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    Endothelin-1 is associated with fibrosis in proliferative diabetic retinopathy membranes.
    PLoS One 2018 19;13(1):e0191285. Epub 2018 Jan 19.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, United States of America.
    Purpose: To characterize the relationship between endothelin-1 and fibrosis in epiretinal membranes in proliferative diabetic retinopathy and explore the role of endothelial-mesenchymal transition in these membranes.

    Methods: Membranes were obtained from eyes undergoing pars plana vitrectomy for complicated proliferative diabetic retinopathy or idiopathic epiretinal membrane. Through standard immunohistochemical techniques, we labeled membranes to explore the distribution of endothelin-1 and endothelin receptor B, comparing proliferative diabetic retinopathy and idiopathic epiretinal membranes. Read More

    Bilateral Hypopyon Uveitis in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia.
    Ocul Oncol Pathol 2017 Dec 3;4(1):12-15. Epub 2017 Jun 3.
    Army College of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
    Background: A leukemic hypopyon is considered an early sign of central nervous system involvement or systemic relapse. A differential diagnosis of masquerade syndromes should be considered in cases of hypopyon uveitis that are atypical or unresponsive to treatment. We report a case of a 45-year-old man who presented with bilateral hypopyon uveitis and was subsequently diagnosed as having chronic myeloid leukemia. Read More

    Effect of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injection at the end of vitrectomy for vitreous haemorrhage related to proliferative diabetic retinopathy.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2018 Jan 17. Epub 2018 Jan 17.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Yoshida, Fukui, Japan.
    Background/aims: To investigate whether intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) combined with vitrectomy prevents postoperative inflammation in patients with vitreous haemorrhage (VH) due to proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR).

    Methods: This prospective, multicentre, randomised study conducted at seven sites in Japan enrolled patients diagnosed as having VH following PDR. Patients underwent vitrectomy with (IVTA+VIT group) or without (VIT group) IVTA at the end of the surgery. Read More

    Statin use and vitreoretinal surgery: Findings from a Finnish population-based cohort study.
    Acta Ophthalmol 2018 Jan 16. Epub 2018 Jan 16.
    Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Purpose: Vitreoretinal (VR) surgery is the third most common intraocular surgery after refractive and cataract surgery. The impact of statin therapy on VR surgery outcomes remains unclear, despite a potentially beneficial effect. We explored the association of preoperative statin therapy and the need for revitrectomy after primary vitrectomy. Read More

    Disorganization of Inner Retina and Outer Retinal Morphology in Diabetic Macular Edema.
    JAMA Ophthalmol 2018 Jan 11. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Queens University, Belfast, United Kingdom.
    Importance: In diabetic macular edema (DME), identification of baseline markers on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and their association with severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR) might aid in disease management and the design of future trials.

    Objective: To examine associations between DR severity, retinal morphology on SD-OCT, and visual acuity in participants with DME.

    Design, Setting, And Participants: This cross-sectional observational case series was conducted at a single tertiary care referral center. Read More

    Microvascular Outcomes of Pediatric-Onset Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Single-Center Observational Case Reviews in Sana'a, Yemen.
    Clin Med Insights Endocrinol Diabetes 2018 3;11:1179551417749217. Epub 2018 Jan 3.
    Department of Medicine, Sana'a University, Sana'a, Yemen.
    Microvascular complications of pediatric-onset type 1 diabetes are common in low-income countries. In this study, we aimed at reviewing microvascular outcomes in 6 cases with type 1 diabetes over 14 to 31 years of follow-up. Severe proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and/or diabetic macular edema (maculopathy) (DME) and overt diabetic nephropathy (macroalbuminuria) were seen among 4 of 6 patients, whereas severe diabetic peripheral neuropathy with Charcot neuroarthropathy was seen in 1 patient only, who had the longest duration of follow-up. Read More

    Vitrectomy with fibrovascular membrane delamination for proliferative diabetic retinopathy with or without preoperative Avastin.
    Hell J Nucl Med 2017 Sep-Dec;20 Suppl:161
    Western Eye Hospital-Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Ophthalmology, London, United Kingdom.
    Objective: To describe and compare 1. The changes in intraretinal microstructure using serial spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) preceding and following pars plana vitrectomy and delamination of fibrovascular membranes and 2. Intraoperative and postoperative complications in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) who had preoperative Avastin (group A) or not (group B). Read More

    Correlation of the anterior ocular segment biometry with HbA1c level in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.
    PLoS One 2018 11;13(1):e0191134. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.
    Objectives: To compare the anterior ocular segment biometry among Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) with no diabetic retinopathy (DR) and non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), and to evaluate the correlation of anterior ocular segment biometry with HbA1c level.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan from November 2013 till May 2016 among Type 2 DM patients (DM with no DR and DM with NPDR). The patients were evaluated for anterior ocular segment biometry [central corneal thickness (CCT), anterior chamber width (ACW), angle opening distance (AOD) and anterior chamber angle (ACA)] by using Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography (AS-OCT). Read More

    VISUALIZATION FROM INTRAOPERATIVE SWEPT-SOURCE MICROSCOPE-INTEGRATED OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY IN VITRECTOMY FOR COMPLICATIONS OF PROLIFERATIVE DIABETIC RETINOPATHY.
    Retina 2018 Jan 10. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina.
    Purpose: To evaluate the use of live volumetric (4D) intraoperative swept-source microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography in vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy complications.

    Methods: In this prospective study, we analyzed a subgroup of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy complications who required vitrectomy and who were imaged by the research swept-source microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography system. In near real time, images were displayed in stereo heads-up display facilitating intraoperative surgeon feedback. Read More

    Abnormally Low or High Ankle-Brachial Index Is Associated With the Development of Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
    Sci Rep 2018 Jan 11;8(1):441. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
    Although some studies have reported an association between peripheral artery disease (PAD) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) in patients with diabetes, whether or not a causal relationship exists is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether PAD, as indicated by an abnormally low or high ankle-brachial index (ABI), is associated with the development of DR in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) without DR. We enrolled 414 (221 men and 193 women) patients with type 2 DM who underwent ABI measurements at our outpatient clinic. Read More

    The G-Protein-Coupled Chemoattractant Receptor Fpr2 Exacerbates High Glucose-Mediated Proinflammatory Responses of Müller Glial Cells.
    Front Immunol 2017 19;8:1852. Epub 2017 Dec 19.
    Cancer and Inflammation Program, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, MD, United States.
    In proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), activated Müller glial cells (MGCs) exhibit increased motility and a fibroblast-like proliferation phenotype that contribute to the formation of fibrovascular membrane. In this study, we investigated the capacity of high glucose (HG) to regulate the expression of cell surface receptors that may participate in the proinflammatory responses of MGCs. We found that MGCs express a G-protein coupled chemoattractant receptor formyl peptide receptor 2 (Fpr2) and fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1), which mediated MGC migration and proliferation in response to corresponding ligands. Read More

    Choroidal vascularity index in type-2 diabetes analyzed by swept-source optical coherence tomography.
    Sci Rep 2018 Jan 8;8(1):70. Epub 2018 Jan 8.
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
    The relationships between changes in choroidal vasculature and the severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR) remain unclear. We assessed choroidal changes in diabetic patients by measuring choroidal vascularity index (CVI) in conjunction with DR stage. In this study, patients with diabetes and healthy controls were retrospectively analyzed. Read More

    Small-Gauge Endoscopy-Guided Pneumatic Anterior Hyaloid Detachment: A New Surgical Technique for Combined Pars Plana Vitrectomy and Pars Plana Glaucoma Drainage Implant.
    Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina 2018 Jan;49(1):48-50
    Background And Objective: Pars plana glaucoma drainage implant (GDI) occlusion is mainly related to entrapment of residual anterior vitreous gel in the implant. The aim of the present report is to describe a new surgical technique to induce pneumatic anterior hyaloid detachment in eyes with GDI.

    Patients And Methods: This is a description of the surgical technique used to induce pneumatic anterior hyaloid detachment. Read More

    Propranolol for Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy.
    Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina 2018 Jan;49(1):35-40
    Background And Objective: To determine the effect of propranolol on retinal neovascularization due to proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR).

    Patients And Methods: For this prospective pilot, interventional, case series, patients with diabetes with PDR (n = 10 subjects; 12 eyes) were recruited at the ophthalmology clinic of the University of Wisconsin - Madison. Subjects were administered oral propranolol for 12 weeks and retinopathy and area of retinal neovascularization were monitored with fundus photography and fluorescein angiography (FA). Read More

    A novel and less invasive technique to assess cytokine profile of vitreous in patients of diabetic macular oedema.
    Eye (Lond) 2018 Jan 5. Epub 2018 Jan 5.
    RS Mehta Jain Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, KBIRVO Vision Research Foundation, Sankara Nethralaya, Chennai, India.
    PurposeA pilot study to validate the collection of vitreous reflux (VR) after intravitreal injection using Schirmers tear strips was carried out. We assessed its efficiency for proteomics studies by estimating the differential expression of 27 cytokines using multiplexed bead array in diabetic macular oedema and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. To set, validate and assess the efficacy of Schirmer tear strips for collecting VR in patients undergoing intravitreal injections for diabetic macular oedema (DME). Read More

    Idiopathic macular telangiectasis type 2 and co-existent diabetic retinopathy.
    Int J Retina Vitreous 2017 25;3:50. Epub 2017 Dec 25.
    Srimati Kanuri Santhamma Retina Vitreous Center, L.V. Prasad Eye Institute, Kallam Anji Reddy Campus, L V Prasad Marg, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad, Telangana 500 034 India.
    Background: To study the interaction between idiopathic macular telangiectasis type 2 (MacTel2) and coexistent diabetic retinopathy (DR) during long term follow up.

    Methods: A retrospective chart review was done for all eyes with MacTel2 and DR with a minimum 2 years follow up. Eyes with other retinal disorders and poor quality imaging were excluded. Read More

    Intravitreal Anti Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Agents in The Management of Retinal Diseases: An Audit.
    Open Ophthalmol J 2017 31;11:315-321. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Niger Delta University Hospital, Yenagoa, Nigeria.
    Purpose: The study aimed to describe our initial experience with the use of anti vascular endothelial growth factors (anti-VEGFs) in the treatment of retinal diseases.

    Methods: The case records of all patients who had received at least 3 doses of intravitreal anti- VEGF injections between January 2012 to December 2016 were reviewed. Information culled from the data was age, sex, indications for treatment, type of injection, presenting visual acuity, post injection visual acuity, systemic and ocular co morbidities. Read More

    The significance of thiol/disulfide homeostasis and ischemia-modified albumin levels to assess the oxidative stress in patients with different stages of diabetes mellitus.
    Scand J Clin Lab Invest 2018 Jan 3:1-7. Epub 2018 Jan 3.
    c Ulucanlar Eye Training and Research Hospital , Ankara , Turkey.
    This study investigated the value of Thiol/Disulfide homeostasis and ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) levels in discriminating diabetic cases with different stages of retinopathy and without retinopathy. In total, 122 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) were enrolled in this prospective cross-sectional study. These patients were separated into three subgroups: Group 1 included 42 patients with DM and no diabetic retinopathy (DR), Group 2 included 40 patients with DM having non-proliferative DR and the Group 3 had 40 patients with DM having proliferative DR. Read More

    Tips, Tricks, and Advantages of 27-G Vitrectomy.
    Ophthalmologica 2018 Jan 3. Epub 2018 Jan 3.
    Purpose: We present the advantages and technique variations of 27-G vitrectomy in a variety of surgical retina cases.

    Methods: Patients with epiretinal membrane, retinal detachment, and proliferative diabetic retinopathy with vitreous hemorrhage and tractional detachments underwent 27-G vitrectomy. We present technique tricks, solutions to various problems and pitfalls, and the advantages of 27-G vitrectomy. Read More

    Possible involvement of NETosis in inflammatory processes in the eye: Evidence from a small cohort of patients.
    Mol Vis 2017 13;23:922-932. Epub 2017 Dec 13.
    Laboratory of Eye research Felsenstein Medical Research Center (FMRC), Rabin Medical Center, Petah Tikva, Israel.
    Purpose: To evaluate whether NETosis is involved in cytokine-induced ocular inflammation and to track neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) complexes in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR).

    Methods: For the animal model, the eyes of C57BL/6J mice were intravitreally injected with interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), or saline. Histology and immunofluorescence staining for CD11b, neutrophil elastase (NE), myeloperoxidase (MPO), citrullinated histone 3 (H3Cit), and net-like structure were performed. Read More

    Mitochondrial Haplogroups Modify the Effect of Diabetes Duration and HbA1c on Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Risk in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes.
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2017 Dec;58(14):6481-6488
    Vanderbilt Eye Institute, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, United States.
    Purpose: We previously demonstrated an association between European mitochondrial haplogroups and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). The purpose of this study was to determine how the relationship between these haplogroups and both diabetes duration and hyperglycemia, two major risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR), affect PDR prevalence.

    Methods: Our population consisted of patients with type 2 diabetes with (n = 377) and without (n = 480) DR. Read More

    Assessment of visual morbidity amongst diabetic retinopathy at tertiary eye care center, Nepal: a cross-sectional descriptive study.
    BMC Ophthalmol 2017 Dec 28;17(1):263. Epub 2017 Dec 28.
    Universal College of Medical Sciences, Bhairahawa, Nepal.
    Background: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of preventable blindness in low and middle income countries. In Nepal, there are less studies regarding DR and they too are limited around Kathmandu valley. This study was done to assess visual morbidity in patients with DR at a peripheral tertiary eye care center of Nepal. Read More

    Intravitreal Bevacizumab in Diabetic Retinopathy. Recommendations from the Pan-American Collaborative Retina Study Group (PACORES): The 2016 Knobloch Lecture.
    Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila) 2017 Dec 27. Epub 2017 Dec 27.
    Retina Division, Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.
    The advent of intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) medications has revolutionized the treatment of diabetic eye diseases. Herein, we report the outcomes of clinical studies carried out by the Pan-American Collaborative Retina Study Group (PACORES), with a specific focus on the efficacy of intravitreal bevacizumab in the management of diabetic macular edema and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. We will also discuss the use of intravitreal bevacizumab as a preoperative, adjuvant therapy before vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Read More

    Lack of Longitudinal Association Between Thiazolidinediones and Incidence and Progression of Diabetic Eye Disease: The ACCORD Eye Study.
    Am J Ophthalmol 2017 Dec 22. Epub 2017 Dec 22.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina.
    Purpose: To report the longitudinal association between use of thiazolidinediones (TZDs), visual acuity (VA) change, and diabetic eye disease incidence and progression.

    Design: Cohort study ancillary to a randomized clinical trial.

    Methods: We analyzed baseline and 4-year follow-up data of 2856 ACCORD trial participants with no history of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Read More

    Diverse roles of macrophages in intraocular neovascular diseases: a review.
    Int J Ophthalmol 2017 18;10(12):1902-1908. Epub 2017 Dec 18.
    Department of Ophthalmology, the Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410011, Hunan Province, China.
    Macrophages are involved in angiogenesis, and might also contribute to the pathogenesis of intraocular neovascular diseases. Recent studies indicated that macrophages exert different functions in the process of intraocular neovascularization, and the polarization of M1 and M2 phenotypes plays extremely essential roles in the diverse functions of macrophages. Moreover, a large number of cytokines released by macrophages not only participate in macrophage polarization, but also associate with retinal and choroidal neovascular diseases. Read More

    Clinical and experimental study on angiopoietin-like protein 8 associated with proliferative diabetic retinopathy.
    Int J Ophthalmol 2017 18;10(12):1819-1823. Epub 2017 Dec 18.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Shandong Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan 25000, Shandong Province, China.
    Aim: To confirm the role of angiopoietin-like protein 8 (Angptl 8) in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR).

    Methods: The sera and aqueous humor of 10 PDR patients and 10 non-diabetic retinopathy (NDR) patients (idiopathic macular hole patients) were collected and the expression of Angptl 8 was detected by enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA). Experimental diabetes mice model was induced with streptozotocin. Read More

    Association of HMGB1 with oxidative stress markers and regulators in PDR.
    Mol Vis 2017 5;23:853-871. Epub 2017 Dec 5.
    Diabetes and Metabolism Research Unit and CIBERDEM (ISCIII).Vall d'Hebron Research Institute. Barcelona, Spain.
    Purpose: We investigated the link among the proinflammatory cytokine high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) as a marker of oxidative DNA damage, the endothelial adhesion molecule and oxidase enzyme vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1), and the inducible cytoprotective molecule heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). We correlated the levels of these molecules with clinical disease activity and studied the proinflammatory activities of HMGB1 on rat retinas and human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs).

    Methods: Vitreous samples from 47 PDR and 19 non-diabetic patients, epiretinal membranes from 11 patients with PDR, human retinas (16 from diabetic patients and 16 from non-diabetic subjects), rat retinas, and HRMECs were studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunohistochemistry, western blot immunofluorescence, and RT-PCR analyses. Read More

    Optical coherence tomography angiography analysis of foveal microvascular changes and inner retinal layer thinning in patients with diabetes.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Dec 19. Epub 2017 Dec 19.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Aim: To evaluate the correlation between inner retinal layer thinning and the foveal microvasculature in type 2 diabetes using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA).

    Methods: A cross-sectional study involved 155 diabetic eyes. All patients were divided into two groups based on diabetic retinopathy (DR) grade: no DR (NDR, n=80) and mild-to-moderate non-proliferative DR (NPDR, n=75). Read More

    A case of proliferative diabetic retinopathy in which scintillating particles appeared in the intravitreal cavity after laser photocoagulation.
    BMC Ophthalmol 2017 Dec 19;17(1):254. Epub 2017 Dec 19.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Osaka Medical College, 2-7 Daigaku-machi, Takatsuki City, Osaka, 569-8686, Japan.
    Background: To report a case of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) exhibiting the appearance of scintillating particles presumed to be crystallin inside the intravitreal cavity after laser photocoagulation.

    Case Presentation: A 56-year-old male patient presented at our outpatient clinic after becoming aware of decreased vision in his right eye. Ocular examination performed at the patient's initial visit revealed a massive preretinal macular hemorrhage due to PDR in his right eye. Read More

    Ultrastructure of neurovascular changes in human diabetic retinopathy.
    Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 2017 Dec 1:394632017748841. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
    3 Department of Sensory Organs, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.
    The previous concept regarding diabetic retinopathy assigned a primary role to hyperglycemia-induced microvascular alterations, while neuronal and glial abnormalities were considered to be secondary to either ischemia or exudation. The aim of this study was to reveal the potential role of neuronal and glial cells in initial and advanced alterations of the retinopathy in human type 2 diabetes. Electron microscopy and histochemical studies were performed on 38 surgically removed human eyes (28 obtained from diabetic patients and 10 from non-diabetic patients). Read More

    Rothia dentocariosa endophthalmitis following intravitreal injection-a case report.
    J Ophthalmic Inflamm Infect 2017 Dec 16;7(1):24. Epub 2017 Dec 16.
    Cairns Base Hospital, Cairns, Australia.
    Purpose: This report describes the first recognised case of Rothia dentocariosa endophthalmitis following intravitreal injection.

    Case Report: A 57-year-old indigenous Australian diabetic female developed pain, redness and decreased vision 3 days after intravitreal aflibercept injection to the right eye-administered for diabetic vitreous haemorrhage with suspected macular oedema and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Examination revealed best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of hand movements, ocular hypertension and marked anterior chamber inflammation. Read More

    Antivascular endothelial growth factor agents pretreatment before vitrectomy for complicated proliferative diabetic retinopathy: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Dec 15. Epub 2017 Dec 15.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Background/aims: To evaluate the efficacy of antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents pretreatment before vitrectomy for patients with complicated proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR).

    Methods: The PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched up to June 2017 to identify related studies. The Peferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines were followed. Read More

    Systemic factors related to soluble (pro)renin receptor in plasma of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy.
    PLoS One 2017 14;12(12):e0189696. Epub 2017 Dec 14.
    Laboratory of Ocular Cell Biology and Visual Science, Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan.
    (Pro)renin receptor [(P)RR], a new component of the tissue renin-angiotensin system (RAS), plays a crucial role in inflammation and angiogenesis in the eye, thus contributing to the development of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). In this study, we investigated systemic factors related to plasma levels of soluble form of (P)RR [s(P)RR] in patients with PDR. Twenty type II diabetic patients with PDR and 20 age-matched, non-diabetic patients with idiopathic macular diseases were enrolled, and plasma levels of various molecules were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Read More

    Identification of genes related to proliferative diabetic retinopathy through RWR algorithm based on protein-protein interaction network.
    Biochim Biophys Acta 2017 Dec 10. Epub 2017 Dec 10.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai General Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai JiaoTong University, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Fundus Disease, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Engineering Center for Visual Science and Photomedicine, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:
    Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) is one of the most common complications of diabetes and can lead to blindness. Proteomic studies have provided insight into the pathogenesis of PDR and a series of PDR-related genes has been identified but are far from fully characterized because the experimental methods are expensive and time consuming. In our previous study, we successfully identified 35 candidate PDR-related genes through the shortest-path algorithm. Read More

    Natural Immunity and Ocular Inflammation.
    Fukuoka Igaku Zasshi 2016 Dec;107(12):205-12
    We have focused on the role of innate immunity during the formation oföchoroidal neovascularization (CNV) -related diseasesù. Inflammation affects the formation and the progression of various vitreoretinal diseases. We performed a comprehensive analysis of inflammatory immune mediators in the vitreous fluids with diabetic macular edema, proliferative diabetic retinopathy, branch retinal vein occlusion, central retinal vein occlusion and rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Read More

    Poor glycemic control as a risk factor for pseudophakic cystoid macular edema in patients with diabetes.
    J Cataract Refract Surg 2017 Nov;43(11):1376-1382
    From the Department of Ophthalmology (Ylinen, Lindholm), Helsinki University Hospital, the Helsinki Retina Research Group (Ylinen, Laine, Lindholm, Tuuminen), University of Helsinki, the Department of Automation and Electrical Engineering (Laine), Aalto University, Patient Insurance Centre (Tuuminen), Helsinki, and the Kymenlaakso Central Hospital (Laine, Tuuminen), Unit of Ophthalmology, Kotka, Finland. Electronic address:
    Purpose: To specify the risk factors for pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (CME) in patients with diabetes.

    Setting: Kymenlaakso Central Hospital, Unit of Ophthalmology, Kotka, Finland.

    Design: Prospective case series. Read More

    Early worsening of diabetic retinopathy after rapid improvement of blood glucose control in patients with diabetes.
    Diabetes Metab 2017 Nov 11. Epub 2017 Nov 11.
    Centre d'ophtalmologie Breteuil, centre Broca, hôpital Lariboisière, Paris, France.
    Aim: To review the frequency, importance of and risk factors for "early worsening of diabetic retinopathy" (EWDR) after rapid improvement of blood glucose in patients with diabetes.

    Methods: This was a systematic review of key references (PubMed 1980-2016) and the current international recommendations for the above-mentioned topics.

    Results: EWDR has been described during intensive treatment (IT) in patients with uncontrolled type 1 or 2 diabetes, and after pancreas transplantation or bariatric surgery. Read More

    Ethnic Differences in the Prevalence and Risk Factors of Diabetic Retinopathy: The Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study.
    Ophthalmology 2017 Dec 4. Epub 2017 Dec 4.
    Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore; Department of Ophthalmology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore and National University Health System, Singapore; Duke-National University of Singapore Medical School, Singapore. Electronic address:
    Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence and risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) in the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases (SEED) Study.

    Design: Population-based, cross-sectional study.

    Participants: Persons of Malay, Indian, and Chinese ethnicity aged 40+ years, living in Singapore. Read More

    Postoperative Complications of Pars Plana Vitrectomy for Diabetic Retinal Disease.
    Semin Ophthalmol 2017 Dec 7:1-8. Epub 2017 Dec 7.
    a Beetham Eye Institute , Joslin Diabetes Center , Boston , MA , USA.
    Despite recent advances in the medical management of diabetic retinal disease, there remain established indications for vitreoretinal surgery in the treatment of severe proliferative diabetic retinopathy. These include non-clearing vitreous hemorrhage and tractional retinal detachment. Advances in surgical instrumentation, technique, and experience have led to improved visual outcomes, as well as a corresponding decrease in the incidence of postoperative complications. Read More

    Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase prevents diabetic retinopathy.
    Nature 2017 Dec 6;552(7684):248-252. Epub 2017 Dec 6.
    Institute for Vascular Signalling, Centre for Molecular Medicine, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
    Diabetic retinopathy is an important cause of blindness in adults, and is characterized by progressive loss of vascular cells and slow dissolution of inter-vascular junctions, which result in vascular leakage and retinal oedema. Later stages of the disease are characterized by inflammatory cell infiltration, tissue destruction and neovascularization. Here we identify soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) as a key enzyme that initiates pericyte loss and breakdown of endothelial barrier function by generating the diol 19,20-dihydroxydocosapentaenoic acid, derived from docosahexaenoic acid. Read More

    Association of Glycated Haemoglobin and Serum Apolipoproteins with Diabetic Retinopathy: An Indian Overview.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2017 Sep 1;11(9):BC19-BC23. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    Assistant Professor, Department of Biochemistry, Armed Forces Medical College, Pune, Maharashtra, India.
    Introduction: India is presently facing an epidemic of diabetes mellitus and the risks of chronic complications from the disease are associated with the duration of the disease as well as the degree of hyperglycaemia. Diabetic retinopathy is a known microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus and is the most common cause of blindness in the western countries.Apolipoproteins are the protein component of lipoproteins. Read More

    Update on the Use of Anti-VEGF Intravitreal Therapies for Retinal Vein Occlusions.
    Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila) 2017 Nov-Dec;6(6):546-553
    University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States.
    The use of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy in ophthalmology has profoundly changed our management and treatment of conditions such as cystoid macular edema, diabetic macular edema, choroidal neovascularization, and other proliferative retinopathies. Although initially used for the treatment of choroidal neovascularization in neovascular age-related macular degeneration, their application has spread rapidly for other indications as their outcomes have often outperformed previously existing treatments. Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) continues to be one of the leading causes of vision loss secondary to macular edema, in addition to macular ischemia and neovascularization in more severe cases. Read More

    Thioredoxin-interacting protein deficiency ameliorates diabetic retinal angiogenesis.
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2018 Jan 2;94:61-70. Epub 2017 Dec 2.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China. Electronic address:
    Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness among working-aged adults around the world. Hyperglycemia and intraocular vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) over-accumulation are essential for the progression of diabetic retinopathy, which eventually results in proliferative diabetic retinopathy, characterized by pathologic angiogenesis and impaired vision. Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) was highly induced in retinal endothelial cells under diabetic conditions. Read More

    Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) as a Potential Therapeutic Target in Pathological Ocular Angiogenesis.
    Biol Pharm Bull 2017 ;40(12):2045-2049
    Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Kitasato University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences.
    Pathological ocular angiogenesis is a causative factor of retinopathy of prematurity, proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and wet age-related macular degeneration. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in pathological angiogenesis, and anti-VEGF agents have been used to treat the ocular diseases that are driven by pathological angiogenesis. However, adverse effects associated with the blockade of VEGF signaling, including impairments of normal retinal vascular growth and retinal function, were suggested. Read More

    Microvascular disease during pregnancy in type 1 diabetes is associated with ambulatory arterial stiffness.
    Pregnancy Hypertens 2017 Nov 23. Epub 2017 Nov 23.
    Department of Obstetrics/Gynecology, Herning, Herning Hospital, Gl. Landevej 61, DK-7400 Herning, Denmark; Department of Obstetrics/Gynecology, Aarhus, Aarhus University Hospital, Nørrebrogade 44, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark.
    Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between the ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) and markers of microvascular disease during pregnancy in women with type 1 diabetes.

    Study Design: A total of 151 women with type 1 diabetes mellitus were recruited for repeat 24-h BP recordings thrice during pregnancy and once three months post partum. Fifty women without diabetes served as controls. Read More

    Temporal changes in retinal vascular parameters associated with successful panretinal photocoagulation in proliferative diabetic retinopathy: A prospective clinical interventional study.
    Acta Ophthalmol 2017 Nov 29. Epub 2017 Nov 29.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark.
    Purpose: We aimed to investigate changes in retinal vascular geometry over time after panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR).

    Methods: Thirty-seven eyes with PDR were included. Wide-field fluorescein angiography (Optomap, Optos PLC. Read More

    COMPARISON OF 3 MM × 3 MM VERSUS 6 MM × 6 MM OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY SCAN SIZES IN THE EVALUATION OF NON-PROLIFERATIVE DIABETIC RETINOPATHY.
    Retina 2017 Nov 22. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
    *Shiley Eye Institute, University of California, San Diego, Department of Ophthalmology, La Jolla, California; and†Tongren Eye Hospital, Beijing, China.
    Purpose: To evaluate the utility of different optical coherence tomography angiography scan protocols in evaluating retinal changes in non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

    Methods: Patients were imaged with the RTVue XR Avanti OCT 3 mm × 3 mm and 6 mm × 6 mm "Angio Retina" scan protocols. Ability to clearly delineate the foveal avascular zone (FAZ), FAZ remodeling, microaneurysms, capillary nonperfusion, motion, and doubling artifacts were evaluated. Read More

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