241,442 results match your criteria Retinal Physician [Journal]


Mitochondrial Respiration in Outer Retina Contributes to Light-Evoked Increase in Hydration In Vivo.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018 Dec;59(15):5957-5964

Department of Ophthalmology, Visual and Anatomical Sciences, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, United States.

Purpose: To test the hypothesis that mitochondrial respiration contributes to local changes in hydration involved in phototransduction-driven expansion of outer retina, as measured by structural responses on optical coherence tomography (OCT) and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Methods: Oxygen consumption rate and mitochondrial reserve capacity of freshly isolated C57BL/6 and 129S6/SvEvTac mouse retina were measured using a Seahorse Extracellular Flux Analyzer. Light-stimulated outer retina layer water content was determined by proton density MRI, structure and thickness by ultrahigh-resolution OCT, and water mobility by diffusion MRI. Read More

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December 2018

Prospective Evaluation of Patients With X-Linked Retinoschisis During 18 Months.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018 Dec;59(15):5941-5956

Applied Genetic Technologies Corporation, Alachua, Florida, United States.

Purpose: Prospective evaluation of patients with X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS).

Methods: Fifty-six males XLRS patients, age ≥7 years, had retinal structure and function tests performed every 6 months during an 18-month period.

Results: Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was abnormal (mean ± SD logMAR 0. Read More

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December 2018
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Dynamic Changes of Retinal Microaneurysms in Diabetes Imaged With In Vivo Adaptive Optics Optical Coherence Tomography.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018 Dec;59(15):5932-5940

Department of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Purpose: To prospectively monitor microaneurysms (MAs) in three dimensions using adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (AOOCT).

Methods: Patients with diabetes mellitus and parafoveal MAs were included in this longitudinal study. At baseline, MAs were identified in standard fluorescein angiography (FA) and subsequently imaged with an AOOCT prototype, incorporated into an AO fundus camera (RTX1, Imagine Eyes) device. Read More

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December 2018
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The Effect of Prostaglandin Analogue Bimatoprost on Thyroid-Associated Orbitopathy.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018 Dec;59(15):5912-5923

Dr. Nasser Al-Rashid Orbital Vision Research Center, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, McKnight Vision Research Center, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States.

Purpose: We characterize the effect of bimatoprost on orbital adipose tissue in thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) with clinicopathologic correlation.

Methods: Orbital adipose-derived stem cells (OASCs) from types 1 and 2 TAO and control patients with and without exposure to 1 μm bimatoprost were examined via immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, and Western blot for cell viability, migration capacity, lipid content, adipocyte morphology, mitochondrial content, and levels of adipogenic markers. A retrospective chart review was performed for clinicopathologic correlation. Read More

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December 2018
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Estimating the probability of abusive head trauma after abuse evaluation.

Child Abuse Negl 2018 Dec 11;88:266-274. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX, United States.

Background: Evidence-based, patient-specific estimates of abusive head trauma probability can inform physicians' decisions to evaluate, confirm, exclude, and/or report suspected child abuse.

Objective: To derive a clinical prediction rule for pediatric abusive head trauma that incorporates the (positive or negative) predictive contributions of patients' completed skeletal surveys and retinal exams.

Participants And Setting: 500 acutely head-injured children under three years of age hospitalized for intensive care at one of 18 sites between 2010 and 2013. Read More

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December 2018

Insufficient compensation for self-motion during perception of object speed: The vestibular Aubert-Fleischl phenomenon.

J Vis 2018 Dec;18(13)

German Center for Vertigo and Balance Disorders (DSGZ), University Hospital of Munich, Ludwig Maximilian University, Munich, Germany.

To estimate object speed with respect to the self, retinal signals must be summed with extraretinal signals that encode the speed of eye and head movement. Prior work has shown that differences in perceptual estimates of object speed based on retinal and oculomotor signals lead to biased percepts such as the Aubert-Fleischl phenomenon (AF), in which moving targets appear slower when pursued. During whole-body movement, additional extraretinal signals, such as those from the vestibular system, may be used to transform object speed estimates from a head-centered to a world-centered reference frame. Read More

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December 2018
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The Relationship Between Peripapillary Vascular Density and Visual Field Sensitivity in Primary Open-Angle and Angle-Closure Glaucoma.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018 Dec;59(15):5862-5867

Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: To investigate whether the relationship between circumpapillary vascular density (cpVD) and visual field (VF) mean sensitivity (MS) differs between primary open-angle (POAG) and angle-closure glaucoma (PACG).

Methods: The cpVD and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) were obtained using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA, AngioVue/RTVue-XR) in 146 eyes from 146 subjects (age- and VF mean deviation-matched 86 POAG and 60 PACG). Global and regional relationships (superotemporal [ST], superonasal [SN], nasoupper [NU], nasolower [NL], inferonasal [IN], inferotemoporal [IT], temporolower [TL], and temporoupper [TU] sectors) were estimated between cpVD and VF MS using multiple linear regression models controlling for the confounding variables in two disease categories. Read More

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December 2018

Supernormal Flicker ERGs in Eyes With Central Retinal Vein Occlusion: Clinical Characteristics, Prognosis, and Effects of Anti-VEGF Agent.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018 Dec;59(15):5854-5861

Department of Ophthalmology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.

Purpose: To determine the clinical characteristics, prognosis, and effect of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents on eyes with a central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) with and without supernormal flicker ERG amplitudes.

Methods: Forty-eight eyes of 48 patients with a CRVO were studied. Flicker ERGs were recorded from fully dilated eyes with the RETeval system. Read More

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December 2018
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Vernier learning with short- and long-staircase training and its transfer to a new location with double training.

J Vis 2018 Dec;18(13)

School of Psychological and Cognitive Sciences, IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, and Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China.

We previously demonstrated that perceptual learning of Vernier discrimination, when paired with orientation learning at the same retinal location, can transfer completely to untrained locations (Wang, Zhang, Klein, Levi, & Yu, 2014; Zhang, Wang, Klein, Levi, & Yu, 2011). However, Hung and Seitz (2014) reported that the transfer is possible only when Vernier is trained with short staircases, but not with very long staircases. Here we ran two experiments to examine Hung and Seitz's conclusions. Read More

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December 2018

Inhibition of Diabetes-Induced Lysyl Oxidase Overexpression Prevents Retinal Vascular Lesions Associated With Diabetic Retinopathy.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018 Dec;59(15):5965-5972

Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, United States.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of reducing diabetes-induced lysyl oxidase (LOX) overexpression on vascular cell apoptosis and blood-retinal barrier (BRB) characteristics in diabetic rats.

Methods: Nondiabetic rats, diabetic rats, and diabetic rats intravitreally (IV) injected with LOX siRNA or scrambled (scram) siRNA were used in the study. One month after the onset of diabetes, intravitreal injections were initiated at monthly intervals for up to three times. Read More

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December 2018

Diabetic Nonperfused Areas in Macular and Extramacular Regions on Wide-Field Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018 Dec;59(15):5893-5903

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.

Purpose: To investigate the nonperfused areas (NPAs) in each subfield segmented by large arterioles on wide-field swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA) images in diabetic retinopathy.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 101 consecutive eyes of 67 patients with severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), for whom 12 × 12-mm SS-OCTA images centered on the optic disc were acquired. Both eyes were included in 34 patients. Read More

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December 2018

In Vivo Photovoltaic Performance of a Silicon Nanowire Photodiode-Based Retinal Prosthesis.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018 Dec;59(15):5885-5892

Jacobs Retina Center at Shiley Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Diego, California, United States.

Purpose: For more than 20 years, there has been an international, multidisciplinary effort to develop retinal prostheses to restore functional vision to patients blinded by retinal degeneration. We developed a novel subretinal prosthesis with 1512 optically addressed silicon nanowire photodiodes, which transduce incident light into an electrical stimulation of the remaining retinal circuitry. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of optically driving the subretinal prosthesis to produce visual cortex activation via electrical stimulation of the retina. Read More

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December 2018
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SEQUENTIAL CHANGES IN HYDROXYCHLOROQUINE RETINOPATHY UP TO 20 YEARS AFTER STOPPING THE DRUG: Implications for Mild Versus Severe Toxicity.

Retina 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Byers Eye Institute at Stanford, Palo Alto, California.

Purpose: To characterize the stability or progression of different stages of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) retinopathy up to 20 years after stopping the drug.

Methods: We reviewed findings from 13 patients with initial HCQ retinopathy classified as early (patchy photoreceptor damage), moderate (ring of photoreceptor thinning or scotoma), or severe (retinal pigment epithelial [RPE] damage). Patients had been off HCQ for as many as 14 years at initial examination and were subsequently followed for 5 years to 8 years with repeated fundus autofluorescence and spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Read More

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December 2018

DRUSEN SUBTYPES AND CHOROIDAL CHARACTERISTICS IN ASIAN EYES WITH TYPICAL NEOVASCULAR AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION.

Retina 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Ophthalmology, Eye and ENT Hospital, Severance Hospital, Institute of Vision Research, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Purpose: To investigate the prevalence of pachydrusen, soft drusen, and subretinal drusenoid deposits in eyes with different neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) subtypes, determine the relationship between each drusen type and the choroidal thickness, and analyze the distinct features of each nAMD subtype according to the drusen type.

Methods: Medical records involving 454 eyes from 454 patients with nAMD were retrospectively reviewed. The prevalence of each drusen type and the choroidal thickness and choroidal characteristics were evaluated according to the nAMD subtype. Read More

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December 2018
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QUANTIFICATION OF CHOROIDAL VASCULATURE BY HIGH-QUALITY STRUCTURE EN FACE SWEPT-SOURCE OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY IMAGES IN EYES WITH CENTRAL SEROUS CHORIORETINOPATHY.

Retina 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Women's Medical University School of Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Purpose: To determine the density of the choroidal vasculature by high-quality structure en face optical coherence tomography (OCT) scanned at the same time as OCT angiography in eyes with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC).

Methods: Thirty-five eyes of 30 patients with CSC (20 men and 10 women; average age, 48.4 years) were studied. Read More

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December 2018

NO FACE-DOWN POSITIONING SURGERY FOR THE REPAIR OF CHRONIC IDIOPATHIC MACULAR HOLES.

Retina 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Ophthalmology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Purpose: To report visual and anatomical outcomes after the repair of chronic idiopathic macular holes (MHs) with no face-down positioning.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of chronic MH cases of greater than 1-year duration that were repaired through pars plana vitrectomy with broad internal limiting membrane peeling and no face-down positioning between March 2009 and December 2017. There were 18 eyes of 18 patients that met inclusion criteria. Read More

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December 2018

NEW PROPOSAL FOR THE PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF TYPE 3 NEOVASCULARIZATION AS BASED ON MULTIMODAL IMAGING FINDINGS.

Authors:
Richard F Spaide

Retina 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Vitreous, Retina, Macula Consultants of New York, New York.

Purpose: To investigate the imaging characteristics of early Type 3 neovascularization and propose a new pathophysiologic sequence for early disease.

Methods: Patients were evaluated with a comprehensive ophthalmologic examination to include fundus photography, optical coherence tomography, optical coherence tomography angiography, fluorescein angiography, and volume-rendered optical coherence tomography angiography. Relevant literature was also reviewed. Read More

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December 2018

VESSEL DENSITY OF SUPERFICIAL, INTERMEDIATE, AND DEEP CAPILLARY PLEXUSES USING OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY.

Retina 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Service d'Ophtalmologie, Hôpital Lariboisière, AP-HP, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, France.

Purpose: To provide values of retinal vessel density (VD) in the three retinal capillary plexuses, foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area, and retinal layer thickness in a cohort of healthy subjects.

Methods: The optical coherence tomography angiography maps of 148 eyes of 84 healthy subjects, aged 22 to 76 years, were analyzed for measuring VD of the retinal capillary plexuses, using the Optovue device comprising a projection artifact removal algorithm. Foveal avascular zone metrics were measured, and the relationship between optical coherence tomography angiography findings and age, sex, and image quality was studied. Read More

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December 2018

Choroidal Osteoma Accompanied by Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy.

Korean J Ophthalmol 2018 Dec;32(6):521-522

Department of Ophthalmology, Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

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December 2018

Central Retinal Arterial Occlusion in Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis.

Korean J Ophthalmol 2018 Dec;32(6):519-520

Department of Ophthalmology, Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu, Korea.

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December 2018

Thickness of the Macula, Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer, and Ganglion Cell-inner Plexiform Layer in the Macular Hole: The Repeatability Study of Spectral-domain Optical Coherence Tomography.

Korean J Ophthalmol 2018 Dec;32(6):506-516

Department of Ophthalmology, Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Daejeon, Korea.

Purpose: We measured the thicknesses of the ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer (GCIPL), the macula, and the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in patients with idiopathic macula holes to analyze the repeatability of these measurements and compare them with those of the fellow eye.

Methods: We evaluated 85 patients who visited our retinal clinic. The patients were divided into two groups according to their macular hole size: group A had a size of <400 μm, while group B had a size of ≥400 μm. Read More

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December 2018
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Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thicknesses Did Not Change in Long-term Hydroxychloroquine Users.

Korean J Ophthalmol 2018 Dec;32(6):459-469

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: To evaluate changes in the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thicknesses using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) users.

Methods: The medical records of HCQ users were retrospectively reviewed. In these HCQ users, an automated perimetry, fundus autofluorescence photography, and SD-OCT with peripapillary RNFL thickness measurements were performed. Read More

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December 2018

Anti-vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Treatment of Retinopathy of Prematurity: Efficacy, Safety, and Anatomical Outcomes.

Korean J Ophthalmol 2018 Dec;32(6):451-458

Department of Ophthalmology, Institute of Vision Research, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: To investigate the efficacy, safety, and anatomical outcomes associated with intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP).

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of intravitreal anti-VEGF (bevacizumab or ranibizumab) treatment of 153 eyes (83 infants) diagnosed with ROP at two tertiary hospitals from June 2011 to January 2017. The primary outcome was the rate of recurrence requiring additional treatment; secondary outcomes included incidence of major complications and final refractive error. Read More

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December 2018

An N-terminal heterozygous missense CASK mutation is associated with microcephaly and bilateral retinal dystrophy plus optic nerve atrophy.

Am J Med Genet A 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute, Roanoke, Virginia.

Heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the X-linked gene CASK are associated with mental retardation and microcephaly with pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia (MICPCH) and ophthalmological disorders including optic nerve atrophy (ONA) and optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH). Recently, we have demonstrated that CASK mice display ONH with 100% penetrance but exhibit no change in retinal lamination or structure. It is not clear if CASK loss-of-function predominantly affects retinal ganglion cells, or if other retinal cells like photoreceptors are also involved. Read More

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December 2018
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Stronger Responses to Darks Along the Ventral Pathway of the Cat Visual Cortex.

Eur J Neurosci 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

School of Optometry, Université de Montréal, CP 6128 succursale centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Light increments (brights) and decrements (darks) are differently processed throughout the early visual system. It is well known that a bias towards faster and stronger responses to darks is present in the retina, lateral geniculate nucleus and primary visual cortex. In humans, psychophysical and neurophysiological data indicate that darks are better detected than brights, suggesting that the dark bias found in early visual areas is transmitted across the cortical hierarchy. Read More

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December 2018

Optic Disc Coloboma in children - prevalence, clinical characteristics and associated morbidity.

Acta Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Purpose: The aim of the study was to report prevalence, ocular outcome, neurological characteristics, cognitive and behavioural problems in children with optic disc coloboma (ODC).

Methods: This was a population-based, cross-sectional study of 31 children between 2 and 18 years of age diagnosed with ODC. The children were part of a larger cohort of 184 children with congenital optic disc malformations. Read More

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December 2018
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Retinal metabolic and structural alterations in response to aflibercept treatment in neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

Acta Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Ophthalmology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark.

Purpose: Non-invasive retinal markers of disease activity could pave the way for individualized treatment in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). We aimed to evaluate if retinal vascular oxygen saturation and calibres could predict the initial treatment response after a loading phase of intravitreal aflibercept in nAMD.

Method: A total of 149 eyes were included (nAMD, n = 76; dry AMD, n = 30; normal eyes n = 43). Read More

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December 2018

Repeatability and reliability of quantitative fundus autofluorescence imaging in patients with early and intermediate age-related macular degeneration.

Acta Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Vienna Trial Center (VTC), Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Purpose: Quantification of fundus autofluorescence has only recently become available. We report our findings on the evaluation of the repeatability and reliability of quantitative fundus autofluorescence (qAF) measurements in patients with early and intermediate age-related macular degeneration (AMD), using the first approved and commercially available instrument.

Methods: A total of 43 eyes of 22 patients (aged between 52 and 84 years) diagnosed with early and intermediate AMD were included. Read More

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December 2018

Review of rodent hypertensive glaucoma models.

Acta Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is a primary risk factor for the development and progression of glaucoma. Rodent models of glaucoma have greatly improved our understanding of the pathophysiology of glaucoma and served as a useful tool to investigate neuroprotective agents. Read More

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December 2018

Knockdown of FOXO6 inhibits high glucose-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in retinal pigment epithelial cells.

J Cell Biochem 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Oxidative stress and apoptosis in retinal pigment epithelium cells are involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Forkhead box class O 6 (FOXO6) is a member of the FOXO family that can regulate diabetes-induced oxidative stress. However, the role of FOXO6 in DR has not been clarified. Read More

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December 2018

Two Consecutive Polar Amino Acids at the End of Helix E are Important for Fast Turnover of the Archaerhodopsin Photocycle.

Photochem Photobiol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Division of Engineering, Muroran Institute of Technology, Muroran, 050-8585, Japan.

Archaerhodopsins (ARs) is one of the members of microbial rhodopsins. Threonine 164 (T164) and serine 165 (S165) residues of the AR from Halorubrum sp. ejinoor (HeAR) are fully conserved in ARs, although they are far from the proton transfer channel and the retinal Schiff base, and are likely involved in a hydrogen bonding network at the end of the Helix E where most microbial rhodopsins assume a "bent structure". Read More

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December 2018

Tmem30a deficiency leads to retinal rod bipolar cell degeneration.

J Neurochem 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Sichuan Provincial Key Laboratory for Human Disease Gene Study, Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, School of Medicine, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Phospholipids are asymmetrically distributed across the mammalian plasma membrane, with phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) concentrated in the cytoplasmic leaflet of the membrane bilayer and phosphatidylcholine in the exoplasmic leaflet. This asymmetric distribution is dependent on a group of P4 ATPases called PS flippases. The proper transport and function of PS flippases require a β-subunit transmembrane protein 30A (TMEM30A). Read More

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December 2018

Deconstructing Retinal Organoids: Single cell RNA-Seq reveals the cellular components of human pluripotent stem cell-derived retina.

Stem Cells 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Institute of Genetic Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle, UK.

The rapid improvements in single cell sequencing technologies and analyses afford greater scope for dissecting organoid cultures composed of multiple cell types and create an opportunity to interrogate these models to understand tissue biology, cellular behaviour and interactions. To this end, retinal organoids generated from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) were analysed by single cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-Seq) at three time points of differentiation. Combinatorial data from all time points revealed the presence of nine clusters, five of which corresponded to key retinal cell types: retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), cone and rod photoreceptors and Müller glia. Read More

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December 2018

Optical coherence tomography in the investigation of systemic neurologic disease.

Clin Exp Optom 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a well-established technique for the clinical examination, diagnosis, severity staging and monitoring of ophthalmic disorders. The application of this technology has more recently been extended beyond ophthalmic disease, whereby it has been demonstrated that OCT can serve as an ophthalmic marker for a range of systemic neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and diabetic peripheral neuropathy. This review will focus on the clinical utility of OCT-derived retinal measures for the investigation of these conditions. Read More

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December 2018

Curcumin: A new candidate for retinal disease therapy?

J Cell Biochem 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

The retina is the neural portion and light-sensitive layer of the eye, which has been observed in most of the vertebrates. The retina is composed of light-sensitive cells that absorb light and convert it into neural signals. These signals are sent to the brain for visual recognition. Read More

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December 2018
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CD83 CCR7 NK cells induced by interleukin 18 by dendritic cells promote experimental autoimmune uveitis.

J Cell Mol Med 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Institute of Basic medicine, Shandong Academy of medical Sciences, Jinan, China.

Natural killer (NK) cells have been reported to play a pathological role in autoimmune uveitis. However, the mechanisms regarding NK cells in uveitis and factors that affect NK-cell activation in this condition remain unclear. Here, we report that the number of CD3 NK1. Read More

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December 2018

Skeletons of the Eye: An Evolutionary and Developmental Perspective.

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Mount Saint Vincent University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.

The ocular skeleton, composed of the scleral cartilage and scleral ossicles, is present in many vertebrates. The morphology of the scleral cartilage and ossicles varies within different extant reptiles (including birds) and also varies dramatically from the morphology in extant teleosts. This incredible range of diverse morphologies is the result of millions of years of evolution. Read More

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December 2018
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In Vivo Choroidal Neovascularization and Macrophage Studies Provide Further Evidence for a Broad Role of Prostacyclin in Angiogenesis.

J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Biological Sciences, Allergan, Inc. , Irvine, California.

Purpose: The purpose of these studies was (1) to investigate the ability of human M1 phenotype macrophages to secrete vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the influence of prostacyclin receptor (IP) stimulation (2) to evaluate the contribution of the proangiogenic prostanoid prostacyclin to experimental choroidal neovascularization Methods: Human macrophages derived from primary blood mononuclear cells were functionally biased toward the M1 phenotype by using tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα). Experimental choroidal neovascularization was produced by laser photocoagulation. Antagonist drugs RO-3244794 (IP antagonist) and GW 627368 (EP antagonist) were administered according to an optimal dosing regimen that was predetermined by bioavailability studies. Read More

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December 2018

ICNIRP Guidelines on Limits of Exposure to Laser Radiation of Wavelengths between 180 nm and 1,000 μm.

Authors:

Health Phys 2013 Sep;105(3):271-295

Since the publication of the ICNIRP Revision of the Guidelines on Limits of Exposure to Laser Radiation (), further research supports amending the retinal thermal exposure limits in terms of spot size dependence, pulse duration dependence for short pulses and wavelength dependence between 1,200 nm and 1,400 nm. A detailed discussion of the rational for the changes is presented in the Appendix of these Guidelines (Rationale for updating the Guidelines). Read More

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September 2013

Interferon-α-induced retinopathy in chronic hepatitis C treatment: summary, considerations, and recommendations.

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, Princess Margaret Hospital/University Health Network, University of Toronto, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, ON, M5G 2M9, Canada.

Interferons are cytokines that regulate the host's response to viral infection, particularly in the setting of the immunologic response to the hepatitis C virus (HCV). While the virus has the ability to evade the host's innate and specific immunity, exogenous interferon-α with combined ribavirin, treatments have been found to achieve a significant sustained viral response in subgroups of patients with chronic HCV. One of the major side effects of interferon-α is an ocular retinopathy characterized by flame-shaped hemorrhages and cotton wool spots visualized on funduscopic examination. Read More

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December 2018

Glaucoma - Next Generation Therapeutics: Impossible to Possible.

Pharm Res 2018 Dec 13;36(2):25. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Ophthalmology Research, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, 22 Windsor Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 02139, USA.

The future of next generation therapeutics for glaucoma is strong. The recent approval of two novel intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering drugs with distinct mechanisms of action is the first in over 20 years. However, these are still being administered as topical drops. Read More

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December 2018

Inadvertent Intravitreous Ink Injection from Subconjunctival Tattooing Causing Intraocular Inflammation and Retinal Trauma.

Ophthalmol Retina 2018 Oct 7;2(10):1080-1082. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (USA).

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October 2018

Retinal burns from laser pointers: a risk in children with behavioural problems.

Eye (Lond) 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Ophthalmology, Bolton Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Bolton, UK.

Objective: To explore self-inflicted retinal burns from laser pointers in children.

Methods: Literature review of laser pointer retinal injuries in childhood and online survey of UK Consultant Ophthalmologists. A cohort of local children with self-inflicted injury is described. Read More

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December 2018

The combination of bFGF and CHIR99021 maintains stable self-renewal of mouse adult retinal progenitor cells.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2018 Dec 13;9(1):346. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Ophthalmology of Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, and Tongji Eye Institute, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200072, China.

Background: Millions of people are affected with retinal diseases that eventually cause blindness, and retinal progenitor cell (RPC) transplantation is a promising therapeutic avenue. However, RPC expansion and the underlying regulation mechanisms remain elusive.

Methods: Adult mouse neural RPCs (mNRPCs) were isolated and amplified with the combination of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) inhibitor CHIR99021. Read More

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December 2018

Retinal fluid changes and therapeutic effects in symptomatic circumscribed choroidal hemangioma patients: a long-term follow up study.

BMC Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 13;18(1):321. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Ophthalmology, Eye and ENT Hospital, Severance Hospital, Institute of Vision Research, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50-1 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 03722, South Korea.

Background: Changes in retinal fluid patterns associated with circumscribed choroidal hemangioma (CCH) have not been investigated yet. A long-term follow-up study was performed to evaluate the changes of retinal fluid patterns and treatment responses.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of all CCH patients diagnosed between November 2005 and March 2017. Read More

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December 2018

Endogenous insulin signaling in the RPE contributes to the maintenance of rod photoreceptor function in diabetes.

Exp Eye Res 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Research Service, Louis Stokes Cleveland VA Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, USA; Department of Ophthalmic Research, Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH, USA. Electronic address:

In diabetes, there are two major physiological aberrations: (i) Loss of insulin signaling due to absence of insulin (type 1 diabetes) or insulin resistance (type 2 diabetes) and (ii) increased blood glucose levels. The retina has a high proclivity to damage following diabetes, and much of the pathology seen in diabetic retinopathy has been ascribed to hyperglycemia and downstream cascades activated by increased blood glucose. However, less attention has been focused on the direct role of insulin on retinal physiology, likely due to the fact that uptake of glucose in retinal cells is not insulin-dependent. Read More

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December 2018

Next-generation sequencing identifies unexpected genotype-phenotype correlations in patients with retinitis pigmentosa.

PLoS One 2018 13;13(12):e0207958. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is an inherited degenerative disease causing severe retinal dystrophy and visual impairment mainly with onset in infancy or adolescence. Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) has become an efficient tool to encounter the enormous genetic heterogeneity of diverse retinal dystrophies, including RP. To identify disease-causing mutations in unselected, consecutive RP patients, we conducted Sanger sequencing of genes commonly involved in the suspected genetic RP subtype, followed by targeted large-panel NGS if no mutation was identified, or NGS as primary analysis. Read More

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December 2018

Reducing the impact of the impending myopia epidemic in New Zealand.

N Z Med J 2018 Dec 14;131(1487):80-85. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Ophthalmologist, Gisborne; Senior Lecturer, Dept of Ophthalmology, University of Otago.

Myopia is an eye condition that is increasing around the world, reaching epidemic levels in many countries. It is associated with a higher risk of other ocular diseases including myopic maculopathy and retinal detachment. Historically in New Zealand myopia has existed at a low level, however the environmental changes that have increased myopia internationally will affect New Zealanders too. Read More

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December 2018

Reduced Cerebrospinal Fluid Inflow to the Optic Nerve in Glaucoma.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018 Dec;59(15):5876-5884

Keenan Research Centre for Biomedical Science, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Purpose: To determine whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) entry into the optic nerve is altered in glaucoma.

Methods: Fluorescent 10-kDa dextran tracer was injected into the CSF of 2-month-old (n = 9) and 10-month-old DBA/2J glaucoma mice (n = 8) and age-matched controls (C57Bl/6; n = 8 each group). Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured in all mice before tracer injection into CSF. Read More

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December 2018

Choroidal Infiltrate of Unknown Cause.

JAMA Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Retina Service, Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear, Harvard Medical School, Boston.

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December 2018