239 results match your criteria Research report Health Effects Institute[Journal]


Protective Role of Eosinophils and TNFa after Ozone Inhalation.

Res Rep Health Eff Inst 2017 Mar(191):1-41

Introduction: Exposure to ozone induces deleterious responses in the airways that include shortness of breath, inflammation, and bronchoconstriction. People with asthma have increased airway sensitivity to ozone and other irritants. Dr. Read More

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March 2017
18 Reads

Ambient and Controlled Particle Exposures as Triggers for Acute ECG Changes.

Res Rep Health Eff Inst 2016 May(186):5-75

Introduction: Previous studies have examined changes in heart rate variability (HRV*) and repolarization associated with increased particulate matter (PM) concentrations on the same and previous few days. However, few studies have examined whether these health responses to PM occur within a few hours or even less. Moreover, it is not clear whether exposure of subjects to ambient or-controlled PM concentrations both lead to similar health effects or whether any of the subjects' individual characteristics modify any of their responses to PM. Read More

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May 2016
26 Reads

Ambient Air Pollution and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in Wuhan, China.

Res Rep Health Eff Inst 2016 09(189):1-65

Background: Several recent studies have suggested that maternal exposures to air pollution and temperature extremes might contribute to low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth (PTB), and other outcomes that can adversely affect infant health. At the time the current study began, most other studies had been conducted in the United States or Europe. Dr. Read More

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September 2016
16 Reads

Causal Inference Methods for Estimating Long-Term Health Effects of Air Quality Regulations.

Res Rep Health Eff Inst 2016 May(187):5-49

Introduction: The regulatory and policy environment surrounding air quality management warrants new types of epidemiological evidence. Whereas air pollution epidemiology has typically informed previous policies with estimates of exposure-response relationships between pollution and health outcomes, new types of evidence can inform current debates about the actual health impacts of air quality regulations. Directly evaluating specific regulatory strategies is distinct from and complements estimating exposure-response relationships; increased emphasis on assessing the effectiveness of well-defined regulatory interventions will enhance the evidence supporting policy decisions. Read More

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May 2016
14 Reads

Part 3. Modeling of Multipollutant Profiles and Spatially Varying Health Effects with Applications to Indicators of Adverse Birth Outcomes.

Res Rep Health Eff Inst 2016 Apr(183 Pt 3):3-47

The highly intercorrelated nature of air pollutants makes it difficult to examine their combined effects on health. As such, epidemiological studies have traditionally focused on single-pollutant models that use regression-based techniques to examine the marginal association between a pollutant and a health outcome. These relatively simple, additive models are useful for discerning the effect of a single pollutant on a health outcome with all other pollutants held to fixed values. Read More

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April 2016
19 Reads

Adverse Reproductive Health Outcomes and Exposure to Gaseous and Particulate-Matter Air Pollution in Pregnant Women.

Res Rep Health Eff Inst 2016 Jul(188):1-58

Introduction: There is growing epidemiologic evidence of associations between maternal exposure to ambient air pollution and adverse birth outcomes, such as preterm birth (PTB). Recently, a few studies have also reported that exposure to ambient air pollution may also increase the risk of some common pregnancy complications, such as preeclampsia and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Research findings, however, have been mixed. Read More

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July 2016
8 Reads

Analysis of Personal and Home Characteristics Associated with the Elemental Composition of PM2.5 in Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Air in the RIOPA Study.

Res Rep Health Eff Inst 2015 Dec(185):3-40

The complex mixture of chemicals and elements that constitute particulate matter (PM*) varies by season and geographic location because source contributors differ over time and place. The composition of PM having an aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 μm (PM2. Read More

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December 2015
13 Reads

Diesel Emissions and Lung Cancer: An Evaluation of Recent Epidemiological Evidence for Quantitative Risk Assessment.

Authors:

Res Rep Health Eff Inst 2015 Nov;Spec No 19(19):1-149

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November 2015
8 Reads

Part 2. Development of Enhanced Statistical Methods for Assessing Health Effects Associated with an Unknown Number of Major Sources of Multiple Air Pollutants.

Res Rep Health Eff Inst 2015 Jun(183 Pt 1-2):51-113

A major difficulty with assessing source-specific health effects is that source-specific exposures cannot be measured directly; rather, they need to be estimated by a source-apportionment method such as multivariate receptor modeling. The uncertainty in source apportionment (uncertainty in source-specific exposure estimates and model uncertainty due to the unknown number of sources and identifiability conditions) has been largely ignored in previous studies. Also, spatial dependence of multipollutant data collected from multiple monitoring sites has not yet been incorporated into multivariate receptor modeling. Read More

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June 2015
16 Reads

Part 1. Statistical Learning Methods for the Effects of Multiple Air Pollution Constituents.

Res Rep Health Eff Inst 2015 Jun(183 Pt 1-2):5-50

Introduction: The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA*) currently regulates individual air pollutants on a pollutant-by-pollutant basis, adjusted for other pollutants and potential confounders. Read More

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June 2015
39 Reads

Part 4. Assessment of plasma markers and cardiovascular responses in rats after chronic exposure to new-technology diesel exhaust in the ACES bioassay.

Res Rep Health Eff Inst 2015 Jan(184):111-39; discussion 141-71

Although epidemiologic and experimental studies suggest that chronic exposure to diesel exhaust (DE*) emissions causes adverse cardiovascular effects, neither the specific components of DE nor the mechanisms by which DE exposure could induce cardiovascular dysfunction and exacerbate cardiovascular disease (CVD) are known. Because advances in new technologies have resulted in cleaner fuels and decreased engine emissions, uncertainty about the relationship between DE exposure and human cardiovascular health effects has increased. To address this ever-changing baseline of DE emissions, as part of the larger Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) bioassay studying the health effects of 2007-compliant diesel engine emissions (new-technology diesel exhaust), we examined whether plasma markers of vascular inflammation, thrombosis, cardiovascular aging, cardiac fibrosis, and aorta morphometry were changed over 24 months in an exposure-level-, sex-, or exposure-duration-dependent manner. Read More

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January 2015
8 Reads

Part 3. Assessment of genotoxicity and oxidative damage in rats after chronic exposure to new-technology diesel exhaust in the ACES bioassay.

Res Rep Health Eff Inst 2015 Jan(184):87-105; discussion 141-71

In 2001, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA*) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) adopted new standards for diesel fuel and emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines. Read More

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January 2015
16 Reads

Part 2. Assessment of micronucleus formation in rats after chronic exposure to new-technology diesel exhaust in the ACES bioassay.

Res Rep Health Eff Inst 2015 Jan(184):69-82; discussion 141-71

The formation of micronuclei (MN*) is a well-established endpoint in genetic toxicology; studies designed to examine MN formation in vivo have been conducted for decades. Conditions that cause double-strand breaks or disrupt the proper segregation of chromosomes during division result in increases in MN formation frequency. This endpoint is therefore commonly used in preclinical studies designed to assess the potential risks to humans of exposure to a myriad of chemical and physical agents, including inhaled diesel exhaust (DE). Read More

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January 2015
8 Reads

Part 1. Assessment of carcinogenicity and biologic responses in rats after lifetime inhalation of new-technology diesel exhaust in the ACES bioassay.

Res Rep Health Eff Inst 2015 Jan(184):9-44; discussion 141-71

The Health Effects Institute and its partners conceived and funded a program to characterize the emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines compliant with the 2007 and 2010 on-road emissions standards in the United States and to evaluate indicators of lung toxicity in rats and mice exposed repeatedly to 2007-compliant new-technology diesel exhaust (NTDE*). The a priori hypothesis of this Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) was that 2007-compliant on-road diesel emissions ".. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6463298PMC
January 2015
52 Reads

Synergistic effects of particulate matter and substrate stiffness on epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

Res Rep Health Eff Inst 2014 Nov(182):3-41

Dysfunctional pulmonary homeostasis and repair, including diseases such as pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD*), and tumorigenesis, have been increasing steadily over the past decade, a fact that heavily implicates environmental influences. Several investigations have suggested that the lung "precursor cell"--the alveolar type II (ATII) epithelial cell--is central in the initiation and progression of pulmonary fibrosis. Specifically, ATII cells have been shown (Iwano et al. Read More

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November 2014
42 Reads

Personal exposure to mixtures of volatile organic compounds: modeling and further analysis of the RIOPA data.

Res Rep Health Eff Inst 2014 Jun(181):3-63

Introduction: Emission sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs*) are numerous and widespread in both indoor and outdoor environments. Concentrations of VOCs indoors typically exceed outdoor levels, and most people spend nearly 90% of their time indoors. Thus, indoor sources generally contribute the majority of VOC exposures for most people. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4577247PMC
June 2014
129 Reads

Development and application of an aerosol screening model for size-resolved urban aerosols.

Res Rep Health Eff Inst 2014 Jun(179):3-79

Predictive models of vehicular ultrafine particles less than 0.1 microm in diameter (UFPs*) and other urban pollutants with high spatial and temporal variation are useful and important in applications such as (1) decision support for infrastructure projects, emissions controls, and transportation-mode shifts; (2) the interpretation and enhancement of observations (e.g. Read More

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June 2014
48 Reads

Characterizing ultrafine particles and other air pollutants in and around school buses.

Res Rep Health Eff Inst 2014 Mar(180):3-37

Increasing evidence has demonstrated toxic effects of ultrafine particles (UFP*, diameter < 100 nm). Children are particularly at risk because of their immature respiratory systems and higher breathing rates per body mass. This study aimed to characterize UFP, PM2. Read More

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March 2014
11 Reads

New statistical approaches to semiparametric regression with application to air pollution research.

Res Rep Health Eff Inst 2013 Nov(175):3-129

Department of Mathematics, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam.

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November 2013
7 Reads

National Particle Component Toxicity (NPACT) initiative report on cardiovascular effects.

Res Rep Health Eff Inst 2013 Oct(178):5-8

Department of Biostatistics, University of Washington, Seattle, USA.

Epidemiologic and toxicologic studies were carried out in concert to provide complementary insights into the compositional features of ambient particulate matter (PM*) that produce cardiovascular effects. In the epidemiologic studies, we made use of cohort data from two ongoing studies--the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and the Women's Health Initiative--Observational Study (WHI-OS)--to investigate subclinical markers of atherosclerosis and clinical cardiovascular events. In the toxicologic study, we used the apolipoprotein E null (ApoE(-/-)) hypercholesterolemic mouse model to assess cardiovascular effects of inhalation exposure to various atmospheres containing laboratory-generated pollutants. Read More

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October 2013
37 Reads

National Particle Component Toxicity (NPACT) Initiative: integrated epidemiologic and toxicologic studies of the health effects of particulate matter components.

Res Rep Health Eff Inst 2013 Oct(177):5-13

Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, Tuxedo, NY 10987, USA.

Particulate matter (PM*), an ambient air criteria pollutant, is a complex mixture of chemical components; particle sizes range from nanometer-sized molecular clusters to dust particles that are too large to be aspirated into the lungs. Although particle composition is believed to affect health risks from PM exposure, our current health-based air quality standards for PM are limited to (1) the mass concentrations of PM2.5 (particles 2. Read More

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October 2013
30 Reads

Effect of air pollution control on mortality and hospital admissions in Ireland.

Res Rep Health Eff Inst 2013 Jul(176):3-109

Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

During the 1980s the Republic of Ireland experienced repeated severe pollution episodes. Domestic coal burning was a major source of this pollution. In 1990 the Irish government introduced a ban on the marketing, sale, and distribution of coal in Dublin. Read More

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July 2013
5 Reads

Cardiorespiratory biomarker responses in healthy young adults to drastic air quality changes surrounding the 2008 Beijing Olympics.

Res Rep Health Eff Inst 2013 Feb(174):5-174

University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-School of Public Health, Piscataway, NJ, USA.

Associations between air pollution and cardiorespiratory mortality and morbidity have been well established, but data to support biologic mechanisms underlying these associations are limited. We designed this study to examine several prominently hypothesized mechanisms by assessing Beijing residents' biologic responses, at the biomarker level, to drastic changes in air quality brought about by unprecedented air pollution control measures implemented during the 2008 Beijing Olympics. To test the hypothesis that changes in air pollution levels are associated with changes in biomarker levels reflecting inflammation, hemostasis, oxidative stress, and autonomic tone, we recruited and retained 125 nonsmoking adults (19 to 33 years old) free of cardiorespiratory and other chronic diseases. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4086245PMC
February 2013
31 Reads

Selective detection and characterization of nanoparticles from motor vehicles.

Res Rep Health Eff Inst 2013 Feb(173):3-45

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Delaware, Newark, 19716, USA.

Numerous studies have shown that exposure to motor vehicle emissions increases the probability of heart attacks, asthma attacks, and hospital visits among at-risk individuals. However, while many studies have focused on measurements of ambient nanoparticles near highways, they have not focused on specific road-level domains, such as intersections near population centers. At these locations, very intense spikes in particle number concentration have been observed. Read More

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February 2013
9 Reads

Potential air toxics hot spots in truck terminals and cabs.

Res Rep Health Eff Inst 2012 Dec(172):5-82

Exposure, Epidemiology, and Risk Program, Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Introduction: Hot spots are areas where concentrations of one or more air toxics--organic vapors or particulate matter (PM)--are expected to be elevated. The U.S. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5116924PMC
December 2012
29 Reads

Accountability analysis of title IV phase 2 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments.

Res Rep Health Eff Inst 2012 Nov(168):5-35

Resources for the Future, Washington, D.C., USA.

In this study, we sought to assess what portion, if any, of the reductions in ambient concentrations of particulate matter (PM*) < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) that occurred in the United States between the years 1999 and 2006 can be attributed to reductions in emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) resulting from implementation of Phase 2 of Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Read More

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November 2012
5 Reads

Impact of the 1990 Hong Kong legislation for restriction on sulfur content in fuel.

Res Rep Health Eff Inst 2012 Aug(170):5-91

Department of Community Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, China.

Introduction: After the implementation of a regulation restricting sulfur to 0.5% by weight in fuel on July 1, 1990, in Hong Kong, sulfur dioxide (SO2*) levels fell by 45% on average and as much as 80% in the most polluted districts (Hedley et al. 2002). Read More

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August 2012
16 Reads

Multicity study of air pollution and mortality in Latin America (the ESCALA study).

Res Rep Health Eff Inst 2012 Oct(171):5-86

Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Cuernavaca, Morelos, México.

Introduction: The ESCALA* project (Estudio de Salud y Contaminación del Aire en Latinoamérica) is an HEI-funded study that aims to examine the association between exposure to outdoor air pollution and mortality in nine Latin American cities, using a common analytic framework to obtain comparable and updated information on the effects of air pollution on several causes of death in different age groups. This report summarizes the work conducted between 2006 and 2009, describes the methodologic issues addressed during project development, and presents city-specific results of meta-analyses and meta-regression analyses.

Methods: The ESCALA project involved three teams of investigators responsible for collection and analysis of city-specific air pollution and mortality data from three different countries. Read More

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October 2012
88 Reads

Part 4. Effects of subchronic diesel engine emissions exposure on plasma markers in rodents: report on 1- and 3-month exposures in the ACES bioassay.

Res Rep Health Eff Inst 2012 Sep(166):189-223

Diabetes and Obesity Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, USA.

Although epidemiologic and experimental studies suggest that exposure to diesel exhaust (DE*) emissions causes adverse cardiovascular effects, neither the specific components of DE nor the mechanisms by which DE exposure could induce cardiovascular dysfunction and exacerbate cardiovascular disease (CVD) are known. Moreover, because the advance of new technologies has resulted in cleaner fuels and decreased engine emissions, there is even more uncertainty about the relationship between DE exposure and cardiovascular health effects. To address this ever-changing baseline of engine emissions, we tested for exposure-, sex- and duration-dependent alterations in plasma markers following subchronic exposure of mice and rats to DE emissions from a 2007-compliant diesel engine. Read More

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September 2012
12 Reads

Part 3. Assessment of genotoxicity and oxidative stress after exposure to diesel exhaust from U.S. 2007-compliant diesel engines: report on 1- and 3-month exposures in the ACES bioassay.

Res Rep Health Eff Inst 2012 Sep(166):163-84

Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA.

Human health hazards due to diesel exhaust (DE*) exposure have been associated with both solvent and combustion components. In the past, diesel engine exhaust components have been linked to increased mutagenicity in cultures of Salmonella typhimurium and mammalian cells (Tokiwa and Ohnishi 1986). In addition, DE has been shown to increase both the incidence of tumors and the induction of 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine adducts (8-OHdG) in ICR mice (Ichinose et al. Read More

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September 2012
12 Reads

Part 2. Assessment of genotoxicity after exposure to diesel exhaust from U.S. 2007-compliant diesel engines: report on 1- and 3-month exposures in the ACES bioassay.

Res Rep Health Eff Inst 2012 Sep(166):125-57

Litron Laboratories, Rochester, New York, USA.

Micronucleus (MN*) formation is a well-established endpoint in genetic toxicology; studies designed to examine MN formation in vivo have been conducted for decades. Conditions that cause double-strand breaks or disrupt the proper segregation of chromosomes during division result in an increase in MN frequency. Thus this endpoint is commonly employed in preclinical studies designed to assess the potential risks of human exposure to a myriad of chemical and physical agents, including inhaled diesel exhaust (DE). Read More

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September 2012
6 Reads

Part 1. Biologic responses in rats and mice to subchronic inhalation of diesel exhaust from U.S. 2007-compliant engines: report on 1-, 3-, and 12-month exposures in the ACES bioassay.

Res Rep Health Eff Inst 2012 Sep(166):9-120

Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA.

The Health Effects Institute and its partners conceived and funded a program to characterize the emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines compliant with the 2007 and 2010 on-road emissions standards in the United States and to evaluate indicators of lung toxicity in rats and mice exposed repeatedly to diesel exhaust (DE*) from 2007-compliant engines. The preliminary hypothesis of this Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) was that 2007-compliant on-road diesel emissions ". . Read More

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September 2012
14 Reads

Allergic inflammation in the human lower respiratory tract affected by exposure to diesel exhaust.

Res Rep Health Eff Inst 2012 Feb(165):5-43; discussion 45-64

Department of Allergy and Immunology, University of California-Los Angeles, 90095, USA.

To improve understanding of human health risks from exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP*), we tested whether immunologic effects previously observed in the human nose also occur in the lower airways. Our overall hypothesis was that cell influx and production of cytokines, chemokines, immunoglobulin E (IgE), and other mediators, which would be measurable in sputum and blood, occur in people with asthma after realistic controlled exposures to diesel exhaust (DE). In Phase 1 we tested for direct effects of DE in subjects with clinically undifferentiated mild asthma. Read More

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February 2012
17 Reads

Assessing the impact of a wood stove replacement program on air quality and children's health.

Res Rep Health Eff Inst 2011 Dec(162):3-37; discussion 39-47

Center for Environmental Health Sciences, Department of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Montana, Missoula, Montana 59812, USA. USA.

Many rural mountain valley communities experience elevated ambient levels of fine particulate matter (PM*) in the winter, because of contributions from residential wood-burning appliances and sustained temperature inversion periods during the cold season. A wood stove change-out program was implemented in a community heavily affected by wood-smoke-derived PM2.5 (PM < or = 2. Read More

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December 2011
13 Reads

Effects of short-term exposure to air pollution on hospital admissions of young children for acute lower respiratory infections in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

Res Rep Health Eff Inst 2012 Jun(169):5-72; discussion 73-83

Department of Public Health, Vietnam.

There is emerging evidence, largely from studies in Europe and North America, that economic deprivation increases the magnitude of morbidity and mortality related to air pollution. Two major reasons why this may be true are that the poor experience higher levels of exposure to air pollution, and they are more vulnerable to its effects--in other words, due to poorer nutrition, less access to medical care, and other factors, they experience more health impact per unit of exposure. The relations among health, air pollution, and poverty are likely to have important implications for public health and social policy, especially in areas such as the developing countries of Asia where air pollution levels are high and many live in poverty. Read More

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June 2012
79 Reads

Assessment and statistical modeling of the relationship between remotely sensed aerosol optical depth and PM2.5 in the eastern United States.

Res Rep Health Eff Inst 2012 May(167):5-83; discussion 85-91

Department of Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, USA.

Research in scientific, public health, and policy disciplines relating to the environment increasingly makes use of high-dimensional remote sensing and the output of numerical models in conjunction with traditional observations. Given the public health and resultant public policy implications of the potential health effects of particulate matter (PM*) air pollution, specifically fine PM with an aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 pm (PM2. Read More

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May 2012
93 Reads

Assessment of the health impacts of particulate matter characteristics.

Res Rep Health Eff Inst 2012 Jan(161):5-38

School of Forestry & Environmental Studies and School of Public Health, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511, USA.

While numerous studies have demonstrated that shortterm exposure to particulate matter (PM*) is associated with adverse health effects, the characteristics of PM that cause harm are not well understood, and PM toxicity may vary by its chemical composition. This study investigates whether spatial and temporal patterns in PM health effect estimates based on total mass can be explained by spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the chemical composition of the particles. A database of 52 chemical components of PM with an aerodynamic diameter < or = 2. Read More

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January 2012
7 Reads

Pulmonary particulate matter and systemic microvascular dysfunction.

Res Rep Health Eff Inst 2011 Dec(164):3-48

The Center for Cardiovascular and Respiratory Sciences, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-9105, USA.

Pulmonary particulate matter (PM) exposure has been epidemiologically associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but the mechanistic foundations for this association are unclear. Exposure to certain types of PM causes changes in the vascular reactivity of several macrovascular segments. However, no studies have focused upon the systemic microcirculation, which is the primary site for the development of peripheral resistance and, typically, the site of origin for numerous pathologies. Read More

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December 2011
14 Reads

The London low emission zone baseline study.

Res Rep Health Eff Inst 2011 Nov(163):3-79

School of Biomedical & Health Sciences, King's College London, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NH, UK.

On February 4, 2008, the world's largest low emission zone (LEZ) was established. At 2644 km2, the zone encompasses most of Greater London. It restricts the entry of the oldest and most polluting diesel vehicles, including heavy-goods vehicles (haulage trucks), buses and coaches, larger vans, and minibuses. Read More

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November 2011
82 Reads

Personal and ambient exposures to air toxics in Camden, New Jersey.

Res Rep Health Eff Inst 2011 Aug(160):3-127; discussion 129-51

Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA.

Personal exposures and ambient concentrations of air toxics were characterized in a pollution "hot spot" and an urban reference site, both in Camden, New Jersey. The hot spot was the city's Waterfront South neighborhood; the reference site was a neighborhood, about 1 km to the east, around the intersection of Copewood and Davis streets. Using personal exposure measurements, residential ambient air measurements, statistical analyses, and exposure modeling, we examined the impact of local industrial and mobile pollution sources, particularly diesel trucks, on personal exposures and ambient concentrations in the two neighborhoods. Read More

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August 2011
76 Reads
7 Citations

Air toxics exposure from vehicle emissions at a U.S. border crossing: Buffalo Peace Bridge Study.

Res Rep Health Eff Inst 2011 Jul(158):5-132

Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA.

The Peace Bridge in Buffalo, New York, which spans the Niagara River at the east end of Lake Erie, is one of the busiest U.S. border crossings. Read More

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July 2011
20 Reads

Role of neprilysin in airway inflammation induced by diesel exhaust emissions.

Res Rep Health Eff Inst 2011 Jun(159):3-40

Department of Pediatrics and Steele Children's Research Center, University of Arizona Health Science Center, Tucson, AZ, USA.

In this study, we examined the role of neprilysin (NEP), a key membrane-bound endopeptidase, in the inflammatory response induced by diesel exhaust emissions (DEE) in the airways through a number of approaches: in vitro, animal, and controlled human exposure. Our specific aims were (1) to examine the role of NEP in inflammatory injury induced by diesel exhaust particles (DEP) using Nep-intact (wild-type) and Nep-null mice; (2) to examine which components of DEP are associated with NEP downregulation in vitro; (3) to determine the molecular impact of DEP exposure and decreased NEP expression on airway epithelial cells' gene expression in vitro, using a combination of RNA interference (RNAi) and microarray approaches; and (4) to evaluate the effects on NEP activity of human exposure to DEE. We report four main results: First, we found that exposure of normal mice to DEP consisting of standard reference material (SRM) 2975 via intratracheal installation can downregulate NEP expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4751866PMC
June 2011
8 Reads

The impact of the congestion charging scheme on air quality in London. Part 2. Analysis of the oxidative potential of particulate matter.

Res Rep Health Eff Inst 2011 Apr(155):73-144

MRC-HPA Centre for Environment & Health, School of Biomedical Sciences, King's College London, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NH, U.K.

There is growing scientific consensus that the ability of inhaled particulate matter (PM*) to elicit oxidative stress both at the air-lung interface and systemically might underpin many of the acute and chronic respiratory and cardiovascular responses observed in exposed populations. In the current study (which is part two of a two-part HEI study of a congestion charging scheme [CCS] introduced in London, United Kingdom, in 2003), we tested the hypothesis that the reduction in vehicle numbers and changes in traffic composition resulting from the introduction of the CCS would result in decreased concentrations of traffic-specific emissions, both from vehicle exhaust and other sources (brake wear and tire wear), and an associated reduction in the oxidative potential of PM with an aerodynamic diameter < or = 10 microm (PM10). To test this hypothesis, we obtained, extracted, and analyzed tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) PM10 filters from six monitoring sites within, bordering, or outside the area of the congestion charging zone (CCZ) for the 3 years before and after the introduction of the scheme. Read More

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April 2011
12 Reads

The impact of the congestion charging scheme on air quality in London. Part 1. Emissions modeling and analysis of air pollution measurements.

Res Rep Health Eff Inst 2011 Apr(155):5-71

MRC-HPA Centre for Environment & Health, School of Biomedical Sciences, King's College London, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NH, U.K.

On February 17, 2003, a congestion charging scheme (CCS*) was introduced in central London along with a program of traffic management measures. The scheme operated Monday through Friday, 7 AM to 6 PM. This program resulted in an 18% reduction in traffic volume and a 30% reduction in traffic congestion in the first year (2003). Read More

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April 2011
53 Reads

Part 2. Time-series study on air pollution and mortality in Delhi.

Res Rep Health Eff Inst 2011 Mar(157):47-74

The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi, India.

Introduction: Air pollution concentrations in most of the megacities in India exceed the air quality guidelines recommended by the World Health Organization and may adversely affect human health in these cities. Particulate matter (PM) is the pollutant of concern in many Indian cities, particularly in the capital city of Delhi, In recent years, several actions have been taken to address the growing air pollution problem in Delhi and other Indian cities; however, few studies have been designed to assess the health effects of air pollution in Indian cities. To bridge the gap in scientific knowledge and add evidence to the ongoing studies in other Asian cities, a retrospective time-series study on air pollution and mortality in Delhi was initiated under the HEI Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) program. Read More

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March 2011
14 Reads
7 Citations

Part 1. Short-term effects of air pollution on mortality: results from a time-series analysis in Chennai, India.

Res Rep Health Eff Inst 2011 Mar(157):7-44

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Sri Ramachandra University, Porur, Chennai, India.

This report describes the results of a time-series analysis of the effect of short-term exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter < or = 10 pm (PM10) on mortality in metropolitan Chennai, India (formerly Madras). This was one of three sites in India chosen by HEI as part of its Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) initiative. The study involved integration and analysis of retrospective data for the years 2002 through 2004. Read More

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March 2011
12 Reads

Concentrations of air toxics in motor vehicle-dominated environments.

Res Rep Health Eff Inst 2011 Feb(156):3-77

Division of Atmospheric Sciences, Desert Research Institute, Reno, Nevada, USA.

We at the Desert Research Institute (DRI*) measured volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including several mobile-source air toxics (MSATs), particulate matter with a mass mean aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 pm (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM), and carbon monoxide (CO) on highways in Los Angeles County during summer and fall 2004, to characterize the diurnal and seasonal variations in measured concentrations related to volume and mix of traffic. Read More

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February 2011
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Part 5. Public health and air pollution in Asia (PAPA): a combined analysis of four studies of air pollution and mortality.

Res Rep Health Eff Inst 2010 Nov(154):377-418

Department of Community Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, 5/F William MW Mong Block, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine Building, 21 Sassoon Road, Hong Kong.

Background: In recent years, Asia has experienced rapid economic growth and a deteriorating environment caused by the increasing use of fossil fuels. Although the deleterious effects of air pollution from fossil-fuel combustion have been demonstrated in many Western nations, few comparable studies have been conducted in Asia. Time-series studies of daily mortality in Asian cities can contribute important new information to the existing body of knowledge about air pollution and health. Read More

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November 2010
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Part 4. Interaction between air pollution and respiratory viruses: time-series study of daily mortality and hospital admissions in Hong Kong.

Res Rep Health Eff Inst 2010 Nov(154):283-362

Department of Community Medicine, School of Public Health, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Background: Populations in Asia are not only at risk of harm to their health through environmental degradation as a result of worsening pollution problems but also constantly threatened by recurring and emerging influenza epidemics and. pandemics. Situated in the area with the world's fastest growing economy and close to hypothetical epicenters of influenza transmission, Hong Kong offers a special opportunity for testing environmental management and public health surveillance in the region. Read More

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November 2010
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Part 3. Estimating the effects of air pollution on mortality in Bangkok, Thailand.

Res Rep Health Eff Inst 2010 Nov(154):231-68

Faculty of Public Health, Thammasat University, Klongluang, Pathumthani, Thailand (N. V-V, N. V); Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency, Oakland, California (B.O.)..

While the effects of particulate matter (PM*) on mortality have been well documented in North America and Western Europe, considerably less is known about its effects in developing countries in Asia. Existing air pollution data in Bangkok, Thailand, indicate that airborne concentrations of PM < or = 10 pm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) are as high or higher than those experienced in most cities in North America and Western Europe. At the same time, the demographics, activity patterns, and background health status of the population, as well as the chemical composition of PM, are different in Bangkok. Read More

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November 2010
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