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    9074 results match your criteria Review of Cardiac Tests

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    CT as gatekeeper of invasive coronary angiography in patients with suspected CAD.
    Cardiovasc Diagn Ther 2017 Apr;7(2):189-195
    Cardiovascular Center Aalst, Moorselbaan 164, 9300 Aalst, Belgium.
    Cardiac CT has been accepted as a valuable diagnostic tool in today's patient care. However, several other noninvasive, in particular, functional diagnostic tests are available on the menu for the ordering clinician and target more or less the same patient population. These tests come with a cost and financial constraints in the present economic environment will no longer allow its indiscriminate use. Read More

    Viscoelastic testing inside and beyond the operating room.
    J Thorac Dis 2017 Apr;9(Suppl 4):S299-S308
    Department of Anesthesiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA.
    Hemorrhage is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality during the perioperative period. Current methods of diagnosing coagulopathy have various limitations including long laboratory runtimes, lack of information on specific abnormalities of the coagulation cascade, lack of in vivo applicability, and lack of ability to guide the transfusion of blood products. Viscoelastic testing offers a promising solution to many of these problems. Read More

    Endocr Pract 2017 May 23. Epub 2017 May 23.
    Departments of Pathology and Pharmacology, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood IL.
    Objectives: The objectives of this report are to review the mechanisms of biotin interference with streptavidin/biotin-based immunoassays, identify automated immunoassay systems vulnerable to biotin interference, describe how to estimate and minimize the risk of biotin interference in vulnerable assays, and review the literature pertaining to biotin interference in endocrine function tests.

    Methods: The data in the manufacturer's "Instructions for Use" for each of the methods utilized by seven immunoassay system were evaluated. We also conducted a systematic search of PubMed/MEDLINE for articles containing terms associated with biotin interference. Read More

    Cardiopulmonary assessment of patients with systemic sclerosis for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: recommendations from the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Autoimmune Diseases Working Party and collaborating partners.
    Bone Marrow Transplant 2017 May 22. Epub 2017 May 22.
    Department of Haematology, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare disabling autoimmune disease with a similar mortality to many cancers. Two randomized controlled trials of autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) for SSc have shown significant improvement in organ function, quality of life and long-term survival compared to standard therapy. However, transplant-related mortality (TRM) ranged from 3-10% in patients undergoing HSCT. Read More

    Clinical management of iron deficiency anemia in adults: Systemic review on advances in diagnosis and treatment.
    Eur J Intern Med 2017 May 18. Epub 2017 May 18.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Universita' di Milano, Ca Granda Foundation, IRCCS, Milano, Italy. Electronic address:
    Global burden disease studies point out that one of the top cause-specific anemias is iron deficiency (ID). Recent advances in knowledge of iron homeostasis have shown that fragile patients are a new target population in which the correction of ID might impact their morbidity, mortality and quality of life. We did a systematic review using specific search strategy, carried out the review of PubMed database, Cochrane Database of systemic reviews and international guidelines on diagnosis and clinical management of ID from 2010 to 2016. Read More

    Aquatic cycling-What do we know? A scoping review on head-out aquatic cycling.
    PLoS One 2017 16;12(5):e0177704. Epub 2017 May 16.
    Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Over the past few years, aquatic cycling has become a trending fitness activity. However, the literature has not been reviewed exhaustively. Therefore, using scoping review methodology, the aim of this review was to explore the current state of the literature concerning aquatic cycling. Read More

    Coronary artery disease detection - limitations of stress testing in left ventricular dysfunction.
    World J Cardiol 2017 Apr;9(4):304-311
    Ritin Bomb, Senthil Kumar, Anand Chockalingam, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65212, United States.
    Incidental diagnosis of left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVD) is common in clinical practice. The prevalence of asymptomatic LVD (Ejection Fraction, EF < 50%) is 6.0% in men and 0. Read More

    Pregnancy Outcome of Abnormal Nuchal Translucency: A Systematic Review.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2017 Mar 1;11(3):QC12-QC16. Epub 2017 Mar 1.
    Faculty, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Para-Medicine, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.
    Introduction: Nuchal Translucency (NT) is the sonographic form of subcutaneous gathering of liquid behind the foetal neck in the first trimester of pregnancy. There is association of increased NT with chromosomal and non-chromosomal abnormalities.

    Aim: The purpose of this systemic review was to review the pregnancy outcome of abnormal nuchal translucency. Read More

    Heart Disease and the Liver: Pathologic Evaluation.
    Gastroenterol Clin North Am 2017 Jun;46(2):421-435
    Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University, 630 West 168th Street, PH 15 West, Rm 1574, New York, NY 10032-3725, USA. Electronic address:
    Liver injury due to acute and chronic heart failure has long been recognized. This article discusses the concepts of acute cardiogenic liver injury (ACLI) and cardiac or congestive hepatopathy (CH) along with their clinical manifestations and sequelae. Histologically, ACLI manifests as centrilobular hepatocellular necrosis, whereas CH is associated with centrilobular hepatocyte atrophy, dilated sinusoids, and perisinusoidal fibrosis, progressing to bridging fibrosis and ultimately cirrhosis. Read More

    Hemodynamic responses and plasma phenylephrine concentrations associated with intranasal phenylephrine in children.
    Paediatr Anaesth 2017 May 15. Epub 2017 May 15.
    Departments of Anesthesiology and Pharmacology, Children's Hospital Colorado, University of Colorado Schools of Medicine and Pharmacy, Denver, CO, USA.
    Introduction: Intranasal phenylephrine, an alpha-1 adrenergic agonist, causes vasoconstriction of the nasal mucosa and is used to reduce bleeding associated with nasotracheal intubation or endoscopic sinus surgery. The purpose of this study was to describe the hemodynamic effects associated with plasma phenylephrine concentrations following topical intranasal administration of 0.25% and 0. Read More

    Targeting the dominant mechanism of coronary microvascular dysfunction with intracoronary physiology tests.
    Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2017 May 13. Epub 2017 May 13.
    Hospital Clínico Universitario San Carlos, 28040, Madrid, Spain.
    The coronary microcirculation plays a key role in modulating blood supply to the myocardium. Several factors like myocardial oxygen demands, endothelial and neurogenic conditions determine its function. Although there is available evidence supporting microvascular dysfunction as an important cause of myocardial ischaemia, with both prognostic and symptomatic implications, its diagnosis and management in clinical practice is still relegated to a second plane. Read More

    Apical Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Case Report and Literature Review.
    Am J Case Rep 2017 May 12;18:525-528. Epub 2017 May 12.
    Department of Cardiology, Kaiser Permanente Fontana Medical Center, Fontana, CA, USA.
    BACKGROUND Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (ApHCM) is a relatively rare form of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy that predominantly affects the apex of the left ventricle and typically has a nonobstructive physiology. Its variable presentation and clinical course render ApHCM a commonly delayed or missed diagnosis. CASE REPORT A 53-year-old Caucasian woman presented with chronic progressive chest pain. Read More

    Prediction of New-Onset and Recurrent Atrial Fibrillation by Complete Blood Count Tests: A Comprehensive Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis.
    Med Sci Monit Basic Res 2017 May 12;23:179-222. Epub 2017 May 12.
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    BACKGROUND Atrial fibrillation (AF) is one of the most critical and frequent arrhythmias precipitating morbidities and mortalities. The complete blood count (CBC) test is an important blood test in clinical practice and is routinely used in the workup of cardiovascular diseases. This systematic review with meta-analysis aimed to determine the strength of evidence for evaluating the association of hematological parameters in the CBC test with new-onset and recurrent AF. Read More

    Transthoracic Echocardiography for Diagnosing Pulmonary Embolism: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
    J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2017 May 9. Epub 2017 May 9.
    Lister Hill Library, Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.
    Objective: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common diagnosis with significant mortality if not appropriately treated. The use of transthoracic echocardiography in patients with PE is common; however, its diagnostic capabilities in this use are unclear. With the increased use of ultrasonography in medical settings, it is important to understand the strengths and limitations of echocardiography for the diagnosis of PE. Read More

    The Third Time's a Charm: Psychometric Testing and Update of the Atlanta Heart Failure Knowledge Test.
    J Cardiovasc Nurs 2017 May 5. Epub 2017 May 5.
    Brittany Butts, PhD, RN Postdoctoral Trainee, Division of Cardiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine. Melinda Higgins, PhD Associate Research Professor, Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia. Sandra Dunbar, PhD, RN, FAHA, FAAN, FPCNA Charles Howard Candler Professor of Cardiovascular Nursing and Associate Dean for Academic Advancement, Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia. Carolyn Reilly, PhD, RN, CHFN, FAHA Associate Clinical Professor, Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.
    Background And Objective: Since first being published in 2009, the Atlanta Heart Failure Knowledge Test (AHFKT) has proven a reliable and valid instrument and has been used in multiple studies. Given advances in heart failure (HF) self-care, we proposed to reevaluate the psychometric properties of the AHFKTv2 across these recent studies and update the instrument.

    Methods: Demographic, clinical, and baseline AHFKTv2 data from 4 intervention studies in persons with HF were combined for this analysis (N = 284). Read More

    Routine use of viscoelastic blood tests for diagnosis and treatment of coagulopathic bleeding in cardiac surgery: updated systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Br J Anaesth 2017 May 4. Epub 2017 May 4.
    Department of Cardiovascular Sciences and National Institute for Health Research Leicester Biomedical Research Unit in Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Leicester, Clinical Sciences Wing, Glenfield General Hospital, Leicester LE3?9QP, UK.
    Viscoelastic point-of-care tests are commonly used to provide prompt diagnosis of coagulopathy and allow targeted treatments in bleeding patients. We updated existing meta-analyses that have evaluated the clinical effectiveness of viscoelastic point-of-care tests vs the current standard of care for the management of cardiac surgery patients at risk of coagulopathic bleeding. Randomized controlled trials comparing viscoelastic point-of-care diagnostic testing with standard care in cardiac surgery patients were sought. Read More

    High-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays: From improved analytical performance to enhanced risk stratification.
    Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 2017 May 1;54(3):143-172. Epub 2017 May 1.
    b Department of Laboratory Medicine , Nicolaus Copernicus University, Collegium Medicum , Bydgoszcz , Poland.
    Implementation of cardiac troponin (cTn) assays has revolutionized the diagnosis, risk stratification, triage and management of patients with suspected myocardial infarction (MI). The Universal Definition of MI brought about a shift in the diagnostics of MI, from an approach primarily based on electrocardiography (ECG) to one primarily based on biomarkers. Currently, detection of a rise and/or fall in concentration or activity of myocardial necrosis biomarkers, preferentially cTns, with at least one value above the 99th percentile upper reference limit (URL), is the essential component for the diagnosis of MI. Read More

    Role of Biomarkers for the Prevention, Assessment, and Management of Heart Failure: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.
    Circulation 2017 Apr 26. Epub 2017 Apr 26.
    Background And Purpose: Natriuretic peptides have led the way as a diagnostic and prognostic tool for the diagnosis and management of heart failure (HF). More recent evidence suggests that natriuretic peptides along with the next generation of biomarkers may provide added value to medical management, which could potentially lower risk of mortality and readmissions. The purpose of this scientific statement is to summarize the existing literature and to provide guidance for the utility of currently available biomarkers. Read More

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging has limited additional yield in cryptogenic stroke evaluation after transesophageal echocardiography.
    Int J Stroke 2017 Jan 1:1747493017706242. Epub 2017 Jan 1.
    6 Department of Neurology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.
    Background The use of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is increasing, but its role in the diagnostic work-up following ischemic stroke has received limited study. We aimed to explore the added yield of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging to identify cardio-aortic sources not detected by transesophageal echocardiography among patients with cryptogenic stroke. Methods A retrospective single-center cohort study was performed from 01 January 2009 to 01 March 2013. Read More

    Treatment strategies for the female athlete triad in the adolescent athlete: current perspectives.
    Open Access J Sports Med 2017 4;8:85-95. Epub 2017 Apr 4.
    Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA.
    Since the passage of Title IX in 1972, female sports participation has dramatically increased. The benefits of physical activity, including decreased risk for heart disease and diabetes as well as improved body image and self-esteem, far outweigh the risks. However, a select population of adolescent and young adult females may experience symptoms related to the female athlete triad (Triad), which refers to the interrelatedness of energy availability, menstrual function, and bone mineral density (BMD). Read More

    Current Role of Blood and Urine Biomarkers in the Clinical Care of Adults with Congenital Heart Disease.
    Curr Cardiol Rep 2017 Jun;19(6):50
    Department of Cardiology, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.
    Purpose Of Review: There is an increasing number of adult patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). While several biomarkers have been validated and integrated into general cardiology clinical practice, these tests are often applied to adults with CHD in the absence of disease-specific validation. Although these patients are often grouped into a single population, there is heterogeneous pathophysiology, variable disease chronicity, extensive multisystem involvement, and a low event rate relative to acquired heart disease. Read More

    MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: The multiple facets of GH: lessons from lifetime, untreated isolated GH deficiency due to GHRH receptor mutation.
    Eur J Endocrinol 2017 Apr 20. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    R Salvatori, Endocrinology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, 21287, United States.
    Twenty years ago, we described a kindred of 105 individuals with isolated GH deficiency (IGHD) in Itabaianinha County, in Brazilian northeast, due to a homozygous mutation in the GH-releasing hormone receptor gene. These subjects exhibit markedly reduced GH responsiveness to stimulatory tests, and anterior pituitary hypoplasia. Serum concentrations of IGF-I, IGF binding protein type 3, and the acid-labile subunit are markedly reduced, with a lesser reduction of IGF-II. Read More

    A review of pediatric pulmonary hypertension with new guidelines.
    Turk J Med Sci 2017 Apr 18;47(2):375-380. Epub 2017 Apr 18.
    Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Afyon Kocatepe University, Afyon, Turkey.
    This study aims to review pediatric pulmonary hypertension (PH) by comparing the guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC)/European Respiratory Society (ERS), the American Heart Association (AHA)/American Thoracic Society (ATS), and the European Pediatric Pulmonary Vascular Disease Network (EPPVDN). All three sets of guidelines define PH as having a mean pulmonary artery pressure of ≥25 mmHg and accept the validity of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification system. Every child with a high index of suspicion for PH should undergo an initial work-up of chest X-rays, electrocardiography, and echocardiography. Read More

    Airway Problems in Neonates-A Review of the Current Investigation and Management Strategies.
    Front Pediatr 2017 30;5:60. Epub 2017 Mar 30.
    Pediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care Units, Critical Care Division, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London, UK.
    Airway problems in the neonatal population are often life threatening and raise challenging issues in diagnosis and management. The airway problems can result from congenital or acquired lesions and can be broadly classified into those causing obstruction or those due to an abnormal "communication" in the airway. Many different investigations are now available to identify the diagnosis and quantify the severity of the problem, and these tests can be simple or invasive. Read More

    Spirometry and Bronchodilator Test.
    Tuberc Respir Dis (Seoul) 2017 Apr 31;80(2):105-112. Epub 2017 Mar 31.
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    Spirometry is a physiological test for assessing the functional aspect of the lungs using an objective indicator to measure the maximum amount of air that a patient can inhale and exhale. Acceptable spirometry testing needs to be conducted three times by an acceptable and reproducible method for determining forced vital capacity (FVC). Until the results of three tests meet the criteria of reproducibility, the test should be repeated up to eight times. Read More

    Genetic Effects on the Correlation Structure of CVD Risk Factors: Exome-Wide Data From a Ghanaian Population.
    Glob Heart 2017 Apr 10. Epub 2017 Apr 10.
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA; Department of Genetics, Geisel School of Medicine, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, USA. Electronic address:
    Plasma concentration of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is highly correlated with several cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. It also plays a direct role in CVD, including myocardial infarction and stroke, by impeding the dissolution of thrombi in the blood. Insofar as PAI-1 links CVD's risk factors to its endpoints, genetic variants modulating the relationship between PAI-1 and risk factors may be of particular clinical and biological interest. Read More

    Accuracy of recommended sampling and assay methods for the determination of plasma-free and urinary fractionated metanephrines in the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: a systematic review.
    Endocrine 2017 Jun 12;56(3):495-503. Epub 2017 Apr 12.
    Department of Medicine ΙΙI, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus at the TU Dresden, Dresden, Germany.
    Purpose: To determine the accuracy of biochemical tests for the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma.

    Methods: A search of the PubMed database was conducted for English-language articles published between October 1958 and December 2016 on the biochemical diagnosis of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma using immunoassay methods or high-performance liquid chromatography with coulometric/electrochemical or tandem mass spectrometric detection for measurement of fractionated metanephrines in 24-h urine collections or plasma-free metanephrines obtained under seated or supine blood sampling conditions.

    Results: Application of the Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Studies Accuracy Group criteria yielded 23 suitable articles. Read More

    Cardiopulmonary monitoring of shock.
    Curr Opin Crit Care 2017 Jun;23(3):223-231
    aDivision of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep, Department of Medicine bDepartment of Health Services, Policy, and Practice, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA.
    Purpose Of Review: We will briefly review the classification of shock and the hallmark features of each subtype. Available modalities for monitoring shock patients will be discussed, along with evidence supporting the use, common pitfalls, and practical considerations of each method.

    Recent Findings: As older, invasive monitoring methods such as the pulmonary artery catheter have fallen out of favor, newer technologies for cardiac output estimation, echocardiography, and noninvasive tests such as passive leg raising have gained popularity. Read More

    Limited versus full sternotomy for aortic valve replacement.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 Apr 10;4:CD011793. Epub 2017 Apr 10.
    Cardiothoracic Surgery, Liverpool Heart and Chest Hospital, Thomas Drive, Liverpool, Merseyside, UK, L14 3PE.
    Background: Aortic valve disease is a common condition that is easily treatable with cardiac surgery. This is conventionally performed by opening the sternum longitudinally down the centre ("median sternotomy") and replacing the valve under cardiopulmonary bypass. Median sternotomy is generally well tolerated, but as less invasive options have become available, the efficacy of limited incisions has been called into question. Read More

    The effect of transport on the physiologic stability of neonates withductal-dependent single-ventricle lesions.
    J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2017 Apr 10:1-6. Epub 2017 Apr 10.
    a Department of Pediatrics , Children's Hospital of Michigan , Detroit , MI , USA.
    Objective: To compare the status of infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) or pulmonary atresia-hypoplastic right heart (PA-HRH) before and following transport using the validated Transport Risk Index of Physiologic Stability (TRIPS) score.

    Methods: In this retrospective review of infants with HLHS or PA-HRH transported to a Children's Hospital by a pediatric transport team, an increase in TRIPS score (temperature, blood pressure, respiratory status, and response to stimuli) following transport was defined as deterioration. Statistical analyses included t-test (paired and independent), χ(2), and McNemar's tests for comparisons between groups with and without deterioration and before and after transport. Read More

    Measurable residual disease testing in acute myeloid leukaemia.
    Leukemia 2017 Apr 21. Epub 2017 Apr 21.
    Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA.
    There is considerable interest in developing techniques to detect and/or quantify remaining leukaemia cells termed measurable or, less precisely, minimal residual disease (MRD) in persons with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) in complete remission defined by cytomorphological criteria. An important reason for AML MRD-testing is the possibility of estimating the likelihood (and timing) of leukaemia relapse. A perfect MRD-test would precisely quantify leukaemia cells biologically able and likely to cause leukaemia relapse within a defined interval. Read More

    Prevalence of Positive Troponin and Echocardiogram Findings and Association With Mortality in Acute Ischemic Stroke.
    Stroke 2017 May 5;48(5):1226-1232. Epub 2017 Apr 5.
    From the Department of Neurology, University of Cincinnati, Ohio.
    Background And Purpose: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients may have raised serum cardiac troponin levels on admission, although it is unclear what prognostic implications this has, and whether elevated levels are associated with cardiac causes of stroke or structural cardiac disease as seen on echocardiogram. We investigated the positivity of cardiac troponin and echocardiogram testing within a large biracial AIS population and any association with poststroke mortality.

    Methods: Within a catchment area of 1. Read More

    Positron Emission Tomography and Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography Imaging in the Diagnosis of Cardiac Implantable Electronic Device Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
    Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 2017 Apr;10(4)
    From the Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ontario, Canada (D.J., S.H., C.R., J.B., S.C., G.W., R.S.B.B., B.J.W.C.); Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (M.G., L.S.Z., S.G., E.L.); and Division of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Imaging Department, Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CHUM), Montréal, Québec, Canada (D.J.).
    Background: The use of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED) is increasing, and their associated infections result in significant morbidity and mortality. The introduction of better cardiac imaging techniques could be useful for diagnosing this condition and guiding therapy. Our objective was to systematically assess the diagnostic accuracy of Fluor-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography, labeled leukocyte scintigraphy (LS), and Gallium-67 citrate scintigraphy for the diagnosis of CIED infection. Read More

    Safety With Echocardiographic Contrast Agents.
    Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 2017 Apr;10(4)
    From Saint Luke's Mid America Heart Institute, Kansas City, MO.
    In October 2007, the Food and Drug Administration mandated significant revisions to product labeling for the commercially available echocardiographic contrast agents (ECA) Definity and Optison after spontaneous healthcare provider reports of 4 patient deaths and ≈190 severe cardiopulmonary reactions occurring in close temporal relationship to ECA administration. Since then, multiple large ECA safety studies have been published and have included outpatients, hospitalized patients (including the critically ill), patients undergoing stress echocardiography, and patients with pulmonary hypertension. In addition, the Food and Drug Administration has convened 2 Advisory Committee meetings and the product labels for Optison and Definity have been substantially revised with a softening of safety restrictions. Read More

    Laboratory Approach to the Diagnosis of Culture-Negative Infective Endocarditis.
    Heart Lung Circ 2017 Mar 16. Epub 2017 Mar 16.
    Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Laboratory Services, Institute of Clinical Pathology Medical Research, Westmead Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia; Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Westmead Hospital and the Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia. Electronic address:
    Blood-culture negative endocarditis (BCNE) accounts for up to 35% of all cases of infective endocarditis (IE) and is a serious life-threatening condition with considerable morbidity and mortality. Rapid detection and identification of the causative pathogen is essential for timely, directed therapy. Blood-culture negative endocarditis presents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Read More

    Outpatient Emergencies: Acute Heart Failure.
    Med Clin North Am 2017 May 2;101(3):507-519. Epub 2017 Mar 2.
    Department of Medicine, Jefferson Heart Institute, Sidney Kimmel Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, 925 Chestnut Street, Suite 323A, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA. Electronic address:
    Heart failure is an epidemic in the United States and a major health problem worldwide. The syndrome of acute heart failure is marked by a recent onset of symptoms usually in terms of days to a few weeks of worsening fatigue, shortness of breath, orthopnea, swelling, and sudden onset of weight gain. Physicians caring for patients with heart failure must know the risk factors for this disease, pathophysiology, symptomatology, important examination findings, key diagnostic tests, and management approach so as to improve symptoms and reduce mortality. Read More

    Renal and cardiac assessment of living kidney donor candidates.
    Nat Rev Nephrol 2017 Apr 3. Epub 2017 Apr 3.
    Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Western University, 800 Commissioners Road East, London, Ontario N6A 4G5, Canada.
    Living kidney donation provides the best therapeutic outcomes for eligible patients with end-stage renal disease. To ensure suitability for living kidney donation, donor candidates undergo a thorough medical, surgical, and psychosocial evaluation by a multidisciplinary transplant assessment team. Numerous guidelines are available to assist clinicians in the process of donor evaluation and selection. Read More

    Endovascular Therapy for Acute Stroke.
    Prog Cardiovasc Dis 2017 Mar 30. Epub 2017 Mar 30.
    Clinic for Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Hospital Bremen-Mitte; Neuroscience and Vascular Simulation Unit, Anglia Ruskin University, Essex, UK. Electronic address:
    Stroke is the most common cause of permanent disability, the second most common cause of dementia, and the fourth most common cause of death in the Western world. Recently, based on positive multicenter randomized clinical trials, endovascular therapy for acute stroke has undergone a revolution. Routine mechanical thrombectomy in addition to intravenous thrombolysis has been shown to provide excellent outcomes for patients with proximal anterior circulation occlusions. Read More

    Multiparametric Imaging of Organ System Interfaces.
    Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 2017 Apr;10(4)
    From the Center for Systems Biology (K.V., M.N.) and Department of Imaging (K.V., M.N.), Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston; and Cardiovascular Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston (M.N.).
    Cardiovascular diseases are a consequence of genetic and environmental risk factors that together generate arterial wall and cardiac pathologies. Blood vessels connect multiple systems throughout the entire body and allow organs to interact via circulating messengers. These same interactions facilitate nervous and metabolic system's influence on cardiovascular health. Read More

    British Lung Foundation/United Kingdom Primary Immunodeficiency Network Consensus Statement on the Definition, Diagnosis, and Management of Granulomatous-Lymphocytic Interstitial Lung Disease in Common Variable Immunodeficiency Disorders.
    J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2017 Mar 25. Epub 2017 Mar 25.
    Department of Infection, Immunity and Cardiovascular Disease, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom.
    A proportion of people living with common variable immunodeficiency disorders develop granulomatous-lymphocytic interstitial lung disease (GLILD). We aimed to develop a consensus statement on the definition, diagnosis, and management of GLILD. All UK specialist centers were contacted and relevant physicians were invited to take part in a 3-round online Delphi process. Read More

    Atypical Complications of Graves' Disease: A Case Report and Literature Review.
    Case Rep Endocrinol 2017 28;2017:6087135. Epub 2017 Feb 28.
    Endocrine Department, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, P.O. Box 3050, Qatar.
    Graves' disease (GD) may display uncommon manifestations. We report a patient with rare complications of GD and present a comprehensive literature review. A 35-year-old woman presented with a two-week history of dyspnea, palpitations, and edema. Read More

    The epidemiology, pathogenesis, transmission, diagnosis, and management of multidrug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant, and incurable tuberculosis.
    Lancet Respir Med 2017 Mar 15. Epub 2017 Mar 15.
    SA MRC Centre for Tuberculosis Research/DST/NRF Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Tuberculosis Research, Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa.
    Global tuberculosis incidence has declined marginally over the past decade, and tuberculosis remains out of control in several parts of the world including Africa and Asia. Although tuberculosis control has been effective in some regions of the world, these gains are threatened by the increasing burden of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis. XDR tuberculosis has evolved in several tuberculosis-endemic countries to drug-incurable or programmatically incurable tuberculosis (totally drug-resistant tuberculosis). Read More

    Trends in the presentation, surgical treatment, and outcomes of tethered cord syndrome: A nationwide study from 2001 to 2010.
    J Clin Neurosci 2017 Mar 22. Epub 2017 Mar 22.
    NY Spine Institute/Division of Spine Surgery, Hospital for Joint Diseases, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:
    Objective: This is a nationwide query into surgical management techniques for tethered cord syndrome, focusing on patient demographic, hospital characteristics, and treatment outcomes. Our hypothesis is that detethering vs. fusion for TCS results in different in-hospital complications. Read More

    Anomalous Aortic Origin of a Coronary Artery From the Inappropriate Sinus of Valsalva.
    J Am Coll Cardiol 2017 Mar;69(12):1592-1608
    Departments of Medicine and Radiology, Cardiovascular Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
    Anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery (AAOCA) from the inappropriate sinus of Valsalva is increasingly recognized by cardiac imaging. Although most AAOCA subtypes are benign, autopsy studies report an associated risk of sudden death with interarterial anomalous left coronary artery (ALCA) and anomalous right coronary artery (ARCA). Despite efforts to identify high-risk ALCA and ARCA patients who may benefit from surgical repair, debate remains regarding their classification, prevalence, risk stratification, and management. Read More

    Neuroprognostication after cardiac arrest in the light of targeted temperature management.
    Curr Opin Crit Care 2017 Jun;23(3):244-250
    aDepartment of Intensive Care Medicine, University of Lausanne, CHUV-Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland bDepartment of Clinical Sciences, Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Purpose Of Review: Delayed awakening after targeted temperature management (TTM) and sedation is frequent among cardiac arrest patients. Differentiating between prolonged coma and irreversible cerebral damage can be challenging, therefore the utilization of a multimodal approach is recommended by international guidelines. Here, we discuss indications and advantages/disadvantages of available modalities for coma prognostication and describe new tools to improve our accuracy for outcome prediction. Read More

    Translating biomarkers from research to clinical use in pediatric neurocritical care: focus on traumatic brain injury and cardiac arrest.
    Curr Opin Pediatr 2017 Jun;29(3):272-279
    Department of Critical Care Medicine, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.
    Purpose Of Review: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and cardiac arrest are important causes of morbidity and mortality in children. Improved diagnosis and outcome prognostication using validated biomarkers could allow clinicians to better tailor therapies for optimal efficacy.

    Recent Findings: Contemporary investigation has yielded plentiful biomarker candidates of central nervous system (CNS) injury, including macromolecules, genetic, inflammatory, oxidative, and metabolic biomarkers. Read More

    Multi-modality Imaging Assessment of Pericardial Masses.
    Curr Cardiol Rep 2017 Apr;19(4):32
    Medstar Heart and Vascular Institute, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA.
    Purpose Of Review: This review will discuss the application of various imaging modalities including their advantages and disadvantages in the evaluation of the most common pericardial masses with a focus on pericardial cysts, tumors, and hematomas.

    Recent Findings: Accurate identification of pericardial masses and assessment of potential hemodynamic compromise is imperative for management. Cardiac imaging plays a central role in tissue characterization as well as evaluation of extension into neighboring structures. Read More

    Untangling the Biology of Genetic Cardiomyopathies with Pluripotent Stem Cell Disease Models.
    Curr Cardiol Rep 2017 Apr;19(4):30
    Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Cardiovascular Institute, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA.
    Purpose Of Review: Recently, the discovery of strategies to reprogram somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has led to a major paradigm change in developmental and stem cell biology. The application of iPS cells and their cardiac progeny has opened novel directions to study cardiomyopathies at a cellular and molecular level. This review discusses approaches currently undertaken to unravel known inherited cardiomyopathies in a dish. Read More

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