaceuticals) is a 16-amino acid peptide analogue of uroguanylin that stimulates guanylate cyclase-C receptors to increase chloride and bicarbonate secretion into the intestine and prevents the absorption of sodium ions, thereby increasing the secretion of water into the lumen. The influx of additional fluid accelerates intestinal transit, softens the stool and facilitates easier defecation. Read More

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December 2018

Rehabilitation-induced brain changes detected through magnetic resonance imaging in children with neurodevelopmental disorders: A systematic review.

Int J Dev Neurosci 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Occupational Science & Occupational Therapy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada; BC Children's Hospital Research Institute, Vancouver, Canada; Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada; Sunny Hill Health Centre for Children, Vancouver, Canada. Electronic address:

Aim: The aim of this study was to systematically review evidence about rehabilitation-induced neuroplasticity measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children with neurodevelopmental disorders.

Method: The following databases were searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. Two independent reviewers screened articles according to inclusion criteria: (1) peer-review study published in a scientific journal; (2) studies that evaluated a rehabilitation-based intervention; (3) participants aged less than 19 years with a neurodevelopmental disorder; (4) studies that used at least one MRI modality as an outcome measure. Read More

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December 2018

Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis.

Surv Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Ophthalmology, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Vernal keratoconjunctivitis, a chronic, bilateral, seasonal allergic inflammatory disease of the eye, is an important cause of visual debilitation and impairment of quality of life in children and young adults in certain parts of the world such as the Mediterranean areas, Central and West Africa, the Middle East, Japan, the Indian subcontinent, and South America. It usually has a self-limiting course; however, in a few cases the disease is recurrent and leads to long-term visual disabling complications like keratoconus and limbal stem cell deficiency. The main pathogenic mechanism is IgE mediated; however, there may be non-IgE and certain non-specific hypersensitivity mechanisms. Read More

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December 2018

Internet-based cognitive and behavioural therapies for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adults.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 14;12:CD011710. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Division of Psychological Medicine and Clinical Neurosciences, Cardiff University School of Medicine, Hadyn Ellis Building, Maindy Road, Cardiff, UK, CF24 4HQ.

Background: Therapist-delivered trauma-focused psychological therapies are an effective treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These have become the accepted first-line treatments for the disorder. Despite the established evidence-base for these therapies, they are not always widely available or accessible. Read More

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December 2018

De-intensified adjuvant (chemo)radiotherapy versus standard adjuvant chemoradiotherapy post transoral minimally invasive surgery for resectable HPV-positive oropharyngeal carcinoma.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 14;12:CD012939. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

ENT Department, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Hills Road, Cambridge, UK, CB2 0QQ.

Background: More than 400,000 cases of oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer (OPSCC) are diagnosed every year worldwide and this is rising. Much of the increase has been attributed to human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV-positive OPSCC patients are often younger and have significantly improved survival relative to HPV-negative patients. Read More

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December 2018

Identifying notions of environment in obesity research using a mixed-methods approach.

Obes Rev 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Copenhagen Centre for Health Research in the Humanities, The Saxo Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

The recent rise of computation-based methods in social science has opened new opportunities for exploring qualitative questions through analysis of large amounts of text. This article uses a mixed-methods design that incorporates machine reading, network analysis, semantic analysis, and qualitative analysis of 414 highly cited publications on obesogenic environments between 2001 and 2015. The method produces an elaborate network map exhibiting five distinct notions of environment, all of which are currently active in the field of obesity research. Read More

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December 2018
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Vitamin E - The Next 100 Years.

IUBMB Life 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Vascular Biology Laboratory, JM USDA-HNRCA at Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts.

α-Tocopherol is the only tocopherol that has been shown to prevent the human deficiency disease Ataxia with Isolated Vitamin E Deficiency (AVED), and thus it is the only one that, for humans, can be called vitamin E. Vitamin E in addition to preventing AVED has documented immune boosting properties and an activity against nonalcoholic hepatosteatosis and low-grade inflammation. Epidemiological studies indicating that vitamin E could prevent cardiovascular events, neurodegenerative disease, macular degeneration, and cancer were in general not confirmed by clinical intervention studies. Read More

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December 2018

Delivering in-school interventions to improve dietary behaviours amongst 11- to 16-year-olds: A systematic review.

Obes Rev 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

The Staffordshire Centre for Psychological Research and Centre for Health Psychology, Staffordshire University, Stoke-on-Trent, UK.

Childhood obesity is a global health concern, which has both short- and long-term health consequences for the individual, and is a potential burden on health care services and the wider economy. The school environment is a setting where changes can be applied to dietary behaviours, as schools have direct and intensive contact with children. This systematic review evaluated school-based interventions designed to improve dietary behaviours among adolescents (11- to 16-year-olds). Read More

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December 2018
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A review of lifestyle, metabolic risk factors and blood-based biomarkers for early diagnosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Clinical Trial Service Unit & Epidemiological Studies Unit (CTSU), Nuffield Department of Population Health|, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

We aimed to review the epidemiologic literature examining lifestyle, metabolic risk factors, and blood-based biomarkers including multi-omics (genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) and to discuss how these predictive markers can inform early diagnosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). A search of the PubMed database was conducted in June 2018 to review epidemiologic studies of (1) lifestyle and metabolic risk factors for PDAC, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and risk prediction models incorporating these factors and (2) blood-based biomarkers for PDAC (conventional diagnostic markers, metabolomics, and proteomics). Prospective cohort studies have reported at least twenty possible risk factors for PDAC, including smoking, heavy alcohol drinking, adiposity, diabetes, and pancreatitis, but the relative risks (RR) and population attributable fractions of individual risk factors are small (mostly <10%). Read More

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December 2018
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Interventions to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis in children: A systematic review.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Dec 14;12(12):e0006986. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Unidad Clínica de Leishmaniasis, Centro Internacional de Entrenamiento e Investigaciones Médicas (CIDEIM), Cali, Colombia.

Background: Case management in children with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is mainly based on studies performed in adults. We aimed to determine the efficacy and harms of interventions to treat CL in children.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review of clinical trials and cohort studies, assessing treatments of CL in children (≤12 years old). Read More

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December 2018
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Combined therapy with levothyroxine and liothyronine for hypothyroidism.

Medwave 2018 Dec 14;18(8):e7376. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Proyecto Epistemonikos, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Endocrinología, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile. Email: Address: Centro Evidencia UC, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Diagonal Paraguay 476, Santiago, Chile.

Introduction: The usual supplementation for hypothyroidism is based on monotherapy with levothyroxine. However, some patients persist with symptoms attributable to the deficit of thyroid hormone. It has been suggested that the a combined treatment with liothyronine and levothyroxine would provide a greater benefit. Read More

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December 2018

Topical tranexamic acid for spontaneous epistaxis.

Medwave 2018 Dec 10;18(8):e7372. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Proyecto Epistemonikos, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Otorrinolaringología, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile. Email: Address: Centro Evidencia UC, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Diagonal Paraguay 476, Santiago, Chile.

Introduction: Spontaneous epistaxis is one of the most frequent problems in emergency services. New treatment alternatives have emerged, including topical tranexamic acid. However, there is controversy about the actual efficacy of this alternative. Read More

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December 2018

Laparoscopic versus open appendectomy for complicated appendicitis.

Medwave 2018 Dec 11;18(8):e7370. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Proyecto Epistemonikos, Santiago, Chile; Centro Evidencia UC, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Medicina Interna, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile. Email: Address: Centro Evidencia UC, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Diagonal Paraguay 476, Santiago, Chile.

Introduction: The treatment of acute appendicitis using laparoscopy reduces the risk of wound infection, hospitalization time and return to normal activity. However, it increases the risk of intra-abdominal abscess, which is one the main complications of complicated appendicitis.

Methods: We searched in Epistemonikos, the largest database of systematic reviews in health, which is maintained by screening multiple information sources, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, among others. Read More

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December 2018

[Clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of nasal Rosai-Dorfman' s disease: literature review].

Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2018 Dec;32(23):1843-1846

In our literature review, we searched the case reports of RosaiDorfman disease (RDD) in Chinese and English, and summarize clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of the disease. At present, it is believed that nasal RDD is a kind of benign cell hyperplastic disease, which mainly causes nasal obstruction, inflammation and nasal deformity, and is easy to misdiagnose. Optional treatments for this disease include medical treatment based on steroid therapy, which can alleviate and stabilize the disease; surgery can completely remove the lesions of some patients, or help some patients improve their symptoms. Read More

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December 2018
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