286,281 results match your criteria Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology[Journal]


Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of motor cortex enhances running performance.

PLoS One 2019 22;14(2):e0211902. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

College of Sport Sciences, Chung-Ang University, Anseong, Gyoenggi, South Korea.

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a technique used to modulate neuronal excitability through non-invasive brain stimulation that can enhance exercise performance. We hypothesize that tDCS would improve submaximal running time to exhaustion (TTE) and delay the increase in the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) over time. We also hypothesize that tDCS would not lead to difference in cardiorespiratory responses. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0211902PLOS
February 2019

The neural tides of sleep and consciousness revealed by single-pulse electrical brain stimulation.

Sleep 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Wakefulness and sleep arise from global changes in brain physiology that may also govern the flow of neural activity between cortical regions responsible for perceptual processing vs planning and action. To test whether and how the sleep/wake cycle affects the overall propagation of neural activity in large-scale brain networks, we applied single-pulse electrical stimulation (SPES) in patients implanted with intracranial EEG electrodes for epilepsy surgery. SPES elicited cortico-cortical spectral responses at high-gamma frequencies (CCSRHG, 80-150 Hz), which indexes changes in neuronal population firing rates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sleep/zsz050DOI Listing
February 2019

Pulmonary toxicity following inhalation exposure to VX in anesthetized rats: Possible roles for compromised immunity and oxidative stress-induced lung injury.

Exp Lung Res 2019 Feb 22:1-18. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

a Biochemical and Physiology Branch, Medical Toxicology Research Division , United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense , Aberdeen Proving Ground , Maryland , USA.

The nerve agent VX is one of the most deadly threat agents available in weapons stockpiles for intentional release. While mostly considered a percutaneous toxicant, it can be fatal when aerosolized. The objective of this study was to investigate toxic responses in the lung up to two weeks following a single 10-minute exposure to inhaled VX. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01902148.2018.1519003DOI Listing
February 2019

Protein kinase B mediates insulin-like growth factor 1-induced phosphorylation and nuclear export of histone deacetylase 5 via NADPH oxidase 4 activation in vascular smooth muscle cells.

J Cell Physiol 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Laboratory of Cellular Signaling, Montreal Diabetes Research Center and Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CRCHUM), Montreal, Canada.

Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) mediates the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the activation of growth promoting signaling pathways. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulate gene transcription by deacetylating lysine residues in histone and nonhistone proteins and a heightened HDAC activation, notably of HDAC5, is associated with vascular disorders, such as atherosclerosis. Although the contribution of IGF-1 in these pathologies is well documented, its role in HDAC phosphorylation and activation remains unexplored. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.28353DOI Listing
February 2019

Systems biology identifies preserved integrity but impaired metabolism of mitochondria due to a glycolytic defect in Alzheimer's disease neurons.

Aging Cell 2019 Feb 21:e12924. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Physiology & Medical Physics, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland.

Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in most neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). We here combined experimental and computational approaches to investigate mitochondrial health and bioenergetic function in neurons from a double transgenic animal model of AD (PS2APP/B6.152H). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acel.12924DOI Listing
February 2019

An update on the genetics, clinical presentation, and pathomechanisms of human riboflavin transporter deficiency.

J Inherit Metab Dis 2019 Jan 12. Epub 2019 Jan 12.

MRC Centre for Neuromuscular Diseases, Department of Neuromuscular Diseases, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology and National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London, UK.

Riboflavin transporter deficiency (RTD) is a rare neurological condition that encompasses the Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere and Fazio-Londe syndromes since the discovery of pathogenic mutations in the SLC52A2 and SLC52A3 genes that encode human riboflavin transporters RFVT2 and RFVT3. Patients present with a deteriorating progression of peripheral and cranial neuropathy that causes muscle weakness, vision loss, deafness, sensory ataxia, and respiratory compromise which when left untreated can be fatal. Considerable progress in the clinical and genetic diagnosis of RTDs has been made in recent years and has permitted the successful lifesaving treatment of many patients with high dose riboflavin supplementation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jimd.12053DOI Listing
January 2019

Ultra-protective mechanical ventilation without extra-corporeal carbon dioxide removal for acute respiratory distress syndrome.

J Intensive Care Soc 2019 Feb 10;20(1):40-45. Epub 2018 May 10.

Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Environmental Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA.

Background: Tidal hyperinflation can still occur with mechanical ventilation using low tidal volume (LVT) (6 mL/kg predicted body weight (PBW)) in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), despite a well-demonstrated reduction in mortality.

Methods: Retrospective chart review from August 2012 to October 2014. : Age >18years, PaO/FiO<200 with bilateral pulmonary infiltrates, absent heart failure, and ultra-protective mechanical ventilation (UPMV) defined as tidal volume (VT) <6 mL/kg PBW. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1751143718774712DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6376584PMC
February 2019

Oxygen saturation and haemodynamic changes prior to circulatory arrest: Implications for transplantation and resuscitation.

J Intensive Care Soc 2019 Feb 10;20(1):27-33. Epub 2018 May 10.

Paediatric Intensive Care Department, Nottingham Children's Hospital, Nottingham, UK.

Aims: To describe the progression of oxygen saturations and blood pressure observations prior to death.

Introduction: The progression of physiological changes around death is unknown. This has important implications in organ donation and resuscitation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1751143718764541DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6376585PMC
February 2019

Fluorine-Modified Rutaecarpine Exerts Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibition and Anti-inflammatory Effects in Lungs.

Front Pharmacol 2019 7;10:91. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Inflammation is the first step that leads to inflammatory cell migration, cytokine release, and myofibroblast formation. Myofibroblasts can deposit excess amounts of extracellular matrix. Cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor exhibits strong anti-inflammatory response; however, this is usually achieved with undesirable side effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2019.00091DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6374341PMC
February 2019

A clean fuel cookstove is associated with improved lung function: Effect modification by age and secondhand tobacco smoke exposure.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2487. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Medicine in Anesthesiology, Physiology and Cellular Biophysics, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.

Household air pollution (HAP) secondary to the burning of solid fuels is a major risk factor for the development of COPD. Our study seeks to examine the impact of a clean cookstove, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), on respiratory outcomes. Women (n = 200) from neighboring Indian communities, one cooking with LPG and one with biomass, were enrolled. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-37887-8DOI Listing
February 2019

Reducing bedtime physiological arousal levels using immersive audio-visual respiratory bio-feedback: a pilot study in women with insomnia symptoms.

J Behav Med 2019 Feb 21. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Center for Health Sciences, SRI International, 333 Ravenswood Avenue, Menlo Park, CA, 94025, USA.

Hyperarousal is a critical component of insomnia, particularly at bedtime when individuals are trying to fall asleep. The current study evaluated the effect of a novel, acute behavioral experimental manipulation (combined immersive audio-visual relaxation and biofeedback) in reducing bedtime physiological hyperarousal in women with insomnia symptoms. After a clinical/adaptation polysomnographic (PSG) night, sixteen women with insomnia symptoms had two random-order PSG nights: immersive audio-visual respiratory bio-feedback across the falling asleep period (manipulation night), and no pre-sleep arousal manipulation (control night). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10865-019-00020-9DOI Listing
February 2019

Matrix Metalloproteinases in COPD and atherosclerosis with emphasis on the effects of smoking.

PLoS One 2019 21;14(2):e0211987. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine unit, Department of Translational Medicine, Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.

Background: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP´s) are known biomarkers of atherosclerosis. MMP´s are also involved in the pathophysiological processes underlying chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Cigarette smoking plays an important role in both disease states and is also known to affect the concentration and activity of MMP´s systemically. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0211987PLOS
February 2019

Physiology and Predictors of Impaired Gas Exchange in Infants with Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2019 Feb 21. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

University of Western Australia, Human Sciences, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Rationale A sensitive outcome measure for infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia would facilitate clinical benchmarking, enhance epidemiological understanding, evaluation of clinical interventions, and outcome prediction. Objectives Non-invasive assessment of pulmonary gas exchange in preterm infants with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia to grade disease severity and identify determinants of impaired gas exchange. Methods Prospective observational study in very preterm infants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201810-2037OCDOI Listing
February 2019

Post-intensive care unit respiratory failure in older patients liberated from intensive care unit and ventilator: The predictive value of the National Early Warning Score on intensive care unit discharge.

Geriatr Gerontol Int 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Institute of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Aim: The older adult population is continuously growing worldwide and there is increasing use of medical recourse in older patients, especially for those requiring intensive care unit (ICU) care and mechanical ventilation (MV). The present study aimed to investigate the burden and predictors of post-ICU respiratory failure in older ICU patients weaned from MV.

Methods: In the present retrospective study, older ICU patients aged ≥60 years, who were successfully weaned from MV and discharged to the general ward from the ICU of Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, in 2011, were included. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ggi.13626DOI Listing
February 2019

Muscle weakness in a sepsis mouse model.

Ann Transl Med 2019 Jan;7(1)

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: The pathophysiology of intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICU-AW), which affects peripheral nerves, limb muscles and respiratory muscles, is complex and incompletely understood. This illustrates the need for an ICU-AW animal model. However, a translatable and easily applicable ICU-AW animal model does not exist. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm.2018.12.45DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6351370PMC
January 2019

A Comparison of the Maximal Fat Oxidation Rates of Three Different Time Periods in The Fatmax Stage.

J Sports Sci Med 2019 Mar 11;18(1):44-51. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Çukurova University, Medical Faculty, Department of Physiology, Division of Sports Physiology, Adana, Turkey.

This study aimed to compare the maximal fat oxidation (MFO) rates obtained from the stage average, last 2 min average, and highest value in the Fatmax stage determined with a 6 min step protocol. A total of 35 overweight, sedentary healthy men (age: 25.4 ± 0. Read More

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Transnasal Humidified Rapid Insufflation Ventilatory Exchange in children requiring emergent intubation (Kids THRIVE): a protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

BMJ Open 2019 Feb 20;9(2):e025997. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Paediatric Critical Care Research Group (PCCRG), Queensland Children's Hospital and The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Introduction: Emergency intubation of children with abnormal respiratory or cardiac physiology is a high-risk procedure and associated with a high incidence of adverse events including hypoxemia. Successful emergency intubation is dependent on inter-related patient and operator factors. Preoxygenation has been used to maximise oxygen reserves in the patient and to prolong the safe apnoeic time during the intubation phase. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-025997DOI Listing
February 2019

Effects of aerobic exercise on molecular aspects of asthma: involvement of SOCS-JAK-STAT.

Exerc Immunol Rev 2019 ;25:50-62

Universidade Brasil, Post-graduation Program in Bioengineering and in Biomedical Engineering, Campus Itaquera, Rua Carolina Fonseca 235, São Paulo - SP, Brazil, 08230-030. Brazilian Institute of Teaching and Research in Pulmonary and Exercise Immunology (IBEPIPE). Rua Pedro Ernesto 240, São José dos Campos - SP, Brazil, 12245-520. Post-Graduation Program in Sciences of Human Movement and Rehabilitation, Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Campus Baixada Santista, Av. Ana Costa, 95 - Vila Mathias - Santos/SP - CEP: 11060-001.

Background: Aerobic training (AT) decreases airway inflammation in asthma, but the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms are not completely understood. Thus, this study evaluated the participation of SOCS-JAK-STAT signaling in the effects of AT on airway inflammation, remodeling and hyperresponsiveness in a model of allergic airway inflammation.

Methods: C57Bl/6 mice were divided into Control (Co), Exercise (Ex), HDM (HDM), and HDM+Exercise (HDM+ Ex). Read More

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January 2019

Protection of hepatocyte mitochondrial function by blueberry juice and probiotics via SIRT1 regulation in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

Food Funct 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Guiyang Dental Hospital, Guiyang 550003, China.

Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Our previous study has firstly reported that blueberry juice and probiotics (BP) effectively protect liver function in NAFLD. However, the role of BP in hepatic mitochondria is unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8fo02298dDOI Listing
February 2019

Citrus alkaline extracts prevent fibroblast senescence to ameliorate pulmonary fibrosis via activation of COX-2.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Feb 19;112:108669. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, 210029, China; Department of Respiratory Medicine, Jiangsu Province Hospital of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, 210029, China. Electronic address:

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and ultimately fatal lung disease with a poor prognosis and limited treatment options. The incidence of IPF increases with age, and the mechanisms related to aging such as cellular senescence have been strongly implicated in disease pathology. Therefore, a better understanding of fibroblasts senescence might provide a new therapeutic strategy to prevent and treat pulmonary fibrosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2019.108669DOI Listing
February 2019

Classic and Nonclassic Renin-Angiotensin Systems in the Critically Ill.

Crit Care Clin 2019 Apr 28;35(2):213-227. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Austin Health, Austin Hospital, 145 Studley Road, Heidelberg, Victoria 3084, Australia.

Classic and nonclassic renin-angiotensin systems (RAS) are 2 sides of an ubiquitous endocrine/paracrine cascade regulating blood pressure and homeostasis. Angiotensin II and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) levels are associated with severity of disease in the critically ill, and are central to the physiology and the pathogenesis of circulatory shock. Angiotensin (1-7) and ACE2 act as an endogenous counterregulatory arm to the angiotensin II/ACE axis. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S07490704183077
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccc.2018.11.002DOI Listing
April 2019
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Metabolomic and lipidomic plasma profile changes in human participants ascending to Everest Base Camp.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 19;9(1):2297. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Centre for Human and Applied Physiological Sciences, King's College London, London, UK.

At high altitude oxygen delivery to the tissues is impaired leading to oxygen insufficiency (hypoxia). Acclimatisation requires adjustment to tissue metabolism, the details of which remain incompletely understood. Here, metabolic responses to progressive environmental hypoxia were assessed through metabolomic and lipidomic profiling of human plasma taken from 198 human participants before and during an ascent to Everest Base Camp (5,300 m). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-38832-zDOI Listing
February 2019

Effects of Breath-Hold Deep Diving on the Pulmonary System.

Respiration 2019 Feb 15:1-8. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Sports Medicine, Medical Clinic, Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

This short review focuses on pulmonary injury in breath-hold (BH) divers. When practicing their extreme leisure sport, they are exposed to increased pressure on pulmonary gas volumes, hypoxia, and increased partial gas pressures. Increasing ambient pressures do present a serious problem to BH deep divers, because the semi-rigid thorax prevents the deformation required by the Boyle-Mariotte law. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000495757DOI Listing
February 2019

Designing nutrition-based interventional trials for the future: addressing the known knowns.

Crit Care 2019 Feb 19;23(1):53. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine & Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.

The consistent decline in critical illness mortality has a significant effect on trial design, whereby either an improbable effect sizes or large number of patients are required.The signal-to-noise ratio is of particular interest for the critically ill. When considering the potential signal, interventions need to match outcomes in regard to biological plausibility. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13054-019-2345-5DOI Listing
February 2019

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease as a Main Factor of Premature Aging.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 Feb 13;16(4). Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Respiratory Medicine Department, University of Thessaly Medical School, University Hospital of Larisa, 41110 Larissa, Greece.

(1) Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is defined as an inflammatory disorder that presents an increasingly prevalent health problem. Accelerated aging has been examined as a pathologic mechanism of many chronic diseases like COPD. We examined whether COPD is combined with accelerated aging, studying two hormones, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and growth hormone (GH), known to be characteristic biological markers of aging. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/16/4/540
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16040540DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Declining Mortality in Patients With Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: An Analysis of the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network Trials.

Crit Care Med 2019 Mar;47(3):315-323

Department of Emergency Medicine, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Objectives: There has been multiple advances in the management of acute respiratory distress syndrome, but the temporal trends in acute respiratory distress syndrome-related mortality are not well known. This study aimed to investigate the trends in mortality in acute respiratory distress syndrome patients over time and to explore the roles of daily fluid balance and ventilation variables in those patients.

Design: Secondary analysis of randomized controlled trials conducted by the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network from 1996 to 2013. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000003499DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

The OXPHOS supercomplex assembly factor HIG2A responds to changes in energetic metabolism and cell cycle.

J Cell Physiol 2019 Feb 18. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas, Facultad Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

HIG2A promotes cell survival under hypoxia and mediates the assembly of complex III and complex IV into respiratory chain supercomplexes. In the present study, we show that human HIGD2A and mouse Higd2a gene expressions are regulated by hypoxia, glucose, and the cell cycle-related transcription factor E2F1. The latter was found to bind the promoter region of HIGD2A. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.28362DOI Listing
February 2019

Unravelling the first key steps in equine herpesvirus type 5 (EHV5) pathogenesis using ex vivo and in vitro equine models.

Vet Res 2019 Feb 18;50(1):13. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Virology, Parasitology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, 9820, Merelbeke, Belgium.

Equine herpesvirus type 5 (EHV5) is a ubiquitous, yet obscure pathogen in the horse population and is commonly associated with fatal equine multinodular pulmonary fibrosis (EMPF). To date, little is known about the precise pathogenesis of EHV5. Here, we evaluated the dynamics of EHV5 infection in representative ex vivo and in vitro equine models, using immunofluorescence staining and virus titration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13567-019-0630-6DOI Listing
February 2019

Efficacy and safety of Xuebijing injection and its influence on immunomodulation in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Trials 2019 Feb 18;20(1):136. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Pulmonary & Critical Care Medicine, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing, 100853, China.

Background: Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) is the leading cause of mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used in Asia as an adjunct treatment for AECOPD to improve the patients' symptoms. Xuebijing (XBJ) injection is one of the major herbal medicines used in TCM. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-019-3204-zDOI Listing
February 2019

[Guidelines of the German Respiratory Society for Diagnosis and Treatment of Adults Suffering from Acute, Subacute and Chronic Cough].

Pneumologie 2019 Feb 18. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Facharztforum Fürth.

The present 2019 S2k consensus guideline of the German Respiratory Society was written - in contrast to the predecessor more general S3 guidelines from 2004 and 2010 - for pneumologists, since 2014 the German College of General Practitioners and Family Physicians (DEGAM) published his own cough guidelines.The guideline contains 48 recommendations agreed by consensus and 16 statements, which are explained in the background text in the following nine chapters: epidemiology, physiology, classification, acute, subacute or chronic cough, diagnostics and therapy; an extra chapter was dedicated to chronic idiopathic cough. Further emphasis of the guideline is the physiology of cough in anticipation of the introduction of new drugs, as well as detailed treatises on cough triggered by affections in the upper respiratory tract or by gastroesophageal reflux. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-0808-7409DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Urban-Rural Disparities in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Management and Access in Uganda.

Chronic Obstr Pulm Dis 2019 Jan 4;6(1):17-28. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Department of Medicine and Lung Institute, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.

Almost 90% of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where there are large rural populations and access to health care for COPD is poor. The purpose of this study was to compare urban-rural provider experiences regarding systemic facilitators and barriers to COPD management and treatment access. We conducted a qualitative study using direct observations and in-depth semi-structured interviews with 16 and 10 health care providers in urban Kampala and rural Nakaseke, Uganda, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15326/jcopdf.6.1.2018.0143DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6373590PMC
January 2019

Computer simulation clarifies mechanisms of carbon dioxide clearance during apnoea.

Br J Anaesth 2019 Mar 6;122(3):395-401. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Anaesthesia and Critical Care, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK; Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham, UK.

Background: Apnoeic oxygenation can come close to matching the oxygen demands of the apnoeic patient but does not facilitate carbon dioxide (CO) elimination, potentially resulting in dangerous hypercapnia. Numerous studies have shown that high-flow nasal oxygen administration prevents hypoxaemia, and appears to reduce the rate of increase of arterial CO partial pressure (Pa), but evidence is lacking to explain these effects.

Methods: We extended a high-fidelity computational simulation of cardiopulmonary physiology to include modules allowing variable effects of: (a) cardiogenic oscillations affecting intrathoracic gas spaces, (b) gas mixing within the anatomical dead space, (c) insufflation into the trachea or above the glottis, and (d) pharyngeal pressure oscillation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bja.2018.11.012DOI Listing

Alveolar-Capillary Membrane-Related Pulmonary Cells as a Target in Endotoxin-Induced Acute Lung Injury.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Feb 15;20(4). Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Physiology and Biomedical Center Martin, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine in Martin, Comenius University in Bratislava, 03601 Martin, Slovakia.

The main function of the lungs is oxygen transport from the atmosphere into the blood circulation, while it is necessary to keep the pulmonary tissue relatively free of pathogens. This is a difficult task because the respiratory system is constantly exposed to harmful substances entering the lungs by inhalation or via the blood stream. Individual types of lung cells are equipped with the mechanisms that maintain pulmonary homeostasis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20040831DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Near-drowning: new perspectives for human hypoxic acute kidney injury.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Medicine D, Rambam Health Care Campus and Ruth & Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion-IIT, Haifa, Israel.

Concepts regarding hypoxic acute kidney injury (AKI) are derived from widely used warm ischemia-reflow (WIR) models, characterized by extensive proximal tubular injury and associated with profound inflammation. However, there is ample clinical and experimental data indicating that hypoxic AKI may develop without total cessation of renal blood flow, with a different injury pattern that principally affects medullary thick limbs in the outer medulla. This injury pattern likely reflects an imbalance between blood and oxygen supply and oxygen expenditure, principally for tubular transport. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfz016DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Bioenergetic deficits in Huntington's disease iPSC-derived neural cells and rescue with glycolytic metabolites.

Hum Mol Genet 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Division of Neurobiology, Departments of Psychiatry, Neurology, Pharmacology, and Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 North Wolfe Street, CMSC 8-121, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 USA.

Altered cellular metabolism is believed to be an important contributor to pathogenesis of the neurodegenerative disorder Huntington's disease (HD). Research has primarily focused on mitochondrial toxicity, which can cause death of the vulnerable striatal neurons, but other aspects of metabolism have also been implicated. Most previous studies have been carried out using post-mortem human brain or non-human cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddy430DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Emerging Roles in the Biogenesis of Cytochrome Oxidase for Members of the Mitochondrial Carrier Family.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2019 31;7. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States.

The mitochondrial carrier family (MCF) is a group of transport proteins that are mostly localized to the inner mitochondrial membrane where they facilitate the movement of various solutes across the membrane. Although these carriers represent potential targets for therapeutic application and are repeatedly associated with human disease, research on the MCF has not progressed commensurate to their physiologic and pathophysiologic importance. Many of the 53 MCF members in humans are orphans and lack known transport substrates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2019.00003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6365663PMC
January 2019

Microsurgical technique for concurrent cervical corpectomy and ventral phrenic nerve access in the rat.

MethodsX 2019 13;6:239-245. Epub 2018 Aug 13.

Dept. of Neurobiology & Anatomy, Drexel University College of Medicine, 2900, Queen Lane, Philadelphia, PA, 19129, USA.

The phrenic nerve is useful to record as a motor output in studies investigating neural control of respiration. It may be accessed via dorsal or ventral microsurgical approaches. Since such studies frequently involve concurrent access to the spinal cord, the two approaches may be alternatively used, each with its own set of advantages and disadvantages. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mex.2018.08.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6360515PMC

Doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy associated with inhibition of autophagic degradation process and defects in mitochondrial respiration.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 14;9(1):2002. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Pathology and Translational Pathobiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center-Shreveport, Shreveport, LA, 71103, USA.

Doxorubicin (Dox) is a highly effective anticancer drug but cause acute ventricular dysfunction, and also induce late-onset cardiomyopathy and heart failure. Despite extensive studies, the pathogenic sequelae leading to the progression of Dox-associated cardiomyopathy remains unknown. We assessed temporal changes in autophagy, mitochondrial dynamics, and bioenergetics in mouse models of acute and chronic Dox-cardiomyopathy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-37862-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6376057PMC
February 2019
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Exercise intolerance in comorbid COPD-heart failure: the role of impaired aerobic function.

Eur Respir J 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Laboratory of Clinical Exercise Physiology and Respiratory Investigation Unit, Queen's University & Kingston General Hospital, Kingston, ON, Canada.

Impaired aerobic function is a potential mechanism of exercise intolerance in patients with combined cardiorespiratory disease. We investigated the pathophysiological and sensory consequences of a low Δ O uptake (V̇O)/Δ work rate (WR) relationship during incremental exercise in patients with coexisting chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and systolic heart failure (HF).After clinical stabilisation, 51 COPD-HF patients performed an incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test to symptom limitation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/13993003.02386-2018DOI Listing
February 2019
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Targeting cholesterol metabolism in glioblastoma: a new therapeutic approach in cancer therapy.

J Investig Med 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Human Anatomy and Cell Sciences, Max Rady College of Medicine, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive malignant brain tumor known with a poor survival rate despite current advances in the field of cancer. Additional research into the pathophysiology of GBM is urgently needed given the devastating nature of this disease. Recent studies have revealed the unique cellular physiology of GBM cells as compared with healthy astrocytes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jim-2018-000962DOI Listing
February 2019
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A six-month systems toxicology inhalation/cessation study in ApoE mice to investigate cardiovascular and respiratory exposure effects of modified risk tobacco products, CHTP 1.2 and THS 2.2, compared with conventional cigarettes.

Food Chem Toxicol 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

PMI R&D, Philip Morris Products S.A., Quai Jeanrenaud 5, CH-2000, Neuchâtel, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Smoking is one of the major modifiable risk factors in the development and progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Modified-risk tobacco products (MRTP) are being developed to provide substitute products for smokers who are unable or unwilling to quit, to lessen the smoking-related health risks. In this study, the ApoE mouse model was used to investigate the impact of cigarette smoke (CS) from the reference cigarette 3R4F, or aerosol from two potential MRTPs based on the heat-not-burn principle, carbon-heated tobacco product 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2019.02.008DOI Listing
February 2019
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Composition and Variation of the Human Milk Microbiota Are Influenced by Maternal and Early-Life Factors.

Cell Host Microbe 2019 Feb;25(2):324-335.e4

Children's Hospital Research Institute of Manitoba, Pediatrics and Child Health, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; Developmental Origins of Chronic Diseases in Children Network (DEVOTION), Winnipeg, MB, Canada. Electronic address:

Breastmilk contains a complex community of bacteria that may help seed the infant gut microbiota. The composition and determinants of milk microbiota are poorly understood. Among 393 mother-infant dyads from the CHILD cohort, we found that milk microbiota at 3-4 months postpartum was dominated by inversely correlated Proteobacteria and Firmicutes, and exhibited discrete compositional patterns. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2019.01.011DOI Listing
February 2019

Tidal breathing flow volume profiles during sleep in wheezing infants measured by impedance pneumography.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Allergology, University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland, Finland.

Overnight analysis of tidal breathing flow volume loops (TBFV), recorded by impedance pneumography (IP), has been successfully applied in the home monitoring of children with wheezing disorders. However, little is known on how sleep physiology modifies the relationship between TBFV profiles and wheeze. We studied such interactions in wheezing infants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01007.2018DOI Listing
February 2019
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Respiratory system reactance reflects communicating lung volume in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Respiratory Medicine, Woolcock Institute, University of Sydney, Australia.

Respiratory system reactance (Xrs) measured by the forced oscillation technique (FOT) is theoretically and experimentally related to lung volume. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the absolute volume measured by body plethysmography includes a proportion which is inaccessible to pressure oscillations applied via the mouth - that is, a 'non-communicating' lung volume. We hypothesized that, in COPD, the presence of non-communicating lung would disrupt the expected Xrs-volume relationship when compared to plethysmographic functional residual capacity (FRC). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00503.2018DOI Listing
February 2019
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Submaximal heart rate seems inadequate to prescribe and monitor intensified training.

Eur J Sport Sci 2019 Feb 14:1-10. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

a Department of Human Movement Sciences, Faculty of Behavioural and Movement Sciences , Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam , Amsterdam , Netherlands.

The aim of this study is to investigate whether the change in (sub)maximal heart rate after intensified training is associated with the change in performance. Thirty subjects were recruited who performed cardiopulmonary exercise tests to exhaustion 2 weeks before (pre), 1 week after (post) and 5 weeks after (follow-up) an 8-day non-competitive amateur cycling event (TFL). The exercise volume during the TFL was 7. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2019.1571112DOI Listing
February 2019
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Reduced mitochondrial respiration and increased calcium deposits in the EDL muscle, but not in soleus, from 12-week-old dystrophic mdx mice.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 13;9(1):1986. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Mitochondria play an important role in providing ATP for muscle contraction. Muscle physiology is compromised in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and several studies have shown the involvement of bioenergetics. In this work we investigated the mitochondrial physiology in fibers from fast-twitch muscle (EDL) and slow-twitch muscle (soleus) in the mdx mouse model for DMD and in control C57BL/10J mice. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-38609-4
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-38609-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6374364PMC
February 2019
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Ventilation and gas exchange before and after voluntary static surface breath-holds in clinically healthy bottlenose dolphins, .

J Exp Biol 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Fundación Oceanogràfic de la Comunitat Valenciana, Gran Vía Marqués del Turia 19, 46005 Valencia, Spain.

We measured respiratory flow (), breathing frequency (), tidal volume (), breath durations, and end-expired O content in bottlenose dolphins () before and after static surface breath-holds ranging from 34 to 292 s. There was considerable variation in the end-expired O, tidal volume , and following a breath-hold. The analysis suggests that the dolphins attempt to minimize recovery following a dive by altering , and to rapidly restore the O stores. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jeb.192211DOI Listing
February 2019

Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists Improve Membrane Integrity Independent of Muscle Force in Muscular Dystrophy.

Hum Mol Genet 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Physiology and Cell Biology.

Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) drugs have been used clinically for decades to treat cardiovascular diseases. MR antagonists show preclinical efficacy not only for heart in Duchenne muscular dystrophy models, but also improve skeletal muscle force and muscle membrane integrity. The mechanisms of action of MR antagonists in skeletal muscles are entirely unknown. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/hmg/advance-article/doi/10.1093/hmg
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddz039DOI Listing
February 2019
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Association of Genetic and Clinical Aspects of Congenital Long QT Syndrome With Life-Threatening Arrhythmias in Japanese Patients.

JAMA Cardiol 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Japan.

Importance: Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is caused by several ion channel genes, yet risk of arrhythmic events is not determined solely by the responsible gene pathogenic variants. Female sex after adolescence is associated with a higher risk of arrhythmic events in individuals with congenital LQTS, but the association between sex and genotype-based risk of LQTS is still unclear.

Objective: To examine the association between sex and location of the LQTS-related pathogenic variant as it pertains to the risk of life-threatening arrhythmias. Read More

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http://cardiology.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?doi=10.1001/j
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2018.4925DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads