119,437 results match your criteria Respiratory Failure

Fibrosing interstitial lung disease in primary Sjogren syndrome.

Joint Bone Spine 2021 Jun 9:105237. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Rheumatology Unit, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.

Objectives: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) represents the main pulmonary involvement in primary Sjogren syndrome (pSS). A proportion of patients with pSS develop a progressive fibrosing form of ILD, but no data are available about the prevalence of these patterns in pSS patients. Aim of this monocentric, cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of fibrosing patterns in pSS patients with ILD. Read More

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Exploring the alternative: fish, flies and worms as preclinical models for ALS.

Neurosci Lett 2021 Jun 9:136041. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

KU Leuven - University of Leuven, Department of Neurosciences, Experimental Neurology, and Leuven Brain Institute (LBI), Leuven, Belgium; VIB, Center for Brain & Disease Research, Laboratory of Neurobiology, Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address:

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an incurable neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of upper and lower motor neurons. In general, patients succumb to respiratory insufficiency due to respiratory muscle weakness. Despite many promising therapeutic strategies primarily identified in rodent models, patient trials remain rather unsuccessful. Read More

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The lethal internal face of the coronaviruses: Kidney tropism of the SARS, MERS, and COVID-19 viruses.

IUBMB Life 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Kidney Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

The kidney is one of the main targets attacked by viruses in patients with a coronavirus infection. Until now, SARS-CoV-2 has been identified as the seventh member of the coronavirus family capable of infecting humans. In the past two decades, humankind has experienced outbreaks triggered by two other extremely infective members of the coronavirus family; the MERS-CoV and the SARS-CoV. Read More

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Lung ultrasound score based on the BLUE-plus protocol is associated with the outcomes and oxygenation indices of intensive care unit patients.

J Clin Ultrasound 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Disorders, Hunan Provincial Clinical Research Center for Critical Care Medicine, Changsha, Hunan Province, China.

Purpose: The primary objective was to demonstrate the relationship between lung ultrasound (LUS) manifestations and the outcomes of intensive care unit (ICU) patients. The secondary objective was to determine the characteristics of LUS manifestations in different subgroups of ICU patients.

Methods: This prospective multi-center cohort study was conducted in 17 ICUs. Read More

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Structural basis of coronavirus E protein interactions with human PALS1 PDZ domain.

Commun Biol 2021 Jun 11;4(1):724. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Biochemistry & Genetics, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.

SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is associated with severe and life-threatening pneumonia and respiratory failure. However, the molecular basis of these symptoms remains unclear. SARS-CoV-1 E protein interferes with control of cell polarity and cell-cell junction integrity in human epithelial cells by binding to the PALS1 PDZ domain, a key component of the Crumbs polarity complex. Read More

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AMPK activates Parkin independent autophagy and improves post sepsis immune defense against secondary bacterial lung infections.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 11;11(1):12387. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, 35294-0012, USA.

Metabolic and bioenergetic plasticity of immune cells is essential for optimal responses to bacterial infections. AMPK and Parkin ubiquitin ligase are known to regulate mitochondrial quality control mitophagy that prevents unwanted inflammatory responses. However, it is not known if this evolutionarily conserved mechanism has been coopted by the host immune defense to eradicate bacterial pathogens and influence post-sepsis immunosuppression. Read More

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Quasi-experimental evaluation of Kenya's pictorial health warnings versus Zambia's single text-only warning: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Project.

Tob Control 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Population studies in mostly high-income countries have shown that pictorial health warnings (PHWs) are much more effective than text-only warnings. This is the first quasi-experimental evaluation of the introduction of PHWs in Africa, comparing the change from text-only to PHWs in Kenya to the unchanged text-only health warning in Zambia.

Methods: Data were from International Tobacco Control (ITC) Surveys in Kenya (n=1495), and Zambia (n=1628), cohort surveys of nationally representative samples of adult smokers in each country. Read More

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Postmortem whole-genome sequencing on a dried blood spot identifies a novel homozygous SUOX variant causing isolated sulfite oxidase deficiency.

Cold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud 2021 Jun 11;7(3). Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Rady Children's Institute for Genomic Medicine, San Diego, California 92123, USA.

Rapid whole-genome sequencing (rWGS) has shown that genetic diseases are a common cause of infant mortality in neonatal intensive care units. Dried blood spots collected for newborn screening allow investigation of causes of infant mortality that were not diagnosed during life. Here, we present a neonate who developed seizures and encephalopathy on the third day of life that was refractory to antiepileptic medications. Read More

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The spectrum of acute leukoencephalopathy with restricted diffusion (ALERD): A case series and review of literature.

Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2021 Jun 6;33:86-93. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Pediatric Neurology, Rainbow Children's Hospital, Hyderabad, Telangana, India. Electronic address:

Introduction: The clinico-etiological spectrum of Acute leukoencephalopathy with restricted diffusion (ALERD) is not well known in Indian population. This is likely to vary between populations and ethnicities.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the clinicoetiological spectrum of ALERD at a tertiary care pediatric center, and described the clinical, imaging, etiological spectrum and short-term outcomes. Read More

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How representative is a point-of-care randomized trial? Clinical outcomes of patients excluded from a point-of-care randomized controlled trial evaluating antibiotic duration for Gram-negative bacteremia: a multicenter prospective observational cohort study.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Geneva University Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine, Geneva, Switzerland; Center for Clinical Research, Geneva University Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine, Geneva, Switzerland.

Objectives: Patients included in randomized controlled trials (RCT) are poorly representative of the general population. We compared outcomes of patients excluded from the PIRATE trial, a point-of-care RCT evaluating antibiotic durations for Gram-negative bacteremia, to those of enrolled patients.

Methods: A prospective observational cohort study, "EPCO" (Excluded Patients' Clinical Outcomes) included patients excluded from the PIRATE trial. Read More

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Respiratory Failure in Noonan Syndrome Treated by Microsurgical Thoracic Duct-Venous Anastomosis.

Ann Thorac Surg 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Pennsylvania. Electronic address:

Noonan Syndrome is a disorder characterized by central and peripheral lymphatic conducting anomalies, leading to chylothorax, chylous ascites, and metabolic derangement. Novel imaging modalities including dynamic contrast magnetic resonance lymphangiography (DCMRL) and intranodal lymphangiography have allowed for increased visualization of lymphatic pathology. We describe the first study of a 61-year-old male with Noonan syndrome who developed severe pulmonary insufficiency and chylothoraces. Read More

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Organ failure, aetiology and 7-day all-cause mortality among acute adult patients on arrival to an emergency department: a hospital-based cohort study.

Eur J Emerg Med 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Odense University Hospital, Odense Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus Department of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Odense University Hospital, Odense Department of Regional Health Research, University of Southern Denmark Department of Emergency Medicine, Hospital of South West Jutland, Esbjerg Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark.

Background: Organ failure is both a frequent and dangerous condition among adult patients on arrival to an emergency department (ED). The risk of an unfavourable outcome could depend on the underlying aetiology. Knowledge of the relation between aetiology and prognosis could improve the risk stratification at arrival. Read More

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Discordance Between Respiratory Drive and Sedation Depth in Critically Ill Patients Receiving Mechanical Ventilation.

Crit Care Med 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Center for Acute Respiratory Failure, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons and New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY. Department of Pharmacy, NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY. Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Taibah University, Medina, Saudi Arabia. Department of Pharmacy, UC San Diego Health, San Diego, CA. Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY.

Objectives: In mechanically ventilated patients, deep sedation is often assumed to induce "respirolysis," that is, lyse spontaneous respiratory effort, whereas light sedation is often assumed to preserve spontaneous effort. This study was conducted to determine validity of these common assumptions, evaluating the association of respiratory drive with sedation depth and ventilator-free days in acute respiratory failure.

Design: Prospective cohort study. Read More

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International Analysis of Electronic Health Records of Children and Youth Hospitalized With COVID-19 Infection in 6 Countries.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Jun 1;4(6):e2112596. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Health Informatics, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain.

Importance: Additional sources of pediatric epidemiological and clinical data are needed to efficiently study COVID-19 in children and youth and inform infection prevention and clinical treatment of pediatric patients.

Objective: To describe international hospitalization trends and key epidemiological and clinical features of children and youth with COVID-19.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This retrospective cohort study included pediatric patients hospitalized between February 2 and October 10, 2020. Read More

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Successful treatment of severe myocardial injury complicated with refractory cardiogenic shock caused by AOPP using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(23):e26318

Department of Emergency Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Donghu District, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province, China.

Rationale: Acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (AOPP) is a common critical illness observed in clinical practice, and severe AOPP can cause serious cardiac toxicity.

Patient Concerns: This patient was a 43-year-old woman who was admitted to the emergency department with acute respiratory failure and hypotension 13 hours after oral consumption of 300 mL of phoxim pesticide.

Diagnoses: Acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning, cardiogenic shock. Read More

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Risk factors associated with postoperative respiratory failure in tuberculous empyema patients.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(23):e25754

Department of Thoracic Surgery.

Abstract: Our objective was to identify independent risk factors for predicting which patients in the Chinese population would likely develop respiratory failure.A descriptive analysis was conducted of demographic and clinical data of patients with tuberculous empyema (TE) admitted to the Beijing Chest Hospital, Capital Medical University between January 2001 and January 2020. Risk factors associated with postsurgical respiratory failure in TE patients were identified based on results of analyses based on univariable and multivariable logistic regression models. Read More

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Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor antagonists to prevent hyperinflammation and death from lower respiratory tract infection.

Elife 2021 Jun 11;10. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Stanford Graduate School of Business, Stanford University, Stanford, United States.

In severe viral pneumonia, including Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the viral replication phase is often followed by hyperinflammation, which can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome, multi-organ failure, and death. We previously demonstrated that alpha-1 adrenergic receptor (⍺-AR) antagonists can prevent hyperinflammation and death in mice. Here, we conducted retrospective analyses in two cohorts of patients with acute respiratory distress (ARD, n = 18,547) and three cohorts with pneumonia (n = 400,907). Read More

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STAT3-activated lncRNA XIST accelerates the inflammatory response and apoptosis of LPS-induced acute lung injury.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Acute lung injury (ALI) is a severe lung respiratory failure characterized by high morbidity and mortality. Novel findings demonstrated the critical roles of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) in ALI. Here, we tried to investigate the roles and potential mechanism of lncRNA X-inactive specific transcript (XIST) in ALI. Read More

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A pilot study on intravenous N-Acetylcysteine treatment in patients with mild-to-moderate COVID19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome.

Pharmacol Rep 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Shahid Fahmideh Ave, 6517838678, Hamadan, Iran.

Background: We designed this single-centre clinical trial to assess the potential benefits of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) in patients with COVID19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).

Methods: Ninety-two patients with mild-to-moderate COVID19-associated ARDS were allocated to the placebo (45-cases) or NAC groups (47-cases). Besides standard-of-care treatment, the patients received either intravenous NAC at a dose of 40 mg/kg/day or the placebo for three consecutive days. Read More

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A case report: biventricular takotsubo cardiomyopathy with sequential ventricular recovery due to pulmonary hypertension.

Eur Heart J Case Rep 2021 Mar 16;5(3):ytab073. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Cardiology, Milton Keynes University Hospital, 8H Standing Way, Eaglestone, Milton Keynes MK6 5LD, UK.

Background: Biventricular Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (BTC) is estimated to occur in 25-42% of those with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC). Little is known about which subset of patients are predisposed to having concomitant right ventricular (RV) involvement, or the pattern of recovery in BTC.

Case Summary: We describe a 69-year-old woman who presented with dyspnoea and was subsequently diagnosed with BTC. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 envelope protein causes acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)-like pathological damages and constitutes an antiviral target.

Cell Res 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of the Chinese Academy of Sciences/Key Laboratory of Bioactive Peptides of Yunnan Province, KIZ-CUHK Joint Laboratory of Bioresources and Molecular Research in Common Diseases, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, China.

Cytokine storm and multi-organ failure are the main causes of SARS-CoV-2-related death. However, the origin of excessive damages caused by SARS-CoV-2 remains largely unknown. Here we show that the SARS-CoV-2 envelope (2-E) protein alone is able to cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)-like damages in vitro and in vivo. Read More

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Obesity and mortality in critically ill COVID-19 patients with respiratory failure.

Int J Obes (Lond) 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Specialized Obesity Center and Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology, Nutrition, CHRU-Nancy, Brabois Hospital, Université de Lorraine, Nancy, France.

Background: Patients with obesity are at increased risk of severe COVID-19, requiring mechanical ventilation due to acute respiratory failure. However, conflicting data are obtained for intensive care unit (ICU) mortality.

Objective: To analyze the relationship between obesity and in-hospital mortality of ICU patients with COVID-19. Read More

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Trial of aerosolised surfactant for preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome.

Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Neonatology, UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital Oakland, Oakland, California, USA

Objective: To evaluate the safety of an aerosolised surfactant, SF-RI 1, administered via nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) and a prototype breath synchronisation device (AeroFact), to preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS).

Design: Multicentre, open-label, dose-escalation study with historical controls.

Setting: Newborn intensive care units at Mater Mothers' Hospital, Brisbane, and Royal Hospital for Women, Sydney, Australia. Read More

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[Value of radiographic assessment of lung edema score in evaluating the severity and prognosis of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome].

Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2021 May;33(5):557-562

Department of Intensive Care Unit, Affiliated Nantong Third Hospital of Nantong University (Nantong Third People's Hospital), Nantong 226000, Jiangsu, China.

Objective: To explore the value of radiographic assessment of lung edema (RALE) score in evaluating the severity and prognosis of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).

Methods: A retrospective study was conducted. Patients with ARDS admitted to the department of intensive care unit (ICU) of Affiliated Nantong Third Hospital of Nantong University from January 2016 to November 2020 were enrolled. Read More

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COVID-19 and ECMO support after neonatal congenital heart surgery: a case report.

Cardiol Young 2021 Jun 11:1-10. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Anesthesiology, Dr. Siyami Ersek Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery Training and Research Hospital, İstanbul, Turkey.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes respiratory and systemic disease and has led to a sudden epidemic affecting people of all ages. Patients with congenital heart disease represent a high-risk population. In this article, we present a newborn who required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support for acute respiratory failure in the early postoperative period due to exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) after aortic arch repair and ventricular septal defect closure. Read More

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Patient and hospital factors associated with 30-day readmissions after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Cardiothorac Surg 2021 Jun 10;16(1):172. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Centre for Big Data Research in Health, University of New South Wales (UNSW) Sydney, Kensington, Australia.

Background: Readmission after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is associated with adverse outcomes and significant healthcare costs, and 30-day readmission rate is considered as a key indicator of the quality of care. This study aims to: quantify rates of readmission within 30 days of CABG surgery; explore the causes of readmissions; and investigate how patient- and hospital-level factors influence readmission.

Methods: We conducted systematic searches (until June 2020) of PubMed and Embase databases to retrieve observational studies that investigated readmission after CABG. Read More

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Ruxolitinib for Severe COVID-19-Related Hyperinflammation in Nonresponders to Steroids.

Acta Haematol 2021 Jun 10:1-7. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Hematology and Oncology Department, Clinical Hospital, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Introduction: Currently, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection is a major public health problem worldwide. Although most patients present a mild infection, effective strategies are required for patients who develop the severe disease. Anti-inflammatory treatment with JAK inhibitors has been considered in SARS-CoV-2. Read More

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Protein signatures of remodeled airways in transplanted lungs with Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome obtained using laser capture microdissection.

Am J Pathol 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Lung Biology Unit, Department of Experimental Medical Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden. Electronic address:

Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), a common form of chronic lung allograft dysfunction, is the major limitation to long-term survival after lung transplantation. The histological correlate is progressive, fibrotic occlusion of small airways, obliterative bronchiolitis lesions, ultimately leading to organ failure. The molecular composition of these lesions is unknown. Read More

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Arterolane-piperaquine-mefloquine versus arterolane-piperaquine and artemether-lumefantrine in the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Kenyan children: a single-centre, open-label, randomised, non-inferiority trial.

Lancet Infect Dis 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; Mahidol-Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Background: Triple antimalarial combination therapies combine potent and rapidly cleared artemisinins or related synthetic ozonides, such as arterolane, with two, more slowly eliminated partner drugs to reduce the risk of resistance. We aimed to assess the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of arterolane-piperaquine-mefloquine versus arterolane-piperaquine and artemether-lumefantrine for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Kenyan children.

Methods: In this single-centre, open-label, randomised, non-inferiority trial done in Kilifi County Hospital, Kilifi, coastal Kenya, children with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria were recruited. Read More

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