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    Long-term outcomes with as-needed aflibercept in diabetic macular oedema: 2-year outcomes of the ENDURANCE extension study.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Aug 16. Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    Retina-Vitreous Associates Medical Group, Los Angeles, California, USA.
    Background/aims: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of individualised 2.0 mg intravitreal aflibercept retreatment for diabetic macular oedema (DME) through the fifth year of management.

    Methods: This is a phase IV, 2-year, open-label extension study. Read More

    Microalbuminuria in Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus; the tip of iceberg of diabetic complications.
    Pak J Med Sci 2017 May-Jun;33(3):519-523
    Dr. Najmul Islam, FRCP. Endocrinology Section, Department of Medicine, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan.
    Objective: To determine the prevalence of microalbuminuria and its association with hypertension and other diabetic complications among Type-2 diabetic patients attending at Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi.

    Methods: 1280 Type-2 diabetes patients who visited the outpatient department of Aga Khan University Hospital from September 2014 to August 2016 were included in the study. Microalbuminuria was diagnosed if spot urinary microalbumin excretion was confirmed to be more than 20mg/l. Read More

    Automatic blood vessels segmentation based on different retinal maps from OCTA scans.
    Comput Biol Med 2017 Aug 7;89:150-161. Epub 2017 Aug 7.
    Bioengineering Department, University of Louisville, Louisville KY 40292, USA. Electronic address:
    The retinal vascular network reflects the health of the retina, which is a useful diagnostic indicator of systemic vascular. Therefore, the segmentation of retinal blood vessels is a powerful method for diagnosing vascular diseases. This paper presents an automatic segmentation system for retinal blood vessels from Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCTA) images. Read More

    Patients' preferences for involvement in the decision-making process for treating diabetic retinopathy.
    BMC Ophthalmol 2017 Aug 9;17(1):139. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Center for Ophthalmology, Eberhard Karls University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany.
    Background: To assess factors associated with the preferred role of the attending ophthalmologist in the decision-making processes before treating diabetic retinopathy (DR).

    Methods: Cross-sectional study of 810 adults attending secondary diabetes care centers (NCT02311504). Diabetes patients were classified using a validated questionnaire in an ophthalmologist-dominant decision-making (ODM), shared decision-making (SDM) and patient-dominant decision-making (PDM) style. Read More

    Diabetes complications in Sudanese individuals with type 2 diabetes: Overlooked problems in sub-Saharan Africa?
    Diabetes Metab Syndr 2017 Jul 29. Epub 2017 Jul 29.
    Department of Medicine and HIV Metabolic Clinic, Milton Keynes University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Eaglestone, Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire, UK. Electronic address:
    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major health problem in Sudan and is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of complications of type 2 diabetes across different cities in the country.

    Methods: Individuals with type 2 diabetes, who have been on treatment for DM for at least one year and volunteered to participate, were selected from two diabetes centers in Sudan (Khartoum and Atbara). Read More

    Tele-ophthalmology for Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Diabetic Retinopathy Screening: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
    Telemed J E Health 2017 Aug 7. Epub 2017 Aug 7.
    6 Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Alberta , Edmonton, Canada .
    Background: To synthesize high-quality evidence to compare traditional in-person screening and tele-ophthalmology screening.

    Methods: Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The intervention of interest was any type of tele-ophthalmology, including screening of diseases using remote devices. Read More

    Early visual cortical structural changes in diabetic patients without diabetic retinopathy.
    Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2017 Aug 4. Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Institute for Biomedical Imaging and Life Sciences (IBILI), Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, Azinhaga Santa Comba, Celas, 3000-548, Coimbra, Portugal.
    Background: It is known that diabetic patients have changes in cortical morphometry as compared to controls, but it remains to be clarified whether the visual cortex is a disease target, even when diabetes complications such as retinopathy are absent. Therefore, we compared type 2 diabetes patients without diabetic retinopathy with control subjects using magnetic resonance imaging to assess visual cortical changes when retinal damage is not yet present.

    Methods: We performed T1-weighted imaging in 24 type 2 diabetes patients without diabetic retinopathy and 27 age- and gender-matched controls to compare gray matter changes in the occipital cortex between groups using voxel based morphometry. Read More

    Incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy in Sub-Saharan Africa: A five year cohort study.
    PLoS One 2017 2;12(8):e0181359. Epub 2017 Aug 2.
    College of Medicine, University of Malawi, Blantyre, Malawi.
    Aims: To describe the incidence and progression of retinopathy in people with diabetes in Southern Malawi over 5 years. To document visual loss in a setting where laser treatment is not available.

    Methods: Subjects from a cohort sampled from a hospital-based, primary-care diabetes clinic in 2007 were traced in 2012. Read More

    Changes in retinal venular oxygen saturation predict activity of proliferative diabetic retinopathy 3 months after panretinal photocoagulation.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Aug 1. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark.
    Background/aims: Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) is a severe blinding condition. We investigated whether retinal metabolism, measured by retinal oximetry, may predict PDR activity after panretinal laser photocoagulation (PRP).

    Methods: We performed a prospective, interventional, clinical study of patients with treatment-naive PDR. Read More

    Prediction of new onset of end stage renal disease in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus - a population-based retrospective cohort study.
    BMC Nephrol 2017 Aug 1;18(1):257. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    Department of Family Medicine and Primary Care, the University of Hong Kong, 3/F Ap Lei Chau Clinic, 161 Main Street, Ap Lei Chau, Hong Kong.
    Background: Since diabetes mellitus (DM) is the leading cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD), this study aimed to develop a 5-year ESRD risk prediction model among Chinese patients with Type 2 DM (T2DM) in primary care.

    Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 149,333 Chinese adult T2DM primary care patients without ESRD in 2010. Using the derivation cohort over a median of 5 years follow-up, the gender-specific models including the interaction effect between predictors and age were derived using Cox regression with a forward stepwise approach. Read More

    Awareness of the Necessity of Regular Eye Examinations among Diabetics: The Yazd Eye Study.
    Int J Prev Med 2017 4;8:49. Epub 2017 Jul 4.
    Ophthalmic Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Background: Diabetic retinopathy and its consequence, diabetic macular edema, are leading causes of vision loss in diabetics and can develop even in the first years after onset of diabetes. Being asymptomatic in primary phase and having compensatory effect of bilateral vision delay the necessity of eye care utilization. We conducted this study to determine diabetic individuals' level of awareness about the importance of regular eye examinations. Read More

    Distribution of Esophageal Motor Disorders in Diabetic Patients With Dysphagia.
    J Clin Gastroenterol 2017 Jul 25. Epub 2017 Jul 25.
    *The Esophageal and Swallowing Center, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, MetroHealth Medical Center †The Esophageal Center, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH.
    Background: Diabetes mellitus can cause various gastrointestinal symptoms. Assessment of esophageal dysmotility in diabetic patients has been scarcely studied. The aim of this study was to determine the esophageal motor characteristics of diabetic versus nondiabetic patients who present with dysphagia. Read More

    Does bariatric surgery prevent progression of diabetic retinopathy?
    Eye (Lond) 2017 Aug 21;31(8):1131-1139. Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    Sunderland Eye Infirmary, Sunderland, UK.
    PurposeTo assess the changes in diabetic retinopathy (DR) in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients post bariatric surgery and report on the risk factors that may be associated with it.Patients and methodsRetrospective observational study of T2DM patients who underwent bariatric surgery in a UK specialist bariatric unit between 2009 and 2015. Preoperative and postoperative weight, HbA1c, and annual DR screening results were collected from medical records. Read More

    Association Of Serum Total Bilirubin Level With Diabetic Retinopathy In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
    J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2016 Jul-Sep;28(3):537-541
    Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolic Diseases, Hayatabad Medical Complex Peshawar, Pakistan.
    Background: Serum bilirubin has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunological properties. It is considered a protective substance against atherosclerotic and microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus (DM). This study was designed to find the association between total serum bilirubin concentration and diabetic retinopathy (DR). Read More

    The Impact of Hyperglycemia on VEGF Secretion in Retinal Endothelial Cells.
    Folia Med (Plovdiv) 2017 Jun;59(2):183-189
    Background: Diabetic retinopathy is a serious sight-threatening complication which is manifested by excessive angiogenesis in diabetic patients.

    Aim: We hypothesize that cultured Rhesus monkey retinal endothelial cells (RhRECs) respond to high glucose with a change in cell proliferation and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion.

    Materials And Methods: In our study, 20 000 cells per well were treated without glucose or with 5. Read More

    Successfully implementing a diabetic retinopathy screening service in general practice: What does the evidence tell us?
    Aust Fam Physician 2017 ;46(7):529-535
    BA(Hons), MPH TM, PhD, is lecturer, School of Medicine, University of Queensland.
    Background: We previously showed that general-practice based screening for diabetic retinopathy significantly improves recording of screening outcomes and follow-up for Australians with type 2 diabetes. In 2016, two Medicare Benefits Schedule item numbers were launched to support screening in general practice. However, there is little evidence-based information to guide practices in successfully implementing screening models for diabetic retinopathy. Read More

    Diabetic retinopathy is associated with diastolic dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy.
    Cardiovasc Diabetol 2017 Jul 6;16(1):82. Epub 2017 Jul 6.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Ajou University School of Medicine, 164 World Cup-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon, 16499, South Korea.
    Background: To investigate the association between diabetic retinopathy (DR) and myocardial dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes and dilated cardiomyopathy (dCMP).

    Methods: Data were collected retrospectively from 89 patients with dCMP (46 with type 2 diabetes and 43 without diabetes) and no evidence of coronary artery disease. Echocardiographic parameters and laboratory data, including lipid profiles and fundus findings, were obtained from medical records. Read More

    Evaluating the impact of optical coherence tomography in diabetic retinopathy screening for an Aboriginal population.
    Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2017 Jul 4. Epub 2017 Jul 4.
    Lions Outback Vision, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Importance: Optical coherence tomography is used routinely in management of diabetic eye disease but has not been evaluated in Australian outreach settings for screening programmes.

    Background: The study aims to evaluate the use of optical coherence tomography combined with a fundus camera compared with a fundus camera only in a telehealth diabetic retinopathy screening programme for Aboriginal Australians.

    Design: Retrospective comparative study was used. Read More

    Fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscopy.
    Prog Retin Eye Res 2017 Jun 30. Epub 2017 Jun 30.
    Department of Ophthalmology and Department of Clinical Research, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Switzerland. Electronic address:
    Imaging techniques based on retinal autofluorescence have found broad applications in ophthalmology because they are extremely sensitive and noninvasive. Conventional fundus autofluorescence imaging measures fluorescence intensity of endogenous retinal fluorophores. It mainly derives its signal from lipofuscin at the level of the retinal pigment epithelium. Read More

    Perioperative Retinal Artery Occlusion: Incidence and Risk Factors in Spinal Fusion Surgery From the US National Inpatient Sample 1998-2013.
    J Neuroophthalmol 2017 Jun 29. Epub 2017 Jun 29.
    Rosalind Franklin University Medical School (TC), North Chicago, Illinois; Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care (DSR), the University of Chicago Medicine, Chicago, Illinois; Departments of Ophthalmology and Visual Science (HEM, SR), Neurology and Rehabilitation (HEM), Neurosurgery (AIM), and Anesthesiology (SR), College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois; Dr. Moss is now with Department of Ophthalmology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California; Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science (CEJ), College of Medicine, and School of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois; and Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care (SR), University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.
    Background: Retinal artery occlusion (RAO) is a rare but devastating complication of spinal fusion surgery. We aimed to determine its incidence and associated risk factors.

    Methods: Hospitalizations involving spinal fusion surgery were identified by searching the National Inpatient Sample, a database of hospital discharges, from 1998 to 2013. Read More

    Ethnic differences in the +405 and -460 vascular endothelial growth factor polymorphisms and peripheral neuropathy in patients with diabetes residing in a North London, community in the United Kingdom.
    BMC Neurol 2017 Jun 29;17(1):125. Epub 2017 Jun 29.
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, St. Georges University of London, London, UK.
    Background: There are marked ethnic differences in the susceptibility to the long-term diabetic vascular complications including sensory neuropathy. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) +405 (C/G) and -460 (T/C) polymorphisms are associated with retinopathy and possibly with nephropathy, however no information is available on their relationship with peripheral neuropathy. Therefore, we examined the prevalence of these VEGF genotypes in a multi-ethnic cohort of patients with diabetes and their relationship with evident peripheral diabetic neuropathy. Read More

    Long noncoding RNA BDNF-AS inversely regulated BDNF and modulated high-glucose induced apoptosis in human retinal pigment epithelial cells.
    J Cell Biochem 2017 Jun 28. Epub 2017 Jun 28.
    Department of Ophthalmology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Mudanjiang Medical University, Mudanjiang, 157000, China.
    Background: In this study, we characterized the functional role of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), brain derived neurotrophic factor anti-sense (BDNF-AS) in regulating D-glucose-induced (DGI) apoptosis in human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells.

    Method: Human RPE cell line, ARPE-19 cells were cultured in vitro and treated with various concentrations of D-glucose for 24 h. A TUNEL assay was applied with immunohistochemical and quantitative approaches to assess the apoptotic effect of D-glucose. Read More

    No improvement in injection frequency or in visual outcome over time in two cohorts of patients from the same Swedish county treated for wet age-related macular degeneration.
    Clin Ophthalmol 2017 9;11:1105-1111. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    Division of Ophthalmology, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Lund.
    Background: Although ranibizumab has been used for the treatment of wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) since 2007, real-world studies still report undertreatment resulting in a less favorable visual outcome. In this study, two different time cohorts of patients treated with ranibizumab for wet AMD in routine care were analyzed to observe whether there was a change over time regarding visual outcome, injection frequency, and quality of life (QoL).

    Methods: We compared patients with treatment-naïve wet AMD in two observational follow-up cohorts 2007-2010 (n=50 patients) and 2009-2013 (n=26). Read More

    Introduction of the DiaGene study: clinical characteristics, pathophysiology and determinants of vascular complications of type 2 diabetes.
    Diabetol Metab Syndr 2017 19;9:47. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, P. O. Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Background: Type 2 diabetes is a major healthcare problem. Glucose-, lipid-, and blood pressure-lowering strategies decrease the risk of micro- and macrovascular complications. However, a substantial residual risk remains. Read More

    Expression of High-Mobility Group Box 1 Protein (HMGB1) and Toll-Like Receptor 9 (TLR9) in Retinas of Diabetic Rats.
    Med Sci Monit 2017 Jun 25;23:3115-3122. Epub 2017 Jun 25.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, China (mainland).
    BACKGROUND Diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic optic neuropathy are important complications of diabetes mellitus (DM) which can lead to blindness in diabetic patients. Recent studies showed that chronic low-grade inflammation is thought to be one of the important pathophysiological mechanisms in the occurrence and development of DR and diabetes optic neuropathy. This study explored the expressions of inflammatory factors HMGB-1 and TLR9. Read More

    OCT in Alzheimer's disease: thinning of the RNFL and superior hemiretina.
    Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2017 Jun 22. Epub 2017 Jun 22.
    Visual Sciences Study Center, Faculty of Medicine, Lisbon University, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Background: Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) and internal macular layer thinning have been demonstrated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) with optical coherence tomography (OCT) studies. The purpose of this study is to compare the pRNFL thickness and overall retinal thickness (RT) in AD patients with non-AD patients, using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and determine the sectors most characteristically affected in AD.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed to determine the pRNFL and overall macular RT thicknesses in AD and non-AD patients, attending a tertiary hospital center. Read More

    Visualization of changes in the foveal avascular zone in both observed and treated diabetic macular edema using optical coherence tomography angiography.
    Int J Retina Vitreous 2017 19;3:19. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    New England Eye Center, Tufts Medical Center, Tufts University, 800 Washington Street, Box 450, Boston, MA 02111 USA.
    Background: Central vision loss in diabetic retinopathy is commonly related to diabetic macular edema (DME). The objective of this study was to describe changes between consecutive visits on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) in eyes with DME.

    Methods: 20 eyes from 14 patients with DME were imaged on 2 successive clinic visits separated by at least 1 month. Read More

    Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor for diabetic macular oedema: a network meta-analysis.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 06 22;6:CD007419. Epub 2017 Jun 22.
    Department of Translational Surgery and Medicine, Eye Clinic, University of Florence, Largo Brambilla, 3, Florence, Italy, 50134.
    Background: Diabetic macular oedema (DMO) is a common complication of diabetic retinopathy. Antiangiogenic therapy with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) modalities can reduce oedema and thereby improve vision and prevent further visual loss. These drugs have replaced laser photocoagulation as the standard of care for people with DMO. Read More

    Improving Consensus Scoring of Crowdsourced Data Using the Rasch Model: Development and Refinement of a Diagnostic Instrument.
    J Med Internet Res 2017 Jun 20;19(6):e222. Epub 2017 Jun 20.
    Dana Center for Preventive Ophthalmology, Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States.
    Background: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of vision loss in working age individuals worldwide. While screening is effective and cost effective, it remains underutilized, and novel methods are needed to increase detection of DR. This clinical validation study compared diagnostic gradings of retinal fundus photographs provided by volunteers on the Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) crowdsourcing marketplace with expert-provided gold-standard grading and explored whether determination of the consensus of crowdsourced classifications could be improved beyond a simple majority vote (MV) using regression methods. Read More

    Accuracy and reliability of retinal photo grading for diabetic retinopathy: Remote graders from a developing country and standard retinal photo grader in Australia.
    PLoS One 2017 20;12(6):e0179310. Epub 2017 Jun 20.
    Department of Statistics, Data Science and Epidemiology, Faculty of Health, Arts and Design, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria, Australia.
    Background: To evaluate the accuracy and reliability of fundus retinal photos graded by local graders in Bangladesh with those graded by an expert at the Centre for Eye Research Australia (CERA) in the context of mass scale diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening in Bangladesh.

    Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study of 3,104 adults identified 213 (7.2%) eligible patients with diabetes of age ≥ 40 years in 2012-2013. Read More

    Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type-1 Tag Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 and Diabetic Retinopathy.
    Curr Eye Res 2017 Jul 28;42(7):1048-1053. Epub 2017 Feb 28.
    b Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences , University of Thessaly , Larissa , Greece.
    Background: There is accumulating evidence for genetic susceptibility to the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR). The role of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in DR risk remains controversial.

    Objective: The present study was designed to investigate possible influence of PAI-1 gene region polymorphisms on the risk of DR and on the risk of developing DR early vs late in the course of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Read More

    Proteotoxic stress desensitizes TGF-beta signaling through receptor downregulation in retinal pigment epithelial cells.
    Curr Mol Med 2017 Jun 19. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong. China.
    Background: Transforming growth factor (TGFβ)-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and proteotoxic stress are two main contributors of intraocular fibrotic disorders, including proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). However, how these two factors communicate with each other is not well-characterized.

    Objective: The aim was to investigate the regulatory role of proteotoxic stress on TGFβ signaling in retinal pigment epithelium. Read More

    Association of disease-specific causes of visual impairment and 10-year mortality amongst Indigenous Australians: the Central Australian Ocular Health Study.
    Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2017 Jun 16. Epub 2017 Jun 16.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Flinders Medical Centre, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.
    Importance: Visual impairment significantly impairs the length and quality of life, but little is known of its impact in Indigenous Australians.

    Background: To investigate the association of disease-specific causes of visual impairment with all-cause mortality.

    Design: A retrospective cohort analysis. Read More

    New method of sudomotor function measurement to detect microvascular disease and sweat gland nerve or unmyelinated C fiber dysfunction in adults with retinopathy.
    J Diabetes Metab Disord 2017 12;16:26. Epub 2017 Jun 12.
    Department of Medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL USA.
    Background: Diabetes-associated microvascular complications such as retinopathy and neuropathy often lead to end-organ and tissue damage. Impaired skin microcirculation often precedes the detection of other advanced diabetic complications. The ANS-1 system contains a redesigned sympathetic skin response (ANS-1 SSR) device that measures sudomotor function, a photoplethysmography sensor, and a blood pressure device to comprehensively assess cardiac autonomic neuropathy and endothelial dysfunction. Read More

    Correlation of retinal nerve fibre layer and macular thickness with serum uric acid among type 2 diabetes mellitus.
    BMC Ophthalmol 2017 Jun 14;17(1):91. Epub 2017 Jun 14.
    Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Jalan Raja Perempuan Zainab II, 16150, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.
    Background: Uric acid is a final breakdown product of purine catabolism in humans. It's a potent antioxidant and can also act as a pro-oxidant that induces oxidative stress on the vascular endothelial cells, thus mediating progression of diabetic related diseases. Various epidemiological and experimental evidence suggest that uric acid has a role in the etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Read More

    Retinal Ganglion Cell Loss in Children With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Without Diabetic Retinopathy.
    Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina 2017 Jun;48(6):473-477
    Background And Objective: Early diabetic retinal changes in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) without diabetic retinopathy (DR) were examined using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT).

    Patients And Methods: Sixty children with T1DM without DR and 60 normal children were enrolled in the study. SD-OCT was used to measure the ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) and retinal nerve fiber (RNFL) thicknesses in all participants. Read More

    Health-related quality of life and health preference of Chinese patients with diabetes mellitus managed in primary care and secondary care setting: decrements associated with individual complication and number of complications.
    Health Qual Life Outcomes 2017 Jun 13;15(1):125. Epub 2017 Jun 13.
    Department of Family Medicine and Primary Care, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, 3/F, Ap Lei Chau Clinic, 161 Ap Lei Chau Main Street, Ap Lei Chau, Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Background: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and health preference of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are essential in health economic evaluations but data on Chinese population is rare. This study aims to evaluate HRQoL and health preference of diabetic patients with different diabetic complications in Chinese population.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1275 patients with DM, including 518 subjects with various DM-related complications. Read More

    Peripheral Vascular Disease in Patients with Diabetic Foot Ulcers - An Emerging Trend: A Prospective Study from North India.
    J Assoc Physicians India 2017 May;65(5):14-17
    Assistant Professor, Department of Community Medicine, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab.
    Background: Diabetic foot ulcer is one of the chronic complications of diabetes mellitus (DM) with 25% of patients with diabetes developing a foot ulcer during their lifetime leading to amputation. Diabetic foot is classified into 2 main types: neuropathic ulcers (NPU) and neuro-ischemic ulcer (NIU) where in addition to neuropathy peripheral vascular disease (PVD) is also present.

    Aims: We aimed to a) assess the prevalence of Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) in patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) presenting with New Diabetic Foot ulcers (DFU). Read More

    [Spontaneous intraocular hemorrhage under oral anticoagulation : Apixaban in comparison to phenprocoumon].
    Ophthalmologe 2017 Jun 8. Epub 2017 Jun 8.
    Klinik für Augenheilkunde, Universitätsklinikum Münster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, D15, Domagkstr. 15, 48149, Münster, Deutschland.
    Background: To determine and compare the frequency of intraocular hemorrhage in patients who underwent oral anticoagulation with apixaban or phenprocoumon.

    Methods: A retrospective analysis of patients under oral anticoagulant medication (apixaban or phenprocoumon) seen between January 2015 and June 2015 at the department of ophthalmology, University of Muenster Medical Center was performed. Vitreal or retinal hemorrhage in addition to clinical information including age, gender, best corrected visual acuity, concomitant diseases, concomitant medication and therapy were obtained. Read More

    Content Design and System Implementation of a Teleophthalmology System for Eye Disease Diagnosis and Treatment and Its Preliminary Practice in Guangdong, China.
    Telemed J E Health 2017 Jun 6. Epub 2017 Jun 6.
    1 The Australian e-Health Research Center , CSIRO, Floreat, Western Australia, Australia .
    Background: We have developed a new telemedicine system for comprehensive eye examination, diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening, and eye disease diagnosis and treatment. The novel points of the system include a tablet application for facilitating doctor's examination and diagnosis process, a comprehensive eye examination component, and integrated treatment planning and recording.

    Methods: The system provided a new service model through one ophthalmological center linking with multiple remote and rural hospitals for eye care in Guangdong province, China. Read More

    Association of Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Levels with Microvascular Complications in Type 2 Diabetes Patients.
    Med Sci Monit 2017 Jun 4;23:2715-2720. Epub 2017 Jun 4.
    Key Laboratory of Hormones and Development, Ministry of Health, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Metabolic Diseases, Tianjin Metabolic Diseases Hospital and Tianjin Institute of Endocrinology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China (mainland).
    BACKGROUND Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is typically featured by elevated serum concentration of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). This study aimed to determine the relationship between TSH levels and microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 860 type 2 diabetes patients were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Read More

    Factors associated with impaired color vision without retinopathy amongst people with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study.
    BMC Endocr Disord 2017 Jun 2;17(1):29. Epub 2017 Jun 2.
    SingHealth Polyclinics, 167, Jalan Bukit Merah, Tower 5, #15-10, 150167, Singapore, Singapore.
    Background: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) may develop color vision impairment. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with impaired color vision in patients with T2DM but without diabetic retinopathy.

    Methods: Enrolment criteria included multi-ethnic Asian participants, age 21 to 80 years, with known T2DM for a minimum of 2 years. Read More

    The role of insulin resistance in experimental diabetic retinopathy-Genetic and molecular aspects.
    PLoS One 2017 2;12(6):e0178658. Epub 2017 Jun 2.
    Sanofi Aventis Deutschland GmbH, TA Diabetes R&D, Industriepark Höchst, Frankfurt, Germany.
    Background: Diabetic retinopathy is characterized by defects in the retinal neurovascular unit. The underlying mechanisms of impairment-including reactive intermediates and growth-factor dependent signalling pathways and their possible interplay are incompletely understood. This study aims to assess the relative role of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia alone or in combination on the gene expression patterning in the retina of animal models of diabetes. Read More

    Prediction of preeclampsia in type 1 diabetes in early pregnancy by clinical predictors: a systematic review.
    J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2017 Jun 2:1-7. Epub 2017 Jun 2.
    a Center of Pregnant Women with Diabetes , Rigshospitalet , Copenhagen , Denmark.
    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence and possible clinical predictors of preeclampsia present in early pregnancy among women with type 1 diabetes.

    Methods: A systematic search of PubMed was conducted in April 2017. Inclusion criteria were largely unselected cohort, including at least 100 women with type 1 diabetes, dealing with either the prevalence of preeclampsia or possible clinical predictors of preeclampsia identified in early pregnancy. Read More

    MicroRNA-200b Expression in the Vitreous Humor of Patients with Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy.
    Ophthalmic Res 2017 Jun 2. Epub 2017 Jun 2.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.
    Background: The role of microRNA (miRNA)-200b in the pathogenesis of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) has been studied in diabetic animal models. The aim of this study was to assess miRNA-200b expression in the vitreous of patients with PDR and to determine its correlation with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), one of the pathogenic mechanisms in PDR.

    Methods: Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to measure miRNA-200b expression in the vitreous from 29 eyes with PDR and 30 eyes with idiopathic macular holes (IMH; control group). Read More

    Nd:YAG laser vitreolysis versus pars plana vitrectomy for vitreous floaters.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 06 1;6:CD011676. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    South Australian Institute of Ophthalmology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Level 8, East Wing, North Terrace, Adelaide, SA, Australia, 5000.
    Background: The vitreous is the clear jelly of the eye and contains fine strands of proteins. Throughout life the composition of this vitreous changes, which causes the protein strands in it to bundle together and scatter light before it reaches the retina. Individuals perceive the shadows cast by these protein bundles as 'floaters'. Read More

    The Effect of Vitamin E on Oxidative Stress Indicated by Serum Malondialdehyde in Insulin-dependent Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients with Retinopathy.
    Open Ophthalmol J 2017 31;11:51-58. Epub 2017 Mar 31.
    Department of Internal Medicine, General Hospital of Veroia, Veroia, Greece.
    Background: Several studies have focused on oxidative stress on diabetes mellitus (DM). Our purpose was to investigate the impact of oxidative stress on progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in insulin-dependent type 2 DM patients, measuring serum malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as to examine the effect of vitamin E on DR progression in the above-mentioned patients.

    Methods: Participants in the study were 282 insulin-dependent type 2 DM patients with DR. Read More

    Renal function markers and metformin eligibility.
    Minerva Endocrinol 2017 May 31. Epub 2017 May 31.
    Serviço de Endocrinologia do Hospital de Egas Moniz, Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Ocidental, Lisboa, Portugal.
    Background: Metformin is the cornerstone of the pharmacological therapy for type 2 Diabetes (T2D). It belongs to the biguanide class of drugs and it improves hepatic insulin resistance and enhances GLP-1 and peptide YY secretion. Although being considered safe regarding hypoglycemic risk, renal dysfunction remains the main obstacle to its use due to the underlying risk of lactic acidosis. Read More

    Assistive lesion-emphasis system: an assistive system for fundus image readers.
    J Med Imaging (Bellingham) 2017 Apr 24;4(2):024503. Epub 2017 May 24.
    International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad, India.
    Computer-assisted diagnostic (CAD) tools are of interest as they enable efficient decision-making in clinics and the screening of diseases. The traditional approach to CAD algorithm design focuses on the automated detection of abnormalities independent of the end-user, who can be an image reader or an expert. We propose a reader-centric system design wherein a reader's attention is drawn to abnormal regions in a least-obtrusive yet effective manner, using saliency-based emphasis of abnormalities and without altering the appearance of the background tissues. Read More

    Soluble plasma proteins ST2 and CD163 as early biomarkers of nephropathy in Swedish patients with diabetes, 15-34 years of age: a prospective cohort study.
    Diabetol Metab Syndr 2017 25;9:41. Epub 2017 May 25.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Diabetes Research Laboratory, Lund University, BMC, B11, 221 84 Lund, Sweden.
    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate plasma levels of sST2 and sCD163 to determine whether they at an early stage could predict development of diabetic nephropathy and/or diabetic retinopathy in patients at clinical onset.

    Methods: Patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus at age 15-34 years between 1987 and 1988 (n = 220) were included. Data such as BMI, smoking, HbA1c and islet cell antibodies were collected at time of diagnosis. Read More

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