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    Influence of serum lipids on the incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy and macular oedema: Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology and Molecular Genetics Study (SN-DREAMS II).
    Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2017 May 17. Epub 2017 May 17.
    Shri Bhagwan Mahavir Vitreoretinal Services, Chennai, India.
    Importance: The importance of lipids on incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy has not been studied in the Indian population.

    Background: To elucidate the influence of serum lipid control on the incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular oedema in subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    Design: population-based longitudinal observational study in a hospital setting. Read More

    Three Different Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Measurement Methods for Assessing Capillary Density Changes in Diabetic Retinopathy.
    Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina 2017 May;48(5):378-384
    Background And Objective: To compare capillary density (CD) changes assessed by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) during diabetic retinopathy (DR) progression using three previously published methods: binarization, skeletonization, and automated flow density (AFD).

    Patients And Methods: Retrospective study of 98 eyes of 74 patients with diabetes and 18 control eyes imaged using OCTA. The macular CD at each stage of DR was assessed using the three methods and were compared to control eyes. Read More

    Clinical characteristics and mortality in patients treated in a Multidisciplinary Diabetic Foot Unit.
    Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr 2017 May 26;64(5):241-249. Epub 2017 Apr 26.
    Unidad de Pie Diabético, Hospital Universitario Príncipe de Asturias, Alcalá de Henares, España; Departamento de Endocrinología y Nutrición, Hospital Universitario Príncipe de Asturias, Alcalá de Henares, España; Departamento de Medicina y Especialidades Médicas, Universidad de Alcalá, Alcalá de Henares, España.
    Background And Objective: This study reviews the clinical characteristics of patients with diabetic foot ulcer treated in a Multidisciplinary Diabetic Foot Unit (MDFU) and analyzes the mortality and factors associated with its survival.

    Material And Methods: Data from all patients who attended the MDFU for the first time for a diabetic foot ulcer during the 2008-2014 period were analized. The patients were followed until their death or until June 30, 2016, for up to 8 years. Read More

    Clinical efficacy of intravitreal aflibercept versus panretinal photocoagulation for best corrected visual acuity in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy at 52 weeks (CLARITY): a multicentre, single-blinded, randomised, controlled, phase 2b, non-inferiority trial.
    Lancet 2017 May 5. Epub 2017 May 5.
    National Institute for Health Research, Moorfields Biomedical Research Centre, London, UK.
    Background: Proliferative diabetic retinopathy is the most common cause of severe sight impairment in people with diabetes. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy has been managed by panretinal laser photocoagulation (PRP) for the past 40 years. We report the 1 year safety and efficacy of intravitreal aflibercept. Read More

    The Relation of Diabetes Type 2 with Sexual Function among Reproductive Age Women in Iran, a Case-Control Study.
    Adv Med 2017 6;2017:4838923. Epub 2017 Apr 6.
    Endocrinology Department, Diabetes Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.
    Background. Diabetic patients are at the greater risk of retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, and sexual dysfunction compared to the general population. Objective. Read More

    Binocular Summation and Control of Intermittent Exotropia.
    Strabismus 2017 May 8:1-6. Epub 2017 May 8.
    a Department of Ophthalmology, Stein Eye Institute , University of California-Los Angeles , Los Angeles , CA.
    Background: Binocular summation (BiS), or improvement in binocular vision exceeding the better eye alone, is affected by strabismus. Being easily measured, BiS may be a useful indicator for subjective outcomes like stereopsis in strabismus. This study aims to investigate the relationship between BiS and measures of control of intermittent exotropia (IXT). Read More

    Inpatient screening for albuminuria and retinopathy to predict long-term mortality in type 2 diabetic patients: a retrospective cohort study.
    Diabetol Metab Syndr 2017 3;9:29. Epub 2017 May 3.
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, No. 1650 Taiwan Boulevard, Sect. 4, Taichung, 40705, Taiwan.
    Background: There is a high hospitalization rate for diabetic patients. Since retinopathy and albuminuria are both important manifestations of microvascular disease in diabetes, our aim was to investigate the effect of retinopathy and albuminuria on long-term mortality in type 2 diabetic inpatients through this observational cohort study.

    Methods: Type 2 diabetic inpatients given a primary diagnosis of poor glucose control were consecutively enrolled during their hospitalization periods. Read More

    Singapore Indian Eye Study 2: methodology and impact of migration on systemic and eye outcomes.
    Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2017 May 4. Epub 2017 May 4.
    Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore.
    Importance: Asian Indians are the fastest growing migration groups in the world. Studies evaluating the impact of migration on disease outcomes in this population are rare.

    Background: We describe the methodology of the Singapore Indian Eye Study-2 (SINDI-2) aimed to evaluate the impact of migration status on diabetic retinopathy (DR) and other major age-related eye diseases in Asian Indians living in an urban environment. Read More

    Skin microvascular function in patients with type 1 diabetes: An observational study from the onset of diabetes.
    Diab Vasc Dis Res 2017 May 1;14(3):191-199. Epub 2017 Mar 1.
    1 Microcirculatory Laboratory, Division of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Background: The development of disturbances in skin microcirculation in type 1 diabetes is not well characterised. We assessed skin microcirculation longitudinally from the onset of diabetes up to 29 years of duration to investigate when such disturbances start.

    Material And Methods: Seventeen adult patients with type 1 diabetes participated. Read More

    Increase in acid sphingomyelinase level in human retinal endothelial cells and CD34(+) circulating angiogenic cells isolated from diabetic individuals is associated with dysfunctional retinal vasculature and vascular repair process in diabetes.
    J Clin Lipidol 2017 May - Jun;11(3):694-703. Epub 2017 Mar 30.
    Department of Physiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA. Electronic address:
    Background: Diabetic retinopathy is a microvascular disease that results from retinal vascular degeneration and defective repair due to diabetes-induced endothelial progenitor dysfunction.

    Objective: Understanding key molecular factors involved in vascular degeneration and repair is paramount for developing effective diabetic retinopathy treatment strategies. We propose that diabetes-induced activation of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) plays essential role in retinal endothelial and CD34(+) circulating angiogenic cell (CAC) dysfunction in diabetes. Read More

    Prepubertal Childhood Onset Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Four Case Reports.
    J Assoc Physicians India 2017 Feb;65(2):43-46
    President, Madras Diabetes Research Foundation & Chairman, Dr. Mohan's Diabetes Specialities Centre, Chennai, Tamil Nadu.
    Background: The prevalence of childhood onset type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing, but prepubertal T2D is still unusual.

    Methods: We report four cases of T2D with onset at or below 10 years of age registered at a tertiary diabetes centre in southern India.T2D was diagnosed based on the absence of ketosis, good beta cell reserve as shown by the C peptide assay, absence of GAD antibodies and pancreatic calculi, and response to oral hypoglycemic agents. Read More

    Is aspirin associated with diabetic retinopathy? The Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Disease (SEED) study.
    PLoS One 2017 28;12(4):e0175966. Epub 2017 Apr 28.
    Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore, Singapore.
    Background/aims: To determine the association between aspirin use and diabetic retinopathy (DR) among persons with diabetes, in a population-based, cross-sectional study.

    Methods: Subjects with diabetes aged >40 years from the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study were enrolled in this study. Retinal photographs were graded for DR according to the modified Airlie House classification system. Read More

    Impact of Diabetic Retinopathy on Health-related Quality of Life in Iranian Diabetics.
    Iran J Public Health 2017 Jan;46(1):55-65
    Dept. of Health Management and Economics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Background: To extract utility values of diabetic retinopathy on a perfect health and perfect vision scales for Iranians with both types diabetes.

    Methods: In this investigation, 150 untreated patients with diabetic retinopathy consecutively were examined and interviewed in Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran, Iran, a tertiary referral center in the Iranian health care system. Utility values based on patients-reported outcome measures, standard gamble, time trade off and visual analogue scale approaches, were estimated. Read More

    Annual incidences of visual impairment during 10-year period in Mie prefecture, Japan.
    Jpn J Ophthalmol 2017 Apr 26. Epub 2017 Apr 26.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-174 Edobashi, Tsu, Mie, 514-8507, Japan.
    Purpose: To determine the annual incidence of visual impairment in a Japanese population during a 10-year period.

    Methods: We examined the physical disability certificates issued yearly between 2004 and 2013 in Mie prefecture, Japan. During this period 2468 visually impaired people were registered under the newly defined Act on Welfare of the Physically Disabled Persons' criteria. Read More

    Teleophthalmology image-based navigated retinal laser therapy for diabetic macular edema: a concept of retinal telephotocoagulation.
    Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2017 Apr 26. Epub 2017 Apr 26.
    OD-OS, GmbH, Teltow, Germany.
    Background: To determine the feasibility and efficacy of a retinal telephotocoagulation treatment plan for diabetic macular edema.

    Methods: Prospective, interventional cohort study at two clinical sites. Sixteen eyes of ten subjects with diabetic macular edema underwent navigated focal laser photocoagulation using a novel teleretinal treatment plan. Read More

    Circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, anterior lamina cribrosa depth, and lamina cribrosa thickness in neovascular glaucoma secondary to proliferative diabetic retinopathy: a cross-sectional study.
    BMC Ophthalmol 2017 Apr 26;17(1):57. Epub 2017 Apr 26.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, 23-3 Matsuokashimoaizuki, Eiheiji, Yoshida, Fukui, 910-1193, Japan.
    Background: To compare the lamina cribrosa between eyes with and without neovascular glaucoma (NVG) using enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.

    Methods: Forty-six patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. The patients were divided into two groups based on the absence or presence of NVG (the non-NVG group and the NVG group, respectively). Read More

    Tsallis entropy and sparse reconstructive dictionary learning for exudate detection in diabetic retinopathy.
    J Med Imaging (Bellingham) 2017 Apr 19;4(2):024002. Epub 2017 Apr 19.
    Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar, School of Electrical Sciences, Bhubaneswar, India.
    Computer-assisted automated exudate detection is crucial for large-scale screening of diabetic retinopathy (DR). The motivation of this work is robust and accurate detection of low contrast and isolated hard exudates using fundus imaging. Gabor filtering is first performed to enhance exudate visibility followed by Tsallis entropy thresholding. Read More

    Effect of lutein supplementation on visual function in nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2017 May;26(3):406-411
    School of Public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China. Email:
    Background And Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine whether supplementation with lutein improved visual function in patients with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR).

    Methods And Study Design: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 31 patients with NPDR were assigned randomly to 10 mg/d of lutein or identical placebo for 36 weeks. Visual performance indices, including visual acuity (VA), contrast sensitivity (CS) and glare sensitivity (GS) at four different spatial frequencies, were measured at baseline, week 18 and 36. Read More

    Frequency of Evidence-Based Screening for Retinopathy in Type 1 Diabetes.
    N Engl J Med 2017 04;376(16):1507-1516
    Biostatistics Center, George Washington University, Rockville, MD
    Background: In patients who have had type 1 diabetes for 5 years, current recommendations regarding screening for diabetic retinopathy include annual dilated retinal examinations to detect proliferative retinopathy or clinically significant macular edema, both of which require timely intervention to preserve vision. During 30 years of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) and its longitudinal follow-up Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study, retinal photography was performed at intervals of 6 months to 4 years.

    Methods: We used retinal photographs from the DCCT/EDIC study to develop a rational screening frequency for retinopathy. Read More

    Influence of Retinal Pathology on the Reliability of Macular Thickness Measurement: A Comparison Between Optical Coherence Tomography Devices.
    Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina 2017 Apr;48(4):319-325
    Background And Objective: To evaluate the repeatability, reliability, and comparability of macular thickness measurements between three optical coherence tomography (OCT) machines in healthy eyes, eyes with diabetic macular edema (DME), and eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD).

    Patients And Methods: Twenty-three eyes with DME, 26 eyes with nAMD, and 24 healthy eyes as controls were evaluated. Scans were performed using the swept-source Triton (Topcon, Tokyo, Japan), the spectral-domain Cirrus (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA), and the Spectralis (Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany) machines. Read More

    Use of Corticosteroids in the Treatment of Patients With Diabetic Macular Edema Who Have a Suboptimal Response to Anti-VEGF: Recommendations of an Expert Panel.
    Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina 2017 Apr;48(4):291-301
    Background And Objective: Guidance on the use of corticosteroids in the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME) is lacking. This study aimed to develop a clinically recommended treatment paradigm for DME with emphasis on the role of corticosteroids.

    Patients And Methods: An expert panel of nine retinal specialists in the United States developed consensus recommendations for DME treatment through a modified Delphi process. Read More

    The Association of a Genetic Variant in SCAF8-CNKSR3 with Diabetic Kidney Disease and Diabetic Retinopathy in a Chinese Population.
    J Diabetes Res 2017 19;2017:6542689. Epub 2017 Mar 19.
    National Clinical Research Center of Kidney Diseases, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Nanjing 210016, China.
    Background. Genome-wide association studies found rs955333 located in 6q25.2 was associated with diabetic kidney disease in multiple ethnic populations, including European Americans, African Americans, and Mexican Americans. Read More

    Diabetic nephropathy as the cause of end-stage kidney disease reported on the medical evidence form CMS2728 at a single center.
    Clin Kidney J 2017 Apr 22;10(2):257-262. Epub 2016 Dec 22.
    Division of Kidney, Urologic and Hematologic Diseases, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD, USA.
    Background: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) incidence due to Type 2 diabetic nephropathy (DN) is 35-50%, according to the United States Renal Data System. Methods: A single-center, retrospective cohort study to determine incidence and diagnostic accuracy for Type 2 DN as the primary cause of ESRD (Code 250.40) on the Center for Medicare & Medicaid (CMS) Medical Evidence Report form (CMS2728) submitted at renal replacement therapy initiation. Read More

    Rhodopsin in plasma from patients with diabetic retinopathy - development and validation of digital ELISA by Single Molecule Array (Simoa) technology.
    J Immunol Methods 2017 Apr 5. Epub 2017 Apr 5.
    Department of Clinical Immunology and Biochemistry, Lillebaelt Hospital, Denmark; Faculty of Health Science, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Background: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most frequent cause of blindness among younger adults in the western world. No blood biomarkers exist to detect DR. Hypothetically, Rhodopsin concentrations in blood has been suggested as an early marker for retinal damage. Read More

    Screening for diabetic retinopathy in children and young people in the UK: potential gaps in ascertainment of those at risk.
    Diabet Med 2017 Apr 4. Epub 2017 Apr 4.
    GOS Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, UK.
    Guidelines in the UK recommend that children and young people living with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes undergo annual screening for diabetic retinopathy from the age of 12 years [1]. This is currently delivered though a large number of regional diabetic eye screening programmes that are responsible for identifying eligible children and young people, and inviting them to a screening appointment (Fig. 1). Read More

    The Hippo signaling pathway: a potential therapeutic target is reversed by a Chinese patent drug in rats with diabetic retinopathy.
    BMC Complement Altern Med 2017 Apr 4;17(1):187. Epub 2017 Apr 4.
    Institute of Chinese Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese medicine, Beijing, China.
    Background: The Hippo signaling pathway is reported to be involved in angiogenesis, but the roles of the Hippo pathway in diabetic retinopathy have not been addressed. Fufang Xueshuantong Capsule has been used to treat diabetic retinopathy in China; however, the effect of Fufang Xueshuantong Capsule on the Hippo pathway has not been investigated.

    Methods: In this study, diabetes was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats with intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Read More

    Platelet volume indices as predictive biomarkers for diabetic complications in Type 2 diabetic patients.
    J Lab Physicians 2017 Apr-Jun;9(2):84-88
    Department of Pathology, Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Pimpri, Pune, Maharashtra, India.
    Background: Platelet volume indices (PVI) such as mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW), and platelet-large cell ratio (P-LCR) are the indicators of increased platelet activity and can be considered as potential biomarkers for diabetic complications.

    Purpose: To study PVI in Type 2 diabetics with and without complications in comparison to nondiabetic patients.

    Materials And Methods: A case-control study was conducted on 300 Type 2 diabetics and 200 nondiabetics. Read More

    Effects of intensive glucose control on microvascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of individual participant data from randomised controlled trials.
    Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2017 Mar 29. Epub 2017 Mar 29.
    The George Institute for Global Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Background: Intensive glucose control is understood to prevent complications in adults with type 2 diabetes. We aimed to more precisely estimate the effects of more intensive glucose control, compared with less intensive glucose control, on the risk of microvascular events.

    Methods: In this meta-analysis, we obtained de-identified individual participant data from large-scale randomised controlled trials assessing the effects of more intensive glucose control versus less intensive glucose control in adults with type 2 diabetes, with at least 1000 patient-years of follow-up in each treatment group and a minimum of 2 years average follow-up on randomised treatment. Read More

    Plantar fascia enthesopathy is highly prevalent in diabetic patients without peripheral neuropathy and correlates with retinopathy and impaired kidney function.
    PLoS One 2017 30;12(3):e0174529. Epub 2017 Mar 30.
    Department of Health Sciences, University of Catanzaro "Magna Graecia", Catanzaro, Italy.
    Background: Aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of plantar fascia (PF) enthesopathy in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients without distal peripheral neuropathy (DPN).

    Methods: We recruited 50 T2DM patients without DPN and 50 healthy controls. DPN was excluded using the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI). Read More

    HMGB1 siRNA can reduce damage to retinal cells induced by high glucose in vitro and in vivo.
    Drug Des Devel Ther 2017 15;11:783-795. Epub 2017 Mar 15.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.
    Background: Diabetic retinopathy (DR), one of the most common complications of late-phase diabetes, is associated with many risk factors, among which continuous low-grade inflammation is one of the principal ones. As such, lowering inflammation levels and maintain the viability of human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) are critical for DR therapy. HMGB1 is a well-known proinflammatory cytokine. Read More

    Central Macular Thickness Monitoring after a Taxane-Based Therapy in Visually Asymptomatic Patients.
    Chemotherapy 2017 29;62(3):199-204. Epub 2017 Mar 29.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Saint Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon.
    Background: Taxanes are drugs used in various chemotherapeutical protocols to treat solid tumors. They have multiple systemic adverse effects, such as bone marrow suppression, alopecia, nausea, and vomiting, and may rarely cause ocular symptoms. In the past decade, a few reported cases have shown the occurrence of a cystoid macular edema with significant visual loss after the use of a taxane-based chemotherapy. Read More

    Diabetic retinopathy: Knowledge, awareness and practices of physicians in primary-care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Saudi J Ophthalmol 2017 Jan-Mar;31(1):2-6. Epub 2017 Jan 17.
    Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Purpose: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a serious cause of irreversible blindness and is the most common complication of diabetes. Annual fundus examination for diabetics aids in the prevention of blindness and allows intervening at a timely manner. As primary care physicians (PCP) are the main providers for diabetic care in Saudi Arabia, we aim to evaluate the current knowledge and awareness, and to assess practices among PCP regarding DR. Read More

    The incidence of diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy in a population-based cohort study of people age 50 years and over in Nakuru, Kenya.
    BMC Endocr Disord 2017 Mar 23;17(1):19. Epub 2017 Mar 23.
    International Centre for Eye Health, Clinical Research Department, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Background: The epidemic rise of diabetes carries major negative public health and economic consequences particularly for low and middle-income countries. The highest predicted percentage growth in diabetes is in the sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) region where to date there has been no data on the incidence of diabetic retinopathy from population-based cohort studies and minimal data on incident diabetes. The primary aims of this study were to estimate the cumulative six-year incidence of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and DR (Diabetic Retinopathy), respectively, among people aged ≥50 years in Kenya. Read More

    Acute macular edema and peripapillary soft exudate after pancreas transplantation with accelerated progression of diabetic retinopathy.
    J Chin Med Assoc 2017 May 18;80(5):319-325. Epub 2017 Mar 18.
    Department of Surgery, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC; Division of Surgery, National Yang-Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC.
    Background: The effect of pancreas transplantation on diabetic retinopathy remains inconclusive. Herein, we report six patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) who underwent pancreas transplantation and developed acute macular edema and peripapillary soft exudate with rapid progression to proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

    Methods: In this retrospective observational study, diabetic patients who underwent pancreas transplantation in a single medical center and developed symptomatic acute macular edema and peripapillary soft exudate within 3 months after the operation were enrolled. Read More

    Time to Refocus Assessment of Vision in Older Adults? Contrast Sensitivity but Not Visual Acuity Is Associated With Gait in Older Adults.
    J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2017 Feb 28. Epub 2017 Feb 28.
    Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, Mercer's Institute for Successful Ageing, St. James's Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.
    Background: The relationship between measures of visual function and gait related risk factors for falls is unclear. In this study, we examine the relationship between visual function (visual acuity [VA] and contrast sensitivity [CS] at multiple spatial frequencies) and quantitative spatiotemporal gait, using a large, nationally representative sample of community dwelling older adults.

    Methods: Participants aged 50 and over were recruited as part of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA). Read More

    Hyperglycaemic memory affects the neurovascular unit of the retina in a diabetic mouse model.
    Diabetologia 2017 Mar 20. Epub 2017 Mar 20.
    Fifth Medical Department, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167, Mannheim, Germany.
    Aims/hypothesis: The aim of this study was to evaluate damage to the neurovascular unit in a mouse model of hyperglycaemic memory.

    Methods: A streptozotocin-induced mouse model of diabetes (C57BL/6J background) received insulin-releasing pellets and pancreatic islet-cell transplantation. Damage to the neurovascular unit was studied by quantitative retinal morphometry for microvascular changes and microarray analysis, with subsequent functional annotation clustering, for changes of the retinal genome. Read More

    Evaluation of vitreous levels of advanced glycation end products and angiogenic factors as biomarkers for severity of diabetic retinopathy.
    Int Ophthalmol 2017 Mar 15. Epub 2017 Mar 15.
    Department of Medicine, Diabetes Center, Tokyo Women's Medical University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
    Background/aims: Glyceraldehyde-derived advanced glycation end products (glycer-AGE; also called Toxic-AGE [TAGE]) play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of diabetic angiopathy. However, the relationships between vitreous glycer-AGE levels and diabetic retinopathy (DR) severity, and between glycer-AGE levels and the levels of other angiogenic factors remain unknown. We investigated the correlation between levels of vitreous biomarkers, including glycer-AGE and angiogenic factors (vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], interleukin [IL]-8, leptin, placental growth factor [PlGF], endoglin, and fibroblast growth factor [FGF]-2) in patients with DR, using three DR staging groups. Read More

    Optometry Australia Scope of Practice Survey 2015.
    Clin Exp Optom 2017 May 13;100(3):260-269. Epub 2017 Mar 13.
    Primary Health Care Research & Information Service, Flinders University, Bedford Park, South Australia, Australia.
    Background: This paper presents results from the inaugural Scope of Practice Survey of Optometry Australia members conducted in October 2015. The survey gathered information related to confidence in detecting and diagnosing key ocular conditions, grading diabetic retinopathy, prescribing scheduled medicines, access to equipment, confidence using equipment, incidence of patients requiring therapeutic management, referral practices and services provided.

    Methods: The survey was developed, piloted, modified and administered to members of Optometry Australia (excluding student and retired members), who had a current email address. Read More

    Availability and variability in guidelines on diabetic retinopathy screening in Asian countries.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Mar 14. Epub 2017 Mar 14.
    Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore, Singapore.
    Background: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a blinding yet treatable complication of diabetes. DR screening is highly cost-effective at reducing blindness. Amidst the rapidly growing diabetic population in Asia, the prevalence of DR in the region is relatively less well known. Read More

    FLORID NEOVASCULARIZATION OF THE RETINA IN A DIABETIC PATIENT UNDERGOING INDUCTION AND CONSOLIDATION THERAPY FOR ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA.
    Retin Cases Brief Rep 2017 Mar 13. Epub 2017 Mar 13.
    *Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Geelong, Geelong, Australia; and †Department of Haematology, University Hospital Geelong, Geelong, Australia.
    Purpose: To report on a 39-year-old gentleman with a background of Type 2 diabetes mellitus who was diagnosed with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), which was treated by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), and subsequently developed bilateral neovascularization of the disk (NVD).

    Methods: Ophthalmic examination and investigation including fundus photography and fluorescein angiography.

    Results: Three months after commencement of ATRA therapy, the patient was found to have florid bilateral NVD with adjacent preretinal and intraretinal hemorrhages. Read More

    Bevacizumab and Panretinal photocoagulation protect against ocular hypertension after posterior subtenon injection of triamcinolone acetonide for diabetic macular edema.
    J Formos Med Assoc 2016 Oct 27. Epub 2016 Oct 27.
    Division of Biostatistics, Graduate Institute of Epidemiology & Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:
    Background/purpose: To analyze the prognostic factors for ocular hypertension after posterior subtenon injection of triamcinolone acetonide (PSTA) for the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME).

    Methods: Patients who received PSTA for DME from January 2006 to December 2011 were enrolled retrospectively and were followed until December 2012 in one hospital. Modified Cox regression models were used to analyze the factors associated with ocular hypertension, which was defined as an intraocular pressure>21 mmHg after PSTA. Read More

    Differences in incidence of diabetic retinopathy between type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus: a nine-year follow-up study.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Mar 7. Epub 2017 Mar 7.
    Ophthalmology Service, University Hospital Sant Joan, Reus, Spain.
    Background/aims: To determine the incidence of any diabetic retinopathy (any-DR), sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy (STDR) and diabetic macular oedema (DMO) and their risk factors in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) over a screening programme.

    Methods: Nine-year follow-up, prospective population-based study of 366 patients with T1DM and 15 030 with T2DM. Epidemiological risk factors were as follows: current age, age at DM diagnosis, sex, type of DM, duration of DM, arterial hypertension, levels of glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), triglycerides, cholesterol fractions, serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR). Read More

    Deep neural ensemble for retinal vessel segmentation in fundus images towards achieving label-free angiography.
    Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2016 Aug;2016:1340-1343
    Automated segmentation of retinal blood vessels in label-free fundus images entails a pivotal role in computed aided diagnosis of ophthalmic pathologies, viz., diabetic retinopathy, hypertensive disorders and cardiovascular diseases. The challenge remains active in medical image analysis research due to varied distribution of blood vessels, which manifest variations in their dimensions of physical appearance against a noisy background. Read More

    Vitreous advanced glycation endproducts and α-dicarbonyls in retinal detachment patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and non-diabetic controls.
    PLoS One 2017 6;12(3):e0173379. Epub 2017 Mar 6.
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), the Netherlands.
    Purpose: Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) and their precursors α-dicarbonyls are implicated in the progression of diabetic retinopathy. The purpose of this study was to assess AGEs and α-dicarbonyls in the vitreous of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with early stages or absence of diabetic retinopathy.

    Methods: We examined vitreous samples obtained during vitrectomy from 31 T2DM patients presenting themselves with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and compared these to 62 non-diabetic rhegmatogenous retinal detachment patients, matched on age, estimated glomerular filtration rate, smoking, intra-ocular lens implantation, and proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Read More

    Retinal imaging with smartphone.
    Niger J Clin Pract 2017 Mar;20(3):341-345
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Ilorin and University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria.
    Background: The use of smartphones for various purposes among health professionals is increasing, especially with the availability of different applications. On account of cost, fundus cameras are not readily available in ophthalmic practice in developing countries. Since smartphones are readily available, easy to use and portable, they may present a cheap alternative in a resource-limited economy. Read More

    Prevalence and factors associated with diabetic retinopathy among diabetic patients at Arbaminch General Hospital, Ethiopia: Cross sectional study.
    PLoS One 2017 2;12(3):e0171987. Epub 2017 Mar 2.
    Department of Maternity and Reproductive Health Nursing, Wolaita Sodo University, Wolaita, Ethiopia.
    Background: Currently 93 million people are estimated as living with diabetic retinopathy worldwide. The prevalence and risk factors of diabetic retinopathy in developed countries have been well documented; but in Ethiopia, data on prevalence and associated factors of diabetic retinopathy is lacking.

    Objective: To determine prevalence and factors associated with development of diabetic retinopathy among diabetic patients at Arbaminch General Hospital, Ethiopia. Read More

    Enhancement of scutellarin oral delivery efficacy by vitamin B12-modified amphiphilic chitosan derivatives to treat type II diabetes induced-retinopathy.
    J Nanobiotechnology 2017 Mar 1;15(1):18. Epub 2017 Mar 1.
    Research Center of Translational Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510080, China.
    Background: Diabetic retinopathy is the most common complication in diabetic patients relates to high expression of VEGF and microaneurysms. Scutellarin (Scu) turned out to be effective against diabetes related vascular endothelial cell dysfunction. However, its clinical applications have been limited by its low bioavailability. Read More

    Pulmonary Function and Retrobulbar Hemodynamics in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
    Respir Care 2017 May 28;62(5):602-614. Epub 2017 Feb 28.
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shenyang the Fourth Hospital of People, Shenyang, China.
    Background: The primary goals of this study were to evaluate early changes in pulmonary function and retrobulbar hemodynamics and to examine the correlation between these parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes during the preclinical stages of diabetic retinopathy.

    Methods: For the single-time point measurements, 63 subjects with type 2 diabetes without diabetic retinopathy (diabetes group) and 32 healthy subjects (control group) were selected to evaluate any early changes in pulmonary function and retrobulbar hemodynamics and to examine the correlation between these parameters. In the longitudinal follow-up study, 32 subjects who were newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes were divided into 2 groups according to their resistivity index (≤0. Read More

    Ischemic Optic Neuropathy in Cardiac Surgery: Incidence and Risk Factors in the United States from the National Inpatient Sample 1998 to 2013.
    Anesthesiology 2017 May;126(5):810-821
    From the Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care (D.S.R., A.T.), and Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, The Center for Health and the Social Sciences (S.R.), The University of Chicago Medicine, Chicago, Illinois; Pritzker School of Medicine of the University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (M.M.M.); Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Department of Neurology and Rehabilitation, College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (H.E.M.); Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, College of Medicine, Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (C.E.J.); and Department of Anesthesiology, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (S.R.). Current position: Department of Ophthalmology, Byers Eye Center, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California (H.E.M.).
    Background: Ischemic optic neuropathy is the most common form of perioperative visual loss, with highest incidence in cardiac and spinal fusion surgery. To date, potential risk factors have been identified in cardiac surgery by only small, single-institution studies. To determine the preoperative risk factors for ischemic optic neuropathy, the authors used the National Inpatient Sample, a database of inpatient discharges for nonfederal hospitals in the United States. Read More

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