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    Introduction of the DiaGene study: clinical characteristics, pathophysiology and determinants of vascular complications of type 2 diabetes.
    Diabetol Metab Syndr 2017 19;9:47. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, P. O. Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Background: Type 2 diabetes is a major healthcare problem. Glucose-, lipid-, and blood pressure-lowering strategies decrease the risk of micro- and macrovascular complications. However, a substantial residual risk remains. Read More

    Expression of High-Mobility Group Box 1 Protein (HMGB1) and Toll-Like Receptor 9 (TLR9) in Retinas of Diabetic Rats.
    Med Sci Monit 2017 Jun 25;23:3115-3122. Epub 2017 Jun 25.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, China (mainland).
    BACKGROUND Diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic optic neuropathy are important complications of diabetes mellitus (DM) which can lead to blindness in diabetic patients. Recent studies showed that chronic low-grade inflammation is thought to be one of the important pathophysiological mechanisms in the occurrence and development of DR and diabetes optic neuropathy. This study explored the expressions of inflammatory factors HMGB-1 and TLR9. Read More

    OCT in Alzheimer's disease: thinning of the RNFL and superior hemiretina.
    Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2017 Jun 22. Epub 2017 Jun 22.
    Visual Sciences Study Center, Faculty of Medicine, Lisbon University, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Background: Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) and internal macular layer thinning have been demonstrated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) with optical coherence tomography (OCT) studies. The purpose of this study is to compare the pRNFL thickness and overall retinal thickness (RT) in AD patients with non-AD patients, using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and determine the sectors most characteristically affected in AD.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed to determine the pRNFL and overall macular RT thicknesses in AD and non-AD patients, attending a tertiary hospital center. Read More

    Visualization of changes in the foveal avascular zone in both observed and treated diabetic macular edema using optical coherence tomography angiography.
    Int J Retina Vitreous 2017 19;3:19. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    New England Eye Center, Tufts Medical Center, Tufts University, 800 Washington Street, Box 450, Boston, MA 02111 USA.
    Background: Central vision loss in diabetic retinopathy is commonly related to diabetic macular edema (DME). The objective of this study was to describe changes between consecutive visits on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) in eyes with DME.

    Methods: 20 eyes from 14 patients with DME were imaged on 2 successive clinic visits separated by at least 1 month. Read More

    Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor for diabetic macular oedema: a network meta-analysis.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 Jun 22;6:CD007419. Epub 2017 Jun 22.
    Department of Translational Surgery and Medicine, Eye Clinic, University of Florence, Largo Brambilla, 3, Florence, Italy, 50134.
    Background: Diabetic macular oedema (DMO) is a common complication of diabetic retinopathy. Antiangiogenic therapy with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) modalities can reduce oedema and thereby improve vision and prevent further visual loss. These drugs have replaced laser photocoagulation as the standard of care for people with DMO. Read More

    Improving Consensus Scoring of Crowdsourced Data Using the Rasch Model: Development and Refinement of a Diagnostic Instrument.
    J Med Internet Res 2017 Jun 20;19(6):e222. Epub 2017 Jun 20.
    Dana Center for Preventive Ophthalmology, Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States.
    Background: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of vision loss in working age individuals worldwide. While screening is effective and cost effective, it remains underutilized, and novel methods are needed to increase detection of DR. This clinical validation study compared diagnostic gradings of retinal fundus photographs provided by volunteers on the Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) crowdsourcing marketplace with expert-provided gold-standard grading and explored whether determination of the consensus of crowdsourced classifications could be improved beyond a simple majority vote (MV) using regression methods. Read More

    Accuracy and reliability of retinal photo grading for diabetic retinopathy: Remote graders from a developing country and standard retinal photo grader in Australia.
    PLoS One 2017 20;12(6):e0179310. Epub 2017 Jun 20.
    Department of Statistics, Data Science and Epidemiology, Faculty of Health, Arts and Design, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria, Australia.
    Background: To evaluate the accuracy and reliability of fundus retinal photos graded by local graders in Bangladesh with those graded by an expert at the Centre for Eye Research Australia (CERA) in the context of mass scale diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening in Bangladesh.

    Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study of 3,104 adults identified 213 (7.2%) eligible patients with diabetes of age ≥ 40 years in 2012-2013. Read More

    Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type-1 Tag Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 and Diabetic Retinopathy.
    Curr Eye Res 2017 Feb 28:1-6. Epub 2017 Feb 28.
    b Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences , University of Thessaly , Larissa , Greece.
    Background: There is accumulating evidence for genetic susceptibility to the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR). The role of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in DR risk remains controversial.

    Objective: The present study was designed to investigate possible influence of PAI-1 gene region polymorphisms on the risk of DR and on the risk of developing DR early vs late in the course of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Read More

    Proteotoxic stress desensitizes TGF-beta signaling through receptor downregulation in retinal pigment epithelial cells.
    Curr Mol Med 2017 Jun 19. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong. China.
    Background: Transforming growth factor (TGFβ)-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and proteotoxic stress are two main contributors of intraocular fibrotic disorders, including proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). However, how these two factors communicate with each other is not well-characterized.

    Objective: The aim was to investigate the regulatory role of proteotoxic stress on TGFβ signaling in retinal pigment epithelium. Read More

    Association of disease-specific causes of visual impairment and 10-year mortality among Indigenous Australians: the Central Australian Ocular Health Study.
    Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2017 Jun 16. Epub 2017 Jun 16.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Flinders Medical Centre, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.
    Importance: Visual impairment significantly impairs the length and quality of life but little is known of its impact in Indigenous Australians.

    Background: To investigate the association of disease-specific causes of visual impairment with all-cause mortality.

    Design: Retrospective cohort analysis. Read More

    New method of sudomotor function measurement to detect microvascular disease and sweat gland nerve or unmyelinated C fiber dysfunction in adults with retinopathy.
    J Diabetes Metab Disord 2017 12;16:26. Epub 2017 Jun 12.
    Department of Medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL USA.
    Background: Diabetes-associated microvascular complications such as retinopathy and neuropathy often lead to end-organ and tissue damage. Impaired skin microcirculation often precedes the detection of other advanced diabetic complications. The ANS-1 system contains a redesigned sympathetic skin response (ANS-1 SSR) device that measures sudomotor function, a photoplethysmography sensor, and a blood pressure device to comprehensively assess cardiac autonomic neuropathy and endothelial dysfunction. Read More

    Correlation of retinal nerve fibre layer and macular thickness with serum uric acid among type 2 diabetes mellitus.
    BMC Ophthalmol 2017 Jun 14;17(1):91. Epub 2017 Jun 14.
    Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Jalan Raja Perempuan Zainab II, 16150, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.
    Background: Uric acid is a final breakdown product of purine catabolism in humans. It's a potent antioxidant and can also act as a pro-oxidant that induces oxidative stress on the vascular endothelial cells, thus mediating progression of diabetic related diseases. Various epidemiological and experimental evidence suggest that uric acid has a role in the etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Read More

    Retinal Ganglion Cell Loss in Children With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Without Diabetic Retinopathy.
    Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina 2017 Jun;48(6):473-477
    Background And Objective: Early diabetic retinal changes in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) without diabetic retinopathy (DR) were examined using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT).

    Patients And Methods: Sixty children with T1DM without DR and 60 normal children were enrolled in the study. SD-OCT was used to measure the ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) and retinal nerve fiber (RNFL) thicknesses in all participants. Read More

    Health-related quality of life and health preference of Chinese patients with diabetes mellitus managed in primary care and secondary care setting: decrements associated with individual complication and number of complications.
    Health Qual Life Outcomes 2017 Jun 13;15(1):125. Epub 2017 Jun 13.
    Department of Family Medicine and Primary Care, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, 3/F, Ap Lei Chau Clinic, 161 Ap Lei Chau Main Street, Ap Lei Chau, Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Background: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and health preference of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are essential in health economic evaluations but data on Chinese population is rare. This study aims to evaluate HRQoL and health preference of diabetic patients with different diabetic complications in Chinese population.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1275 patients with DM, including 518 subjects with various DM-related complications. Read More

    Peripheral Vascular Disease in Patients with Diabetic Foot Ulcers - An Emerging Trend: A Prospective Study from North India.
    J Assoc Physicians India 2017 May;65(5):14-17
    Assistant Professor, Department of Community Medicine, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab.
    Background: Diabetic foot ulcer is one of the chronic complications of diabetes mellitus (DM) with 25% of patients with diabetes developing a foot ulcer during their lifetime leading to amputation. Diabetic foot is classified into 2 main types: neuropathic ulcers (NPU) and neuro-ischemic ulcer (NIU) where in addition to neuropathy peripheral vascular disease (PVD) is also present.

    Aims: We aimed to a) assess the prevalence of Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) in patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) presenting with New Diabetic Foot ulcers (DFU). Read More

    [Spontaneous intraocular hemorrhage under oral anticoagulation : Apixaban in comparison to phenprocoumon].
    Ophthalmologe 2017 Jun 8. Epub 2017 Jun 8.
    Klinik für Augenheilkunde, Universitätsklinikum Münster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, D15, Domagkstr. 15, 48149, Münster, Deutschland.
    Background: To determine and compare the frequency of intraocular hemorrhage in patients who underwent oral anticoagulation with apixaban or phenprocoumon.

    Methods: A retrospective analysis of patients under oral anticoagulant medication (apixaban or phenprocoumon) seen between January 2015 and June 2015 at the department of ophthalmology, University of Muenster Medical Center was performed. Vitreal or retinal hemorrhage in addition to clinical information including age, gender, best corrected visual acuity, concomitant diseases, concomitant medication and therapy were obtained. Read More

    Content Design and System Implementation of a Teleophthalmology System for Eye Disease Diagnosis and Treatment and Its Preliminary Practice in Guangdong, China.
    Telemed J E Health 2017 Jun 6. Epub 2017 Jun 6.
    1 The Australian e-Health Research Center , CSIRO, Floreat, Western Australia, Australia .
    Background: We have developed a new telemedicine system for comprehensive eye examination, diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening, and eye disease diagnosis and treatment. The novel points of the system include a tablet application for facilitating doctor's examination and diagnosis process, a comprehensive eye examination component, and integrated treatment planning and recording.

    Methods: The system provided a new service model through one ophthalmological center linking with multiple remote and rural hospitals for eye care in Guangdong province, China. Read More

    Association of Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Levels with Microvascular Complications in Type 2 Diabetes Patients.
    Med Sci Monit 2017 Jun 4;23:2715-2720. Epub 2017 Jun 4.
    Key Laboratory of Hormones and Development, Ministry of Health, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Metabolic Diseases, Tianjin Metabolic Diseases Hospital and Tianjin Institute of Endocrinology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China (mainland).
    BACKGROUND Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is typically featured by elevated serum concentration of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). This study aimed to determine the relationship between TSH levels and microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 860 type 2 diabetes patients were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Read More

    Factors associated with impaired color vision without retinopathy amongst people with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study.
    BMC Endocr Disord 2017 Jun 2;17(1):29. Epub 2017 Jun 2.
    SingHealth Polyclinics, 167, Jalan Bukit Merah, Tower 5, #15-10, 150167, Singapore, Singapore.
    Background: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) may develop color vision impairment. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with impaired color vision in patients with T2DM but without diabetic retinopathy.

    Methods: Enrolment criteria included multi-ethnic Asian participants, age 21 to 80 years, with known T2DM for a minimum of 2 years. Read More

    The role of insulin resistance in experimental diabetic retinopathy-Genetic and molecular aspects.
    PLoS One 2017 2;12(6):e0178658. Epub 2017 Jun 2.
    Sanofi Aventis Deutschland GmbH, TA Diabetes R&D, Industriepark Höchst, Frankfurt, Germany.
    Background: Diabetic retinopathy is characterized by defects in the retinal neurovascular unit. The underlying mechanisms of impairment-including reactive intermediates and growth-factor dependent signalling pathways and their possible interplay are incompletely understood. This study aims to assess the relative role of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia alone or in combination on the gene expression patterning in the retina of animal models of diabetes. Read More

    Prediction of preeclampsia in type 1 diabetes in early pregnancy by clinical predictors: a systematic review.
    J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2017 Jun 2:1-7. Epub 2017 Jun 2.
    a Center of Pregnant Women with Diabetes , Rigshospitalet , Copenhagen , Denmark.
    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence and possible clinical predictors of preeclampsia present in early pregnancy among women with type 1 diabetes.

    Methods: A systematic search of PubMed was conducted in April 2017. Inclusion criteria were largely unselected cohort, including at least 100 women with type 1 diabetes, dealing with either the prevalence of preeclampsia or possible clinical predictors of preeclampsia identified in early pregnancy. Read More

    MicroRNA-200b Expression in the Vitreous Humor of Patients with Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy.
    Ophthalmic Res 2017 Jun 2. Epub 2017 Jun 2.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.
    Background: The role of microRNA (miRNA)-200b in the pathogenesis of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) has been studied in diabetic animal models. The aim of this study was to assess miRNA-200b expression in the vitreous of patients with PDR and to determine its correlation with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), one of the pathogenic mechanisms in PDR.

    Methods: Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to measure miRNA-200b expression in the vitreous from 29 eyes with PDR and 30 eyes with idiopathic macular holes (IMH; control group). Read More

    Nd:YAG laser vitreolysis versus pars plana vitrectomy for vitreous floaters.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 Jun 1;6:CD011676. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    The Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, Melbourne, Australia.
    Background: The vitreous is the clear jelly of the eye and contains fine strands of proteins. Throughout life the composition of this vitreous changes, which causes the protein strands in it to bundle together and scatter light before it reaches the retina. Individuals perceive the shadows cast by these protein bundles as 'floaters'. Read More

    The Effect of Vitamin E on Oxidative Stress Indicated by Serum Malondialdehyde in Insulin-dependent Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients with Retinopathy.
    Open Ophthalmol J 2017 31;11:51-58. Epub 2017 Mar 31.
    Department of Internal Medicine, General Hospital of Veroia, Veroia, Greece.
    Background: Several studies have focused on oxidative stress on diabetes mellitus (DM). Our purpose was to investigate the impact of oxidative stress on progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in insulin-dependent type 2 DM patients, measuring serum malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as to examine the effect of vitamin E on DR progression in the above-mentioned patients.

    Methods: Participants in the study were 282 insulin-dependent type 2 DM patients with DR. Read More

    Renal function markers and metformin eligibility.
    Minerva Endocrinol 2017 May 31. Epub 2017 May 31.
    Serviço de Endocrinologia do Hospital de Egas Moniz, Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Ocidental, Lisboa, Portugal.
    Background: Metformin is the cornerstone of the pharmacological therapy for type 2 Diabetes (T2D). It belongs to the biguanide class of drugs and it improves hepatic insulin resistance and enhances GLP-1 and peptide YY secretion. Although being considered safe regarding hypoglycemic risk, renal dysfunction remains the main obstacle to its use due to the underlying risk of lactic acidosis. Read More

    Assistive lesion-emphasis system: an assistive system for fundus image readers.
    J Med Imaging (Bellingham) 2017 Apr 24;4(2):024503. Epub 2017 May 24.
    International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad, India.
    Computer-assisted diagnostic (CAD) tools are of interest as they enable efficient decision-making in clinics and the screening of diseases. The traditional approach to CAD algorithm design focuses on the automated detection of abnormalities independent of the end-user, who can be an image reader or an expert. We propose a reader-centric system design wherein a reader's attention is drawn to abnormal regions in a least-obtrusive yet effective manner, using saliency-based emphasis of abnormalities and without altering the appearance of the background tissues. Read More

    Soluble plasma proteins ST2 and CD163 as early biomarkers of nephropathy in Swedish patients with diabetes, 15-34 years of age: a prospective cohort study.
    Diabetol Metab Syndr 2017 25;9:41. Epub 2017 May 25.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Diabetes Research Laboratory, Lund University, BMC, B11, 221 84 Lund, Sweden.
    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate plasma levels of sST2 and sCD163 to determine whether they at an early stage could predict development of diabetic nephropathy and/or diabetic retinopathy in patients at clinical onset.

    Methods: Patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus at age 15-34 years between 1987 and 1988 (n = 220) were included. Data such as BMI, smoking, HbA1c and islet cell antibodies were collected at time of diagnosis. Read More

    Vitamin D Receptor Agonists Regulate Ocular Developmental Angiogenesis and Modulate Expression of dre-miR-21 and VEGF.
    Br J Pharmacol 2017 May 26. Epub 2017 May 26.
    UCD School of Biomolecular & Biomedical Science, UCD Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin, D04 V1W8, Ireland.
    Background And Purpose: Pathological growth of ocular vasculature networks can underpin visual impairment in neovascular age-related macular degeneration, proliferative diabetic retinopathy and retinopathy of prematurity. Our aim was to uncover novel pharmacological regulators of ocular angiogenesis by phenotype-based screening in zebrafish.

    Experimental Approach: A bioactive chemical library of 465 drugs was screened to identify small molecule inhibitors of ocular hyaloid vasculature (HV) angiogenesis in zebrafish larvae. Read More

    Age-related Changes in the Foveal Bulge in Healthy Eyes.
    Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol 2017 Jan-Mar;24(1):48-50
    Shri Bhagwan Mahavir Vitreoretinal Services, Sankara Nethralaya, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Background: Intact foveal bulge has been associated with good visual outcome in retinal diseases. The aim of this study was to study the variation in foveal bulge with age.

    Methods: It was an observational cross-sectional study conducted between October 2014 and December 2015. Read More

    Association of ARHGAP22 gene polymorphisms with the risk of type 2 diabetic retinopathy.
    J Gene Med 2017 May 22. Epub 2017 May 22.
    School of Life Sciences, Northwest University, Xi'an, 710069, Shaanxi, China.
    Background: Little is known about the contribution of ARHGAP22 polymorphism to diabetic retinopathy (DR) risk. We performed a case-control study to investigate the associations between ARHGAP22 and the risk of DR in a Chinese Han population.

    Methods: A total of 341 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were selected. Read More

    Automatic Detection of Retinal Lesions for Screening of Diabetic Retinopathy.
    IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2017 May 24. Epub 2017 May 24.
    Objective: Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is characterized by the progressive deterioration of retina with the appearance of different types of lesions that include microaneurysms, hemorrhages, exudates etc. Detection of these lesions plays significant role for early diagnosis of DR.

    Methods: To this aim, this paper proposes a novel and automated lesion detection scheme which consists of the four main steps: vessel extraction and optic disc removal, pre-processing, candidate lesion detection and post-processing. Read More

    Influence of serum lipids on the incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy and macular oedema: Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology And Molecular genetics Study-II.
    Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2017 May 17. Epub 2017 May 17.
    Shri Bhagwan Mahavir Vitreoretinal Services, Chennai, India.
    Importance: The importance of lipids on incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy has not been studied in the Indian population.

    Background: To elucidate the influence of serum lipid control on the incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular oedema in subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    Design: Population-based longitudinal observational study in a hospital setting. Read More

    Three Different Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Measurement Methods for Assessing Capillary Density Changes in Diabetic Retinopathy.
    Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina 2017 May;48(5):378-384
    Background And Objective: To compare capillary density (CD) changes assessed by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) during diabetic retinopathy (DR) progression using three previously published methods: binarization, skeletonization, and automated flow density (AFD).

    Patients And Methods: Retrospective study of 98 eyes of 74 patients with diabetes and 18 control eyes imaged using OCTA. The macular CD at each stage of DR was assessed using the three methods and were compared to control eyes. Read More

    Clinical characteristics and mortality in patients treated in a Multidisciplinary Diabetic Foot Unit.
    Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr 2017 May 26;64(5):241-249. Epub 2017 Apr 26.
    Unidad de Pie Diabético, Hospital Universitario Príncipe de Asturias, Alcalá de Henares, España; Departamento de Endocrinología y Nutrición, Hospital Universitario Príncipe de Asturias, Alcalá de Henares, España; Departamento de Medicina y Especialidades Médicas, Universidad de Alcalá, Alcalá de Henares, España.
    Background And Objective: This study reviews the clinical characteristics of patients with diabetic foot ulcer treated in a Multidisciplinary Diabetic Foot Unit (MDFU) and analyzes the mortality and factors associated with its survival.

    Material And Methods: Data from all patients who attended the MDFU for the first time for a diabetic foot ulcer during the 2008-2014 period were analized. The patients were followed until their death or until June 30, 2016, for up to 8 years. Read More

    Clinical efficacy of intravitreal aflibercept versus panretinal photocoagulation for best corrected visual acuity in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy at 52 weeks (CLARITY): a multicentre, single-blinded, randomised, controlled, phase 2b, non-inferiority trial.
    Lancet 2017 Jun 7;389(10085):2193-2203. Epub 2017 May 7.
    National Institute for Health Research, Moorfields Biomedical Research Centre, London, UK.
    Background: Proliferative diabetic retinopathy is the most common cause of severe sight impairment in people with diabetes. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy has been managed by panretinal laser photocoagulation (PRP) for the past 40 years. We report the 1 year safety and efficacy of intravitreal aflibercept. Read More

    The Relation of Diabetes Type 2 with Sexual Function among Reproductive Age Women in Iran, a Case-Control Study.
    Adv Med 2017 6;2017:4838923. Epub 2017 Apr 6.
    Endocrinology Department, Diabetes Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.
    Background. Diabetic patients are at the greater risk of retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, and sexual dysfunction compared to the general population. Objective. Read More

    Binocular Summation and Control of Intermittent Exotropia.
    Strabismus 2017 May 8:1-6. Epub 2017 May 8.
    a Department of Ophthalmology, Stein Eye Institute , University of California-Los Angeles , Los Angeles , CA.
    Background: Binocular summation (BiS), or improvement in binocular vision exceeding the better eye alone, is affected by strabismus. Being easily measured, BiS may be a useful indicator for subjective outcomes like stereopsis in strabismus. This study aims to investigate the relationship between BiS and measures of control of intermittent exotropia (IXT). Read More

    Inpatient screening for albuminuria and retinopathy to predict long-term mortality in type 2 diabetic patients: a retrospective cohort study.
    Diabetol Metab Syndr 2017 3;9:29. Epub 2017 May 3.
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, No. 1650 Taiwan Boulevard, Sect. 4, Taichung, 40705, Taiwan.
    Background: There is a high hospitalization rate for diabetic patients. Since retinopathy and albuminuria are both important manifestations of microvascular disease in diabetes, our aim was to investigate the effect of retinopathy and albuminuria on long-term mortality in type 2 diabetic inpatients through this observational cohort study.

    Methods: Type 2 diabetic inpatients given a primary diagnosis of poor glucose control were consecutively enrolled during their hospitalization periods. Read More

    Singapore Indian Eye Study-2: methodology and impact of migration on systemic and eye outcomes.
    Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2017 May 4. Epub 2017 May 4.
    Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore.
    Importance: Asian Indians are the fastest growing migration groups in the world. Studies evaluating the impact of migration on disease outcomes in this population are rare.

    Background: We describe the methodology of the Singapore Indian Eye Study-2 (SINDI-2) aimed to evaluate the impact of migration status on diabetic retinopathy and other major age-related eye diseases in Asian Indians living in an urban environment. Read More

    Skin microvascular function in patients with type 1 diabetes: An observational study from the onset of diabetes.
    Diab Vasc Dis Res 2017 May 1;14(3):191-199. Epub 2017 Mar 1.
    1 Microcirculatory Laboratory, Division of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Background: The development of disturbances in skin microcirculation in type 1 diabetes is not well characterised. We assessed skin microcirculation longitudinally from the onset of diabetes up to 29 years of duration to investigate when such disturbances start.

    Material And Methods: Seventeen adult patients with type 1 diabetes participated. Read More

    Increase in acid sphingomyelinase level in human retinal endothelial cells and CD34(+) circulating angiogenic cells isolated from diabetic individuals is associated with dysfunctional retinal vasculature and vascular repair process in diabetes.
    J Clin Lipidol 2017 May - Jun;11(3):694-703. Epub 2017 Mar 30.
    Department of Physiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA. Electronic address:
    Background: Diabetic retinopathy is a microvascular disease that results from retinal vascular degeneration and defective repair due to diabetes-induced endothelial progenitor dysfunction.

    Objective: Understanding key molecular factors involved in vascular degeneration and repair is paramount for developing effective diabetic retinopathy treatment strategies. We propose that diabetes-induced activation of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) plays essential role in retinal endothelial and CD34(+) circulating angiogenic cell (CAC) dysfunction in diabetes. Read More

    Prepubertal Childhood Onset Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Four Case Reports.
    J Assoc Physicians India 2017 Feb;65(2):43-46
    President, Madras Diabetes Research Foundation & Chairman, Dr. Mohan's Diabetes Specialities Centre, Chennai, Tamil Nadu.
    Background: The prevalence of childhood onset type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing, but prepubertal T2D is still unusual.

    Methods: We report four cases of T2D with onset at or below 10 years of age registered at a tertiary diabetes centre in southern India.T2D was diagnosed based on the absence of ketosis, good beta cell reserve as shown by the C peptide assay, absence of GAD antibodies and pancreatic calculi, and response to oral hypoglycemic agents. Read More

    Is aspirin associated with diabetic retinopathy? The Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Disease (SEED) study.
    PLoS One 2017 28;12(4):e0175966. Epub 2017 Apr 28.
    Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore, Singapore.
    Background/aims: To determine the association between aspirin use and diabetic retinopathy (DR) among persons with diabetes, in a population-based, cross-sectional study.

    Methods: Subjects with diabetes aged >40 years from the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study were enrolled in this study. Retinal photographs were graded for DR according to the modified Airlie House classification system. Read More

    Impact of Diabetic Retinopathy on Health-related Quality of Life in Iranian Diabetics.
    Iran J Public Health 2017 Jan;46(1):55-65
    Dept. of Health Management and Economics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Background: To extract utility values of diabetic retinopathy on a perfect health and perfect vision scales for Iranians with both types diabetes.

    Methods: In this investigation, 150 untreated patients with diabetic retinopathy consecutively were examined and interviewed in Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran, Iran, a tertiary referral center in the Iranian health care system. Utility values based on patients-reported outcome measures, standard gamble, time trade off and visual analogue scale approaches, were estimated. Read More

    Annual incidences of visual impairment during 10-year period in Mie prefecture, Japan.
    Jpn J Ophthalmol 2017 Apr 26. Epub 2017 Apr 26.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-174 Edobashi, Tsu, Mie, 514-8507, Japan.
    Purpose: To determine the annual incidence of visual impairment in a Japanese population during a 10-year period.

    Methods: We examined the physical disability certificates issued yearly between 2004 and 2013 in Mie prefecture, Japan. During this period 2468 visually impaired people were registered under the newly defined Act on Welfare of the Physically Disabled Persons' criteria. Read More

    Teleophthalmology image-based navigated retinal laser therapy for diabetic macular edema: a concept of retinal telephotocoagulation.
    Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2017 Apr 26. Epub 2017 Apr 26.
    OD-OS, GmbH, Teltow, Germany.
    Background: To determine the feasibility and efficacy of a retinal telephotocoagulation treatment plan for diabetic macular edema.

    Methods: Prospective, interventional cohort study at two clinical sites. Sixteen eyes of ten subjects with diabetic macular edema underwent navigated focal laser photocoagulation using a novel teleretinal treatment plan. Read More

    Circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, anterior lamina cribrosa depth, and lamina cribrosa thickness in neovascular glaucoma secondary to proliferative diabetic retinopathy: a cross-sectional study.
    BMC Ophthalmol 2017 Apr 26;17(1):57. Epub 2017 Apr 26.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, 23-3 Matsuokashimoaizuki, Eiheiji, Yoshida, Fukui, 910-1193, Japan.
    Background: To compare the lamina cribrosa between eyes with and without neovascular glaucoma (NVG) using enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.

    Methods: Forty-six patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. The patients were divided into two groups based on the absence or presence of NVG (the non-NVG group and the NVG group, respectively). Read More

    Tsallis entropy and sparse reconstructive dictionary learning for exudate detection in diabetic retinopathy.
    J Med Imaging (Bellingham) 2017 Apr 19;4(2):024002. Epub 2017 Apr 19.
    Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar, School of Electrical Sciences, Bhubaneswar, India.
    Computer-assisted automated exudate detection is crucial for large-scale screening of diabetic retinopathy (DR). The motivation of this work is robust and accurate detection of low contrast and isolated hard exudates using fundus imaging. Gabor filtering is first performed to enhance exudate visibility followed by Tsallis entropy thresholding. Read More

    Effect of lutein supplementation on visual function in nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2017 May;26(3):406-411
    School of Public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China. Email:
    Background And Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine whether supplementation with lutein improved visual function in patients with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR).

    Methods And Study Design: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 31 patients with NPDR were assigned randomly to 10 mg/d of lutein or identical placebo for 36 weeks. Visual performance indices, including visual acuity (VA), contrast sensitivity (CS) and glare sensitivity (GS) at four different spatial frequencies, were measured at baseline, week 18 and 36. Read More

    Frequency of Evidence-Based Screening for Retinopathy in Type 1 Diabetes.
    N Engl J Med 2017 04;376(16):1507-1516
    Biostatistics Center, George Washington University, Rockville, MD
    Background: In patients who have had type 1 diabetes for 5 years, current recommendations regarding screening for diabetic retinopathy include annual dilated retinal examinations to detect proliferative retinopathy or clinically significant macular edema, both of which require timely intervention to preserve vision. During 30 years of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) and its longitudinal follow-up Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study, retinal photography was performed at intervals of 6 months to 4 years.

    Methods: We used retinal photographs from the DCCT/EDIC study to develop a rational screening frequency for retinopathy. Read More

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