576,847 results match your criteria Respiratory Medicine: COPD Update [Journal]


T-cell immunology of the lung: maintaining the balance between host defence and immune pathology.

Authors:
Daniel M Altmann

Immunology 2019 Jan;156(1):1-2

Department of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK.

Respiratory immunology poses the dual questions of how to grapple with lung infection as one of the greatest unmet global health needs of our time, while also dealing with the growing challenge posed by chronic diseases of excessive or inappropriate lung inflammation and immunity, such as chronic obstructive lung disease and asthma. These separate branches of pulmonary research are linked by the clear observation that, in a tissue as fragile as the lung, protection from microbial attack may come at the cost of chronic inflammatory damage. A number of recent studies have considered specific aspects of this double-edged sword, including the diversity of responses to fungal exposure, sources and consequences of interleukin-17 immunity, and the role of tertiary lymphoid follicles in the lung. Read More

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January 2019
9 Reads

Cigarette Smoke Extract Promotes TIM4 Expression in Murine Dendritic Cells Leading to Th2 Polarization through ERK-Dependent Pathways.

Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2018 Dec 6:1-10. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Laboratory of Clinical Immunology, Wuhan No. 1 Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan,

Smoking is considered to be the main source of indoor pollution, and it has been identified as an important environmental factor contributing to asthma onset. We know that T helper 2 (Th2) response plays a crucial role in the process of asthma disease. We have investigated the reaction of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on Th polarization which is controlled by dendritic cells (DCs). Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Usual Interstitial Pneumonia Pattern in the Lower Lung Lobes as a Prognostic Factor in Idiopathic Pleuroparenchymal Fibroelastosis.

Respiration 2018 Dec 6:1-10. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (IPPFE) is a rare interstitial pneumonia that is characterized by stiffness in both the upper lobes and pleura, which is evident on high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the chest. However, prognostic factors for IPPFE have not been identified yet.

Objective: We aimed to investigate the clinical prognostic factors affecting survival in patients with IPPFE. Read More

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December 2018
6 Reads

Impact of short-term traffic-related air pollution on the metabolome - Results from two metabolome-wide experimental studies.

Environ Int 2018 Dec 3;123:124-131. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

MRC/PHE Centre for Environment and Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom; Italian Institute for Genomic Medicine (IIGM), Turin, Italy. Electronic address:

Exposure to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) has been associated with adverse health outcomes but underlying biological mechanisms remain poorly understood. Two randomized crossover trials were used here, the Oxford Street II (London) and the TAPAS II (Barcelona) studies, where volunteers were allocated to high or low air pollution exposures. The two locations represent different exposure scenarios, with Oxford Street characterized by diesel vehicles and Barcelona by normal mixed urban traffic. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Pulmonary impairment following respiratory viral infections is associated with high mortality in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant recipients.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Infectious Diseases, Infection Control and Employee Health, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.

Introduction: Pulmonary impairment predicts increased mortality in many settings, and respiratory viral infection (RVI) causes considerable morbidity and mortality in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant recipients (allo-HCT). We hypothesized that pulmonary impairment following respiratory viral infection, defined as a decline of forced expiratory volume in 1 second values by ≥10%, may identify allo-HCT recipients at high risk for mortality.

Methods: We studied all allo-HCT recipients at our institution who had RVI with respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, or influenza from 2004-2013 and had pre-RVI and post-RVI pulmonary function tests. Read More

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December 2018

Violence and aggression in young women: The importance of psychopathy and neurobiological function.

Physiol Behav 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Institute for Drug and Alcohol Studies, Departments of Psychiatry, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, United States.

Psychopathy is one of the most researched risk factors for violence. Yet, research in women is sparse. The present study aimed to test if the link between the four-facet structure of psychopathy and interpersonal violence and aggression was moderated by neurobiological function (indexed by resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia; RSA). Read More

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December 2018

Antiasthmatic potential of Zizyphus jujuba Mill and Jujuboside B. - Possible role in the treatment of asthma.

Respir Physiol Neurobiol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

R.C. Patel Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research, Shirpur, Dhule, 425405, India.

Zizyphus jujuba Mill, a famous oriental traditional medicine, has been reported to exhibit diverse activities in biological systems including the respiratory system. However, a little information is available on its antiasthmatic activity. Jujuboside B (JB) is a natural saponin and one of the active constituent of fruits of Zizyphus jujuba. Read More

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December 2018

Are environmental factors for atopic eczema in ISAAC Phase Three due to reverse causation?

J Invest Dermatol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Paediatrics, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, SAR China.

Some previously described environmental associations for atopic eczema (AE) may be due to reverse causation. We explored the role of reverse causation by comparing individual- and school-level results for multiple AE risk factors. ISAAC Phase Three surveyed children within schools (the sampling unit) on AE symptoms and potential risk factors. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Development of a respiratory disease model for enterovirus D68 in 4-week-Old mice for evaluation of antiviral therapies.

Antiviral Res 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Institute for Antiviral Research, Utah State University, Logan, UT, United States; Department of Animal, Dairy and Veterinary Sciences, Utah State University, Logan, UT, United States; Utah Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Logan, UT, United States. Electronic address:

Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is a non-polio enterovirus that affects the respiratory system and can cause serious complications, especially in children and older people with weakened immune systems. As an emerging virus, there are no current antiviral therapies or vaccines available. Our goal was to develop a mouse model of human EV-D68 infection that mimicked the disease observed in humans and could be used for evaluation of experimental therapeutics. Read More

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December 2018
6 Reads

Electronic "Sniffer" Systems to Identify the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Systematic Review.

Ann Am Thorac Soc 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

University of Michigan, Internal Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States ;

Background: The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) results in substantial mortality but remains underdiagnosed in clinical practice. Automated ARDS "sniffer" systems, tools that can automatically analyze electronic medical record data, have been developed to improve recognition of ARDS in clinical practice.

Objective: To perform a systematic review examining the evidence underlying automated sniffer systems for ARDS detection. Read More

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December 2018

Identification and Modulation of Microenvironment is Crucial for Effective MSC Therapy in Acute Lung Injury.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

The State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Disease, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China, Critical Care Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

Rationale: There are controversial reports on applications of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).

Objective: We hypothesized that lung microenvironment was the main determinant of beneficial versus detrimental effects of MSCs during ARDS.

Methods: Lung proteome was profiled in three models of injury induced by acid instillation and/or mechanical ventilation in mice. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Maternal and perinatal outcomes of expectant treatment of severe preeclampsia

Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc 2018 11 30;56(4):379-386. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Hospital de Ginecología y Obstetricia No. 3 “Dr. Víctor Manuel Espinoza de los Reyes Sánchez”, Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos. Ciudad de México, México

Background: In severe preeclampsia (SP), pregnancy interruption is the first recommendation. However, some patients receive expectant treatment.

Objetive: To determine maternal and perinatal results of expectant treatment of SP in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a high-specialty hospital. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

Pre-emptive and preventive opioids for postoperative pain in adults undergoing all types of surgery.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 3;12:CD012624. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Surgery and Anaesthesia, Division of Medical Sciences and Graduate Entry Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Uttoxeter New Road, Derby, UK, DE22 3DT.

Background: Postoperative pain is a common consequence of surgery and can have deleterious effects. It has been suggested that the administration of opioid analgesia before a painful stimulus may improve pain control. This can be done in two ways. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Effects of cold on murine brain mitochondrial function.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208453. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, CAN.

Therapeutic hypothermia is a strategy that reduces metabolic rate and brain damage during clinically-relevant hypoxic events. Mitochondrial respiration is compromised by hypoxia, with deleterious consequences for the mammalian brain; however, little is known about the effects of reduced temperature on mitochondrial metabolism. Therefore, we examined how mitochondrial function is impacted by temperature using high resolution respirometry to assess electron transport system (ETS) function in saponin-permeabilized mouse brain at 28 and 37°C. Read More

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December 2018

A randomized controlled trial to evaluate performance of pigs raised in antibiotic-free or conventional production systems following challenge with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208430. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Swine Technical Services, Zoetis, Parsippany, New Jersey, United States of America.

The trial objective was to compare the performance and animal health parameters of pigs raised according to one of 3 antibiotic (AB) protocols: standard AB medication consisting of mass treatment on days 4 and 21 and judicious AB therapy given therapeutically thereafter as group medication in water and feed or by individual injection (group T1, N = 702); modified AB medication identical to group T1 but with mass treatment only on day 4 and without subsequent therapeutic feed medication (group T2, N = 675); or an antibiotic-free (ABF) regimen (group T3, N = 702). All pigs were vaccinated with a modified-live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine 3 days after weaning. Using a seeder pig model to mimic endemic field infection dynamics, pigs were contact-challenged with virulent PRRSV lineage 1 strain 174 four weeks after vaccination. Read More

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December 2018

Atypical and severe manifestations of chikungunya virus infection in French Guiana: A hospital-based study.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0207406. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Tropical and Infectious Diseases Department, Centre Hospitalier Andrée Rosemon, Cayenne, French Guiana.

Background: French Guiana (FG) was the first country in South America to declare chikungunya virus infection (CHIKV). The outbreak affected about 16,000 persons between February 2014 and October 2015, with several atypical cases, but only two fatal cases. We aimed to describe the clinical presentation of patients hospitalized for CHIKV infection, to estimate and identify risk factors of unusual and severe forms in adult patients. Read More

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December 2018

Determination of the minimum protective dose of a glycoprotein-G-deficient infectious laryngotracheitis virus vaccine delivered via eye-drop to week-old chickens.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0207611. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Asia-Pacific Centre for Animal Health, Melbourne Veterinary School, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an upper respiratory tract disease of chickens that is caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), an alphaherpesvirus. This disease causes significant economic loses in poultry industries worldwide. Despite widespread use of commercial live attenuated vaccines, many poultry industries continue to experience outbreaks of disease caused by ILTV. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Gut microbiota signatures in cystic fibrosis: Loss of host CFTR function drives the microbiota enterophenotype.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208171. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Unit of Human Microbiome, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Background: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a disorder affecting the respiratory, digestive, reproductive systems and sweat glands. This lethal hereditary disease has known or suspected links to the dysbiosis gut microbiota. High-throughput meta-omics-based approaches may assist in unveiling this complex network of symbiosis modifications. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Exposure to Secondhand Smoke Among Nonsmokers - United States, 1988-2014.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Dec 7;67(48):1342-1346. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Exposure to secondhand smoke from burning tobacco products can cause sudden infant death syndrome, respiratory infections, ear infections, and asthma attacks in infants and children, and coronary heart disease, stroke, and lung cancer in adult nonsmokers (1). There is no risk-free level of secondhand smoke exposure (2). CDC analyzed questionnaire and laboratory data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to assess patterns of secondhand smoke exposure among U. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Loss of ARHGEF1 causes a human primary antibody deficiency.

J Clin Invest 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

ARHGEF1 is a RhoA-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor expressed in hematopoietic cells. We used whole-exome sequencing to identify compound heterozygous mutations in ARHGEF1, resulting in the loss of ARHGEF1 protein expression in two primary-antibody-deficient siblings presenting with recurrent severe respiratory tract infections and bronchiectasis. Both ARHGEF1-deficient patients showed an abnormal B cell immunophenotype, with a deficiency in marginal-zone and memory B cells and an increased frequency of transitional B cells. Read More

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December 2018

Reflex response to airway occlusion in human inspiratory muscles when recruited for breathing and posture.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Neuroscience Research Australia and The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

Briefly occluding the airway during inspiration produces a short-latency reflex inhibition in human inspiratory muscles. This occlusion reflex seems specific to respiratory muscles; however, it is not known whether the reflex inhibition has a uniform effect across a motoneurone pool when a muscle is recruited concurrently for breathing and posture. In this study, participants were seated and breathed through a mouthpiece that occluded inspiratory airflow for 250 ms at a volume threshold of 0. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Ventilatory responses to acute hypoxia and hypercapnia in humans with a patent foramen ovale.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

School of Health and Exercise Science, University of British Columbia, Canada.

Subjects with a patent foramen ovale (PFO) have blunted ventilatory acclimatization to high altitude, compared to subjects without PFO. The blunted response observed could be due to differences in central and/or peripheral respiratory chemoreflexes. We hypothesized that compared to subjects without a PFO (PFO-), subjects with a PFO (PFO+) would have blunted ventilatory responses to acute hypoxia and hypercapnia. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Target engagement and binding mode of an anti-tuberculosis drug to its bacterial target deciphered in whole living cells by NMR.

Biochemistry 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Detailed information on hit-target interaction is very valuable for drug discovery efforts and indispensable for rational hit to lead optimization. We developed a new approach combining NMR in whole-cells (in-cell NMR) and docking to characterize hit-target interaction at the atomic level. By using in-cell NMR, we validated target engagement of the anti-tuberculosis imidazopyridine amide (IPA) series with the subunit b of the cytochrome bc1:aa3, the major respiratory terminal oxidase in mycobacteria. Read More

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December 2018

Abdominal tuberculosis in renal transplant recipient. Presentation of a case and literature review

Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc 2018 11 30;56(4):414-417. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Hospital de Especialidades "Dr. Bernardo Sepúlveda Gutiérrez", Unidad de Investigación Médica en Enfermedades Nefrológicas. Ciudad de México, México

Background: Kidney transplantation presents a susceptible point, and is related to infections; tuberculosis is a common and endemic etiology in a country like Mexico, where the most frequent presentation is the respiratory condition, the extrapulmonary is extremely rare and it is derived from immunosuppression conditions.

Case Report: 33-year-old man with kidney disease of undetermined etiology, kidney transplant in 2003 (donor mother) with adequate evolution; presented with chronic graft nephropathy, with baseline creatinine of 1.8 mg / dL, immunosuppression with prednisone 10 mg every 24 hours, mycophenolate mofetil 500 mg every 8 hours and ciclosporin 100 mg every 12 hours; surgical intervention was performed due to acute abdomen, appendectomy and omentectomy with histopathological finding of tuberculosis, Dotbal, antiproliferative in suspension was started and decrease of calcineurin inhibitor. Read More

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November 2018

Pulmonary embolectomy in a case of subacute pulmonary embolism, with previous unsuccessful fibrinolysis

Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc 2018 11 30;56(4):418-423. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Medicina, División de Estudios de Posgrado. Ciudad de México, México

Background: Pulmonary embolism is a potentially fatal heart condition that requires prompt restoration of blood flow in the pulmonary vascular bed and prevention of recurrent events. Mortality is associated to the degree of hemodynamic repercussion, complications and opportunity in the treatment.

Case Report: Male 33 years of age who began with sudden dyspnea, chest pain of moderate intensity, sweating and syncope. Read More

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November 2018

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a bridge for heart transplantation by Chagas cardiomyopathy

Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc 2018 11 30;56(4):429-433. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Hospital de Cardiología, Servicio de Anestesiología. Ciudad de México, México

Background: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is a technique indicated in cases of severe respiratory failure or in situations where pump failure or heart failure is refractory to conventional medical treatment. Our goal was to describe the results of a patient with chronic Chagas dilated cardiomyopathy treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as bridging therapy for heart transplantation.

Case Report: A 62-year old male with a history of Chagas disease and severe ventricular failure who underwent veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as bridging therapy for heart transplantation, with good clinical evolution. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Particle Size and Gastrointestinal Absorption Influence Tiotropium Pharmacokinetics: A Pilot Bioequivalence Study of PUR0200 and Spiriva HandiHaler.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Pulmatrix Inc, 99 Hayden Ave, Suite 390, Lexington, MA, 02421.

Aims: Plasma pharmacokinetics permits the assessment of efficacy and safety of inhaled drugs, and possibly their bioequivalence to other inhaled products. Correlating drug product attributes to lung deposited dose is important to achieving equivalence. PUR0200 is a spray-dried formulation of tiotropium that enables more efficient lung delivery than Spiriva® HandiHaler® (HH). Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Overcoming T790M mutant small cell lung cancer with the third-generation EGFR-TKI osimertinib.

Thorac Cancer 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Pathology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

A large number of EGFR mutant non-small cell lung cancer patients primordially benefit from first-line treatment with first-generation EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), such as gefitinib and erlotinib. However, multiple acquired resistance mechanisms have been described that limit the clinical efficacy of first-generation EGFR-TKIs. Herein, we report a rare case of lung adenocarcinoma harboring an EGFR exon 19-deletion mutation before the administration of target therapy. Read More

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December 2018

Medical resource utilization of abiraterone acetate plus prednisone added to androgen deprivation therapy in metastatic castration-naive prostate cancer: Results from LATITUDE.

Cancer 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

BC Cancer-Vancouver Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Background: Abiraterone acetate plus prednisone (AA+P), when added to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), demonstrated significant improvements in overall survival and disease progression over dual placebos added to ADT in the LATITUDE clinical trial (NCT01715285). The objective of this study was to assess event-driven medical resource utilization (MRU) of ADT plus AA+P (ADT+AA+P) versus ADT plus dual placebos (ADT+placebos) in LATITUDE.

Methods: Event-driven MRU data from LATITUDE while patients were on treatment were used for analyses. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair-Are Complication Rates Really Increased?

J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

From the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA.

Background: A few investigations exist which evaluate the influence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on complications after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.

Methods: A database was queried for patients undergoing rotator cuff repair with and without OSA and further subdivided into those with and without a billing code for a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device. Thirty-day and 6-month adverse events were assessed. Read More

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December 2018

Sputum induction for assessment of biomarkers in early respiratory drug development
.

Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Objective: To study the success rate and reproducibility of sputum induction (SI) in healthy subjects (HS) and asthma patients (AP).

Materials And Methods: 130 HSs/APs were recruited for early-phase studies to evaluate sputum biomarkers. SI and sample processing were performed according to standard protocols. Read More

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December 2018

Oxidative stress and macrophages: driving forces behind exacerbations of asthma and COPD?

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Pharmacokinetics, Toxicology and Targeting, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Oxidative stress is a common feature of obstructive airway diseases like asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Lung macrophages are key innate immune cells that can generate oxidants and are known to display aberrant polarization patterns and defective phagocytic responses in these diseases. Whether these characteristics are linked in one way or another and whether they contribute to the onset and severity of exacerbations in asthma and COPD remains poorly understood. Read More

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December 2018

Factors affecting Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus time-to-stability in breeding herds in the Midwestern United States.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

The time needed to wean porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus negative pigs consistently from a breeding herd after an outbreak is referred to as time-to-stability (TTS). TTS is an important measure to plan herd closure as well as to manage economic expectations. Weekly PRRS incidence data from 82 sow farms in six production systems located in the Midwestern United States were used for the analysis. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Co-localization of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 in the respiratory tract and lymphoid tissues of pigs and llamas.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

UAB, Centre de Recerca en Sanitat Animal (CReSA, IRTA-UAB), Campus de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193, Bellaterra, Spain.

The present study investigated the co-localization of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and its receptor dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) across respiratory and lymphoid organs of experimentally MERS-CoV infected pigs and llamas by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Also, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed to assess the ciliary integrity of respiratory epithelial cells in both species. In pigs, on day 2 post-inoculation (p. Read More

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December 2018

War against respiratory syncytial virus. An 8-year experience at a tertiary hospital.

Authors:
Adel S Al Harbi

Saudi Med J 2018 Dec;39(12):1200-1206

Department of Pediatric Pulmonary Medicine, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. E-mail.

Objectives: To assess the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection incidence rate through the analysis of data collected before and after implementation of a new palivizumab dosing regimen customized for a high-risk Saudi population. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study performed at Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between November 2009 and April 2017 on 1704 high risk Saudi young children and comparing 3 palivizumab regimens: a 4-week interval dosing regimen starting in either November or mid-September and a 3-week interval dosing regimen starting in mid-September. Results: Despite a decrease in the incidence rate of RSV infection with the three-week interval regimen (3. Read More

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December 2018

Temporarily quadrupling the dose of inhaled steroid to prevent asthma exacerbations: FAST.

Health Technol Assess 2018 Dec;22(70):1-82

Respiratory Medicine, Nottingham NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.

Background: Asthma exacerbations affect the quality of life of patients with asthma and have a major effect on the overall costs of asthma care. An asthma self-management plan that advises the temporary quadrupling of inhaled corticosteroid dose may prevent asthma exacerbations, but this needs to be confirmed before being adopted widely.

Objectives: To compare the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an asthma self-management plan that advises patients to temporarily quadruple the dose of inhaled corticosteroid when asthma control starts to deteriorate with a standard self-management plan. Read More

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December 2018

The Applications of 3d Printing in Pulmonary Drug Delivery and Treatment of Respiratory Disorders.

Curr Pharm Des 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Drug Delivery Disposition and Dynamics, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, 381 Royal Pde, Parkville VIC. Australia.

Background: Pulmonary diseases are the third leading cause of morbidity worldwide, however treatment and diagnosis of these diseases continues to be challenging due to the complex anatomical structure as well as physiological processes in the lungs.

Methods: 3D printing is progressively finding new avenues in the medical field and this technology is constantly being used for diseases where diagnosis and treatment heavily rely on the thorough understanding of complex structural-physiology relationships. The structural and functional complexity of the pulmonary system makes it well suited to 3D printing technology. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Metyltetraprole, a novel putative complex III inhibitor, targets known QoI-resistant strains of Zymoseptoria tritici and Pyrenophora teres.

Pest Manag Sci 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Health & Crop Science Research Laboratory, Sumitomo Chemical Co., Ltd., Takatsukasa 4-chome Takarazuka, Hyogo, 665-8555, Japan.

Background: Metyltetraprole is a new fungicide with unique tetrazolinone-moiety and similar side chain to a known QoI, pyraclostrobin. In this study, we describe a unique bioactivity of metyltetraprole especially on QoI-resistant strains of Zymoseptoria tritici and Pyrenophora teres.

Results: Metyltetraprole exhibited potent antifungal activity against Ascomycetes; it was especially effective against Z. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Alantolactone sensitizes human pancreatic cancer cells to EGFR inhibitors through the inhibition of STAT3 signaling.

Mol Carcinog 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Chemical Biology Research Center, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325035, China.

Several studies have implicated the feedback activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) as a new cancer drug-resistance mechanism and linked it to the failure of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted therapies. In this study we discovered that Alantolactone, a natural sesquiterpene lactone, potently inhibited human pancreatic cancer cells and suppressed constitutively activated STAT3. In contrast, Alantolactone had little effect on the EGFR pathway. Read More

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December 2018

Endothelial cell autophagy in chronic intermittent hypoxia is impaired by miRNA-30a-mediated translational control of Beclin-1.

J Cell Biochem 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Respiratory Disease, The First Affiliated Hospital, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China.

Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) in obstructive sleep apnea causes damage of aortic endothelial cells, which predisposes the development of many cardiovascular diseases. Recently, both altered expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) and impaired autophagy were found to be associated with endothelial cell dysfunction in CIH. However, the exact molecular regulatory pathway has not been determined. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Airflow obstruction among ever-employed U.S. adults aged 18-79 years by industry and occupation: NHANES 2007-2008 to 2011-2012.

Am J Ind Med 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, Maryland.

Introduction: This study estimated the prevalence of spirometry-defined airflow obstruction by industry and occupation and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) among ever-employed U.S. adults. Read More

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December 2018

Nanoparticle-biomolecular corona: A new approach for the early detection of non-small-cell lung cancer.

J Cell Physiol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Molecular Medicine, "Sapienza" University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Lung cancer (LC) is the most common type of cancer and the second cause of death worldwide in men and women after cardiovascular diseases. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most frequent type of LC occurring in 85% of cases. Developing new methods for early detection of NSCLC could substantially increase the chances of survival and, therefore, is an urgent task for current research. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Technical challenges of quantitative chest MRI data analysis in a large cohort pediatric study.

Eur Radiol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Erasmus Medical Center, Wytemaweg 80, 3015 CN, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Objectives: This study was conducted in order to evaluate the effect of geometric distortion (GD) on MRI lung volume quantification and evaluate available manual, semi-automated, and fully automated methods for lung segmentation.

Methods: A phantom was scanned with MRI and CT. GD was quantified as the difference in phantom's volume between MRI and CT, with CT as gold standard. Read More

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December 2018

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) phenotyping.

Intensive Care Med 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Interdepartmental Division of Critical Care Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

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December 2018
1 Read

Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain Complex Dysfunction in MeCP2 Knock-Down Astrocytes: Protective Effects of Quercetin Hydrate.

J Mol Neurosci 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Division of Neurobiology, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara, Gujarat, India.

Astrocytes play the central role in CNS metabolism to support neuronal functions. Mehyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) is the global transcription factor with differential expression in neuronal and non-neuronal cells. MeCP2 mutation and downstream detrimental effects have been reported in astrocytes also in MeCP2-associated neurodevelopmental disorder-Rett syndrome. Read More

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December 2018
5 Reads

The comparative analysis of phenotypic and whole transcriptome gene expression data of ascites susceptible versus ascites resistant chickens.

Mol Biol Rep 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran (ABRII), Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran.

Ascites syndrome (AS) is a metabolic disorder that mainly occurs at later ages of meat-type chickens. Despite many research, there is no consensus about the origin of this syndrome. Our main purpose were to investigate the syndrome using both phenotypic and RNA-Seq data to elucidate the most causative factors predisposing the birds to AS. Read More

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December 2018

Promoter methylation cooperates with SNPs to modulate transcription and alter UC risk.

Biochem Biophys Rep 2019 Mar 20;17:17-22. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang 524001, Guangdong, China.

Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the promoter region of the receptor for advanced glycation end products () gene have been linked to the activity of RAGE. However, contrary to our expectation, we previously detected no correlation between SNPs within the RAGE promoter and ulcerative colitis (UC) risk in a case-control study. Here, we investigated the methylation of the promoter and analyzed the collective contribution of methylation and SNPs to UC risk. Read More

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March 2019
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