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    Predictors and Outcomes of Vitrectomy and Silicone Oil Injection in Advanced Diabetic Retinopathy.
    Korean J Ophthalmol 2017 May 12. Epub 2017 May 12.
    Ophthalmic Research Center, Labbafinejad and Imam Hossein Medical Centers, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Purpose: To evaluate visual and anatomical results and identify factors that influence vitrectomy and silicone oil (SO) injection outcomes in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR).

    Methods: This retrospective study included 236 eyes with PDR that were undergoing vitrectomy and SO injection with >3-month follow-up. The primary outcomes were final best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and retinal attachment rate. Read More

    Interrelationship of elevated serum Advanced Glycation End-product levels and malnutrition (Subjective Global Assessment) scores with the severity of retinopathy in type II diabetes.
    Clin Nutr ESPEN 2015 Feb 28;10(1):e42-e48. Epub 2015 Jan 28.
    Department of Pathology, King George Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.
    Background And Aims: Hyperglycemia in diabetes causes endogenous formation of Advanced Glycation End-products (AGEs) which accumulate in various body parts including retina causing diabetic retinopathy. AGEs also originate from exogenous dietary sources contributing to the body's AGE pool. Currently, curing of diabetic retinopathy is mainly focused on medication, surgical or laser interventions and not much emphasis is given on preventing or halting its occurrence or advancement to more severe stages, nutritionally. Read More

    Conceptual analysis of diabetic retinopathy in Ayurveda.
    J Ayurveda Integr Med 2017 May 16. Epub 2017 May 16.
    P.G. Dept. of Shalakya Tantra, National Institute of Ayurveda, Jaipur, India. Electronic address:
    Inclusion of Prameha among the eight major disorders in Charaka Samhita shows the significance of the disease given by ancient seers. The risk of development of blindness in diabetics increases by 20-25 times as compared to the normal population. High prevalence rate of Diabetic Retinopathy (34. Read More

    Screening for Diabetic Eye Disease among Samoan Adults: A Pilot Study.
    Ophthalmol Ther 2017 May 17. Epub 2017 May 17.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Royal Hobart Hospital, Hobart, TAS, Australia.
    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in Samoa by piloting a retinal photography screening programme.

    Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of patients with diabetes who presented to the Tupua Tamasese Meaole eye clinic in Apia, Samoa, between May 2011 and September 2011. Study approval was granted by the National Health Service Board of Samoa, the Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee, and the study adhered to the Tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki. Read More

    Influence of serum lipids on the incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy and macular oedema: Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology and Molecular Genetics Study (SN-DREAMS II).
    Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2017 May 17. Epub 2017 May 17.
    Shri Bhagwan Mahavir Vitreoretinal Services, Chennai, India.
    Importance: The importance of lipids on incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy has not been studied in the Indian population.

    Background: To elucidate the influence of serum lipid control on the incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular oedema in subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    Design: population-based longitudinal observational study in a hospital setting. Read More

    Local and Systemic Inflammatory Biomarkers of Diabetic Retinopathy: An Integrative Approach.
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2017 May;58(6):BIO68-BIO75
    Diabetes and Metabolism Research Unit, Institut de Recerca Hospital, Universitari Vall d'Hebron (VHIR), Barcelona, Spain 4CIBERDEM (Instituto de Salud Carlos III), Madrid, Spain.
    Purpose: To review the usefulness of local and systemic inflammatory biomarkers of diabetic retinopathy (DR) to implement a more personalized treatment.

    Methods: An integrated research (from ophthalmologist and diabetologist point of view) of most significant literature on serum, vitreous, and aqueous humor (AH) biochemical biomarkers related to inflammation at early and advanced stages of DR (including diabetic macular edema [DME] and proliferative DR) was performed. Moreover, novel imaging retinal biomarkers of local "inflammatory condition" were described. Read More

    MicroRNA-126: a promising novel biomarker in peripheral blood for diabetic retinopathy.
    Int J Ophthalmol 2017 18;10(4):530-534. Epub 2017 Apr 18.
    Department of Ophthalmology, the Third Affiliated Hospital of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510630, Guangdong Province, China.
    Aim: To investigate the content of serum microRNA-126 (miR-126) and its role in screening retinal endothelial injury and early diagnosis of proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

    Methods: The study included 184 serum samples, 59 samples from healthy individuals, 44 samples from diabetes mellitus (DM) patients without diabetic retinopathy (NDR), 42 from non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) patients and 39 samples from proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) patients. The expression of miR-126 was evaluated using a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Read More

    Three Different Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Measurement Methods for Assessing Capillary Density Changes in Diabetic Retinopathy.
    Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina 2017 May;48(5):378-384
    Background And Objective: To compare capillary density (CD) changes assessed by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) during diabetic retinopathy (DR) progression using three previously published methods: binarization, skeletonization, and automated flow density (AFD).

    Patients And Methods: Retrospective study of 98 eyes of 74 patients with diabetes and 18 control eyes imaged using OCTA. The macular CD at each stage of DR was assessed using the three methods and were compared to control eyes. Read More

    Ranibizumab pretreatment in diabetic vitrectomy: a pilot randomised controlled trial (the RaDiVit study).
    Eye (Lond) 2017 May 12. Epub 2017 May 12.
    National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre at Moorfields Eye Hospital and University College London (UCL) Institute of Ophthalmology, London, UK.
    PurposeOur aim was to evaluate the impact of intravitreal ranibizumab pretreatment on the outcome of vitrectomy surgery for advanced proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The objective was to determine the feasibility of a subsequent definitive trial and estimate the effect size and variability of the outcome measure.Patients and methodsWe performed a pilot randomised double-masked single-centre clinical trial in 30 participants with tractional retinal detachment associated with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Read More

    Elevated Activating Transcription Factor 4 and Glucose-Regulated 78 Kda Protein Levels Correlate with Inflammatory Cytokines in the Aqueous Humor and Vitreous of Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy.
    Curr Eye Res 2017 May 12:1-7. Epub 2017 May 12.
    a Department of Ophthalmology , Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine , Shanghai , China.
    Purpose: To determine concentrations of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related factors activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and glucose-regulated 78 kDa protein (GRP78) in vitreous and aqueous humor (AqH) of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and the correlation of ATF4, GRP78 and inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6(IL-6) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1).

    Materials And Methods: AqH and vitreous samples were collected from eyes of patients with PDR and idiopathic macular hole (IMH) which needed vitrectomy. Protein Levels of ATF4, GRP78, and IL-6, MCP-1 in samples were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Read More

    Assessing total retinal blood flow in diabetic retinopathy using multiplane en face Doppler optical coherence tomography.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 May 11. Epub 2017 May 11.
    Casey Eye Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA.
    Aim: To assess total retinal blood flow (TRBF) in diabetic retinopathy (DR) using multiplane en face Doppler optical coherence tomography (OCT).

    Methods: A 70 kHz spectral-domain OCT system scanned a 2×2 mm area centred at the optic disc of the eyes with DR and healthy participants. The multiplane en face Doppler OCT algorithm generated a three-dimensional volumetric data set consisting of 195 en face planes. Read More

    Clinical efficacy of intravitreal aflibercept versus panretinal photocoagulation for best corrected visual acuity in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy at 52 weeks (CLARITY): a multicentre, single-blinded, randomised, controlled, phase 2b, non-inferiority trial.
    Lancet 2017 May 5. Epub 2017 May 5.
    National Institute for Health Research, Moorfields Biomedical Research Centre, London, UK.
    Background: Proliferative diabetic retinopathy is the most common cause of severe sight impairment in people with diabetes. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy has been managed by panretinal laser photocoagulation (PRP) for the past 40 years. We report the 1 year safety and efficacy of intravitreal aflibercept. Read More

    Cost-effectiveness of Intravitreous Ranibizumab Compared With Panretinal Photocoagulation for Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy: Secondary Analysis From a Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network Randomized Clinical Trial.
    JAMA Ophthalmol 2017 May 8. Epub 2017 May 8.
    Jaeb Center for Health Research, Tampa, Florida.
    Importance: The Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network Protocol S randomized clinical trial results suggest that ranibizumab is a reasonable treatment alternative to panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) when managing proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), with or without concomitant baseline diabetic macular edema (DME). However, ranibizumab injections are costly. Thus, it would be useful to examine the relative cost-effectiveness of these 2 treatment modalities. Read More

    Noninvasive Retinal Markers in Diabetic Retinopathy: Advancing from Bench towards Bedside.
    J Diabetes Res 2017 13;2017:2562759. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark.
    The retinal vascular system is the only part of the human body available for direct, in vivo inspection. Noninvasive retinal markers are important to identity patients in risk of sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy. Studies have correlated structural features like retinal vascular caliber and fractals with micro- and macrovascular dysfunction in diabetes. Read More

    Retina 2017 May 9. Epub 2017 May 9.
    *Faculty of Medicine, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon; †Eye and Ear University Hospital, Ophthalmology Department, Naccash, Lebanon; and ‡Faculty of Medicine, Saint-Esprit University, Kaslik, Lebanon.
    Purpose: To investigate the efficacy of intravitreal ranibizumab injections in proliferative diabetic retinopathy associated with vitreous hemorrhage (VH).

    Methods: A prospective study including patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy who presented with persistent VH. Vitreous hemorrhage was graded into mild, moderate, and severe. Read More

    The UK Diabetic Retinopathy Electronic Medical Record (UK DR EMR) Users Group, Report 2: real-world data for the impact of cataract surgery on diabetic macular oedema.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 May 9. Epub 2017 May 9.
    The NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at Moorfields Eye Hospital NHSFT and UCL Institute for Ophthalmology, London, UK.
    Aim: To assess the rate of 'treatment-requiring diabetic macular oedema (DMO)' in eyes for the two  years before and after cataract surgery.

    Methods: Multicentre national diabetic retinopathy (DR) database study with anonymised data extraction across 19 centres from an electronic medical record system.

    Inclusion Criteria: eyes undergoing cataract surgery in patients with diabetes with no history of DMO prior to study start. Read More

    Ranibizumab in the Treatment of Diabetic Macular Edema: A Review of the Current Status, Unmet Needs, and Emerging Challenges.
    Adv Ther 2017 May 8. Epub 2017 May 8.
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Diabetic retinopathy (more specifically diabetic macular edema, DME) is the most common cause of loss of vision in the working population in developed countries. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents considerably changed the treatment algorithms and improved prognosis of center-involving DME. Ranibizumab was the first approved anti-VEGF agent that revolutionized DME treatment. Read More

    Multimodality analysis of Hyper-reflective Foci and Hard Exudates in Patients with Diabetic Retinopathy.
    Sci Rep 2017 May 8;7(1):1568. Epub 2017 May 8.
    Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital with Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 210094, China.
    To investigate the correlations between hyper-reflective foci and hard exudates in patients with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT) images. Hyper-reflective foci in retinal SD OCT images were automatically detected by the developed algorithm. Then, the cropped CFP images generated by the semi-automatic registration method were automatically segmented for the hard exudates and corrected by the experienced clinical ophthalmologist. Read More

    Relationship between internal reflectivity of diabetic microaneurysms on SD-OCT and detection on OCT Angiography.
    Am J Ophthalmol 2017 May 5. Epub 2017 May 5.
    Department of Ophthalmology, University Vita-Salute, IRCCS San Raffaele, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:
    Purpose: To correlate the appearance of Microaneurysms (MAs) on structural spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) with their detection on OCT angiography (OCTA) in patients with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR).

    Design: Inter-instrument reliability study.

    Methods: Sixteen patients with NPDR without macular edema underwent SD-OCT and OCTA. Read More

    Retinopathy with central oedema in an INS (C94Y) transgenic pig model of long-term diabetes.
    Diabetologia 2017 May 8. Epub 2017 May 8.
    Experimental Ophthalmology, Philipps University of Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, D-35033, Marburg, Germany.
    Aims/hypothesis: Diabetic retinopathy is a severe complication of diabetes mellitus that often leads to blindness. Because the pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy is not fully understood and novel therapeutic interventions require testing, there is a need for reliable animal models that mimic all the complications of diabetic retinopathy. Pig eyes share important anatomical and physiological similarities with human eyes. Read More

    Association of Diabetic Macular Edema and Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy With Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
    JAMA Ophthalmol 2017 May 4. Epub 2017 May 4.
    Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, National University of Singapore, Singapore3Duke-NUS Medical School, National University of Singapore, Singapore.
    Importance: Previous studies on the relationship between diabetic retinopathy (DR) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) focused on the early stages of DR. Understanding whether patients with type 2 diabetes and severe stages of DR (diabetic macular edema [DME] and proliferative diabetic retinopathy [PDR]) have a higher risk of CVD will allow physicians to more effectively counsel patients.

    Objective: To examine the association of severe stages of DR (DME and PDR) with incident CVD in patients with type 2 diabetes. Read More

    Characterization of Vitreous and Aqueous Proteome in Humans With Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy and Its Clinical Correlation.
    Proteomics Insights 2017 15;8:1178641816686078. Epub 2017 Mar 15.
    Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Jacksonville, FL, USA.
    Aims: Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) is associated with microvascular complications that cause biochemical changes in the human retina and alter the proteome of vitreous humor and aqueous humor (AH).

    Methods: Human vitreous humor and AH of PDR subjects were collected. Subjects who had surgery for epiretinal membrane or macular hole served as controls. Read More

    Dynamic Responses in Retinal Vessel Caliber With Flicker Light Stimulation and Risk of Diabetic Retinopathy and Its Progression.
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2017 May;58(5):2449-2455
    Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Duke - National University of Singapore, Singapore 2Department of Ophthalmology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore.
    Purpose: This study investigated the associations between the responses of retinal vessels to flickering light and the incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR).

    Methods: A prospective cohort study of adult subjects with diabetes mellitus. The dynamic vessel analyser (DVA) was used to measure retinal vascular dilatation in response to diffuse illuminance flicker. Read More

    Prepubertal Childhood Onset Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Four Case Reports.
    J Assoc Physicians India 2017 Feb;65(2):43-46
    President, Madras Diabetes Research Foundation & Chairman, Dr. Mohan's Diabetes Specialities Centre, Chennai, Tamil Nadu.
    Background: The prevalence of childhood onset type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing, but prepubertal T2D is still unusual.

    Methods: We report four cases of T2D with onset at or below 10 years of age registered at a tertiary diabetes centre in southern India.T2D was diagnosed based on the absence of ketosis, good beta cell reserve as shown by the C peptide assay, absence of GAD antibodies and pancreatic calculi, and response to oral hypoglycemic agents. Read More

    Expression of angiopoietin-like protein 8 correlates with VEGF in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy.
    Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2017 Apr 29. Epub 2017 Apr 29.
    Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, 215006, China.
    Purpose: To investigate the vitreous and serum levels of angiopoietin-like protein 8 (ANGPTL-8) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). The serum levels of these factors were also analyzed in patients with diabetes and no diabetic retinopathy (NDR) and with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), to detect the possible correlation between the ANGPTL-8 levels and hyperlipidemia.

    Methods: Vitreous samples were obtained from 28 patients with PDR and from 12 patients without diabetes and with idiopathic macular hole (IMH). Read More

    Galectin-1 expression imprints a neurovascular phenotype in proliferative retinopathies and delineates responses to anti-VEGF.
    Oncotarget 2017 May;8(20):32505-32522
    Centro de Investigaciones en Bioquímica Clínica e Inmunología (CIBICI), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Departamento de Bioquímica Clínica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina.
    Neovascular retinopathies are leading causes of irreversible blindness. Although vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors have been established as the mainstay of current treatment, clinical management of these diseases is still limited. As retinal impairment involves abnormal neovascularization and neuronal degeneration, we evaluated here the involvement of galectin-1 in vascular and non-vascular alterations associated with retinopathies, using the oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) model. Read More

    Is aspirin associated with diabetic retinopathy? The Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Disease (SEED) study.
    PLoS One 2017 28;12(4):e0175966. Epub 2017 Apr 28.
    Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore, Singapore.
    Background/aims: To determine the association between aspirin use and diabetic retinopathy (DR) among persons with diabetes, in a population-based, cross-sectional study.

    Methods: Subjects with diabetes aged >40 years from the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study were enrolled in this study. Retinal photographs were graded for DR according to the modified Airlie House classification system. Read More

    Influence of baseline diabetic retinopathy status on initial anatomical response of intravitreal ranibizumab therapy for diabetic macular oedema.
    Eye (Lond) 2017 Apr 28. Epub 2017 Apr 28.
    Medical Retina, National Institute for Health Research Moorfields Biomedical Research Centre and University College London Institute of Ophthalmology, London, UK.
    PurposeIntraocular vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels increases with the severity of diabetic retinopathy. Response of diabetic macular oedema (DMO) to ranibizumab is driven by VEGF suppression. We hypothesised that the initial reduction of central macular thickness by ranibizumab should be maximum in severe diabetic retinopathy until the levels of VEGF decreases to the levels observed in eyes with mild retinopathy. Read More

    A Review: Proteomics in Retinal Artery Occlusion, Retinal Vein Occlusion, Diabetic Retinopathy and Acquired Macular Disorders.
    Int J Mol Sci 2017 Apr 28;18(5). Epub 2017 Apr 28.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Aalborg University Hospital, Hobrovej 18-22, 9000 Aalborg, Denmark.
    Retinal artery occlusion (RAO), retinal vein occlusion (RVO), diabetic retinopathy (DR) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are frequent ocular diseases with potentially sight-threatening outcomes. In the present review we discuss major findings of proteomic studies of RAO, RVO, DR and AMD, including an overview of ocular proteome changes associated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatments. Despite the severe outcomes of RAO, the proteome of the disease remains largely unstudied. Read More

    Change in Diabetic Retinopathy Through 2 Years: Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Aflibercept, Bevacizumab, and Ranibizumab.
    JAMA Ophthalmol 2017 Apr 27. Epub 2017 Apr 27.
    Palmetto Retina Center, Columbia, South Carolina.
    Importance: Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy for diabetic macular edema (DME) favorably affects diabetic retinopathy (DR) improvement and worsening. It is unknown whether these effects differ across anti-VEGF agents.

    Objective: To compare changes in DR severity during aflibercept, bevacizumab, or ranibizumab treatment for DME. Read More

    Pathogenic role and therapeutic potential of pleiotrophin in mouse models of ocular vascular disease.
    Angiogenesis 2017 Apr 26. Epub 2017 Apr 26.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA.
    Angiogenic factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR), neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Pleiotrophin, a well-known angiogenic factor, was recently reported to be upregulated in the vitreous fluid of patients with proliferative DR (PDR). However, its pathogenic role and therapeutic potential in ocular vascular diseases have not been defined in vivo. Read More

    Circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, anterior lamina cribrosa depth, and lamina cribrosa thickness in neovascular glaucoma secondary to proliferative diabetic retinopathy: a cross-sectional study.
    BMC Ophthalmol 2017 Apr 26;17(1):57. Epub 2017 Apr 26.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, 23-3 Matsuokashimoaizuki, Eiheiji, Yoshida, Fukui, 910-1193, Japan.
    Background: To compare the lamina cribrosa between eyes with and without neovascular glaucoma (NVG) using enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.

    Methods: Forty-six patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. The patients were divided into two groups based on the absence or presence of NVG (the non-NVG group and the NVG group, respectively). Read More

    Circulating biomarkers in glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy.
    Indian J Ophthalmol 2017 Mar;65(3):191-197
    Ocular Pharmacology and Pharmacy Division, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
    Biomarkers to predict the altering physiological conditions over the period leading toward the ocular disorders are of major importance in therapeutics. Isolation and validation of the biomarkers specific to ocular diseases are a challenging task. Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease of the eye where the correlation of biomarkers in circulating fluid may be made specific for the eye. Read More

    Whole exome sequencing identification of novel candidate genes in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy.
    Vision Res 2017 May 9. Epub 2017 May 9.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:
    Rare or novel gene variants in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy may contribute to disease development. We performed whole exome sequencing (WES) on patients at the phenotypic extremes of diabetic retinal complications: 57 patients diagnosed with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) as cases and 13 patients with no diabetic retinopathy despite at least 10years of type 2 diabetes as controls. Thirty-one out of the 57 cases and all 13 controls were from the African American Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Study (AA). Read More

    Optimal screening schedules for disease progression with application to diabetic retinopathy.
    Biostatistics 2017 Apr 20. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    The Biostatistics Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, The George Washington University, 6110 Executive Blvd., Rockville MD 20852,
    Clinical management of chronic diseases requires periodic evaluations. Subjects transition between various levels of severity of a disease over time, one of which may trigger an intervention that requires treatment. For example, in diabetic retinopathy, patients with type 1 diabetes are evaluated yearly for either the onset of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) or clinically significant macular edema (CSME) that would require immediate treatment to preserve vision. Read More

    Suppression of Retinal Neovascularization by Inhibition of Galectin-1 in a Murine Model of Oxygen-Induced Retinopathy.
    J Ophthalmol 2017 24;2017:5053035. Epub 2017 Mar 24.
    Eye Center, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, 238 Jiefang Road, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430060, China.
    Galectin-1 (Gal-1) has been proved to be an important factor in the process of tumor angiogenesis recently. As a small molecule, OTX008 serves as a selective inhibitor of Gal-1. In this study, the role of Gal-1 and the antiangiogenic effect of OTX008 on retinal neovascularization (RNV) were investigated using a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy. Read More

    Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Injections: The New Standard of Care in Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy?
    Dev Ophthalmol 2017 20;60:131-142. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    For decades, panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) has been the standard of care for the treatment of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). The relatively recent advent of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) formulations for intravitreal injection has provided a fresh perspective on PDR treatment, especially in eyes with concurrent diabetic macular edema (DME). The anti-VEGF agent ranibizumab has demonstrated a potentially protective effect on eyes with DME in terms of progression to PDR in the RIDE/RISE trials, as has aflibercept in the VIVID/VISTA trials. Read More

    Practical Lessons from Protocol I for the Management of Diabetic Macular Edema.
    Dev Ophthalmol 2017 20;60:91-108. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    Protocol I, a multicenter randomized clinical trial, compared the visual outcomes of patients treated with 0.5 mg intravitreal ranibizumab with either prompt or deferred (by 24 weeks laser), 4 mg intravitreal triamcinolone with prompt laser, or sham injection with prompt laser for the treatment of center-involving diabetic macular edema (DME). A total of 854 adult patients with type I or II diabetes and any level of non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy or proliferative retinopathy with adequate panretinal photocoagulation, with best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 78 to 24 ETDRS letters (Snellen equivalent of 20/32 to 20/320) and visual loss attributed to macular edema, or retinal thickening with central subfield thickness of at least 250 µm by OCT were enrolled. Read More

    Emerging Issues for Optical Coherence Tomography.
    Dev Ophthalmol 2017 20;60:28-37. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    Almost 25 years after its introduction, optical coherence tomography (OCT) is still a crucial test in the evaluation of patients affected by diabetic retinopathy. In this chapter, the authors provide an extensive overview of the posterior segment pathological changes induced by diabetes, characterized using OCT. OCT plays a key role in diabetic macular edema (DME) as it assesses related retinal changes both in a qualitative (i. Read More

    Frequency of Evidence-Based Screening for Retinopathy in Type 1 Diabetes.
    N Engl J Med 2017 04;376(16):1507-1516
    Biostatistics Center, George Washington University, Rockville, MD
    Background: In patients who have had type 1 diabetes for 5 years, current recommendations regarding screening for diabetic retinopathy include annual dilated retinal examinations to detect proliferative retinopathy or clinically significant macular edema, both of which require timely intervention to preserve vision. During 30 years of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) and its longitudinal follow-up Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study, retinal photography was performed at intervals of 6 months to 4 years.

    Methods: We used retinal photographs from the DCCT/EDIC study to develop a rational screening frequency for retinopathy. Read More

    Correlation of various serum biomarkers with the severity of diabetic retinopathy.
    Diabetes Metab Syndr 2017 Apr 8. Epub 2017 Apr 8.
    AU College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Andhra University, Vishakhapatnam, India.
    Hyperglycemia induced inflammation and angiogenic factors are implicated as a contributor to the onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (T2DM). Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are inflammatory cytokines which induce retinal VEGF and are involved in the progression of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Therefore the aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between diabetic retinopathy and systemic inflammation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Read More

    Two Cases of Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy with Marked Sheathing of the Retinal Arteries following Vitrectomy.
    Case Rep Ophthalmol 2017 Jan-Apr;8(1):40-48. Epub 2017 Jan 24.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki, Japan.
    Purpose: The aim of this paper was to report 2 patients (3 eyes) with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) who showed marked sheathing of the retinal arterioles that was ultimately attributed to calcification following vitrectomy.

    Cases: Case 1 involved a 65-year-old female with PDR who underwent bilateral vitrectomy for traction retinal detachment. Postoperatively, bilateral retinal redetachment (reRD) was observed. Read More

    Expression of Wild-type p53-induced phosphatase 1 in diabetic epiretinal membranes.
    Oncotarget 2017 Mar 29. Epub 2017 Mar 29.
    Department of Ophthalmology, People's Hospital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Nanning, Guangxi, People's Republic of China.
    Objective: The aims of the present study were to investigate the expression and distribution of Wild-type p53-induced phosphatase 1 (Wip1) in diabetic patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) with epiretinal membranes (ERMs) meanwhile analyze the colocalization of Wip1 and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) p65 in ERMs.

    Methods: ERMs samples were collected from patients with PDR (PDR group) or non-diabetic patients with idiopathic epiretinal membranes (iERMs) (control group) during pars plana vitrectomy. Real-Time PCR analysis was carried out to examine the mRNA expression of Wip1 in ERMs. Read More

    Identification of RUNX1 as a Mediator of Aberrant Retinal Angiogenesis.
    Diabetes 2017 Apr 11. Epub 2017 Apr 11.
    Schepens Eye Research Institute/Massachusetts Eye and Ear, Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, 20 Staniford St., Boston, MA 02114
    Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) is a common cause of blindness in the developed world's working adult population, and affects those with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We identified Runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1) as a gene upregulated in CD31+ vascular endothelial cells obtained from human PDR fibrovascular membranes (FVM) via transcriptomic analysis. In vitro studies using human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs) showed increased RUNX1 RNA and protein expression in response to high glucose whereas RUNX1 inhibition reduced HRMEC migration, proliferation, and tube formation. Read More

    Vitreous haemorrhage: a population-based study of the incidence and risk factors in Taiwan.
    Int J Ophthalmol 2017 18;10(3):461-466. Epub 2017 Mar 18.
    Department of Medical Research, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung City 40705, Taiwan, China.
    Aim: To report the epidemiology and incidence of vitreous hemorrhage and to evaluate risk factors for patients with vitreous hemorrhage (VH) in Taiwan.

    Methods: A retrospective population-based study. Analyzing a sample of one million subjects from all enrollees of the Taiwan Health Insurance programme. Read More

    Differential expression and localization of human tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in proliferative diabetic retinopathy.
    Acta Ophthalmol 2017 Apr 9. Epub 2017 Apr 9.
    Rega Institute for Medical Research, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Leuven, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Purpose: Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) block the catalysis by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and have additional biologic activities, including regulation of cell growth and differentiation, apoptosis, angiogenesis and oncogenesis. We investigated the expression levels of all the four human TIMPs and correlated these levels with those of MMP-9 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR).

    Methods: Vitreous samples from 38 PDR and 21 nondiabetic control patients and epiretinal membranes from 14 patients with PDR and 10 patients with proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) were studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Read More

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