577,826 results match your criteria Respiratory Research[Journal]


Rapamycin ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury by inhibiting IL-1β and IL-18 production.

Int Immunopharmacol 2018 Dec 14;67:211-219. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Peking University China-Japan Friendship School of Clinical Medicine, Beijing 100029, China; Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Center for Respiratory Diseases, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing 100029, China; National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Diseases, Beijing 100029, China; Department of Respiratory Medicine, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, China; Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730, China. Electronic address:

Interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 play central and detrimental roles in the development of acute lung injury (ALI), and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is involved in regulating IL-1β and IL-18 production. However, it is not clear whether the mTOR specific inhibitor rapamycin can attenuate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI by modulating IL-1β and IL-18 production. In this study, we found that rapamycin ameliorated LPS-induced ALI by inhibiting NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome-mediated IL-1β and IL-18 secretion. Read More

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December 2018

In vivo effects of serotonin and fluoxetine on cardio-ventilatory functions in the shore crab Carcinus maenas (L. 1758).

Aquat Toxicol 2018 Dec 5;207:132-141. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Normandie Université, FR CNRS 3730 SCALE, UMR-I 02 Unité Stress Environnementaux et Biosurveillance des milieux aquatiques (SEBIO), Université Le Havre Normandie, 25 rue Philippe Lebon, F-76600, Le Havre, France. Electronic address:

Serotonin (5-HT) takes a key position in regulating vital functions, such as cardio-ventilatory activity, locomotion and behaviour. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) modulate the serotonergic system and thus affect these functions. Rhythmic behaviours, such as cardio-ventilatory activity, are controlled by central pattern generators, which in turn are regulated by 5-HT. Read More

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December 2018

Association between ambient particulate matter air pollution and ST-elevation myocardial infarction: A case-crossover study in a Chinese city.

Chemosphere 2018 Dec 12;219:724-729. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Cardiology, Yancheng Hospital Affiliated to Xuzhou Medical University and the First Hospital of Yancheng, Yancheng, 224006, China. Electronic address:

Background: Abundant epidemiological studies have revealed that short-term exposure to ambient air pollution increased the incidence of ischemic heart diseases. However, few investigations have explored the association between air pollution and ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), one major subtype of such events.

Methods: We conducted a time-stratified case-crossover study in two major hospitals of Yancheng, a city in East China, from January 2015 to February 2018. Read More

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December 2018

Harmonization of Terminology for Tolerated and Reactive Dose in Food Allergy Immunotherapy.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Capital Allergy & Respiratory Disease Center, Sacramento, CA.

Currently, there is no FDA-approved therapy for food allergy. Several new potential treatments are under investigation, including food allergen immunotherapy via various routes of administration, such as oral immunotherapy, epicutaneous therapy, subcutaneous immunotherapy, and sublingual immunotherapy. The double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge has traditionally been used for diagnostic purposes, but extrapolation of the specific terminology used in food allergy diagnosis to interpretation of efficacy in clinical trials is incongruent and difficult to apply. Read More

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December 2018

The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice 2018 Highlights.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Allergy, Kaiser Permanente Southern California, San Diego, CA; Department Research and Evaluation, Kaiser Permanente Southern California, Pasadena, CA.

A large number of clinically impactful studies and reviews were published in this Journal in 2018. This article provides highlights of the original research published in 2018 issues of JACI: In Practice on the subjects of anaphylaxis, asthma, dermatitis, drug allergy, eosinophilic disorders, food allergy, immune deficiency, rhinitis/upper respiratory disease, and urticaria/angioedema. Within each topic, practical aspects of diagnosis and management are emphasized. Read More

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December 2018

Real-World Attitudes Among Allergists/Immunologists Regarding Oral Immunotherapy and Preferred Terminology.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Division of Allergy and Immunology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

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December 2018

A systematic literature review and critical appraisal of epidemiological studies on outdoor air pollution and tuberculosis outcomes.

Environ Res 2018 Dec 7;170:33-45. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Queensland, Herston, Australia; Centre for Air Pollution, Energy and Health Research, Glebe, NSW, Australia.

Ambient air pollution is the leading environmental risk factor for disease globally. Air pollutants can increase the risk of some respiratory infections, but their effects on tuberculosis (TB) are unclear. In this systematic literature review, we aimed to assess epidemiological studies on the association between outdoor air pollutants and TB incidence, hospital admissions and death (collectively referred to here as 'TB outcomes'). Read More

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December 2018

KIT as a therapeutic target for non-oncological diseases.

Pharmacol Ther 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Aix Marseille Université, INSERM, INRA, C2VN, Marseille, France; Clinique des Bronches, Allergies et Sommeil, Hôpital Nord, AP-, HM, Marseille, France.. Electronic address:

KIT is a receptor tyrosine kinase that after binding to its ligand stem cell factor activates signaling cascades linked to biological processes such as proliferation, differentiation, migration and cell survival. Based on studies performed on SCF and/or KIT mutant animals that presented anemia, sterility, and/or pigmentation disorders, KIT signaling was mainly considered to be involved in the regulation of hematopoiesis, gametogenesis, and melanogenesis. More recently, novel animal models and ameliorated cellular and molecular techniques have led to the discovery of a widen repertoire of tissue compartments and functions that are being modulated by KIT. Read More

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December 2018

Exhaled and nasal nitric oxide measurement in the evaluation of chronic cough.

Nitric Oxide 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry, National Research Council, 80078, Pozzuoli, Naples, Italy.

Chronic cough is one of the most common and troublesome nonspecific respiratory symptom for which patients seek a general practitioner and specialist advice. It is conventionally defined as a cough lasting for more than 8 weeks. Exhaled nitric oxide has proven to be a specific biomarker capable to discriminate between differential diagnoses of chronic cough and simultaneously provide information about the response to specific treatment. Read More

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December 2018

Associations of urban greenness with asthma and respiratory symptoms in Mexican American children.

Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Professor, Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago.

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December 2018

Comparing Stress and Arousal Systems in Response to Different Social Contexts in Children with ASD.

Biol Psychol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, United States; Vanderbilt Kennedy Center, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States; Vanderbilt Brain Institute, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States.

Response to psychological stress can vary based on the extent to which the context is perceived as stressful, especially under different social conditions. The purpose of this preliminary study was to compare physiological stress (cortisol) and regulation (respiratory sinus arrhythmia, RSA) of 10-12 year old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 31) or typical development (TD, n = 25) when exposed to two social stress protocols. The extent to which perceived emotion (affect recognition) and anxiety (state and trait) mediate the stress response was also explored. Read More

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December 2018

KU-596 decreases mitochondrial superoxide and improves bioenergetics following downregulation of manganese superoxide dismutase in diabetic sensory neurons.

Exp Neurol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Kansas, 5064 Malott Hall, 1251 Wescoe Hall Dr., Lawrence, KS 66045, USA. Electronic address:

Neuronal mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are key pathophysiologic mechanisms of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). KU-596 is a small molecule modulator of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) that can reverse clinically relevant measures of DPN in diabetic animal models. Mechanistically, drug efficacy requires Hsp70 and correlates with improving mitochondrial maximal respiratory capacity (MRC) and decreasing oxidative stress in diabetic sensory neurons. Read More

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December 2018

The Optimal Treatment for Stage IIIA-N2 Non-small-cell Lung Cancer: A Network Meta-analysis.

Ann Thorac Surg 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Thoracic Surgery and Oncology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China; Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Disease & China State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease & National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Background: The optimal treatment for stage IIIA-N2 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is controversial. We aimed to address this important issue through a Bayesian network meta-analysis.

Methods: We performed a search of electronic databases for randomized controlled trials comparing the following treatments: surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and their multiple combinations before March 25, 2018. Read More

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December 2018

Admission Pentraxin-3 Level Predicts Severity of Community-Acquired Pneumonia Independently of Etiology.

Proteomics Clin Appl 2018 Dec 17:e1800117. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Respiratory & Critical Care Medicine, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Timely and accurate triaging of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is difficult for clinicians. Pentraxin-3 (PTX3) is a non-specific marker of disease severity; however, PTX3 data from CAP patients are lacking.

Experimental Design: An observational, prospective study of CAP patients was conducted in 2016. Read More

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December 2018

Multimorbidity patterns in high-need, high-cost elderly patients.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208875. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Statistical Sciences, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.

Introduction: Patients with complex health care needs (PCHCN) are individuals who require numerous, costly care services and have been shown to place a heavy burden on health care resources. It has been argued that an important issue in providing value-based primary care concerns how to identify groups of patients with similar needs (who pose similar challenges) so that care teams and care delivery processes can be tailored to each patient subgroup. Our study aims to describe the most common chronic conditions and their combinations in a cohort of elderly PCHCN. Read More

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December 2018
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Incidence trends and risk prediction nomogram of metachronous second primary lung cancer in lung cancer survivors.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209002. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Respiratory Disease Research Institute of China, The First College of Clinical Medical Science, Three Gorges University, Yichang, China.

Background: This study was designed to estimate the trends in 5-year incidence of metachronous second primary lung cancer(SPLC) and to establish a risk prediction model to identify candidates who were at high risk of developing metachronous SPLC.

Methods: Incidence data between 2004 and 2007 were obtained from SEER database, including 42453 participants who survived ≥ 2 years after the initial diagnosis of lung cancer. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to calculate the 5-year incidence rates of metachronous SPLC per 100 000 population. Read More

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December 2018

Exposure to phthalates aggravates pulmonary function and airway inflammation in asthmatic children.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208553. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Environmental Health Center for Atopic Diseases, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.

Introduction: Studies on the associations between phthalate exposures and respiratory outcomes are limited. We investigated the association of phthalates exposure with pulmonary function and airway inflammation in asthmatic children.

Methods: Fifty-six children with asthma living in Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea aged 6-16 years were enrolled. Read More

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December 2018

Respiratory Deterioration and Cardiac Arrest.

Crit Care Med 2019 Jan;47(1):e71-e72

Department of Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA.

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January 2019

Nutrition Support is a Potential Confounding Factor for the Relationship Between Body Weight Variation and the Risk of Bedsore.

Crit Care Med 2019 Jan;47(1):e64

Department of Respiratory, Affiliated Dongyang Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Dongyang, Zhejiang, P.R. China; Department of Biomedical Sciences Laboratory, Affiliated Dongyang Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Dongyang, Zhejiang, China; Department of Cardiology, Affiliated Dongyang Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Dongyang, Zhejiang, China.

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January 2019

The efficacy and safety of fluticasone salmeterol compared to fluticasone in children younger than four years of age.

Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Clinical Operations Department, GlaxoSmithKline K.K, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Fluticasone propionate 50 μg/salmeterol xinafoate 25 μg (FP/SAL) is widely used in adults and children with asthma but there is sparse information on its use in very young children.

Methods: This was a randomised, double-blind, multi-centre, controlled trial conducted in children aged 8 months to 4 years. During a 2-week run in period they all received FP twice daily. Read More

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December 2018

The role of let-7 and HMGA2 in the occurrence and development of lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2018 Dec;22(23):8353-8366

Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Second Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, China.

Objective: To evaluate the prognostic role of microRNA let-7 in lung cancer and the relationship between the expression of HMGA2 and clinical significance of lung cancer by meta-analysis.

Materials And Methods: The studies on the correlation between the low expression of let-7 and the prognosis of lung cancer, and between the expression of HMGA2 and the occurrence and development of NSCLC were identified by searching PubMed, Web of the Science, Medline, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, CNKI, CBM, and VIP databases. The StataSE12. Read More

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December 2018

Tolerance of Rib Raising Among Hospitalized Patients: A Pilot Study.

J Am Osteopath Assoc 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Context: Rib raising is an osteopathic manipulative treatment modality that can help patients with various respiratory conditions to improve their work of breathing. However, the tolerance of this technique in hospitalized patients has not been assessed in a systematic manner. We hypothesized that rib raising would be a well-tolerated treatment modality for hospitalized patients admitted for asthma, pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and/or congestive heart failure. Read More

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December 2018

Specific inhibitors of respiratory sulfate reduction: towards a mechanistic understanding.

Microbiology 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

1​Energy Biosciences Institute, University of California - Berkeley, Berkeley, California, USA.

Microbial sulfate reduction (SR) by sulfate-reducing micro-organisms (SRM) is a primary environmental mechanism of anaerobic organic matter mineralization, and as such influences carbon and sulfur cycling in many natural and engineered environments. In industrial systems, SR results in the generation of hydrogen sulfide, a toxic, corrosive gas with adverse human health effects and significant economic and environmental consequences. Therefore, there has been considerable interest in developing strategies for mitigating hydrogen sulfide production, and several specific inhibitors of SRM have been identified and characterized. Read More

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December 2018

Prevalence of Smoking and Provision of Smoking Cessation Advice during Hospitalization

Ir Med J 2018 Oct 11;111(9):821. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Department of Psychology, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, 123 St Stephen’s Green, Dublin 2, Ireland.

Aim We aimed to determine the prevalence of smoking and smoking cessation advice received by inpatients in Beaumont Hospital and compared results to previous similar studies. Method Cross-sectional survey where we interviewed eligible in-patients over a two-week period. Results 14. Read More

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October 2018

The need to consider context in the evaluation of anti-infectious and immunomodulatory effects of Vitamin A and its derivatives.

Curr Drug Targets 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro. Brazil.

Vitamin A and its derivatives (retinoids) act as potent regulators in many aspects of mammalian reproduction, development, repair, and maintenance of differentiated tissue functioning. Unlike other vitamins, Vitamin A and retinoids, which have hormonal actions, present significant toxicity, which plays roles in clinically relevant situations, such as hypervitaminosis A and retinoic acid ("differentiation") syndrome. Although clinical presentation is conspicuous in states of insufficient or excessive Vitamin A and retinoid concentration, equally relevant effects on host resistance to specific infectious agents, and in the general maintenance of immune homeostasis, may go unnoticed, because their expression requires either pathogen exposure or the presence of inflammatory co-morbidities. Read More

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December 2018

Wells and Geneva Scores Are Not Reliable Predictors of Pulmonary Embolism in Critically Ill Patients: A Retrospective Study.

J Intensive Care Med 2018 Dec 16:885066618816280. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

4 Intensive Care Unit, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Background:: Critically ill patients are at high risk for pulmonary embolism (PE). Specific PE prediction rules have not been validated in this population. The present study assessed the Wells and revised Geneva scoring systems as predictors of PE in critically ill patients. Read More

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December 2018

Common Bacterial and Viral Infections: Review of Management in the Pregnant Patient.

Ann Pharmacother 2018 Dec 17:1060028018817935. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

1 University of South Carolina College of Pharmacy, Columbia, SC, USA.

Objective: To review the treatment of common bacterial and viral infections occurring in the pregnant patient.

Data Sources: A literature search of MEDLINE was performed (inception to October 2018). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website was utilized for additional information. Read More

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December 2018

A homozygous canonical splice acceptor site mutation in PRUNE1 is responsible for a rare childhood neurodegenerative disease in Manitoba Cree families.

Am J Med Genet A 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

Autosomal recessive PRUNE1 mutations are reported to cause a severe neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, hypotonia, and brain malformations. We describe clinical and neuropathological features in a cohort of nine individuals of Cree descent who, because of a founder effect, are homozygous for the same PRUNE1 mutation. They follow the course of a combined neuromuscular and neurodegenerative disease, rather than a pure failure of normal development. Read More

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December 2018

Identification and characterization of a core set of ROS wave-associated transcripts involved in the systemic acquired acclimation response of Arabidopsis to excess light.

Plant J 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

The Division of Plant Sciences, College of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources, and The Department of Surgery, University of Missouri, School of Medicine. Christopher S. Bond Life Sciences Center, University of Missouri, 1201 Rollins St, Columbia, MO, 65201, USA.

Systemic acquired acclimation (SAA) plays a key role in optimizing growth and preventing damages associated with fluctuating or abrupt changes in the plant environment. To be effective, SAA has to occur at a rapid rate and depend on rapid signaling pathways that transmit signals from affected tissues to all parts of the plant. Although recent studies identified several different rapid systemic signaling pathways that could mediate SAA, very little is known about the extent of their involvement in mediating transcriptomic responses. Read More

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December 2018

Identification of genes associated with cancer progression and prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma: Analyses based on microarray from Oncomine and The Cancer Genome Atlas databases.

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Department of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine in the First Affiliated Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Background: Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) accounts for approximately 40% of all lung cancer patients. There is an urgent need to understand the mechanisms of cancer progression in LUAD and to identify useful biomarkers to predict prognosis.

Methods: In this study, Oncomine database was used to identify potential genes contributed to cancer progression. Read More

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December 2018
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A positive feedback loop between ZNF205-AS1 and EGR4 promotes non-small cell lung cancer growth.

J Cell Mol Med 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Taizhou Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Linhai, Zhejiang, China.

Accumulating evidences revealed that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are frequently implicated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Herein, we reported the identification of a novel NSCLC-associated functional lncRNA ZNF205 antisense RNA 1 (ZNF205-AS1). ZNF205-AS1 was increased in NSCLC tissues and cell lines, and associated with poor prognosis of NSCLC patients. Read More

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December 2018

Utility of the Quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment in Japanese patients with nursing- and healthcare-associated pneumonia.

Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Unit of Translational Medicine, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki, Japan.

Aim: To clarify the utility of sepsis evaluation using the Quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) tool in addition to the Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI); age, dehydration, respiration, orientation and blood pressure (A-DROP) index; and immunodeficiency, respiration, orientation, age and dehydration (I-ROAD) scoring systems, and risk factor evaluation of potentially drug-resistant (PDR) pathogens are suggested in the 2017 guidelines for pneumonia of the Japanese Respiratory Society in nursing- and healthcare-associated pneumonia patients.

Methods: We included 289 hospitalized nursing- and healthcare-associated pneumonia patients between April 2016 and March 2017, and investigated the ability of PSI, A-DROP, I-ROAD and qSOFA to predict pneumonia-related mortality. We also evaluated the associations among the risk factors for PDR pathogens, the detection ratio of PDR pathogens and pneumonia-related mortality. Read More

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December 2018

Induced in vivo knockdown of the Brca1 gene in skeletal muscle results in skeletal muscle weakness.

J Physiol 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Physiology, Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA.

Key Points: Breast cancer 1 early onset gene codes for the DNA repair enzyme, breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein (BRCA1). The gene is prone to mutations that cause a loss of protein function. BRCA1/Brca1 has recently been found to regulate several cellular pathways beyond DNA repair and is expressed in skeletal muscle. Read More

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November 2018

Association study between two polymorphisms of tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 15 (TNFSF15) gene and ulcerative colitis in south-west of Iran.

J Cell Biochem 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Research Center for Infectious Diseases of Digestive System, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is the most prevalent clinical manifestation of the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Several candidate genes have been suggested to be involved in the genetic susceptibility or resistance in the development of UC. Among them, tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 15 (TNFSF15) have been reported in association with IBD in several studies. Read More

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December 2018

Mechanism of Tetramer Dissociation, Unfolding, and Oligomer Assembly of M2-1 Transcription Antiterminators.

ACS Omega 2018 Nov 2;3(11):14732-14745. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Protein Structure, Function and Engineering Laboratory, Fundación Instituto Leloir, IIBBA, Avenida Patricias Argentinas 435, 1405 CABA, Argentina.

Among Mononegavirales, the Pneumovirus family stands out by its RNA polymerase processivity that relies on a transcription antiterminator, the M2-1 protein, which also plays a key role in viral particle assembly. Biophysical and structural evidence shows that this RNA-binding tetramer is strongly modulated by a CCCH Zn binding motif. We show that while the global dissociation/unfolding free energy is 10 kcal mol, more stable for the respiratory syncytial virus M2-1, the human metapneumovirus (HMPV) counterpart shows a 7 kcal mol higher intersubunit affinity. Read More

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November 2018

Reducing inappropriate antibiotic prescribing in upper respiratory tract infection in a primary care setting in Kolkata, India.

Authors:
Amy Dehn Lunn

BMJ Open Qual 2018 20;7(4):e000217. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Calcutta Rescue, Kolkata, India.

Inappropriate antibiotic use is a key factor in the emergence of antibiotic resistance. The majority of antibiotics are prescribed in primary care, where upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) is a common presentation. Inappropriate antibiotic prescribing in URTI is common globally and has increased markedly in developing and transitional countries. Read More

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November 2018

Photoinduced Ligand Release from a Silicon Phthalocyanine Dye Conjugated with Monoclonal Antibodies: A Mechanism of Cancer Cell Cytotoxicity after Near-Infrared Photoimmunotherapy.

ACS Cent Sci 2018 Nov 6;4(11):1559-1569. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Molecular Imaging Program, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-1088, United States.

Photochemical reactions can dramatically alter physical characteristics of reacted molecules. In this study, we demonstrate that near-infrared (NIR) light induces an axial ligand-releasing reaction, which dramatically alters hydrophilicity of a silicon phthalocyanine derivative (IR700) dye leading to a change in the shape of the conjugate and its propensity to aggregate in aqueous solution. This photochemical reaction is proposed as a major mechanism of cell death induced by NIR photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT), which was recently developed as a molecularly targeted cancer therapy. Read More

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November 2018

Favorable outcome with early initiation of VV-ECMO for unilateral lung disease in children.

Respir Med Case Rep 2019 27;26:73-77. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Children's Hospital of Illinois, OSF St Francis Medical Center, Peoria, IL, United States.

Unilateral lung diseases such as unilateral pneumonia, trauma or pulmonary hemorrhage can cause profound hypoxemic respiratory failure necessitating mechanical ventilation. These disorders are characterized by marked asymmetry in lung mechanics, with the affected lung having a lower compliance compared to the healthier lung, and management involves complex strategies such as simultaneous independent lung ventilation. However, such strategies can be challenging in pediatric populations due to technical limitations, and also lead to ventilator induced lung injury. Read More

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November 2018

Death in patients with adaptive servo-ventilation for sleep apnea and no specific SERVE-HF profile: A case series study.

Respir Med Case Rep 2019 26;26:68-72. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Haut-Leveque Cardiology Hospital, Pessac, France.

Purpose: The SERVE-HF study reported a risk of cardiovascular death associated with adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV) for central sleep apnea in patients with chronic heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Therefore, we adopted in May 2015 a safety procedure in our 32 patients with ASV since 2006. It led to ASV removal in four patients due to ≤45% LVEF. Read More

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November 2018

Pregnancy unmasking symptoms of undiagnosed lymphangioleiomyomatosis: Case report and review of literature.

Respir Med Case Rep 2019 23;26:63-67. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Centegra Health Care System, USA.

Cystic lung diseases are a group of disorders that appear similar on radiological studies on chest computed tomography. Each disorder is characterized by its own etiology, pathophysiology, course of progression and manifestation. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is one of the cystic lung diseases that can either be hereditary or sporadic. Read More

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November 2018

The role of adrenergic receptors in lung cancer.

Am J Cancer Res 2018 1;8(11):2227-2237. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, NHC Key Laboratory of Pulmonary Diseases, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology Wuhan 430022, China.

Adrenergic receptors (ARs), especially β-ARs, are constitutively expressed in most mammalian cells and are associated with various malignancies including lung cancer. Epidemiologic studies have reported that activation of β-AR signalling promotes the development and progression of lung cancer and that pharmacological interference by β-AR blockers could partially reverse lung cancer progression. In this review, we mainly focus on the role of β-ARs in lung cancer and then reveal the possible application of AR blockers in anti-tumour therapy for lung cancer. Read More

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November 2018

Population-based paediatric respiratory infection surveillance: a prospective inception feasibility cohort study.

Pilot Feasibility Stud 2018 10;4:182. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

2NIHR Health Protection Research Unit in Evaluation of Interventions (HPRU) and Centre for Academic Primary Care (CAPC), PHS, BRMS, University of Bristol, Canynge Hall, 39 Whatley Road, Bristol, BS8 2PS UK.

Background: There is a need to reduce unnecessary general practitioner (GP) consultations and improve antibiotic stewardship in primary care. Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in children are the most common reason for consulting and prescribing. Most RTI research is conducted at the point of consultation, leaving a knowledge gap regarding the population burden of RTIs. Read More

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December 2018

Baseline clinical characteristics, comorbidities and prescribed medication in a real-world population of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: the PROOF registry.

BMJ Open Respir Res 2018 21;5(1):e000331. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Erasme University Hospital, Brussels, Belgium.

Introduction: PROOF (a Prospective Observational Registry to Describe the Disease Course and Outcomes of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis) is an ongoing, observational registry initiated in 2013 with the aim of collecting real-world data from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Here, we present comprehensive baseline data, which were collected from patients on registry inclusion.

Methods: Patients with IPF were enrolled across eight centres in Belgium and Luxembourg. Read More

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November 2018

Visual rating assessment of cerebral atrophy and its relationship with cognitive function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

BMJ Open Respir Res 2018 26;5(1):e000310. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Academic Respiratory Unit, Clinical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Introduction: Widespread white matter damage and cognitive impairment have been demonstrated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, it remains unclear if brain atrophy is a global phenomenon or if specific subregions are differentially affected. The aims of this study are, first, to test a simple, validated visual analogue grading technique. Read More

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November 2018

Management of malignant carinal involvement using 'side-by-side' method of bilateral self-expandable metallic stents.

Respirol Case Rep 2019 Feb 10;7(2):e00396. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Respiratory Medicine Uji-Tokushukai Medical Center Kyoto Japan.

Central airway obstruction caused by cancer requires urgent interventional pulmonology. Malignant main carinal involvement is one of the most challenging situations, usually treated by rigid bronchoscopic intervention under general anaesthesia. However, these patients tend to be in poor condition due to underlying malignancy. Read More

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February 2019

Lung spindle cell carcinoma harbouring a constitutively active epidermal growth factor receptor mutation.

Respirol Case Rep 2019 Feb 10;7(2):e00395. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Division of Respirology NTT Medical Center Tokyo Tokyo Japan.

Lung spindle cell carcinoma is a rare lung tumour with a poor prognosis, and its standard therapy has not been established. Furthermore, little work has been conducted on the genetic characteristics of lung spindle cell carcinomas. Here, we report an 82-year-old woman who was referred to our hospital due to a fever and dyspnoea. Read More

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February 2019

Preliminary evidence that hydrostatic edema may contribute to the formation of diffuse alveolar damage in a Holstein calf model.

F1000Res 2018 26;7:374. Epub 2018 Mar 26.

Departments of Animal and Food Sciences, College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, 79409, USA.

Two notable findings of clinically healthy feedlot cattle suggest they may have pulmonary hydrostatic edema during the finishing phase of production: increased pulmonary arterial wedge pressures and pulmonary venous hypertrophy. The goal of this study was to determine if increased pulmonary arterial wedge pressure (PAWP) in a Holstein calf could lead to diffuse alveolar damage consistent with the early, exudative phase of acute interstitial pneumonia of feedlot cattle. Six male Holstein dairy calves were given daily subcutaneous injections of the nonspecific ß-adrenergic agonist isoprenaline (10 mg/kg/d), to induce left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, or sterile water for 14 days. Read More

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The North-Western Italian experience with anti IL-5 therapy amd comparison with regulatory trials.

World Allergy Organ J 2018 6;11(1):34. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

1Allergy and Respiratory Diseases, IRCCS Policlinico San Martino, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy.

Background: The severe forms of asthma represent a major burden, because of severity of symptoms, costs and impact on everyday life. Recently, Mepolizumab (MEP) was approved and marketed for the treatment of hypereosinophilic severe asthma. This anti-IL-5 monoclonal antibody reduced exacerbation rates and oral corticosteroid (OCS) use in well selected patients. Read More

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December 2018

Prediagnostic electrocardiographic and echocardiographic findings of biopsy-proven hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

J Arrhythm 2018 Dec 31;34(6):643-646. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

Department of Pediatrics National Hospital Organization Kagoshima Medical Center Kagoshima Japan.

We present two cases of biopsy-proven hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Both cases showed abnormal electrocardiographic (ECG) findings more than 8 years before diagnosis. A 16-year-old healthy male experienced a rescued cardiac arrest. Read More

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December 2018

Momentary giant T-waves hint the genesis of the electrocardiographic T-wave in human.

Authors:
Tomiya Yasumasu

J Arrhythm 2018 Dec 10;34(6):640-642. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

Department of Cardiology Saiseikai Yahata General Hospital Kitakyushu Japan.

T-wave morphology changes are linked to dispersion of ventricular repolarization. I encountered an 80-year-old man on hemodialysis manifesting momentary giant T-waves and QT prolongation on the 12-lead electrocardiogram, soon after initiating mechanical ventilation because of hypercapnic respiratory failure. A computed tomography of the brain showed no acute cerebrovascular accidents. Read More

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December 2018
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