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    Human Prolactin Point Mutations and Their Projected Effect on Vasoinhibin Generation and Vasoinhibin-Related Diseases.
    Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2017 6;8:294. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Institute for Clinical Chemistry, Laboratory Medicine and Transfusion Medicine, Nuremberg General Hospital, Paracelsus Medical University, Nuremberg, Germany.
    Background: A dysregulation of the generation of vasoinhibin hormones by proteolytic cleavage of prolactin (PRL) has been brought into context with diabetic retinopathy, retinopathy of prematurity, preeclampsia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and peripartum cardiomyopathy. Factors governing vasoinhibin generation are incompletely characterized, and the composition of vasoinhibin isoforms in human tissues or compartments, such as the circulation, is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the possible contribution of PRL point mutations to the generation of vasoinhibins as well as to project their role in vasoinhibin-related diseases. Read More

    Annual all-cause mortality rate for patients with diabetic kidney disease in Singapore.
    J Clin Transl Endocrinol 2016 Jun 27;4:1-6. Epub 2016 Jan 27.
    CEO's Office, National Healthcare Group Polyclinics, Singapore.
    Background: The prognosis of diabetic kidney disease is poor because epidemiological data have shown that all-cause mortality increases with declining renal function. This study aims to estimate the annual mortality rate of diabetic kidney disease stratified by chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages and to identify the predictors of mortality.

    Methods: Patients with Stage 3-5 CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] less than 60 mL/min per 1. Read More

    The inflammasome pathway is amplified and perpetuated in an autocrine manner through connexin43 hemichannel mediated ATP release.
    Biochim Biophys Acta 2017 Nov 17. Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    Buchanan Ocular Therapeutics Unit, Department of Ophthalmology and the New Zealand National Eye Centre, University of Auckland, New Zealand; Department of Ophthalmology and the New Zealand National Eye Centre, University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Background: Connexin43 hemichannels have been implicated in many inflammatory diseases including diabetic retinopathy (DR). Particularly, hemichannel-mediated ATP release has been associated with inflammasome pathway activation. Using an in vitro cell culture model, we evaluated hemichannel roles in response to inflammatory cytokines under high glucose (HG) conditions and propose a mechanism by which a connexin43 hemichannel-mediated autocrine ATP feedback loop augments chronic inflammatory disease. Read More

    An ensemble deep learning based approach for red lesion detection in fundus images.
    Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2018 Jan 14;153:115-127. Epub 2017 Oct 14.
    ESAT-PSI, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    Background And Objectives: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of preventable blindness in the world. Its earliest sign are red lesions, a general term that groups both microaneurysms (MAs) and hemorrhages (HEs). In daily clinical practice, these lesions are manually detected by physicians using fundus photographs. Read More

    A benchmark study of automated intra-retinal cyst segmentation algorithms using optical coherence tomography B-scans.
    Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2018 Jan 12;153:105-114. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, India.
    (background And Objectives): Retinal cysts are formed by accumulation of fluid in the retina caused by leakages from inflammation or vitreous fractures. Analysis of the retinal cystic spaces holds significance in detection and treatment of several ocular diseases like age-related macular degeneration, diabetic macular edema etc. Thus, segmentation of intra-retinal cysts and quantification of cystic spaces are vital for retinal pathology and severity detection. Read More

    The FTO variant is associated with chronic complications of diabetes mellitus in Czech population.
    Gene 2017 Nov 14. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Diabetes Centre, Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Background: Genome-wide association studies have resulted in the identification of the FTO gene as an important genetic determinant of diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to confirm the role of this gene in the development of DM in the Czech-Slavonic population and to analyse whether this gene is associated with common DM complications.

    Methods: Two groups of patients (814 with T1DM and 848 with T2DM) and a group of healthy controls (2339 individuals) - both of Czech origin - were genotyped for the FTO rs17817449 SNP. Read More

    The Role Of Gene Therapy In The Treatment Of Retinal Diseases: A Review
    Curr Gene Ther 2017 11 16. Epub 2017 Nov 16.
    Department of Ophthalmology, S. Anna University Hospital, Ferrara. Italy.
    Background: Gene therapy represents the therapeutic delivery of nucleic acid polymers into a patient's cells with the aim of treating an underlying disease. Over the past 2 decades this new therapy has made substantial progress owing to better understanding of the pathobiologic basis of various diseases coupled with growth of gene transfer biotechnologies. The eye, in particular, represents a suitable target for such therapy due to the immune privilege provided by the blood-ocular barrier, the ability to directly visualize, access and locally treat the cells and the minimal amount of vector needed given the size of this organ. Read More

    Diabetes care in Qatar: a survey of pharmacists' activities, attitudes and knowledge.
    Int J Clin Pharm 2017 Nov 17. Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    Heart Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation, PO BOX: 3050, Doha, Qatar.
    Background Diabetes mellitus is recognized as a major public health issue and is one of the top ten causes of death in Qatar. Objective To describe the activities, and attitudes of Qatar pharmacists toward diabetes, to measure their diabetes knowledge and to assess their perceived barriers for diabetes care. Setting Community and ambulatory pharmacies in Qatar. Read More

    Levels of adhesion molecules in peripheral blood correlat with stages of diabetic retinopathy and may serve as bio markers for microvascular complications.
    Cytokine 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Baruch Padeh Poria Medical Center, Faculty of Medicine in the Galilee Bar Ilan University, Galilee 15208, Israel.
    Background: Proliferative diabetic retinopathy is a devastating complication of diabetes mellitus, developing within 15 years in 50% of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) and in 10% of patients with type 2 DM. The correlation between levels of inflammatory markers in the peripheral blood and retinopathy staging has not been studied yet, and the purpose of this prospective study was to find a possible association between inflammation and staging of diabetic retinopathy.

    Methods: A prospective (pilot) study that measured level of adhesion molecules in the peripheral blood of 10 healthy subjects and 30 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Read More

    Interocular Symmetry of Choroidal Thickness and Volume in Healthy Eyes on Optical Coherence Tomography.
    Ophthalmic Res 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Background: We aimed to determine the physiological symmetry, with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, of choroidal measurements in a healthy population in all the areas defined in the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS).

    Methods: One hundred and fifty-four eyes of 77 healthy young adults between the ages of 19 and 32 years were enrolled. Differences in choroidal thickness (CT) and volume (CV) between the left and right eyes were calculated. Read More

    Non-Diabetic Kidney Disease in Type 2 Diabetic Patients: Prevalence, Clinical Predictors and Outcomes.
    Kidney Blood Press Res 2017 Nov 1;42(5):886-893. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    Ankara University School of Medicine, Department of Nephrology, Ankara, Turkey.
    Background/aims: Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is one of the most frequent microvascular complications of diabetes and is the leading cause of end-stage kidney disease worldwide. In patients with diabetes, non-diabetic kidney disease (NDKD) can also occur. NDKD can be either alone or superimposed with the DKD. Read More

    Retinopathy and left ventricular hypertrophy in patients with chronic kidney disease: Interrelationship and impact on clinical outcomes.
    Int J Cardiol 2017 Dec;249:372-376
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
    Background: Retinopathy and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) are representative markers of microvascular and cardiac dysfunction in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, their relationship and their combined effects on clinical outcomes are unknown.

    Methods: We included 401 patients with nondialysis-dependent CKD stage 3-5 who had been examined with fundus photography for diabetic or hypertensive retinopathy. Read More

    Single-Spot Yellow Laser Versus Conventional Green Laser on Panretinal Photocoagulation: Patient Pain Scores and Preferences.
    Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina 2017 Nov;48(11):902-905
    Background And Objective: Panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) is the mainstay therapy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Pain during and after its application is a complication that affects patients' therapeutic adherence. This study aimed to compare pain perception and patient preference for the 577-nm yellow laser (YL-577) (LIGHTL as 577; LIGHTMED, San Clemente, CA) and the conventional 532-nm green laser (GL-532) (Purepoint Laser; Alcon, Fort Worth, TX) with PRP. Read More

    bmp3 is required for integrity of blood brain barrier by promoting pericyte coverage in zebrafish embryos.
    Curr Mol Med 2017 Nov 5. Epub 2017 Nov 5.
    Key Laboratory for Biorheological Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, State and Local Joint Engineering Laboratory for Vascular Implants, Bioengineering College of Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030. China.
    Background: The compromise of blood brain barrier (BBB) integrity is often associated with human hemorrhage stroke and neurodegeneration diseases, including retina diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. Brain pericytes play pivotal roles in regulation and maintenance of BBB integrity. However, the mechanisms underlying brain pericyte development to establish BBB integrity remain unclear. Read More

    7,8-Dihydroxyflavone ameliorates high-glucose induced diabetic apoptosis in human retinal pigment epithelial cells by activating TrkB.
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2017 Nov 3. Epub 2017 Nov 3.
    Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, 510405, China.
    Background: In diabetic retinopathy, prolonged high-level blood glucose induced significant impairments among various retinal tissues, including retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. In an in vitro model of human RPE cells, we evaluated whether 7,8-Dihydroxyflavone (DHF) may effectively prevent high glucose-induced diabetic apoptosis among human RPE cells.

    Method: ARPE-19 cells, a Human RPE cell line, were treated with d-glucose (50 mM) to induce apoptosis in vitro. Read More

    Multi-categorical deep learning neural network to classify retinal images: A pilot study employing small database.
    PLoS One 2017 2;12(11):e0187336. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    Institute of Vision Research, Department of Ophthalmology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.
    Deep learning emerges as a powerful tool for analyzing medical images. Retinal disease detection by using computer-aided diagnosis from fundus image has emerged as a new method. We applied deep learning convolutional neural network by using MatConvNet for an automated detection of multiple retinal diseases with fundus photographs involved in STructured Analysis of the REtina (STARE) database. Read More

    Features of Long-Standing Korean Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients with Diabetic Retinopathy: A Study Based on Standardized Clinical Data.
    Diabetes Metab J 2017 Oct;41(5):393-404
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    Background: This is part of a prospective study carried out as a national project to secure standardized public resources for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in Korea. We compared various characteristics of long-standing T2DM patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR) and macular edema (ME).

    Methods: From September 2014 to July 2015, T2DM patients with disease duration of at least 15 years were recruited at a single university hospital. Read More

    Association of Bone Metabolic Markers With Diabetic Retinopathy and Diabetic Macular Edema in Elderly Chinese Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
    Am J Med Sci 2017 Oct 10;354(4):355-361. Epub 2017 Jul 10.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China. Electronic address:
    Background: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common and specific microvascular complication of diabetes. The association of bone metabolic markers with the risk of DR and diabetic macular edema (DME) is unclear.

    Materials And Methods: We investigated the association between bone turnover markers commonly examined in a clinical setting and DR and DME risk in elderly Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Read More

    Diabetic retinopathy: research to clinical practice.
    Clin Diabetes Endocrinol 2017 19;3. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    Departments of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Michigan Medical Schoo, W.K. Kellogg Eye Center, 1000 Wall St, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 USA.
    Background: Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of visual impairment in the United States. The CDC estimates that the prevalence of DR will triple from 2005 to 2050.

    Main Body: The report summarizes major past advances in diabetes research and their impact on clinical practice. Read More

    Hypermethylation in the promoter of the MTHFR gene is associated with diabetic complications and biochemical indicators.
    Diabetol Metab Syndr 2017 18;9:84. Epub 2017 Oct 18.
    Department of Molecular Biology and Post-Graduation Program in Nutrition Science, Federal University of Paraiba, CEP 58051-900 Joao Pessoa, Brazil.
    Background: DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism for regulating the transcription of many genes and has been linked to the development of various diseases. A promising gene to investigate is methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), since the enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) promotes methyl radical synthesis in the homocysteine cycle and can provide methyl groups for DNA methylation. In addition, several studies have correlated gene polymorphisms of this enzyme with a greater risk of diabetes, but little is known regarding the relationship between epigenetic changes in this gene and diabetes and its complications. Read More

    Automatic non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy screening system based on color fundus image.
    Biomed Eng Online 2017 Oct 26;16(1):122. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    Tianjin Medical University Metabolic Diseases Hospital, Tianjin, 300070, China.
    Background: Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy is the early stage of diabetic retinopathy. Automatic detection of non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy is significant for clinical diagnosis, early screening and course progression of patients.

    Methods: This paper introduces the design and implementation of an automatic system for screening non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy based on color fundus images. Read More

    Awareness of diabetic retinopathy among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Jordan.
    Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2017 11;10:435-441. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    Department of Optometry, Faculty of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, Al-Ahliyya Amman University, Amman, Jordan.
    Background: Increasing the level of awareness of diabetic retinopathy among individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus is considered an important factor for early diagnosis and management of diabetic retinopathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate awareness of diabetic retinopathy among a sample of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Jordan.

    Patients And Methods: The study period was from August to December 2015. Read More

    Impact of baseline Diabetic Retinopathy Severity Scale scores on visual outcomes in the VIVID-DME and VISTA-DME studies.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Oct 19. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Universit of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
    Background/aims: To evaluate intravitreal aflibercept versus laser in subgroups of patients with baseline Diabetic Retinopathy Severity Scale (DRSS) scores ≤43, 47, and ≥53 in VIVID-DME and VISTA-DME.

    Methods: Patients with diabetic macular oedema were randomised to receive intravitreal aflibercept 2 mg every 4 weeks (2q4), intravitreal aflibercept 2 mg every 8 weeks after five initial monthly doses (2q8), or macular laser photocoagulation at baseline with sham injections at every visit. These post hoc analyses evaluate outcomes based on baseline DRSS scores in patients in the integrated dataset. Read More

    Nogo-B Promotes Angiogenesis in Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy via VEGF/PI3K/Akt Pathway in an Autocrine Manner.
    Cell Physiol Biochem 2017 Oct 19;43(5):1742-1754. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China.
    Background/aims: Nogo-B, a conservative protein of endoplasmic reticulum, is a member of the reticulon family of proteins. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) is the major concerning problem of diabetic retinopathy. This study explored the role of Nogo-B in the regulation of angiogenesis in PDR patients and primary human retinal endothelial cells (HRMECs). Read More

    Clinical factors associated with the symptoms of constipation in patients with diabetes mellitus: a multicenter study.
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2017 Oct 19. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Yokohama City University School of Medicine, Yokohama, Japan.
    Background And Aim: Changes in treatment protocols for patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) may influence the functions of the digestive tract. This study examined possible clinical factors associated with the symptoms of constipation in patients with DM.

    Methods: This was a multicenter study. Read More

    Effect of carotenoids dietary supplementation on macular function in diabetic patients.
    Eye Vis (Lond) 2017 15;4:23. Epub 2017 Oct 15.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece.
    Background: Diabetic retinopathy is a major cause of visual impairment and blindness among working-age people worldwide. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of a carotenoid supplementation on retinal thickness and macular function of patients with diabetes using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and multifocal electroretinography (mfERG).

    Methods: A retrospective study of one hundred and twenty eyes of sixty patients age between 40 and 60 years with non-insulin dependent type 2 diabetes mellitus without diabetic retinopathy who underwent OCT and mfERG and took vitamin supplements for a period of two years. Read More

    Visual outcomes following vitrectomy for diabetic retinopathy amongst Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians in South Australia and the Northern Territory.
    Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2017 Oct 16. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Flinders University, Flinders Medical Centre, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.
    Importance: Visual outcomes following diabetic vitrectomy have not previously been studied in an Australian population.

    Background: This analysis aimed to determine the rate of, and factors associated with visual success following diabetic vitrectomy performed for Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians, and investigate factors predisposing to early progression to diabetic retinopathy (DR) requiring vitrectomy.

    Design: Retrospective, population-based audit. Read More

    Twenty-seven-gauge vitrectomy for combined tractional and rhegmatogenous retinal detachment involving the macula associated with proliferative diabetic retinopathy.
    Int J Retina Vitreous 2017 9;3:38. Epub 2017 Oct 9.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Río Piedras Medical Center, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, 00909 Puerto Rico.
    Background: To report our experience using 27-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) system for treating patients with combined tractional and rhegmatogenous retinal detachments (CTRRD) involving the macula associated with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR).

    Methods: Retrospective noncomparative interventional cases series of 12 patients with CTRRD associated with PDR who underwent 3-port, transconjunctival 27-gauge PPV by a single surgeon. Main outcome measures were change in Snellen best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and occurrence of intra- and post-operative complications. Read More

    Prevalence of eye pathology in a group of diabetic patients at National District Hospital Outpatient Department in Bloemfontein, South Africa.
    Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med 2017 Sep 27;9(1):e1-e7. Epub 2017 Sep 27.
    Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Free State.
    Background: Diabetic retinopathy is the third most common cause of blindness after cataracts and glaucoma in South Africa. Primary healthcare interventions providing eye care services play an important role in preventing complications.

    Aim: To determine the prevalence of eye pathology in a group of diabetic patients at National District Hospital by screening for diabetes-associated ocular pathology. Read More

    Panuveitis-like reaction following encircling laser retinopexy/cerclage in a 21-year-old male.
    J Ophthalmic Inflamm Infect 2017 Oct 16;7(1):21. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of the Philippines Manila-Philippine General Hospital, 5th Floor, Sentro Oftalmologico Jose Rizal, Taft Avenue between Padre Faura and Pedro Gil Streets, Manila, Philippines.
    Background: Severe vision-impairing ocular inflammation is rarely reported following extensive laser. Previous cases have involved retinal photocoagulation for diabetic retinopathy resolving over days. This report documents a rare instance of this where encircling retinopexy/cerclage was done as fellow eye retinal detachment prophylaxis in a patient with no overt comorbidities. Read More

    Survey of awareness of diabetes mellitus among the Arar population, Northern Border Region of Saudi Arabia.
    Electron Physician 2017 Sep 25;9(9):5369-5374. Epub 2017 Sep 25.
    Medical Student, Faculty of Medicine, Northern University, Arar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is one of the most widely prevalent diseases in Saudi Arabia. Health education is considered an essential component to improve knowledge and change behavior. People affected by diabetes often have inadequate knowledge about the nature of diabetes, its risk factors and associated complication. Read More

    Differential association of elevated inflammatory cytokines with postoperative fibrous proliferation and neovascularization after unsuccessful vitrectomy in eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy.
    Clin Ophthalmol 2017 19;11:1697-1705. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka.
    Background: Pars plana vitrectomy is the only treatment for advanced proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). However, vitrectomy is not always successful despite current progress in vitreoretinal surgical techniques. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the vitreal concentrations of MCP-1, IL-6, IL-8, and VEGF are elevated after unsuccessful vitrectomy in patients with PDR and to investigate whether the altered levels of these cytokines are associated with the cause for the reoperation. Read More

    Global causes of blindness and distance vision impairment 1990-2020: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Lancet Glob Health 2017 Dec 11;5(12):e1221-e1234. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Background: Contemporary data for causes of vision impairment and blindness form an important basis of recommendations in public health policies. Refreshment of the Global Vision Database with recently published data sources permitted modelling of cause of vision loss data from 1990 to 2015, further disaggregation by cause, and forecasts to 2020.

    Methods: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we analysed published and unpublished population-based data for the causes of vision impairment and blindness from 1980 to 2014. Read More

    Aflibercept in Serous Foveal Detachment in Dome-Shaped Macula: Short-Term Results in a Retrospective Study.
    Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina 2017 Oct;48(10):822-828
    Background And Objective: To evaluate short-term efficacy of intravitreal aflibercept (Eylea; Regeneron, Tarrytown, NY) in serous foveal detachment (SFD) in dome-shaped macula (DSM).

    Patients And Methods: A retrospective, noncomparative case series. Three monthly aflibercept injections were administered. Read More

    27-gauge and 25-gauge vitrectomy day surgery for idiopathic epiretinal membrane.
    BMC Ophthalmol 2017 Oct 10;17(1):188. Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Nihon University Hospital, 1-6 Surugadai, Kanda, Chiyodaku, Tokyo, 101-8309, Japan.
    Background: This study compared the postoperative outcomes of 27-gauge (G) and 25-G vitrectomy performed for the treatment of idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM).

    Methods: The study design was single center, retrospective, interventional case series. Two hundred consecutive eyes that underwent primary vitrectomy for ERM (27-G vitrectomy in 100 eyes and 25-G vitrectomy in 100 eyes) were studied for 6 months. Read More

    Retina 2017 Oct 3. Epub 2017 Oct 3.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus C, Denmark.
    Purpose: Retinal neovascularizations in proliferative diabetic retinopathy have been proposed to develop from larger retinal venules. However, angiographic evidence suggests that the new vessels may originate from both arterioles and venules, and the vitreous oxygen tension near retinal neovascularizations is similar to that of retinal arterioles. An assessment of the oxygen saturation in neovascularizations may help characterizing the vascular origin of these vessels in proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Read More

    Effect of L-carnitine on diabetes-induced changes of skeletal muscles in rats.
    J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 2017 Oct 5. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Background: Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are at risk of experiencing chronic complications such as retinopathy, nephropathy and myopathy. We aimed to evaluate the effects of L-carnitine on type II DM (T2DM)-induced biochemical, contractile and pathological changes in skeletal muscles of rats.

    Methods: Thirty-two male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into the control, control+L-carnitine, T2DM and T2DM+L-carnitine groups. Read More

    Blood pressure profile is associated with microalbuminuria and retinopathy in hypertensive nondiabetic patients.
    Wien Klin Wochenschr 2017 Oct 4. Epub 2017 Oct 4.
    Faculty of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Marmara University, Yildiz Caddesi Konak Apartmani No: 43/2, 34353, Besiktas/Istanbul, Turkey.
    Background: Target organ damage is important for global cardiovascular risk assessment. The aim of this study was to explore the association between the blood pressure profile and end-organ damage in a hypertensive non-diabetic cohort.

    Methods: A total of 560 consecutive hypertensive nondiabetic patients (mean age: 58. Read More

    Comparison of treatment response to intravitreal injection of triamcinolone, bevacizumab and combined form in patients with central retinal vein occlusion: A randomized clinical trial.
    Electron Physician 2017 Aug 1;9(8):5068-5074. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    MSc Student of Epidemiology, Student Research Committee, Department of Epidemiology, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran.
    Background: Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO), is the second-most common disorder after diabetic retinopathy that threatens the vision related to retinal vessels. One of the main reasons of vision loss is CRVO in acute and chronic forms.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the response to intravitreal injection of triamcinolone, bevacizumab, and a combined form in patients with CRVO. Read More

    A case of pseudoxanthoma elasticum with proliferative diabetic retinopathy.
    BMC Ophthalmol 2017 Oct 4;17(1):184. Epub 2017 Oct 4.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Osaka Medical College, 2-7 Daigaku-machi, Takatsuki City, Osaka, 569-8686, Japan.
    Background: To report the case of a patient with pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), and discuss the relationship between PXE and diabetic retinopathy (DR).

    Case Presentation: A 47-year-old man with PXE presented with angioid streaks and DR in both eyes, and bilateral panretinal photocoagulation was performed for treatment. Vitrectomy had previously been performed in his right eye for vitreous hemorrhage due to PDR. Read More

    Glycemic Variability and Vascular Complications in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
    Folia Med (Plovdiv) 2017 Sep;59(3):270-278
    Background: Presence of macro- and microvascular complications in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) is not only related to chronic hyperglycemia represented by glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) but also to acute glycemic fluctuations (glycemic variability, GV). The association between GV and DM complications is not completely clear. Aim of our study was to evaluate GV by MAGE index in patients with type 2 DM and to verify association of MAGE index with presence of macro- and microvascular DM complications. Read More

    Assessment of biomarkers using multiplex assays in aqueous humor of patients with diabetic retinopathy.
    BMC Ophthalmol 2017 Oct 2;17(1):176. Epub 2017 Oct 2.
    State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510060, China.
    Background: With the high prevalence of type 2 diabetes, diabetic retinopathy (DR) has become a leading health problem worldwide. The pathogenesis of DR is complex and several vascular, inflammatory, and neuronal mechanisms are involved. The purpose of this study was to assess the levels of immune and inflammatory biomarkers in the aqueous humor of patients with different severities of DR and to analyze the correlations between Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and these biomarkers, and between IL-6 and the severity of the disease. Read More

    Public awareness of common eye diseases in Jordan.
    BMC Ophthalmol 2017 Oct 2;17(1):177. Epub 2017 Oct 2.
    Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan.
    Background: Cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy and dry eye disease are common with high prevalence in Jordan. This study aims to assess the awareness of these ocular diseases among Jordanian population.

    Method: A self-designed questionnaire was developed in Arabic and used to interview people in different provinces of Jordan. Read More

    Long-term effects of pancreas transplantation on diabetic retinopathy and incidence and predictive risk factors for early worsening.
    Transplantation 2017 Sep 29. Epub 2017 Sep 29.
    1Department of Ophthalmology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea 2Department of Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    Background: Limited data are available regarding the long-term effects of pancreas transplantation on the progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and the incidence of and associated risk factors for early worsening of DR.

    Methods: Patients who underwent successful pancreas transplantation between January 2007 and October 2015 and were followed for ≥ 1 year were consecutively enrolled. Variables regarding demographic, systemic, metabolic, and surgical factors were reviewed for each patient. Read More

    Cost-Utility Analysis of Extending Public Health Insurance Coverage to Include Diabetic Retinopathy Screening by Optometrists.
    Value Health 2017 Sep 1;20(8):1034-1040. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    Clinical Epidemiology Program, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; School of Epidemiology, Public Health and Preventive Medicine, University of Ottawa; Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; Institute of Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES UOttawa), Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:
    Background: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of vision loss and blindness in Canada. Eye examinations play an important role in early detection. However, DR screening by optometrists is not always universally covered by public or private health insurance plans. Read More

    Homonoia riparia and its major component, myricitrin, inhibit high glucose-induced apoptosis of human retinal pericytes.
    Integr Med Res 2017 Sep 27;6(3):300-309. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    Korean Medicine Convergence Research Division, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon, Korea.
    Background: The loss of retinal pericytes is one of the earliest changes associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR). Chronic hyperglycemia induces apoptosis of these cells, leading to the onset and progression of DR. In this study, we investigated the effects of Homonoia riparia (H. Read More

    Transthyretin Exerts Pro-Apoptotic Effects in Human Retinal Microvascular Endothelial Cells Through a GRP78-Dependent Pathway in Diabetic Retinopathy.
    Cell Physiol Biochem 2017 27;43(2):788-800. Epub 2017 Sep 27.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Wuxi People's Hospital affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Wuxi, China.
    Background/aims: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the main causes of blindness in the world. Our previous study showed that transthyretin (TTR) regulates key genes in the Tie2 pathway and inhibits the development of neovascularization in DR, but the mechanism is still unclear. Here, we investigated how TTR affects the progression of neovascularization in DR. Read More

    Prevalence of diabetic foot ulceration and associated risk factors: an old and still major public health problem in Khartoum, Sudan?
    Ann Transl Med 2017 Sep;5(17):340
    Department of Medicine and HIV Metabolic Clinic, Milton Keynes University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Eaglestone, Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire, UK.
    Background: Diabetic foot ulceration (DFU) is a major health problem across the globe. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of DFU and its associated risk factors in Sudanese individuals with diabetes.

    Methods: Three hundred and ten individuals with type 2 diabetes, who have been on treatment for DM for at least 1 year and volunteered to participate, were enrolled in this study. Read More

    Circulating stem/progenitor cells as prognostic biomarkers in macro- and microvascular disease. A narrative review of prospective observational studies.
    Curr Med Chem 2017 Sep 20. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Department of Medicine, University of Padova, 35128 Padova. Italy.
    Background: Circulating progenitor cells (CPCs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are immature cells involved in vascular repair and related to many aspects of macro and microvascular disease.

    Objective: We aimed to review studies reporting the prognostic role of CPCs/EPCs measurement on development of cardiovascular disease and microangiopathy.

    Methods And Results: We reviewed the English language literature for prospective observational studies reporting the future development of cardiovascular disease or microangiopathy in patients having a baseline determination of CPCs/EPCs. Read More

    Semi-automated quantification of hard exudates in colour fundus photographs diagnosed with diabetic retinopathy.
    BMC Ophthalmol 2017 Sep 20;17(1):172. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Smt. Kanuri Santhamma Retina Vitreous Centre, L.V.Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, 500034, India.
    Background: Hard exudates (HEs) are the classical sign of diabetic retinopathy (DR) which is one of the leading causes of blindness, especially in developing countries. Accordingly, disease screening involves examining HEs qualitatively using fundus camera. However, for monitoring the treatment response, quantification of HEs becomes crucial and hence clinicians now seek to measure the area of HEs in the digital colour fundus (CF) photographs. Read More

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