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    1 OF 1933

    The effect of helium-oxygen-assisted mechanical ventilation on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation-a systemic review and meta-analysis.
    Clin Respir J 2017 May 24. Epub 2017 May 24.
    Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032, China.
    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often accompanied by acute exacerbations. Patients of COPD exacerbation suffering from respiratory failure often need the support of mechanical ventilation. Helium-oxygen can be used to reduce airway resistance during mechanical ventilation. Read More

    Mutation of Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase 36 (STK36) Causes primary ciliary dyskinesia with a central pair defect.
    Hum Mutat 2017 May 23. Epub 2017 May 23.
    Department of General Pediatrics, University Children's Hospital Muenster, Muenster, Germany.
    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetic condition of impaired ciliary beating, characterized by chronic infections of the upper and lower airways and progressive lung failure. Defects of the outer dynein arms are the most common cause of PCD. In about half of the affected individuals, PCD occurs with situs inversus (Kartagener syndrome). Read More

    A novel PGM3 mutation is associated with a severe phenotype of bone marrow failure, severe combined immunodeficiency, skeletal dysplasia, and congenital malformations.
    J Bone Miner Res 2017 May 22. Epub 2017 May 22.
    Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine, Pediatrics Montreal, QC, Canada.
    Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) affect multiple systems and present a broad spectrum of clinical features, often including skeletal dysplasia and exome sequencing has led to the identification of new CDG genes . Immune and skeletal phenotypes associated with mutations in PGM3, encoding a protein which converts N-acetyl-glucosamine-6-phosphate into N-acetyl-glucosamine-1-phosphate, were recently reported. Through exome sequencing, we identified a novel homozygous mutation (c. Read More

    Clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis with rapidly progressive interstitial pneumonia: The relation between the disease activity and the serum interleukin-6 level.
    J Dermatol 2017 May 23. Epub 2017 May 23.
    Department of Dermatology, Wakayama Medical University Graduate School of Medicine, Wakayama, Japan.
    A 67-year-old woman exhibited chilblain-like erythema on the bilateral auricles, erythema with hyperkeratosis on the sides of fingers and the bilateral elbows, and erythema on the extensor/flexor sides of the finger joints and the iliac regions. Fine crackles were audible on the dorsal side of the bilateral lower lung regions. We diagnosed clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis accompanied by rapidly progressive interstitial pneumonia. Read More

    Syndecan-1 Limits the Progression of Liver Injury and Promotes Liver Repair in Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury.
    Hepatology 2017 May 22. Epub 2017 May 22.
    Division of Respiratory Diseases, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02115.
    Accidental or intentional misuse of acetaminophen (APAP) is the leading cause of acute liver failure in the Western world. While mechanisms that trigger APAP-induced liver injury are well known, those that halt the progression of APAP liver disease and facilitate liver recovery are less understood. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) bind to and regulate various tissue injury factors through their heparan sulfate (HS) chains, but the importance of HSPGs in liver injury in vivo remains unknown. Read More

    Evidence of Altered Mitochondrial Protein Expression After Chronic Ethanol Consumption in the Aged Estrogen-Deficient Female Rat Heart.
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2017 May 19. Epub 2017 May 19.
    Intercollege Graduate Degree Program in Physiology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, 16802.
    Background: Estrogen loss has been implicated to increase the risk of alcoholic cardiomyopathy in post-menopausal women. The purpose of this study was to identify novel mitochondrial protein targets for the treatment of alcoholic cardiomyopathy in aged women using a state-of-the-art proteomics approach. We hypothesized that chronic ethanol (EtOH) ingestion exacerbates maladaptive mitochondrial protein expression in the aged female heart METHODS: Adult (3 mo) and aged (18 mo) F344 ovary-intact or ovariectomized (OVX) rats were randomly assigned an EtOH or control Lieber-DeCarli 'all liquid' diet for 20 wks. Read More

    [Digestive and Kidney Complications by indomethacin and ibuprofen in extreme preterm infants with patent ductus arteriosus].
    Rev Chil Pediatr 2017 Apr;88(2):243-251
    Servicio de Neonatología, Complejo Asistencial Barros Luco, Santiago, Chile.
    The symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus (sPDA) is common in extremely premature infants (EPI). In order to decrease the hemodynamic repercussion and avoid complications it is necessary to close it. Indomethacin or ibuprofen are used for this purpose with its associated risks. Read More

    Plasma kallistatin in critically ill patients with severe sepsis and septic shock.
    PLoS One 2017 24;12(5):e0178387. Epub 2017 May 24.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.
    Kallistatin, an endogenous serine proteinase inhibitor, is protective against sepsis in animal models. The aim of this study was to determine the plasma concentration of kallistatin in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with severe sepsis and septic shock and to determine their potential correlation with disease severity and outcomes. We enrolled 86 ICU patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. Read More

    Is survival improved by the use of NIV and PEG in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)? A post-mortem study of 80 ALS patients.
    PLoS One 2017 23;12(5):e0177555. Epub 2017 May 23.
    ALS Clinic/Neuromuscular Diseases Unit, Kantonsspital St. Gallen, St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    Background: Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and percutaneous gastrostomy (PEG) are guideline-recommended interventions for symptom management in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Their effect on survival is controversial and the impact on causes of death is unknown.

    Objective: To investigate the effect of NIV and PEG on survival and causes of death in ALS patients. Read More

    Evidence-Based Utilization of Non-Invasive Ventilation and Patient Outcomes.
    Ann Am Thorac Soc 2017 May 25. Epub 2017 May 25.
    Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, The Pulmonary Center, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, United States.
    Rationale: Strong evidence supports use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) for patients with respiratory distress from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and heart failure (strong evidence conditions). Despite unclear benefits of NIV for other causes of acute respiratory failure, utilization for conditions with weaker evidence is increasing despite evidence demonstrating higher mortality for patients who suffer NIV failure (progression from NIV to invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV)) compared to being treated initially with IMV.

    Objective: Determine the association of hospital variation in evidence-based utilization of NIV with patient outcomes. Read More

    An overlap of granulomatosis with polyangiitis and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis.
    Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2017 May-Jun;28(3):639-644
    Department of Nephrology, Government Stanley Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
    We present a case report of overlap of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA; formerly known as Wegener's granulomatosis) and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA; formerly known as Churg-Strauss syndrome). We report a 45-year-old female who presented with rapidly progressive renal failure associated with fever, polyarthralgia, and respiratory symptoms with cytoplasmic antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) and proteinase (PR-3) antigen positivity. Computerized tomography scan of the chest showed diffuse alveolar hemorrhage with renal biopsy revealing pauci-immune necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis with intense eosinophilic infiltration suggestive of eosinophilic GPA (EGPA). Read More

    Pituitary dysfunction in granulomatosis with polyangiitis.
    Pituitary 2017 May 24. Epub 2017 May 24.
    Department of Endocrinology, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Purpose: Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a multisystem disease, characterized by necrotizing small-vessel vasculitis, which mainly affects the respiratory tract and the kidneys. Pituitary involvement in GPA is rare, present in about 1% of all cases of GPA. To date, only case reports or small case series have been published. Read More

    Clinicopathological spectrum of snake bite-induced acute kidney injury from India.
    World J Nephrol 2017 May;6(3):150-161
    Sanjay Vikrant, Ajay Jaryal, Department of Nephrology, Indira Gandhi Medical College, Himachal Pradesh, Shimla 171001, India.
    Aim: To study the clinico-pathological spectrum of snake bite-induced acute kidney injury (AKI).

    Methods: A retrospective study of patients admitted at Indira Gandhi Medical College Hospital, Shimla with snake bite-induced AKI from July 2003 to June 2016. Medical records were evaluated for patient's information on demographic, clinical characteristics, complications and outcome. Read More

    Case report of treatment experience with idursulfase beta (Hunterase) in an adolescent patient with MPS II.
    Mol Genet Metab Rep 2017 Sep 11;12:28-32. Epub 2017 May 11.
    Genetics Department, Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) II or Hunter syndrome is a chronic, progressive, multi-systemic illness associated with significant morbidity and early mortality. Available evidence in Asian populations shows that Hunter syndrome has a mean age of onset of 2 to 5 years and a life expectancy of 13 years in more severely affected individuals, with respiratory failure reported as the leading cause of death. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with idursulfase (Elaprase, Shire Pharmaceuticals) and idursulfase beta (Hunterase, Green Cross Corp) are the only approved treatment for patients with MPS II. Read More

    Anti-MuSK-Positive Myasthenic Crisis in a 7-Year-Old Female.
    Case Rep Emerg Med 2017 30;2017:8762302. Epub 2017 Apr 30.
    Department of Emergency Medicine, UF Health Shands Hospital, Gainesville, FL, USA.
    A seven-year-old African American female with anti-MuSK-positive Juvenile Myasthenia Gravis collapsed while at school from progressively worsening weakness and dyspnea. On initial emergency department presentation, she required 15 liters per minute of supplemental oxygen to maintain oxygen saturation above 92%. Initial pulmonary function tests and venous blood gas led to the decision to place her on noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) with BiPAP in the emergency department. Read More

    Respiratory severity score and extubation readiness in very low birth weight infants.
    Pediatr Neonatol 2017 May 10. Epub 2017 May 10.
    Department of Pediatrics, Metro Health Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA.
    Background: The respiratory severity score (RSS) is a byproduct of mean airway pressure (MAP) and fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2). We sought to determine whether RSS could be used as a screening tool to predict extubation readiness in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants.

    Methods: In a retrospective cohort study, medical records of all VLBW infants admitted to our unit (6/1/09-2/28/12) were reviewed for infants' demographics, prenatal characteristics, and medication use. Read More

    Neurologic Injury in Adults Supported With Veno-Venous Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Respiratory Failure: Findings From the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Database.
    Crit Care Med 2017 May 22. Epub 2017 May 22.
    1Cardio-Thoracic Surgery Department, Heart & Vascular Centre, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, The Netherlands. 2Cardiology Unit, Cardiology Institute, University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy. 3Cardiac Surgery Unit, S.Croce Hospital, Cuneo, Italy. 4Cardiology Unit, Community Hospital, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy. 5Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO), University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI. 6ECMO Department, University of Wurzburg, Wurzburg, Germany. 7Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany. 8Department of Anesthesia, Ca' Granda Hospital, Milan, Italy. 9Medical Intensive Care Unit, La Pitiè-Salpetriere Hospital, Paris, France. 10Department of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery Unit, Montefiore Hospital, New York, NY. 11ECMO Unit, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. 12Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Bambin Gesù Hospital, Rome, Italy. 13Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine Department, Helios Frankelwaldklinik, Kronach, Germany. 14Cardiac Intensive Care Unit, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA.
    Objectives: To assess in-hospital neurologic (CNS) complications in adult patients undergoing veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for respiratory failure.

    Design: Retrospective analysis of the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization's data registry.

    Setting: Data reported to Extracorporeal Life Support Organization from 350 international extracorporeal membrane oxygenation centers during 1992-2015. Read More

    Update on Postnatal Steroids.
    Neonatology 2017 25;111(4):415-422. Epub 2017 May 25.
    Antenatal steroid treatment to enhance fetal lung maturity and surfactant treatment to prevent or treat respiratory distress syndrome have been major advances in perinatal medicine in the past 40 years contributing to improved outcomes for preterm infants. Use of postnatal steroids to prevent or treat chronic lung disease in preterm infants has been less successful and associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Although early (in the first week of life) postnatal steroid treatment facilitates earlier extubation and reduces the risk of chronic lung disease, it is associated with adverse effects, such as hyperglycemia, hypertension, gastrointestinal bleeding and perforation, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, growth failure, and cerebral palsy, and cannot be recommended. Read More

    Surfactant for Respiratory Distress Syndrome: New Ideas on a Familiar Drug with Innovative Applications.
    Neonatology 2017 25;111(4):408-414. Epub 2017 May 25.
    In the last 4 decades, advances in neonatology have led to a significant increase in the survival of preterm infants. One of the biggest advances was the introduction of surfactant replacement therapy for the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome. This is the main cause of respiratory insufficiency in preterm infants and is one of the major causes of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Read More

    Maugeri Centre for Telehealth and Telecare: A real-life integrated experience in chronic patients.
    J Telemed Telecare 2017 Jan 1:1357633X17710827. Epub 2017 Jan 1.
    4 Respiratory Rehabilitation Division, Istituti Clinici Scientifici Maugeri, IRCCS Lumezzane (Brescia), Italy.
    Management of chronic diseases in a progressively aging population is a major issue in western industrialized countries and telehealth is one way to ensure the continuity of care in chronic illness. We describe here our personal experience in a telehealth and telecare centre in Italy. Between January 2000 and December 2015, 1635 elderly patients (71% male) with one or more comorbidities have undergone a telehealth program tailored to their specific disease: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)/chronic respiratory insufficiency; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/neuromuscular diseases; chronic heart failure (CHF); post-stroke; and post-cardiac surgery patients discharged from hospital after an acute event. Read More

    Core Outcome Measures for Clinical Research in Acute Respiratory Failure Survivors: An International Modified Delphi Consensus Study.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2017 May 24. Epub 2017 May 24.
    Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Outcomes After Critical Illness and Surgery (OACIS) group, Baltimore, Maryland, United States ;
    Rationale: Research evaluating acute respiratory failure (ARF) survivors' outcomes after hospital discharge has substantial heterogeneity in measurement instruments used, creating barriers to synthesizing study data.

    Objectives: To identify a minimum set of core outcome measures that are essential to include in all clinical research studies evaluating ARF survivors after discharge.

    Methods: A three-round modified Delphi consensus process with 77 participants (47% female, 55% outside USA), including clinical researchers from >16 countries across 6 continents, patients/caregivers, clinicians, and research funders. Read More

    Impella percutaneous left ventricular assist device for severe acute ischaemic mitral regurgitation as a bridge to surgery.
    BMJ Case Rep 2017 May 22;2017. Epub 2017 May 22.
    Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA.
    Ischaemic papillary muscle rupture causing acute severe mitral regurgitation (MR) has a dramatic presentation and a very high mortality. Emergent surgical repair improves outcomes, which necessitates robust preoperative stabilisation. Here we discuss a patient with cardiogenic shock with an acute severe MR that was deemed very high risk for emergent valve replacement due to haemodynamic instability and respiratory failure. Read More

    Ipilimumab as a Cause of Severe Pan-Colitis and Colonic Perforation.
    Cureus 2017 Apr 20;9(4):e1182. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    Department of Gastroenterology, University of Missouri Kansas City (UMKC).
    Ipilimumab is a human monoclonal antibody that functions as a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) inhibitor that is used to treat malignant melanoma. Due to ipilimumab's removal of immune regulation, specifically through the inactivation of CTLA-4, it is commonly associated with inflammatory and autoimmune events. Gastrointestinal (GI) related immune-related adverse events such as diarrhea occur in 29% of patients with 7. Read More

    Medication-related costs of rhinitis in Australia: a NostraData cross-sectional study of pharmacy purchases.
    J Asthma Allergy 2017 9;10:153-161. Epub 2017 May 9.
    Centre of Academic Primary Care, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK.
    Purpose: There is a relative paucity of research regarding medication expenditure associated with multiple-therapy use for rhinitis in Australia. To describe 1) the nature and extent of multiple-therapy use for rhinitis in Australia using data on therapies purchased with prescription or over-the-counter (OTC) and 2) additional costs incurred by multiple-therapy use compared with intranasal corticosteroid (INCS) therapy alone.

    Patients And Methods: A retrospective observational study was carried out using a database containing anonymous pharmacy transaction data available from 20% of pharmacies in Australia that links doctor prescriptions and OTC purchase information. Read More

    U.S. Food and Drug Administration Approval Summary: Pembrolizumab for the Treatment of Recurrent or Metastatic Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma with Disease Progression on or After Platinum-Containing Chemotherapy.
    Oncologist 2017 May 22. Epub 2017 May 22.
    Office of Hematology and Oncology Products, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA.
    On August 5, 2016, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration granted accelerated approval to pembrolizumab (KEYTRUDA injection, Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. Read More

    Degree of dyspnoea at admission and discharge in patients with heart failure and respiratory diseases.
    BMC Palliat Care 2017 May 22;16(1):35. Epub 2017 May 22.
    Department of Cardiology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Doctor Esquerdo 46, 28007, Madrid, Spain.
    Background: Dyspnoea is a disabling symptom in patients admitted with heart failure (HF) and respiratory diseases (RD). The main aim of this study is to evaluate its intensity at admission and discharge and the relation with quality of life. We also describe its management, intensity, and evolution in HF and RD. Read More

    Loop gain predicts the response to upper airway surgery in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea: Ventilatory control abnormalities predict surgical responsiveness.
    Sleep 2017 May 22. Epub 2017 May 22.
    Sleep and Circadian Medicine Laboratory, Department of Physiology Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Study Objectives: Upper airway surgery is often recommended to treat OSA patients who cannot tolerate continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP). However, the response to surgery is variable, potentially because it does not improve the non-anatomical factors (i.e. Read More

    Critical care management and intensive care unit outcomes following cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy.
    World J Crit Care Med 2017 May 4;6(2):116-123. Epub 2017 May 4.
    Sumit Kapoor, Department of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, United States.
    Aim: To study the early postoperative intensive care unit (ICU) management and complications in the first 2 wk of patients undergoing cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC).

    Methods: Our study is a retrospective, observational study performed at Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, quaternary care hospital in New York City. All adult patients who underwent CRS and HIPEC between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 and admitted to ICU postoperatively were studied. Read More

    Foretinib Enhances the Radiosensitivity in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma by Inhibiting Phosphorylation of c-Met.
    J Cancer 2017 12;8(6):983-992. Epub 2017 Mar 12.
    Department of Respiratory & Critical Care Medicine, the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, China.
    As a crucial event involved in the metastasis and relapse of esophageal cancer, c-Met overexpression has been considered as one of the culprits responsible for the failure in patients who received radiochemotherapy. Since c-Met has been confirmed to be pivotal for cell survival, proliferation and migration, little is known about its impact on the regulation of radiosensitivity in esophageal cancer. The present study investigated the radiosensitization effects of c-Met inhibitor foretinib in ECA-109 and TE-13 cell lines. Read More

    Infections during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: epidemiology, risk factors, pathogenesis and prevention.
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 2017 May 18. Epub 2017 May 18.
    Infectious Diseases Division, 'San Gerardo de' Tintori' Hospital, via Pergolesi 33, 20900 Monza, Italy.
    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a life support technique used in patients with respiratory and/or cardiac failure. The ECMO circuit consists of vascular cannulae, a pump and an artificial lung. Infections are among the most common complications associated with ECMO and have a significant impact on the mortality rate. Read More

    Physiology and Pharmacology of Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channels.
    Adv Pharmacol 2017 22;79:287-324. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
    John Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Ryanodine receptor (RyR) ion channels are essential for skeletal and cardiac muscle function. Their knockout leads to perinatal death from respiratory and cardiac failure. Acquired changes or mutations in the protein cause debilitating skeletal myopathy and cardiac arrhythmia which can be deadly. Read More

    Effect of Home Noninvasive Ventilation With Oxygen Therapy vs Oxygen Therapy Alone on Hospital Readmission or Death After an Acute COPD Exacerbation: A Randomized Clinical Trial.
    JAMA 2017 May 21. Epub 2017 May 21.
    Lane Fox Unit, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, England2Asthma, Allergy, and Lung Biology, King's College London, London, England.
    Importance: Outcomes after exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) requiring acute noninvasive ventilation (NIV) are poor and there are few treatments to prevent hospital readmission and death.

    Objective: To investigate the effect of home NIV plus oxygen on time to readmission or death in patients with persistent hypercapnia after an acute COPD exacerbation.

    Design, Setting, And Participants: A randomized clinical trial of patients with persistent hypercapnia (Paco2 >53 mm Hg) 2 weeks to 4 weeks after resolution of respiratory acidemia, who were recruited from 13 UK centers between 2010 and 2015. Read More

    Maternal and neonatal outcomes of respiratory failure during pregnancy.
    J Formos Med Assoc 2017 May 17. Epub 2017 May 17.
    Department of Thoracic Medicine, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, Taiwan. Electronic address:
    Background: Obstetric patients comprise a limited portion of intensive care unit patients, but they often present with unfamiliar conditions and exhibit the potential for catastrophic deterioration. This study evaluated the maternal and neonatal outcomes of respiratory failure during pregnancy.

    Methods: Information on 71 patients at >25 weeks gestation in the ICU with respiratory failure was recorded between 2009 and 2013. Read More

    Successful Thoracic Duct Ligation for Plastic Bronchitis in an Adult.
    Ann Thorac Surg 2017 Jun;103(6):e539-e540
    Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Emory University Hospital, Atlanta, Georgia. Electronic address:
    Plastic bronchitis is a rare and potentially life-threatening disease characterized by the development of obstructive fibrinous tracheobronchial casts and hypoxic respiratory failure. With its poorly understood cause and rare occurrence in the adult population, few treatment strategies have been described in adults with this condition. In this report, we present a case of successful treatment of an adult with plastic bronchitis, using thoracic duct ligation and resulting in full resolution of airway cast development. Read More

    [Role of therapeutic drug monitoring in pulmonary infections].
    Rev Mal Respir 2017 May 17. Epub 2017 May 17.
    Service pharmacie, laboratoire de contrôle, hôpital Avicenne, Assistance publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, 125, rue de Stalingrad, 93000 Bobigny, France. Electronic address:
    Pulmonary infections are common and caused by a wide range of viruses, bacteria, parasites and fungi. They consist of lower respiratory tract infections with community and hospital acquired acute pneumonia, bronchitis, lung abscess, fungal infections and tuberculosis. The management of these infections should be based on guidelines that take into account the microorganisms most frequently involved as a basis for empirical treatment, with identification of causative microorganisms allowing targeted treatments. Read More

    When a death apparently associated to sexual assault is instead a natural death due to idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome: The importance of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid analysis in vitreous humor.
    Leg Med (Tokyo) 2017 Apr 11;26:92-97. Epub 2017 Apr 11.
    Department of Sciences for Health Promotion and Mother and Child Care, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.
    We here report a case involving a 21-year-old female, found dead in a central square of a city in the south of Italy. Initial evidences and circumstances were suggestive of a death associated with a sexual assault. Two peripheral blood and two vitreous humor samples were collected for the purpose of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) testing from the dead body at two different post-mortem intervals (PMIs): approximately 2 (t0) and 36 (t1) hours. Read More

    Mortality and Respiratory Failure After Thoracoscopic Lung Biopsy for Interstitial Lung Disease.
    Ann Thorac Surg 2017 May 17. Epub 2017 May 17.
    Division of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina.
    Background: Surgical lung biopsy contributes to establishing a specific diagnosis among many patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD). The risks of death and respiratory failure associated with elective thoracoscopic surgical lung biopsy, and patient characteristics associated with these outcomes, are not well understood.

    Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent elective thoracoscopic lung biopsy for ILD between 2008 and 2014, according to The Society of Thoracic Surgeons database. Read More

    Initial and midterm results of the Bolton Relay Thoracic Aortic Endovascular Pivotal Trial.
    J Vasc Surg 2017 Jun;65(6):1556-1566.e1
    Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Mass.
    Objective: To report the initial and midterm results of the Bolton Relay Thoracic Stent Graft for the endovascular treatment of thoracic aortic lesions [thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR)].

    Methods: The Bolton Relay Thoracic Aortic Endovascular Pivotal Trial was a prospective, nonrandomized, multicenter, U.S. Read More

    Immuno-PCR, a new technique for the serodiagnosis of tuberculosis.
    J Microbiol Methods 2017 May 17. Epub 2017 May 17.
    Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, PGIMS, Rohtak-124001, India.
    Rapid and accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) is essential to control the disease. The conventional microbiological tests have limitations and there is an urgent need to devise a simple, rapid and reliable point-of-care (POC) test. The failure of TB diagnostic tests based on antibody detection due to inconsistent and imprecise results has stimulated renewed interest in the development of rapid antigen detection methods. Read More

    "We are all there for the same purpose": Support for an integrated community exercise program for older adults with HF and COPD.
    Heart Lung 2017 May 17. Epub 2017 May 17.
    Rehabilitation Science Institute, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 160-500 University Ave., Toronto, ON, M5G 1V7, Canada; Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 160-500 University Ave., Toronto, ON, M5G 1V7, Canada; Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 160-500 University Ave., Toronto, ON, M5G 1V7, Canada. Electronic address:
    Background: Despite well-established improvements following rehabilitation, functional gains often diminish following discharge.

    Objective: To explore the attitudes of older adults with HF and COPD, who have completed rehabilitation, toward community-based exercise maintenance.

    Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 individuals with HF or COPD. Read More

    Different efficacy of inhaled and oral medications in pulmonary hypertension.
    Heart Lung 2017 May 17. Epub 2017 May 17.
    Pathobiology Division, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, OH, USA; Department of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Respiratory Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA. Electronic address:
    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is progressive disorder characterized by elevated pulmonary vascular resistance that can lead to right heart failure and death. One of the main therapeutic options for PAH are medications targeting the prostacyclin pathway. Treprostinil is a prostacyclin analogue and selexipag is a selective IP receptor agonist. Read More

    Significant Clinical Factors Associated with Long-term Mortality in Critical Cancer Patients Requiring Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation.
    Sci Rep 2017 May 19;7(1):2148. Epub 2017 May 19.
    Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Studies about prognostic assessment in cancer patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV) for post-intensive care are scarce. We retrospectively enrolled 112 cancer patients requiring PMV support who were admitted to the respiratory care center (RCC), a specialized post-intensive care weaning facility, from November 2009 through September 2013. The weaning success rate was 44. Read More

    Telehealth Interventions to Support Self-Management of Long-Term Conditions: A Systematic Metareview of Diabetes, Heart Failure, Asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, and Cancer.
    J Med Internet Res 2017 May 17;19(5):e172. Epub 2017 May 17.
    Allergy and Respiratory Research Group, Usher Institute of Population Health Sciences and Informatics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
    Background: Self-management support is one mechanism by which telehealth interventions have been proposed to facilitate management of long-term conditions.

    Objective: The objectives of this metareview were to (1) assess the impact of telehealth interventions to support self-management on disease control and health care utilization, and (2) identify components of telehealth support and their impact on disease control and the process of self-management. Our goal was to synthesise evidence for telehealth-supported self-management of diabetes (types 1 and 2), heart failure, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cancer to identify components of effective self-management support. Read More

    Slow ventricular tachycardia in a 91-year-old man with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and acute respiratory failure.
    Am J Emerg Med 2017 May 11. Epub 2017 May 11.
    Cardiology and Coronary Intensive Care Unit, "San Giuseppe Moscati" Hospital, via Contrada Amoretta, 83100 Avellino, Italy.
    Slow ventricular tachycardia (VT) in patients with devices such as an implantable cardioverter - defibrillator (ICD) is more common than in the rest of the population. The incidence in elderly patients with an ICD remains largely unknown. In younger patients, slow VT is generally asymptomatic or associated with limited clinical relevance. Read More

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