241,492 results match your criteria Retinal Cases & Brief Reports [Journal]


Optic nerve head width and retinal nerve fiber layer changes are good indexes for validating the successful induction of experimental anterior ischemic optic neuropathy.

Exp Eye Res 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Institute of Eye Research, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, Hualien, Taiwan; Institute of Medical Sciences, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Reproducible skills are essential for successful induction of a rat model of anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (rAION). We established an in vivo validation index by measuring the natural course of optic nerve head (ONH) width and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in the rAION model using optical coherence tomography (OCT). The rAION model was induced by photodynamic operations. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Vitrectomy for diabetic macular edema: optical coherence tomography criteria and pathology of the vitreomacular interface.

Am J Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Ophthalmology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany.

Purpose: To correlate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) criteria and clinical data with pathology of the vitreomacular interface (VMI) in eyes with diabetic macular edema (DME).

Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study and laboratory investigation.

Methods: We included specimens of 27 eyes of 26 patients with center-involved DME that underwent vitrectomy with peeling of the internal limiting membrane (ILM). Read More

View Article
December 2018

Five-year trends in multifocal electroretinogram for patients with birdshot chorioretinopathy.

Am J Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Grenoble Alpes University, Grenoble, France; Department of Ophthalmology, Grenoble Alpes University Hospital, Grenoble, France.

Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate temporal trends in multifocal ERG (mfERG) parameters and analyse their relationships with anatomical and functional markers in patients with Birdshot chorioretinopathy (BSCR).

Design: Prospective observational case series METHODS: 16 BSCR patients were include and underwent two standardized follow-up (FU) visits within five years following a baseline examination, including mfERG, visual acuity (VA), visual field (VF), Lanthony desaturated panel D-15 test for color vision, quality of life (QoL), fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography, and optical coherence tomography (OCT).

Results: A significant trend toward a decrease in absolute N1 amplitude values was observed over the follow-up period (P<. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Compartment models for the electrical stimulation of retinal bipolar cells.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209123. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Institute for Analysis and Scientific Computing, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstrasse, Vienna, Austria.

Bipolar cells of the retina are among the smallest neurons of the nervous system. For this reason, compared to other neurons, their delay in signaling is minimal. Additionally, the small bipolar cell surface combined with the low membrane conductance causes very little attenuation in the signal from synaptic input to the terminal. Read More

View Article
December 2018

RETINAL CASES & BRIEF REPORTS 2018 SCIENTIFIC REVIEWERS.

Authors:

Retin Cases Brief Rep 2019 Winter;13(1):e1

View Article
December 2018

Screening for Hydroxychloroquine Retinopathy-Can We Do Better?

Retina 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

View Article
December 2018

CUTICULAR DRUSEN: Risk of Geographic Atrophy and Macular Neovascularization.

Retina 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

LuEsther T. Mertz Retinal Research Center, Manhattan Eye, Ear, and Throat Hospital, New York, New York.

Purpose: Cuticular drusen (CD) have been associated with manifestations of age-related macular degeneration such as atrophy and neovascularization in the macula. In this study, eyes with CD were followed and investigated for the estimated 5-year risk of progression to sequelae of age-related macular degeneration such as geographic atrophy (GA) and macular neovascularization (MNV).

Methods: A consecutive series of patients with CD were followed for the development of GA and MNV. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Quantifying the Initial Unfolding of Bacteriorhodopsin Reveals Retinal Stabilization.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Univ. of Colorado & NIST, JILA, 440 UCB, 80309, Boulder, UNITED STATES.

The forces that stabilize membrane proteins remain elusive to precise quantification. Particularly important but poorly resolved are the forces present during a membrane protein's initial unfolding, where the most native set of interactions are present. We developed a high-precision, atomic force microscopy assay to study the initial unfolding of bacteriorhodopsin. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Selective S Cone Damage and Retinal Remodeling Following Intense Ultrashort Pulse Laser Exposures in the Near-Infrared.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018 Dec;59(15):5973-5984

Center for Visual Science, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, United States.

Purpose: Infrared ultrashort pulse lasers are becoming increasingly popular for applications in the living eye. However, safety standards are not yet well established. Here we investigate retinal damage close to threshold for this pulse regime in the living macaque eye. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Ocular Posterior Segment Involvement in Patients with Antiphospholipid Syndrome and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2018 Dec 17:1-6. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

d Department of Ophthalmology , Marmara University School of Medicine , Istanbul , Turkey.

Purpose: To describe posterior segment findings of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and compare them with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

Methods: A total of 11 patients with primary APS, 29 secondary APS patients, and 29 SLE patients without APS were included. All patients were referred from rheumatology clinic for detailed ophthalmologic examination. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Comparison of Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD OCT) Findings with Laser Flare Photometry (LFP) Measurements in Behçet's Uveitis.

Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2018 Dec 17:1-6. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

b Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine , Ankara University , Ankara , Turkey.

Purpose: This study aims to compare the spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT) findings and laser flare photometry (LFP) measurements in Behçet's disease (BD).

Methods: This study was composed of 4 groups as follows: "Group 1: Healthy volunteers, Group 2: Volunteers with BD and no eye involvement, Group 3: Patients with active uveitis with BD, Group 4: Patients with BD in quiescent phase of uveitis". Laser Flare Photometry (Kowa FM-600, Kowa Acculas, San Jose, CA, USA), SD-OCT and Enhanced Depth Imaging protocol (EDI) (Spectralis®, Heidelberg Engineering Inc. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Familial Nanophthalmos Presenting with Spontaneous Uveal Effusion Syndrome.

Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2018 Dec 17:1-3. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

a Advanced Eye Centre , Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research , Chandigarh , India.

Purpose: To report two unique cases of spontaneous uveal effusion syndrome (UES) from the same family.

Methods: The patients included father (54 years old) and a daughter (23 years old). The father presented 7 years ago with bilateral exudative retinal detachment, nanophthalmic eyes (axial length 16. Read More

View Article
December 2018

A 3D Convolutional Neural Network to Model Retinal Ganglion Cell's Responses to Light Patterns in Mice.

Int J Neural Syst 2018 Dec;28(10):1850043

† Instituto de Bioingeniería, Universidad Miguel Hernández, Alicante, Spain.

Deep Learning offers flexible powerful tools that have advanced our understanding of the neural coding of neurosensory systems. In this work, a 3D Convolutional Neural Network (3D CNN) is used to mimic the behavior of a population of mice retinal ganglion cells in response to different light patterns. For this purpose, we projected homogeneous RGB flashes and checkerboards stimuli with variable luminances and wavelength spectrum to mimic a more naturalistic stimuli environment onto the mouse retina. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography foveal morphology as a prognostic factor for vision performance in congenital aniridia.

Eur J Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 17:1120672118818352. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

1 VISSUM Alicante, Alicante, Spain.

Background:: Patients with congenital aniridia usually have some degree of foveal hypoplasia, thus representing a limiting factor in the final visual acuity achieved by these patients. The purpose of this study was to analyze whether the foveal morphology assessed by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography may serve as a prognostic indicator for best-corrected visual acuity in congenital aniridia patients.

Methods:: Observational two-center study performed between January 2012 and March 2017 in the pediatric ophthalmology department at Vissum Alicante and Vissum Madrid, Spain. Read More

View Article
December 2018

The effects of microRNAs in activating neovascularization pathways in diabetic retinopathy.

J Cell Biochem 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the major complications of diabetes mellitus that causes diabetic macular edema and visual loss. DR is categorized, based on the presence of vascular lesions and neovascularization, into non-proliferative and proliferative DR. Vascular changes in DR correlate with the cellular damage and pathological changes in the capillaries of blood-retinal barrier. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Serum Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Levels in the IVAN Trial; Relationships with Drug, Dosing, and Systemic Serious Adverse Events.

Ophthalmol Retina 2018 Feb;2(2):118-127

Centre for Experimental Medicine, Queen's University, Belfast, United Kingdom.

Purpose: To describe serum vascular endothelial growth factor (sVEGF) in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) receiving anti-VEGF agents and associations between sVEGF and systemic serious adverse events (SSAEs).

Design: Exploratory analyses of a randomized controlled trial that enrolled 610 participants with nAMD and compared 2 anti-VEGF antibodies, ranibizumab and bevacizumab, and 2 treatment regimens, monthly vs. discontinuous, with 2 years' follow-up. Read More

View Article
February 2018

Risk of Parkinson's disease in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

J Curr Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 5;30(4):365-367. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Faculty of Medicine, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Purpose: To examine the risk of developing Parkinson's Disease (PD) in patients who are newly diagnosed with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD).

Methods: This was a cohort study using the British Columbia (BC) Retinal Disease Database. Data from 2009 to 2013 was accessed. Read More

View Article
December 2018

The outcomes of aflibercept therapy in patients with age-related macular degeneration resistant to bevacizumab or ranibizumab.

J Curr Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 9;30(4):337-342. Epub 2018 Aug 9.

Istanbul Research and Education Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.

Purpose: This study was designed to assess the functional and anatomic outcomes of intravitreal aflibercept injection in patients with wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) refractory to intravitreal bevacizumab or ranibizumab therapy.

Methods: This retrospective study included 43 eyes of 43 patients resistant to treatment with at least 6 injections of bevacizumab or ranibizumab. Persistent intraretinal and subretinal fluid (IRF and SRF) on optical coherence tomography (OCT), no improvement in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and a central macular thickness (CMT) increase of more than 100 μm due to SRF and/or IRF compared to baseline for at least 6 monthly intravitreal bevacizumab or ranibizumab injections were defined as resistant to bevacizumab/ranibizumab therapy. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Influence of standard corneal cross-linking in keratoconus patients on macular profile.

J Curr Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 29;30(4):330-336. Epub 2018 Jun 29.

Department of Ophthalmology, Nikookari Eye Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Purpose: To determine the effect of corneal cross-linking (CXL) on retinal structure and function.

Methods: The current study was conducted on 42 eyes of 21 patients with keratoconus (KCN) who were candidates for CXL due to disease progression. The Optovue optical coherence tomography (OCT) (Optovue Inc. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty: A surgeon's guide.

J Curr Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 10;30(4):297-310. Epub 2018 Jul 10.

Sussex Eye Hospital, Brighton & Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Brighton, United Kingdom.

Purpose: To review and highlight important practical aspects of deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) surgery and provide some useful tips for surgeons wishing to convert to this procedure from the conventional penetrating keratoplasty (PK) technique.

Methods: In this narrative review, the procedure of DALK is described in detail. Important pre, intra, and postoperative considerations are discussed with illustrative examples for better understanding. Read More

View Article
December 2018

MEWDS is a true primary choriocapillaritis and basic mechanisms do not seem to differ from other choriocapillaritis entities.

J Curr Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 15;30(4):281-286. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Inflammatory and Retinal Eye Diseases, Centre for Ophthalmic Specialised Care Montchoisi Teaching Centre, Lausanne, Switzerland.

View Article
December 2018

Imaging Individual Differences in the Response of the Human Suprachiasmatic Area to Light.

Front Neurol 2018 29;9:1022. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Monash Institute of Cognitive and Clinical Neurosciences and School of Psychological Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Circadian disruption is associated with poor health outcomes, including sleep and mood disorders. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the anterior hypothalamus acts as the master biological clock in mammals, regulating circadian rhythms throughout the body. The clock is synchronized to the day/night cycle via retinal light exposure. Read More

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

Effect of Single and Combined Monochromatic Light on the Human Pupillary Light Response.

Front Neurol 2018 29;9:1019. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Chronobiology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, United Kingdom.

The pupillary light reflex (PLR) is a neurological reflex driven by rods, cones, and melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells. Our aim was to achieve a more precise picture of the effects of 5-min duration monochromatic light stimuli, alone or in combination, on the human PLR, to determine its spectral sensitivity and to assess the importance of photon flux. Using pupillometry, the PLR was assessed in 13 participants (6 women) aged 27. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Potentials of Cellular Reprogramming as a Novel Strategy for Neuroregeneration.

Front Cell Neurosci 2018 30;12:460. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Centre for Eye Research Australia, East Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Cellular reprogramming technology holds great potential for tissue repair and regeneration to replace cells that are lost due to diseases or injuries. In addition to the landmark discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells, advances in cellular reprogramming allow the direct lineage conversion of one somatic cell type to another using defined transcription factors. This direct reprogramming technology represents a rapid way to generate target cells in the laboratory, which can be used for transplantation and studies of biology and diseases. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Dexamethasone implantation in birdshot chorioretinopathy - long-term outcome.

Int Med Case Rep J 2018 30;11:349-358. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA,

Purpose: To evaluate the long-term efficacy of the 0.70 mg dexamethasone (DEX) intravitreal implant in patients with birdshot chorioretinopathy (BSCR).

Methods: Retrospective descriptive case series of BSCR patients treated with DEX implant (DEX implant 0. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Signal transmission at invaginating cone photoreceptor synaptic contacts following deletion of the presynaptic cytomatrix protein Bassoon in mouse retina.

Acta Physiol (Oxf) 2018 Dec 16:e13241. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Department of Biology, Animal Physiology, FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg, Staudtstr. 5, 91058, Erlangen, Germany.

Aim: A key feature of the mammalian retina is the segregation of visual information in parallel pathways, starting at the photoreceptor terminals. Cone photoreceptors establish synaptic contacts with On bipolar and horizontal cells at invaginating, ribbon-containing synaptic sites, whereas Off bipolar cells form flat, non-ribbon-containing contacts. The cytomatrix protein Bassoon anchors ribbons at the active zone, and its absence induces detachment of ribbons from the active zone. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Increased choroidal thickness: a new feature to monitor age-related macular degeneration recurrence.

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Hôpital d'Instruction des Armées Desgenettes, 108 Boulevard Pinel, 69003, Lyon, France.

Purpose: The main objective of this study was to assess choroidal thickness (CT) changes during an exudative recurrence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

Methods: A real-life prospective non-interventional 9-month study was conducted in two centers in consecutive patients with exudative AMD between November 2016 and July 2017. CT was measured manually in both eyes based on enhanced-depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at different follow-up visits scheduled in the morning. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Effects of posterior scleral reinforcement in pathological myopia: a 3-year follow-up study.

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Ophthalmology, the Fourth Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Eye Hospital of China Medical University, Key Laboratory of Lens Research of Liaoning Province, Shenyang, China.

Purpose: To assess the effects of posterior sclera reinforcement (PSR) in refractive outcomes, choroidal thickness (CT), and retinal thickness (RT) during a 3-year follow-up in eyes with pathological myopia.

Methods: Thirty-eight eyes of 26 adults with pathological myopia who underwent PSR (the PSR group) and 30 eyes of 18 adults with matched age and myopia who did not receive PSR treatment (the control group) were followed up with measurements of axial length (AL), spherical equivalent (SE), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), CT, and RT at baseline, 1 and 3 months, and 1, 2, and 3 years postoperatively. Data were analyzed by repeated measures analysis of variance and independent-samples t test. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Diagnostic Accuracy of Digital Retinal Fundus Image Analysis in Detecting Diabetic Maculopathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Ophthalmic Res 2018 Dec 14:1-7. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

School of Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical Sciences, Queen's University Belfast, Northern Ireland, Belfast, United Kingdom.

Background: Digital retinal imaging is the gold standard technique for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular oedema (DME) assessment during DR screening.

Objectives: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of digital retinal fundus image (DRFI) analysis in detecting DME using three manual grading systems (MGS) and comparing it with optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings.

Method: A total of 287 DRFI of 287 eyes were analysed. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Exenatide modulates expression of metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors in TNF-α stimulated human retinal pigment epithelial cells.

Pharmacol Rep 2018 Oct 3;71(1):175-182. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine in Katowice, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland.

Background: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most common complications of diabetes and the leading cause of acquired blindness in adults. In diabetic patients hyperglycemia induces complex metabolic abnormalities affecting retinal homeostasis, and promotes retinal inflammation and angiogenesis. Incretin mimetic drugs such exenatide, are a relatively new group of drugs used in the treatment of diabetes. Read More

View Article
October 2018

A regression model including fetal orbit measurements to predict parturition in Standardbred mares with normal pregnancy.

Theriogenology 2018 Dec 10;126:153-158. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences, University of Bologna, Via Tolara di Sopra 50, 40064, Ozzano Emilia, Bologna, Italy. Electronic address:

In the mare, foaling is a critical unpredictable event due to a wide range of gestational length and the absence of clear signs of impending parturition. To predict foaling, pH, inversion sodium potassium and increase of calcium concentration in mammary secretions are used. The aim of this study was to find how many days are left until parturition knowing mare's age (A) and parity (P) combined with ultrasonographic measurements of the fetal orbit in Standardbred mares with normal pregnancy. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Using a deep learning algorithm and integrated gradients explanation to assist grading for diabetic retinopathy.

Ophthalmology 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Google Research, Google Inc, Mountain View, CA, USA.

Objective: To understand the impact of deep learning diabetic retinopathy (DR) algorithms on physician readers in computer-assisted settings.

Design: Evaluation of diagnostic technology PARTICIPANTS: 1,796 retinal fundus images from 1,612 diabetic patients.

Methods: 10 ophthalmologists (5 general ophthalmologists, 4 retina specialists, 1 retina fellow) read images for DR severity based on the International Clinical Diabetic Retinopathy disease severity scale in one of 3 conditions: Unassisted, Grades Only, or Grades + Heatmap. Read More

View Article
November 2018
7 Reads

Effects of a school-based physical activity program on retinal microcirculation and cognitive function in adolescents.

J Sci Med Sport 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

University of Basel, Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Switzerland.

Objectives: To investigate the effect of combined aerobic and coordinative exercise on retinal microcirculation and its association with changes in cognitive performance in healthy adolescents.

Design: Using cluster-randomization (on class-level), 36 participants were allocated to an exercise group (EX) performing a 20-min aerobic and coordinative exercise session on each school day over a period of 8 weeks or a control group, which was encouraged to have social interactions (CON).

Method: Prior to and following the intervention period, central retinal arteriolar (CRAE) and venular diameters (CRVE) were assessed by use of a static vessel analyzer. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Autophagic vacuolar myopathy caused by a CLN3 mutation. A case report.

Neuromuscul Disord 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Molecular Medicine, IRCCS Fondazione Stella Maris, via dei Giacinti 2, Pisa 56128, Italy. Electronic address:

We present a 29-year-old man with visual failure since childhood, muscle weakness, subtle heart muscle hypertrophy, and seizures who was initially considered to be affected by a mitochondrial encephalomyopathy because of the multiple unspecific involvement of brain, muscle and retinal tissues. Only the muscle biopsy findings correctly guided the genetic investigations and the identification of an autophagic vacuolar myopathy due to a homozygous mutation in CLN3. We believe that information in autophagic muscle disorders should further alert clinicians to consider CLN3 in individuals with vacuolar myopathy, especially if they have visual and cardiac involvement. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Megakaryocytic leukemia 1 (MKL1) mediates high glucose induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition by activating LOX transcription.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Key Laboratory of Targeted Intervention of Cardiovascular Disease and Collaborative Innovation Center for Cardiovascular Translational Medicine, Department of Pathophysiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China; Institute of Biomedical Research, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng, China. Electronic address:

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most devastating complications of diabetes mellitus. When exposed to high glucose (HG), retinal epithelial cells undergo profound alterations both morphologically and functionally in a well-conserved process known as epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The mechanism governing HG-induced EMT in retinal epithelial cells is not completely understood. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Emergence of omega-3 fatty acids in biomedical research.

Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2019 Jan 3;140:47-50. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Laboratory of Molecular Signaling, National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5625 Fishers Lane, Room 3N07, Bethesda, MD 20892-9410, United States.

Shortly after the discovery that linoleic acid was an essential fatty acid in 1930, α-linolenic acid also was reported to prevent the fatty acid deficiency syndrome in animals. However, several prominent laboratories could not confirm the findings with α-linolenic acid, and as a result there was a loss of interest in omega-3 fatty acids in lipid research. Even the findings that a prostaglandin can be synthesized from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is necessary for optimum retinal function generated only limited interest in omega-3 fatty acids. Read More

View Article
January 2019

Monocyte infiltration rather than microglia proliferation dominates the early immune response to rapid photoreceptor degeneration.

J Neuroinflammation 2018 Dec 15;15(1):344. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Cell Biology and Human Anatomy, University of California, Davis, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA, 95616, USA.

Background: Activation of resident microglia accompanies every known form of neurodegeneration, but the involvement of peripheral monocytes that extravasate and rapidly transform into microglia-like macrophages within the central nervous system during degeneration is far less clear.

Methods: Using a combination of in vivo ocular imaging, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemistry, we investigated the response of infiltrating cells in a light-inducible mouse model of photoreceptor degeneration.

Results: Within 24 h, resident microglia became activated and began migrating to the site of degeneration. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Immune cells in the retina and choroid: Two different tissue environments that require different defenses and surveillance.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.

In the eye immune defenses must take place in a plethora of differing microenvironments ranging from the corneal and conjunctival epithelia facing the external environment to the pigmented connective tissue of the uveal tract containing smooth muscle, blood vessels and peripheral nerves to the innermost and highly protected neural retina. The extravascular environment of the neural retina, like the brain parenchyma, is stringently controlled to maintain conditions required for neural transmission. The unique physiological nature of the neural retina can be attributed to the blood retinal barriers (BRB) of the retinal vasculature and the retinal pigment epithelium, which both tightly regulate the transport of small molecules and restrict passage of cells and macromolecules from the circulation into the retina in a similar fashion to the blood brain barrier (BBB). Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Choroidal microvascular dropout in primary angle closure glaucoma.

Am J Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

University Eye Clinic Maastricht, University Medical Center, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Purpose: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with the presence of choroidal microvascular dropout (CMvD) in primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) eyes compared to primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) eyes.

Design: Cross-sectional study METHODS: Thirty-six POAG eyes (36 patients) and 28 PACG eyes (28 patients) underwent optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Presence of CMvD was evaluated on choroidal OCTA slabs. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

The Impact of Prefilled Syringes on Endophthalmitis following Intravitreal Injection of Ranibizumab.

Am J Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Mid Atlantic Retina, Wills Eye Hospital, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA. Electronic address:

Purpose: To compare the rates of infectious endophthalmitis following intravitreal injection of ranibizumab using prefilled syringes vs. conventional preparation.

Design: Multicenter, retrospective, cohort study METHODS: All eyes receiving intravitreal injection of 0. Read More

View Article
December 2018

[Glaucoma and nanophthalmos].

Ophthalmologe 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Zentrum für Augenheilkunde, Uniklinik Köln, Joseph-Stelzmann Str. 9, 50931, Köln, Deutschland.

The term nanophthalmos refers to a clinically small eye that appears morphologically normal. A nanophthalmos is characterized by hyperopia but can also be associated with various secondary pathologies, such as angle-closure glaucoma. In particular, the perioperative risks associated with a nanophthalmic eye necessitate examination of the anatomical characteristics, which can result from the disproportional size of intraocular tissues despite structural normality. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Astragaloside protects oxygen and glucose deprivation induced injury by regulation of microRNA-21 in retinal ganglion cell line RGC-5.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Jan 26;109:1826-1833. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Optometry, The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150001, Heilongjiang, China.

Objective: Astragaloside (AST) is a kind of effective components of Astragalus membranaceus, which has been reported to exert extensive pharmacological actions in various diseases. However, the effect of AST on optic nerve injury remains unclear. The study aimed to uncover the effect of AST on oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced RGC-5 cells injury and the underlying mechanism. Read More

View Article
January 2019

Safety, pharmacokinetics, and prevention effect of intraocular crocetin in proliferative vitreoretinopathy.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Jan 7;109:1211-1220. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

Department of Ophthalmology, The Second Hospital of HeBei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, 050000, China.

The study was designed to determine the safety and pharmacokinetics of intraocular crocetin and examine whether crocetin inhibits the development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) in a rabbit model. In the toxicity study, the right eyes of rabbits were injected with 0.2 μmol or 0. Read More

View Article
January 2019

Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness changes in Schizophrenia: A meta-analysis of case-control studies.

Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 30;270:786-791. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Department of Ophthalmology, Central Hospital of Wuhan, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 26 Shengli Street, Hubei Province, Wuhan 430014, China. Electronic address:

Studies using optical coherence tomography (OCT) to compare retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in subjects with schizophrenia and healthy controls have yielded inconsistent results. We aimed to compare changes in retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in schizophrenia and healthy controls via a meta-analysis. Relevant studies were selected via an electronic search of the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Pubmed, and Embase. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Mitochondrial Respiration in Outer Retina Contributes to Light-Evoked Increase in Hydration In Vivo.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018 Dec;59(15):5957-5964

Department of Ophthalmology, Visual and Anatomical Sciences, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, United States.

Purpose: To test the hypothesis that mitochondrial respiration contributes to local changes in hydration involved in phototransduction-driven expansion of outer retina, as measured by structural responses on optical coherence tomography (OCT) and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Methods: Oxygen consumption rate and mitochondrial reserve capacity of freshly isolated C57BL/6 and 129S6/SvEvTac mouse retina were measured using a Seahorse Extracellular Flux Analyzer. Light-stimulated outer retina layer water content was determined by proton density MRI, structure and thickness by ultrahigh-resolution OCT, and water mobility by diffusion MRI. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Prospective Evaluation of Patients With X-Linked Retinoschisis During 18 Months.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018 Dec;59(15):5941-5956

Applied Genetic Technologies Corporation, Alachua, Florida, United States.

Purpose: Prospective evaluation of patients with X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS).

Methods: Fifty-six males XLRS patients, age ≥7 years, had retinal structure and function tests performed every 6 months during an 18-month period.

Results: Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was abnormal (mean ± SD logMAR 0. Read More

View Article
December 2018
2 Reads

Dynamic Changes of Retinal Microaneurysms in Diabetes Imaged With In Vivo Adaptive Optics Optical Coherence Tomography.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018 Dec;59(15):5932-5940

Department of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Purpose: To prospectively monitor microaneurysms (MAs) in three dimensions using adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (AOOCT).

Methods: Patients with diabetes mellitus and parafoveal MAs were included in this longitudinal study. At baseline, MAs were identified in standard fluorescein angiography (FA) and subsequently imaged with an AOOCT prototype, incorporated into an AO fundus camera (RTX1, Imagine Eyes) device. Read More

View Article
December 2018
2 Reads

The Effect of Prostaglandin Analogue Bimatoprost on Thyroid-Associated Orbitopathy.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018 Dec;59(15):5912-5923

Dr. Nasser Al-Rashid Orbital Vision Research Center, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, McKnight Vision Research Center, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States.

Purpose: We characterize the effect of bimatoprost on orbital adipose tissue in thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) with clinicopathologic correlation.

Methods: Orbital adipose-derived stem cells (OASCs) from types 1 and 2 TAO and control patients with and without exposure to 1 μm bimatoprost were examined via immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, and Western blot for cell viability, migration capacity, lipid content, adipocyte morphology, mitochondrial content, and levels of adipogenic markers. A retrospective chart review was performed for clinicopathologic correlation. Read More

View Article
December 2018
4 Reads

Estimating the probability of abusive head trauma after abuse evaluation.

Child Abuse Negl 2018 Dec 11;88:266-274. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX, United States.

Background: Evidence-based, patient-specific estimates of abusive head trauma probability can inform physicians' decisions to evaluate, confirm, exclude, and/or report suspected child abuse.

Objective: To derive a clinical prediction rule for pediatric abusive head trauma that incorporates the (positive or negative) predictive contributions of patients' completed skeletal surveys and retinal exams.

Participants And Setting: 500 acutely head-injured children under three years of age hospitalized for intensive care at one of 18 sites between 2010 and 2013. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Insufficient compensation for self-motion during perception of object speed: The vestibular Aubert-Fleischl phenomenon.

J Vis 2018 Dec;18(13)

German Center for Vertigo and Balance Disorders (DSGZ), University Hospital of Munich, Ludwig Maximilian University, Munich, Germany.

To estimate object speed with respect to the self, retinal signals must be summed with extraretinal signals that encode the speed of eye and head movement. Prior work has shown that differences in perceptual estimates of object speed based on retinal and oculomotor signals lead to biased percepts such as the Aubert-Fleischl phenomenon (AF), in which moving targets appear slower when pursued. During whole-body movement, additional extraretinal signals, such as those from the vestibular system, may be used to transform object speed estimates from a head-centered to a world-centered reference frame. Read More

View Article
December 2018
2 Reads