10,899,868 results match your criteria Research report Health Effects Institute[Journal]

  • Page 1 of 217998

Infection of HeLa cells with Chlamydia trachomatis inhibits protein synthesis and causes multiple changes to host cell pathways.

Cell Microbiol 2018 Dec 14:e12993. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Institute for Microbiology and Hygiene, Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Germany.

The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis replicates in a cytosolic vacuole in human epithelial cells. Infection of human cells with C. trachomatis causes substantial changes to many host cell signalling pathways but the molecular basis of such influence is not well understood. Read More

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December 2018

A survey of US early childhood caries programs: findings and recommendations.

J Public Health Dent 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Section of Population Oral Health, Columbia University College of Dental Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Objectives: To identify and characterize US early childhood caries (ECC) programs.

Methods: A 39 question online survey was fielded to 245 ECC programs identified from the literature and peer programs. The 101 respondents (41 percent response rate) reported their program's geographic reach, type, areas of focus, target populations, approaches, affiliations, providers, goals, costs, and funding. Read More

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December 2018

The Computational article format: Software as a research output.

Authors:
Greg Finak

Cytometry A 2018 Dec;93(12):1187-1188

Department of Biostatistics Bioinformatics and Epidemiology, Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington.

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December 2018

CytoML for cross-platform cytometry data sharing.

Cytometry A 2018 Dec;93(12):1189-1196

Program in Biostatistics Bioinformatics and Epidemiology, Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Western Australia.

CytoML is an R/Bioconductor package that enables cross-platform import, export, and sharing of gated cytometry data. It currently supports Cytobank, FlowJo, Diva, and R, allowing users to import gated cytometry data from commercial platforms into R. Once data are available in R, the data can be further manipulated. Read More

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December 2018

Centrifugation affects the purity of liquid biopsy-based tumor biomarkers.

Cytometry A 2018 Dec;93(12):1207-1212

Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Laboratory of Experimental Clinical Chemistry, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Biomarkers in the blood of cancer patients include circulating tumor cells (CTCs), tumor-educated platelets (TEPs), tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (tdEVs), EV-associated miRNA (EV-miRNA), and circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA). Because the size and density of biomarkers differ, blood is centrifuged to isolate or concentrate the biomarker of interest. Here, we applied a model to estimate the effect of centrifugation on the purity of a biomarker according to published protocols. Read More

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December 2018

Children's untreated decay is positively associated with past caries experience and with current salivary loads of mutans Streptococci; negatively with self-reported maternal iron supplements during pregnancy: a multifactorial analysis.

J Public Health Dent 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia.

Objectives: This study explored the association of children's salivary characteristics, past caries experience, birth weight, and reported maternal prenatal vitamin and mineral supplementation with the dental untreated decay of the child.

Methods: This cross-sectional study, a sub-study of Griffith University Environments for Healthy Living birth cohort study, was conducted on 174 mother-child dyads. Mother's prenatal usage of vitamin and mineral supplements; child's birthweight; salivary pH, buffering capacity, and levels of salivary MS and LB were explored as risk indicators. Read More

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December 2018

[Megaimplants of the Proximal Femur: Current Concepts].

Z Orthop Unfall 2018 Dec 14;156(6):685-691. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Klinik und Poliklinik für Orthopädie und Sportorthopädie, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München.

In addition to their outstanding significance in the field of tumor orthopaedics, megaprostheses are becoming increasingly important for revision arthroplasty. Despite their wide application, the reported complication and failure rates remain high. The analysis of failure mechanisms roughly allows a breakdown into mechanical and non-mechanical causes; soft-tissue failure, loosening and periprosthetic infection play outstanding roles. Read More

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December 2018

Association of Antenatal Depression with Clinical Subtypes of Preterm Birth.

Am J Perinatol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

Objective:  To estimate the association between antenatal depression and spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB) relative to medically indicated preterm birth (MPTB).

Study Design:  This was a secondary analysis of a nested case-control study of preterm birth (PTB). The exposure was a clinical diagnosis of antenatal depression. Read More

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December 2018

Cardiovascular and Metabolic Risk in Women in the First Year Postpartum: Allostatic Load as a Function of Race, Ethnicity, and Poverty Status.

Am J Perinatol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Internal Medicine, UCLA Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California.

Objective:  Allostatic load (AL) represents multisystem physiological "wear-and-tear" reflecting emerging chronic disease risk. We assessed AL during the first year postpartum in a diverse community sample with known health disparities.

Methods:  The Shriver National Institute for Child Health and Human Development Community Child Health Network enrolled 2,448 predominantly low-income African-American, Latina, and White women immediately after delivery of liveborn infants at ≥20 weeks' gestation, following them over time with interviews, clinical measures, and biomarkers. Read More

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December 2018

Associations between Maternal Exposure to Bisphenol A or Triclosan and Gestational Hypertension and Preeclampsia: The MIREC Study.

Am J Perinatol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Research Center, CHU Sainte-Justine, Mother and Child University Hospital Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Background:  Little is known about the association between bisphenol A (BPA) or triclosan (TCS) exposure and hypertension in pregnancy.

Objective:  To investigate potential associations between maternal urinary concentrations of BPA or TCS and gestational hypertension (GH) and preeclampsia.

Study Design:  Among 1,909 pregnant women participating in the maternal-infant research on environmental chemicals (MIREC) study, urinary concentrations of BPA and TCS were measured in the first trimester by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using isotope dilution. Read More

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December 2018

A Diagnostic Challenge: Prenatal Ultrasound Findings in Severe Epidermolysis Bullosa.

Ultraschall Med 2018 Dec 14;39(6):600-601. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Ultraschallpraxis Freie Strasse, Basel, Switzerland.

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December 2018

Accuracy of Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Cardiac MalformationsAcurácia do diagnóstico pré-natal de cardiopatias congênitas.

Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Postgraduate Program and Obstetrics and Gynecology, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

Objective:  To evaluate the accuracy of the diagnosis of fetal heart diseases obtained through ultrasound examinations performed during the prenatal period compared with the postnatal evaluation.

Methods:  A retrospective cohort study with 96 pregnant women who were attended at the Echocardiography Service and whose deliveries occurred at the Complexo Hospitalar Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Risk factor assessment plus sensitivity and specificity analysis were used, comparing the accuracy of the screening for congenital heart disease by means of obstetrical ultrasound and morphological evaluation and fetal echocardiography, considering  < 0. Read More

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December 2018

Polychaete mucopolysaccharide alters sediment microbial diversity and stimulates ammonia-oxidising functional groups.

FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, The Laboratory, Citadel Hill, Plymouth, PL1 2PB.

Sediment nitrogen cycling is a network of microbially-mediated biogeochemical processes that are vital in regulating ecosystem functioning. Mucopolysaccharides (mucus) are produced by many invertebrates and have the potential to be an important source of organic carbon and nitrogen to sediment microorganisms. At present, we have limited understanding of how mucopolysaccharide moderates total sediment microbial communities and specific microbial functional groups that drive nitrogen cycling processes. Read More

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December 2018

The Influence of Antidepressants on the Disease Course Among Patients With Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis-A Danish Nationwide Register-Based Cohort Study.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Psychiatric comorbidity might modify the disease course adversely in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Treatment options include antidepressants, which, apart from improving mood, have anti-inflammatory properties that might modify the disease course. This nationwide study aimed to examine the influence of antidepressants on the disease course among patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). Read More

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December 2018

Diet, Physical Activity, and Daylight Exposure Patterns in Night-Shift Workers and Day Workers.

Ann Work Expo Health 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Division of Environmental Epidemiology (EEPI), Utrecht University, Yalelaan, CM Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: Night-shift work has been reported to have an impact on nutrition, daylight exposure, and physical activity, which might play a role in observed health effects. Because these exposures show diurnal variation, and shift work has been related with disturbances in the circadian rhythm, the timing of assessment of these factors requires careful consideration. Our aim was to describe the changes in patterns of diet, physical activity, and daylight exposure associated with night-shift work. Read More

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December 2018

Menthol cigarettes, tobacco dependence, and smoking persistence: The need to examine enhanced cognitive functioning as a neuropsychological mechanism.

Nicotine Tob Res 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Introduction: Despite the overall decline in the prevalence of cigarette use in the United States, menthol cigarette use among smokers is rising, and evidence shows that it may lead to more detrimental effects on public health than regular cigarette use. One of the mechanisms by which nicotine sustains tobacco use and dependence is due to its cognitive enhancing properties, and basic science literature suggests that menthol may also enhance nicotine's acute effect on cognition.

Aims And Methods: The purpose of this review is to suggest that the cognitive enhancing effects of menthol may be a potentially important neuropsychological mechanism that has yet to be examined. Read More

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December 2018

The burden and epidemiology of polyparasitism among rural communities in Kano State, Nigeria.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya,Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Background: Parasitic infections constitute a major public health problem worldwide, particularly among underprivileged communities in developing countries including Nigeria. The present study aimed to determine the epidemiology of polyparasitism (multiple parasitic infections) among rural communities in Kano State, North Central Nigeria.

Methods: A total of 551 individuals were screened for the presence of intestinal, urogenital and blood parasites by using different diagnostic techniques. Read More

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December 2018

Structure of a (3+1) hybrid G-quadruplex in the PARP1 promoter.

Nucleic Acids Res 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371, Singapore.

Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) has emerged as an attractive target for cancer therapy due to its key role in DNA repair processes. Inhibition of PARP1 in BRCA-mutated cancers has been observed to be clinically beneficial. Recent genome-mapping experiments have identified a non-canonical G-quadruplex-forming sequence containing bulges within the PARP1 promoter. Read More

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December 2018

Novel endotypes in heart failure: effects on guideline-directed medical therapy.

Eur Heart J 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Cardiology, University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Aims: We sought to determine subtypes of patients with heart failure (HF) with a distinct clinical profile and treatment response, using a wide range of biomarkers from various pathophysiological domains.

Methods And Results: We performed unsupervised cluster analysis using 92 established cardiovascular biomarkers to identify mutually exclusive subgroups (endotypes) of 1802 patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) from the BIOSTAT-CHF project. We validated our findings in an independent cohort of 813 patients. Read More

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December 2018

Pilot Studies of VOC Exposure Profiles during Surgical Operations.

Ann Work Expo Health 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C.

Volatile organic chemical exposure resulting from surgical operations is common in operating room personnel. The potential risk of long-term exposure to these low-level chemicals is always a concern. This study was conducted in an area hospital located in northern Taiwan to investigate the internal exposure scenario for operating room personnel. Read More

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December 2018

Mitochondrial Respiration in Outer Retina Contributes to Light-Evoked Increase in Hydration In Vivo.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018 Dec;59(15):5957-5964

Department of Ophthalmology, Visual and Anatomical Sciences, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, United States.

Purpose: To test the hypothesis that mitochondrial respiration contributes to local changes in hydration involved in phototransduction-driven expansion of outer retina, as measured by structural responses on optical coherence tomography (OCT) and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Methods: Oxygen consumption rate and mitochondrial reserve capacity of freshly isolated C57BL/6 and 129S6/SvEvTac mouse retina were measured using a Seahorse Extracellular Flux Analyzer. Light-stimulated outer retina layer water content was determined by proton density MRI, structure and thickness by ultrahigh-resolution OCT, and water mobility by diffusion MRI. Read More

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December 2018

The Effect of Prostaglandin Analogue Bimatoprost on Thyroid-Associated Orbitopathy.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018 Dec;59(15):5912-5923

Dr. Nasser Al-Rashid Orbital Vision Research Center, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, McKnight Vision Research Center, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States.

Purpose: We characterize the effect of bimatoprost on orbital adipose tissue in thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) with clinicopathologic correlation.

Methods: Orbital adipose-derived stem cells (OASCs) from types 1 and 2 TAO and control patients with and without exposure to 1 μm bimatoprost were examined via immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, and Western blot for cell viability, migration capacity, lipid content, adipocyte morphology, mitochondrial content, and levels of adipogenic markers. A retrospective chart review was performed for clinicopathologic correlation. Read More

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December 2018
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Prevalence and associated risk factors of periodic limb movement in sleep in two German population-based studies.

Sleep 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Institute of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Münster, Germany.

Study Objectives: Periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS) are frequent motor phenomena; however, population-based data are scarce. We assessed the prevalence of PLMS and factors associated with PLMS within two German population-based cohorts, the SHIP-TREND and BiDirect.

Methods: Single-night polysomnography was performed on 1107 subjects recruited from the general population (mean age: 52. Read More

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December 2018

Tracing the Origin of Glioblastoma: Subventricular Zone Neural Stem Cells.

Neurosurgery 2019 Jan;84(1):E15-E16

Brain Tumor Center Department of Neurosurgery Lenox Hill Hospital Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell New York, New York.

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January 2019

Commentary: Writing a Clinical Research Question.

Neurosurgery 2019 Jan;84(1):17-18

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.

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January 2019

Staphylococcus aureus Decolonization of Mice With Monoclonal Antibody Neutralizing Protein A.

J Infect Dis 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Microbiology, University of Chicago, Illinois.

Staphylococcusaureus persistently colonizes the nasopharynx of about one-third of the human population, a key risk factor for community- and hospital-acquired invasive infections. Current strategies for S. aureus decolonization include topical and systemic administration of antibiotics, which is associated with selection for antibiotic resistance and posttreatment recolonization. Read More

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December 2018

Comparative immunogenicity of enhanced seasonal influenza vaccines in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Infect Dis 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Influenza Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Introduction: A number of enhanced influenza vaccines have been developed for use in older adults, including the high-dose, MF59-adjuvanted, and intradermal vaccines.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review examining the improvements in antibody responses measured by the hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay associated with these enhanced vaccines, compared to each other, and compared to standard-dose vaccine using random effects models.

Results: Thirty-nine trials were included. Read More

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December 2018

A decision tree-based integrated testing strategy for tailor-made carcinogenicity evaluation of test substances using genotoxicity test results and chemical spaces.

Mutagenesis 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

R&D, Safety Science Research, Kao Corporation, Ichikai-Machi, Haga-Gun, Tochigi, Japan.

Genotoxicity evaluation has been widely used to estimate the carcinogenicity of test substances during safety evaluation. However, the latest strategies using genotoxicity tests give more weight to sensitivity; therefore, their accuracy has been very low. For precise carcinogenicity evaluation, we attempted to establish an integrated testing strategy for the tailor-made carcinogenicity evaluation of test materials, considering the relationships among genotoxicity test results (Ames, in vitro mammalian genotoxicity and in vivo micronucleus), carcinogenicity test results and chemical properties (molecular weight, logKow and 179 organic functional groups). Read More

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December 2018

Expostats: A Bayesian Toolkit to Aid the Interpretation of Occupational Exposure Measurements.

Ann Work Expo Health 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Introduction: Interpretation of exposure measurements has evolved into a framework based on the lognormal distribution. Most available practical tools are based on traditional frequentist statistical procedures that do not satisfactorily account for censored data and are not amenable to simple probabilistic risk statements. Bayesian methods offer promising solutions to these challenges. Read More

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December 2018

Increased incidence rate of hypothyroidism after iodine fortification in Denmark. A 20 year prospective population-based study.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Endocrinology, Aalborg University Hospital, Denmark.

Objective: To monitor the impact of a cautious iodine fortification (IF) on the incidence of overt hypothyroidism in two sub-populations with different levels of preexisting iodine deficiency (ID).

Design: A 20 years (1997-2016) prospective population-based study identified all new cases of diagnosed overt biochemical hypothyroidism in two open cohorts: a Western cohort with moderate ID (n=309,434, January 1st, 1997) and an Eastern cohort with mild ID (n=224,535, January 1st, 1997). A diagnostic algorithm was applied to all thyroid function tests performed within the study areas and possible new cases were verified individually. Read More

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December 2018

Workplace Exposure to Nanoparticles during Thermal Spraying of Ceramic Coatings.

Ann Work Expo Health 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Barcelona, Spain.

Thermal spraying is widely used for industrial-scale application of ceramic coatings onto metallic surfaces. The particular process has implications for occupational health, as the high energy process generates high emissions of metal-bearing nanoparticles. Emissions and their impact on exposure were characterized during thermal spraying in a work environment, by monitoring size-resolved number and mass concentrations, lung-deposited surface area, particle morphology, and chemical composition. Read More

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December 2018

Loneliness and social isolation of military veterans: systematic narrative review.

Occup Med (Lond) 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing, Midwifery and Health, Northern Hub for Veterans and Military Families' Research, Northumbria University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK.

Background: Loneliness and social isolation are being increasingly recognized as influencing both physical and mental health. There is limited research carried out with military veterans and, to date, there is no review of existing evidence.

Aims: To synthesize and examine the evidence exploring aspects of social isolation and loneliness of military veterans, using a systematic narrative review strategy. Read More

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December 2018

Limitations to using phloem sap to assess tree water and nutrient status.

Tree Physiol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, The University of Sydney, Sydney NSW, Australia.

Rapid, reliable tools are needed to infer physiological and nutritional health for managing forest systems. Understanding the processes governing tree health is central to the development of these tools. Non-foliar approaches such as the collection of phloem sap reflect processes governing both the use and acquisition of plant water and nutrients at a wide range of temporal (diurnal to seasonal) and spatial (canopy) scales. Read More

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December 2018

Moving Beyond Role-Play: Evaluating the Use of Virtual Reality to Teach Emotion Regulation for the Prevention of Adolescent Risk Behavior Within a Randomized Pilot Trial.

J Pediatr Psychol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Bradley/Hasbro Children's Research Center/Rhode Island Hospital and the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University.

Objective: The purpose of the current pilot study was to evaluate the acceptability and preliminary impact of using immersive virtual reality environments (IVREs) paired with a brief emotion regulation and risk reduction intervention (ER + IVRE) relative to this same intervention content paired with role-plays (ER + RP).

Methods: Eighty-five adolescents attending middle school (grades 6th-8th; ages 12-15 years) in an urban northeast city were recruited and randomized to ER + IVRE (n = 44) or ER + RP (n = 41) and had complete data. Data examining acceptability, feasibility, sexual knowledge and attitudes, and ER were collected at baseline and 3 months after intervention completion. Read More

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December 2018

2018 Infectious Diseases Society of America Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Outpatient Parenteral Antimicrobial Therapy.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 Jan;68(1):1-4

Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, and Center for Evidence-based Practice, University of Pennsylvania Health System, Philadelphia.

A panel of experts was convened by the Infectious Diseases Society of America to update the 2004 clinical practice guideline on outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) [1]. This guideline is intended to provide insight for healthcare professionals who prescribe and oversee the provision of OPAT. It considers various patient features, infusion catheter issues, monitoring questions, and antimicrobial stewardship concerns. Read More

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January 2019

Social and early life adversity and chronic health conditions among Tunisian adults.

Transl Behav Med 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Duluth Medical Research Institute, University of Minnesota, Duluth, MN, USA.

Early life adversities (ELAs) are shown as significant risk factors for chronic health conditions (CHCs). ELAs include multiple types of abuse such as the social abuse (peer, community, and collective violence). The purpose is to describe the relationship between childhood social abuse and chronic conditions in adulthood among a sample of adults in Tunisia and to investigate the role of obesity and tobacco use as mediators of this association. Read More

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December 2018

The Acute Impact of Hatha Yoga on Craving among Smokers Attempting to Reduce or Quit.

Nicotine Tob Res 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Psychology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.

Introduction: Despite negative effects of smoking, smokers have difficulty quitting, suggesting a need for additional strategies to help them quit. A single-session hatha yoga intervention acutely reduced craving among nicotine-deprived smokers not attempting to reduce or quit, yet it is unknown if it reduces craving among those attempting to change their smoking. Thus, the current study tested the efficacy of a single-session hatha yoga intervention for acutely reducing craving among smokers attempting to reduce or quit smoking. Read More

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December 2018

Bacteriome-associated Wolbachia of the parthenogenetic termite Cavitermes tuberosus.

FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Evolutionary Biology & Ecology, Université libre de Bruxelles, Avenue F.D. Roosevelt 50, CP 160/12, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.

Wolbachia has deeply shaped the ecology and evolution of many arthropods, and interactions between the two partners are a continuum ranging from parasitism to mutualism. Non-dispersing queens of the termite Cavitermes tuberosus are parthenogenetically produced through gamete duplication, a mode of ploidy restoration generally induced by Wolbachia. These queens display a bacteriome-like structure in the anterior part of the mesenteron. Read More

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December 2018

Snakebite Mitigation Project of the Madras Crocodile Bank/Centre for Herpetology, India: background and a brief summary of activities.

Authors:
Romulus Whitaker

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Project Manager (India), Global Snakebite Initiative, East Coast Road, Mamallapuram, Chennai, India.

Snakebite is a serious problem in rural India where several highly venomous species are commonly found in and around agricultural areas where prey such as rodents and amphibians are abundant. Four snake species, referred to as the Big Four, are responsible for the most serious and fatal bites: spectacled cobra (Naja naja), Russell's viper (Daboia russelii), common krait (Bungarus caeruleus) and saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus). A polyvalent antivenom is made to treat these bites but public awareness and distribution of this life-saving drug is inadequate. Read More

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December 2018

Cytological and molecular aspects of the ageing sperm.

Hum Reprod 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Laboratory of Seminology - Sperm Bank 'Loredana Gandini' Department of Experimental Medicine, 'Sapienza' University of Rome, Italy.

Study Question: Is ageing associated with a decline in semen quality and molecular changes to human sperm?

Summary Answer: Semen quality declines with advancing age and characteristic molecular changes take place during the ageing process, including increased sperm DNA damage, altered sperm protamination and altered seminal plasma miRNA profile.

What Is Known Already: During ageing, the reproductive system is exposed to physiological changes and potentially damaging factors that may impair testicular function. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can induce errors during DNA replication, transcription or post-transcriptional events (fragmentation, chromatin condensation abnormalities and protamine expression defects). Read More

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December 2018

FIFA World Cup 2018.

Eur Heart J 2018 Dec;39(47):4139-4142

Department of Medicine I, University Hospital Munich, Ludwig Maximilian University, Campus Innenstadt, Ziemssenstrasse 1, Munich, Germany.

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December 2018

Arterial and pulmonary hypertension: risk assessment and current pharmacological and interventional management.

Eur Heart J 2018 Dec;39(47):4127-4131

Imperial College and Consultant and Director of Research, Education & Development, Royal Brompton and Harefield Hospital Trust, London, UK.

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December 2018

Long-term follow-up of vitrified and autografted baboon (Papio anubis) ovarian tissue.

Hum Reprod 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Pôle de Recherche en Gynécologie, Institut de Recherche Expérimentale et Clinique, Université Catholique de Louvain, Avenue Mounier 52, bte. B1.52.02, Brussels 1200, Belgium.

Study Question: Can vitrified baboon ovarian tissue survive >5 months after autotransplantation and subsequently restore fertility?

Summary Answer: Our results show that ovarian tissue grafts can survive at least 18 months, but fertility restoration could not be confirmed due to lack of pregnancy.

What Is Known Already: Ovarian function in baboons can be re-established after autografting of vitrified-warmed ovarian tissue fragments.

Study Design, Size, Duration: Ovaries from five adult female baboons were used for this study. Read More

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December 2018

Networking in eHealth research: results of the IDRC SEARCH program evaluation.

J Public Health (Oxf) 2018 Dec;40(suppl_2):ii12-ii15

Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Background: The IDRC 'Strengthening Equity through Applied Research Capacity building in eHealth' (SEARCH) funded seven research projects in Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lebanon, Peru and Vietnam that sought to answer questions or test solutions related to the use of Internet or mobile phone technology in strengthening health systems. The evaluation accompanied these projects over two years to answer, among others, the question how cross-grant learning interactions influenced project outcomes.

Methods: The evaluation team conducted repeated interviews and on-line questionnaire surveys with the research teams and analysed the information exchanges among researchers on a SharePoint site established by IDRC. Read More

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December 2018

Can mHealth improve timeliness and quality of health data collected and used by health extension workers in rural Southern Ethiopia?

J Public Health (Oxf) 2018 Dec;40(suppl_2):ii74-ii86

REACH Ethiopia, Hawassa, Ethiopia.

Background: Health extension workers (HEWs) are the key cadre within the Ethiopian Health Extension Programme extending health care to rural communities. National policy guidance supports the use of mHealth to improve data quality and use. We report on a mobile Health Management Information system (HMIS) with HEWs and assess its impact on data use, community health service provision and HEWs' experiences. Read More

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December 2018

Promoting access equity and improving health care for women, children and people living with HIV/AIDS in Burkina Faso through mHealth.

J Public Health (Oxf) 2018 Dec;40(suppl_2):ii42-ii51

Université de Montréal, CHU Sainte-Justine, Canada.

Background: In Burkina Faso, access to health services for women, children and people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) remains limited. Mobile telephony offers an alternative solution for reaching these individuals. The objective of the study was to improve equity of access to health care and information among women and PLWHAs by reinforcing community participation. Read More

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December 2018

Selective infarct zone imaging with intravenous acoustically activated droplets.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0207486. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, United States of America.

Background: Microbubbles (MB) can be compressed to nanometer-sized droplets and reactivated with diagnostic ultrasound; these reactivated MB possess unique imaging characteristics.

Objective: We hypothesized that droplets formed from compressing Definity MB may be used for infarct-enhancement imaging.

Methods: Fourteen rats underwent ligation of their left anterior descending (LAD) artery, and five pigs underwent 90 minute balloon occlusions of their mid LAD. Read More

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December 2018

Prevalence and correlates of anemia among adolescents in Nepal: Findings from a nationally representative cross-sectional survey.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0208878. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Paediatrics, the University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.

Anemia is regarded as major public health problem among adolescents in Low and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) but there is limited primary data in many countries, including Nepal. This study investigated the prevalence and correlates of anemia in a nationally representative sample of adolescents within the 2014 National Adolescent Nutrition Survey in Nepal. A total of 3780 adolescents aged 10 to 19 years were selected from a cross-sectional survey through multi-stage cluster sampling. Read More

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December 2018

Aerobic Exercise Training Alleviates Renal Injury by Interfering with Mitochondrial Function in Type-1 Diabetic Mice.

Med Sci Monit 2018 Dec 14;24:9081-9089. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Sports, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND Diabetic nephropathy was one of the most serious and harmful diabetic complications, characterized by progressive loss of renal function and renal fibrosis. Aerobic exercise training is an important non-pharmacologic method to prevent and treat diabetes mellitus and diabetic complications. MATERIAL AND METHODS Intraperitoneal (i. Read More

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December 2018
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