3,243 results match your criteria Reproduction[Journal]


My Womban's Life: Understanding Human Endometrial Function.

Authors:
Lois Salamonsen

Reproduction 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

L Salamonsen, Centre for Reproductive Health, Hudson Institute of Medical Research, Clayton, Australia.

The focus of my life in science, has been to improve reproductive health for women, with an emphasis on the endometrium, the most dynamic tissue in the human body: its remarkable cyclical remodelling is essential for establishment of pregnancy. The most notable events in a woman's endometrial cycle are menstruation and endometrial repair, regeneration of the endometrium during the proliferative phase, attainment of receptivity by the mid-secretory phase of the cycle and the embryo-maternal interactions that initiate peri-implantation events within the microenvironment of the uterine cavity. I have contributed to understanding the molecular and cellular changes underpinning these events, and how disturbance of them leads to menstrual disorders, infertility and endometrial diseases including abnormal uterine bleeding, endometriosis and endometrial cancer. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Estradiol promotes EMT in endometriosis via MALAT1/miR200s sponge function.

Reproduction 2018 Nov 1. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

L Zhang, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent benign gynecological disease that shares some common features of malignancy. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been recognized as a core mechanism of endometriosis. MALAT1 is widely known as EMT promoter, while miR200 family members (miR200s) are considered as EMT inhibitors. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read
3.174 Impact Factor

It Takes Two (Centrioles) to Tango.

Reproduction 2018 Nov 1. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

E Fishman, Biological Sciences, University of Toledo, Toledo, United States.

Cells that divide during embryo development require precisely two centrioles during interphase and four centrioles during mitosis. This precise number is maintained by allowing each centriole to nucleate only one centriole per cell cycle (i.e. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Inhibition of RNA synthesis during Scriptaid exposure enhances gene reprogramming in SCNT embryos.

Reproduction 2018 Nov 1. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

V Bordignon, Department of Animal Sciences, McGill University, Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, H9X3V9, Canada.

Insufficient epigenetic reprogramming is incompatible with normal development of embryos produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), but treatment with histone deacetylases inhibitors (HDACi) enhance development of SCNT embryos. However, the mechanisms underpinning HDACi benefits in SCNT embryos remain largely uncharacterized. We hypothesized that, in addition to enhancing reprogramming, HDACi treatment may promote expression of genes not required for early development of SCNT embryos. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Different pre-implantation phenotypes of bovine blastocysts produced in vitro.

Reproduction 2018 Nov 1. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

M Sirard, Faculté des sciences de l'agriculture et de l'alimentation, Université Laval, Centre de Recherche en Biologie de la Reproduction, Département des Sciences Animales, Quebec City, Canada.

Embryo transfer in cattle is performed with blastocysts produced in vivo or in vitro using defined media. However, outdated systems such as those that use serum and co-culture remain of interest for research purposes. Here, we investigated the effect of additional culture time on in vitro-produced embryos. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Slo3 K+ channel blocker clofilium extends bull and mouse sperm-fertilizing competence.

Reproduction 2018 Dec;156(6):463-476

Université Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble, France.

For artificial insemination (AI) to be successful, it is essential that sperm delivery be perfectly timed relative to ovulation, as sperm lifespan is limited due to oxidative metabolism induced by capacitation. Extending the window of sperm capacitation could therefore increase sperm lifespan, prolong sperm-fertilizing competence and increase AI efficiency. Hyperpolarization of sperm is a crucial step in capacitation and is induced by activation of the potassium calcium-activated channel subfamily U member 1 (KCNU1, also named Slo3 or KSper). Read More

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December 2018
7 Reads
3.170 Impact Factor

Identification and characterization of ERV transcripts in goat embryos.

Reproduction 2018 Nov 1. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

J Liu, Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology of the Ministry of Agriculture, Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University, Yangling, China.

Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), which are abundant in mammalian genomes, can modulate the expression of nearby genes, and their expression is dynamic and stage specific during early embryonic development in mice and humans. However, the functions and mechanisms of ERV elements in regulating embryonic development remain unclear. Here, we utilized several methods to determine the contribution of ERVs to the makeup and regulation of transcripts during embryonic genome activation (EGA). Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads
3.174 Impact Factor

Decidual expression and regulation of fatty acid desaturase 3 during mouse decidualization.

Reproduction 2018 Nov;156(5):429-437

College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China.

Decidualization is required for the successful establishment of pregnancy in rodents and primates. Fatty acid desaturase 3 (Fads3) belongs to the fatty acid desaturase family, which is a crucial enzyme for highly unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis. However, the expression, regulation and function of Fads3 during early pregnancy in mice are still unknown. Read More

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November 2018

Versican V1 in human endometrial epithelial cells promotes BeWo spheroid adhesion in vitro.

Reproduction 2018 Oct 1. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Y Sato, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Otsu Red Cross Hospital, Otsu, Japan.

The endometrium extracellular matrix (ECM) is essential for embryo implantation. Versican, a large chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan that binds hyaluronan and forms large ECM aggregates, can influence fundamental physiological phenomena, such as cell proliferation, adhesion, and migration. The present study investigated the possible role of versican in human embryo implantation. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

Sertoli-immature spermatids disengagement during testis regression in the armadillo.

Reproduction 2018 Oct 1. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

S Garagna, Biologia e Biotecnologie "Lazzaro Spallanzani", University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

In Nature, mammalian seasonal breeders undergo spermatogenetic arrest during the non-breeding season. In the large hairy armadillo Chaetophractus villosus, testis regression initiates with immature post-meiotic germ cells sloughing into the tubule lumen and continues with the death of the remaining spermatocytes. At the end of the regression period, only spermatogonia and Sertoli cells persist in the seminiferous epithelium. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

Modification of sperm fatty acid composition during epididymal maturation in bats.

Reproduction 2018 Oct 1. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

P Christe, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Universite de Lausanne Departement d'ecologie et evolution, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Biochemical properties of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are fundamental to sperm movements. Amongst all adjustments operated during epididymal maturation, sperm membrane lipid composition is remodelled. Specifically, the proportion of PUFAs usually increases from the caput towards the cauda epididymidis. Read More

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October 2018
5 Reads

How does chemotherapy treatment damage the prepubertal testis?

Reproduction 2018 Oct 1. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

N Spears, Biomedical Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Chemotherapy treatment is a mainstay of anticancer regimens, significantly contributing to the recent increase in childhood cancer survival rates. Conventional cancer therapy not only targets malignant but also healthy cells resulting in side effects including infertility. For prepubertal boys, there are currently no fertility preservation strategies in use, although several potential methods are under investigation. Read More

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October 2018

Gene expression in sheep fetal ovaries exposed to gestational under nutrition.

Reproduction 2018 Oct 1. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

J Stanton, Department of Anatomy, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

A number of studies have demonstrated effects of gestational undernutrition on fetal ovarian development and postnatal female fertility. However the mechanism underlying these effects remains elusive. Using a cohort of animals in which altered gestational nutrition affected indicators of postnatal fertility, this study applies RNAseq to fetal ovaries to identify affected genes and pathways that may underlie the relationship between gestational plane of nutrition and postnatal fertility. Read More

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October 2018
4 Reads

Follicle rupture during ovulation with an emphasis on recent progress in fish models.

Reproduction 2018 Oct 1. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

K Ogiwara, Reproductive and Developmental Biology, Hokkaido University Faculty of Science Graduate School of Science, Sapporo, Japan.

Ovulation, which is induced by the ovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge, is a dynamic process that results in a discharge of one or more fertilizable oocytes from the ovarian follicle into the ovarian cavity or into the abdominal cavity. Follicle rupture is a core event of the ovulatory process and has been the subject of intensive investigation. Many studies have been performed in various vertebrate animals that focused on proteolysis during ovulation. Read More

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October 2018
5 Reads

Endometrial mesenchymal stem/stromal cell modulation of T cell proliferation.

Reproduction 2018 Oct 1. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

J Deane, The Ritchie Centre, Hudson Institute of Medical Research, Clayton, Australia.

Perivascular mesenchymal stem/stromal cells can be isolated from the human endometrium using the surface marker SUSD2, and are being investigated for use in tissue repair. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells from other tissues modulate T cell responses via mechanisms including interleukin-10, prostaglandin E2, TGF-β1 and regulatory T cells. Animal studies demonstrate that endometrial mesenchymal stem/stromal cells can also modify immune responses to implanted mesh, but the mechanism/s they employ have not been explored. Read More

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October 2018
7 Reads

Effects of intravenous infusion of E.coli lipopolysaccharide in early pregnant cows.

Reproduction 2018 Oct 1. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

H Bollwein, Clinic of Reproductive Medicine, University of Zurich, Zurich, 8057, Switzerland.

The objective was to characterize effects of Escherichia coli LPS (given iv) on corpus luteum (CL) and embryonic viability in early pregnant cattle. Eight non-lactating German Holstein cows were given 0.5 µg/kg LPS on 35 ± 3 d (mean ± SEM) of pregnancy, whereas seven heifers, 41 ± 6 d pregnant, were given 10 ml saline (Control group). Read More

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October 2018
8 Reads

Effects of androgen and oestrogen on the IGF pathways controlling phallus growth.

Reproduction 2018 Oct 1. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

M Renfree, School of BioSciences, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.

The development of the mammalian phallus involves hormone-dependent mesenchymal-epithelial signalling mechanisms that contribute to urethral closure and regulation of phallus elongation and growth. In marsupials, most differentiation and growth of the phallus occurs post-natally, making them amenable to direct hormone treatment. Expression of IGFs, FGFs, EFNB2, MAFB, DLX5 and AP-1 mRNAs in the phallus at day 50 post-partum (pp) were altered after treatment of tammar wallaby young from day 20-40 pp with androgen, oestrogen or after castration at day 25pp. Read More

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October 2018

Driving gonadotrophin hormone receptor signalling; the role of membrane trafficking.

Reproduction 2018 Oct 1. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

A Hanyaloglu, Institute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Our understanding of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signalling has significantly evolved over the past decade, whereby signalling not only occurs from the plasma membrane but continues, or is reactivated, following internalisation in to endosomal compartments. The spatial organisation of GPCRs is thus essential to decode dynamic and complex signals, and to activate specific downstream pathways that elicit the appropriate cellular response. For the gonadotrophin hormone receptors, membrane trafficking has been demonstrated to play a significant role in regulating its signal activity that in turn would impact at physiological and even pathophysiological level. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

Connexin hemichannels and cell death as measures of bovine COC vitrification success.

Reproduction 2018 Oct 1. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

L Leybaert, Physiology group, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiteit Gent, Gent, Belgium.

Vitrification of immature germinal vesicle-stage oocytes is a promising method in assisted reproduction but is associated with reduced developmental potential and low birth rates. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) express several connexins that form hexameric hemichannels, which interact head-to-head to create a gap junction or exist as unopposed free hemichannels. The latter are normally closed but open under stress conditions and may exert detrimental effects. Read More

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October 2018

Primordial germ cells do not migrate along nerve fibres in marmoset monkey and mouse embryos

Reproduction 2018 Nov 1. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Platform Degenerative Diseases, German Primate Center, Goettingen, Germany

Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the embryonic precursors of spermatozoa and eggs. In mammals, PGCs arise early in embryonic development and migrate from their tissue of specification over a significant distance to reach their destinations, the genital ridges. However, the exact mechanism of translocation is still debated. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Meiotic nondisjunction and sperm aneuploidy in humans

Reproduction 2018 11 1. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Department of Human and Molecular Genetics, Florida International University Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Miami, United States

Infertility is relatively common affecting approximately 1-in-6 couples. Although the genetic basis of infertility is increasingly being uncovered, the contribution of male infertility often remains unexplained. The leading cause of pregnancy loss and cognitive impairment in humans is chromosome aneuploidy. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Inhibition of TMEM16A impedes embryo implantation and decidualization in mice

Reproduction 2018 Oct 2. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

Center for Reproductive Medicine, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China

Recent studies revealed that TMEM16A is involved in several reproductive processes, including ovarian estrogen secretion and ovulation, sperm motility and acrosome reaction, fertilization and myometrium contraction. However, little is known about the expression and function of TMEM16A in embryo implantation and decidualization. In this study, we focused on the expression and regulation of TMEM16A in mouse uterus during early pregnancy. Read More

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October 2018
5 Reads

Deletion of Eqtn in mice reduces male fertility and sperm–egg adhesion

Reproduction 2018 Oct 1. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Department of Functional Anatomy, Reproductive Biology and Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan

A number of sperm proteins are involved in the processes from gamete adhesion to fusion, but the underlying mechanism is still unclear. Here, we established a mouse mutant, the EQUATORIN-knockout (EQTN-KO, Eqtn−/−) mouse model and found that the EQTN-KO males have reduced fertility and sperm–egg adhesion, while the EQTN-KO females are fertile. Eqtn−/− sperm were normal in morphology and motility. Read More

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October 2018
7 Reads

Estrogen-regulated miRNA-27b is altered by bisphenol A in endometrial stromal cells

Reproduction 2018 Sep 28. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Green Center for Reproductive Biological Sciences, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA

MicroRNAs (miRs) are small molecules important for regulation of transcription and translation. The objective was to identify hormonally regulated miRs in human endometrial stromal cells and to determine the impact of the endocrine disruptor, bisphenol A (BPA), on those miRs. miR microarray analysis and multiple confirmatory cell preparations treated with 17β-estradiol (E2) and BPA altered miR-27b, let-7c, let-7e and miR-181b. Read More

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September 2018

Elevation of autophagy rescues spermatogenesis by inhibiting apoptosis of mouse spermatocytes

Reproduction 2018 Sep 27. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Institute of Medicine and Hygienic Equipment for High Altitude Region/Key Laboratory of High Altitude Environment Medicine, Key Laboratory of High Altitude Medicine, College of High Altitude Military Medicine, Army Medical University, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China

Autophagy and apoptosis are interlocked in an extensive crosstalk. Our previous study demonstrated that hypotonic hypoxia-induced marked apoptosis of a spermatocyte-derived cell line (GC-2). However, whether hypoxia-induced apoptosis is mediated by inhibition of autophagy under hypoxic conditions remains unclear. Read More

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September 2018
4 Reads

Dynamics of fatty acid regulatory genes during ovarian development in Penaeus monodon

Reproduction 2018 Sep 21. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC), National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), Khlong Luang, Pathum Thani, Thailand

The delay in ovarian maturation in farmed black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon has resulted in the widespread practice of feeding broodstock with the polychaetes Perinereis nuntia and their unilateral eyestalk ablation. Although this practice alters fatty acid content in shrimp ovaries and hepatopancreas, its effects on fatty acid regulatory genes are yet to be systematically examined. Here, microarray analysis was performed on hepatopancreas and ovary cDNA collected from P. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

Apoptotic germ cells regulate Sertoli cell lipid storage and fatty acid oxidation

Reproduction 2018 Sep 24. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Centro de Investigaciones Endocrinológicas ‘Dr César Bergadá’ CONICET-FEI-División de Endocrinología Hospital de Niños Ricardo Gutiérrez, Buenos Aires, Argentina

The presence of lipid droplets (LDs) and the utilization of fatty acids (FAs) as a source of energy are Sertoli cell (SC) putative characteristics. It is well known that SCs can phagocyte and degrade apoptotic germ cells (AGCs) resulting in increasing lipid content and ATP levels. A relationship between the regulation of lipid storage and of lipid oxidation in SC might be envisaged. Read More

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September 2018
7 Reads

A functional role for AMPK in female fertility and endometrial regeneration

Reproduction 2018 Sep 12. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Department of Animal Sciences, Center for Reproductive Biology, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, USA

Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a highly conserved heterotrimeric complex that acts as an intracellular energy sensor. Based on recent observations of AMPK expression in all structures of the female reproductive system, we hypothesized that AMPK is functionally required for maintaining fertility in the female. This hypothesis was tested by conditionally ablating the two catalytic alpha subunits of AMPK, Prkaa1 and Prkaa2, using Pgr-cre mice. Read More

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September 2018
4 Reads

SPAM1 and PH-20 are two gene products expressed in bovine testis and present in sperm

Reproduction 2018 Sep 12. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Centre de recherche en reproduction, développement et santé intergénérationnelle, Département d’obstétrique, gynécologie et reproduction, Université Laval, Québec, Canada

Sperm adhesion molecule 1 (SPAM1) is a sperm protein possessing a hyaluronidase domain in its N-terminus and a zona pellucida-binding domain in its C-terminus. Our previous studies showed that bovine spermatozoa potentially have 2 SPAM1 isoforms that present different C-terminal domains, different origins (testis and epididymis) and different locations in spermatozoa. In this study, two approaches were taken to characterize the different SPAM1 isoforms. Read More

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September 2018
3 Reads

Proteomic changes in uterine flushings after levonorgestrel treatment and effects on sperm function

Reproduction 2018 Sep 12. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Departamento de Biología de la Reproducción Dr. Carlos Gual Castro, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Tlalpan, Ciudad de México, Mexico

When levonorgestrel (LNG) is given for emergency contraception during the follicular phase, it not only inhibits or delays ovulation, but also induces changes in endometrial secretions that modulate sperm functionality. In order to characterize the female reproductive tract secreted molecules that may affect human spermatozoa, we analyzed changes in the protein content of uterine flushings obtained from women during the periovulatory phase of a control and a LNG-treated menstrual cycle. Lectin affinity analysis and 2D gel electrophoresis of uterine samples showed changes in protein glycosylation patterns and the presence of 31 differentially expressed proteins (8 upregulated and 23 downregulated). Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

Transepithelial transport across the blood–testis barrier

Reproduction 2018 Sep 27. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA

The blood–testis barrier protects developing germ cells by limiting the entry of xenobiotics into the adluminal compartment. There is strong evidence that the male genital tract can serve as a sanctuary site, an area of the body where tumors or viruses are able to survive treatments because most drugs are unable to reach therapeutic concentrations. Recent work has classified the expression and localization of endogenous transporters in the male genital tract as well as the discovery of a transepithelial transport pathway as the molecular mechanism by which nucleoside analogs may be able to circumvent the blood–testis barrier. Read More

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September 2018

Chronic estradiol exposure – harmful effects on behavior, cardiovascular and reproductive functions

Reproduction 2018 Sep 17. Epub 2018 Sep 17.

Department of Veterinary Biosciences and Diagnostic Imaging, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA

Estradiol (E2) is a female hormone that is produced largely by the ovaries, but also by the adrenal glands, fat and liver. It is present in the circulation of both males and females. Many studies in the literature have described how E2 is beneficial to the body in terms of preventing bone loss, affording protection in ischemia reperfusion injury, relieving symptoms of menopause, maintaining vaginal health and helping with ovarian failure or hypogonadism. Read More

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September 2018
6 Reads

MiRNA-335-5p negatively regulates granulosa cell proliferation via SGK3 in PCOS

Reproduction 2018 Sep 4. Epub 2018 Sep 4.

Center for Reproductive Medicine, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a major cause of infertility in women of reproductive age. However, its exact etiology remains unknown. In this study, we sequenced miRNAs in human follicular fluid and identified 16 downregulated and 3 upregulated miRNAs in PCOS group compared with non-PCOS group. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

Retinoid signaling controlled by SRC-2 in decidualization revealed by transcriptomics

Reproduction 2018 Oct 16;156(5):387-395. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Department of Molecular & Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA

Establishment of a successful pregnancy requires not only implantation of a healthy embryo into a receptive uterus but also progesterone receptor (PGR)-dependent transformation of endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) into specialized decidual cells. Decidual cells support the developing embryo and are critical for placentation. We have previously shown that a known transcriptional coregulator of the PGR, steroid receptor coactivator-2 (SRC-2), is a critical driver of endometrial decidualization in both human and mouse endometrium. Read More

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October 2018

Androgens in maternal vascular and placental function: implications for preeclampsia pathogenesis

Reproduction 2018 Oct 16;156(5):R155-R167. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Department of Comparative Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA

Adequate maternal vascular adaptations and blood supply to the uterus and placenta are crucial for optimal oxygen and nutrient transport to growing fetuses of eutherian mammals, including humans. Multiple factors contribute to hemodynamics and structuring of placental vasculature essential for term pregnancy with minimal complications. In women, failure to achieve or sustain favorable pregnancy progression is, not surprisingly, associated with high incidence of antenatal complications, including preeclampsia, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. Read More

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October 2018
5 Reads
3.170 Impact Factor

Human pluripotent stem cells in regenerative medicine: where do we stand?

Reproduction 2018 Oct 16;156(5):R143-R153. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Research Group Reproduction and Genetics, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Brussels, Belgium

Human pluripotent stem cells have the capacity to self-renew indefinitely and the ability to differentiate into all cell types of a human body. These characteristics instill them with an enormous promise in regenerative medicine, where they could be used in cell, tissue and even organ-based replacement therapy. In this review, we discuss their potential clinical applications and the advantages and pitfalls for the different types of human pluripotent stem cells to transition from the bench to the bedside. Read More

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October 2018
3 Reads

Myostatin is expressed in bovine ovarian follicles and modulates granulosal and thecal steroidogenesis

Reproduction 2018 Oct 1;156(4):375–386. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

School of Biological Sciences, Hopkins Building, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, UK

Myostatin plays a negative role in skeletal muscle growth regulation but its potential role in the ovary has received little attention. Here, we first examined relative expression of myostatin (MSTN), myostatin receptors (ACVR1B, ACVR2B and TGFBR1) and binding protein, follistatin (FST), in granulosa (GC) and theca (TC) cells of developing bovine follicles. Secondly, using primary GC and TC cultures, we investigated whether myostatin affects steroidogenesis and cell number. Read More

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October 2018

PGRMC1/2 promotes luteal vascularization and maintains the primordial follicles of mice

Reproduction 2018 Oct 1;156(4):365–373. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Department of Animal Sciences, Center for Reproductive Biology, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, USA

To determine whether conditional depletion of progesterone receptor membrane component (PGRMC) 1 and PGRMC2 affected ovarian follicle development, follicle distribution was assessed in ovaries of young (≈3-month-old) and middle-aged (≈6-month-old) control (Pgrmc1/2fl/fl) and double conditional PGRMC1/2-knockout (Pgrmc1/2d/d) mice. This study revealed that the distribution of primary, preantral and antral follicles was not altered in Pgrmc1/2d/d mice, regardless of the age. Although the number of primordial follicles was similar at ≈3 months of age, their numbers were reduced by ≈80% in 6-month-old Pgrmc1/2d/d mice compared to age-matched Pgrmc1/2fl/fl mice. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

Maternal nutrition and reproductive functions of female and male offspring

Reproduction 2018 Oct 1;156(4):353–364. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Gurgan Clinic IVF and Women Health Center, Ankara, Turkey

This study aimed to investigate the effects of maternal unhealthy nutrition on the reproductive functions of female and male adult offspring. This was an animal study carried out with 24 virgin female Wistar rats (dams) and their male and female offspring. Rats were divided standard diet (SD) or cafeteria diet (CD) groups, after 10 weeks of feeding, all rats were paired with a Wistar stud male, and each group was again divided into CD and SD groups during the pregnancy and lactation periods. Read More

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October 2018
9 Reads

GATA4 is a negative regulator of contractility in mouse testicular peritubular myoid cells

Reproduction 2018 Oct 1;156(4):343–351. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

State Key Laboratory of Stem Cell and Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

Reduced contractility of the testicular peritubular myoid (PTM) cells may contribute to human male subfertility or infertility. Transcription factor GATA4 in Sertoli and Leydig cells is essential for murine spermatogenesis, but limited attention has been paid to the potential role of GATA4 in PTM cells. In primary cultures of mouse PTM cells, siRNA knockdown of GATA4 increased the contractile activity, while GATA4 overexpression significantly attenuated the contractility of PTM cells using a collagen gel contraction assay. Read More

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October 2018

The role of intragestational ghrelin on postnatal development and reproductive programming in mice

Reproduction 2018 Oct 1;156(4):331–341. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Instituto de Fisiología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intragestational role of ghrelin in offspring development and reproductive programming in a mouse model of ghrelin imbalance during pregnancy. Female mice were injected with ghrelin (supraphysiological levels: 4 nmol/animal/day), antagonist (endogenous ghrelin inhibition with (D-Lys3)GHRP-6, 6 nmol/animal/day) or vehicle (control = normal ghrelin levels) throughout the pregnancy. Parameters evaluated in litters were growth, physical, neurobiological and sexual development and, at adulthood, reproductive function. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Dynamic changes in gene expression and signalling during trophoblast development in the horse

Reproduction 2018 Oct 1;156(4):313–330. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, The Royal Veterinary College, Hertfordshire, UK

Equine chorionic girdle trophoblast cells play important endocrine and immune functions critical in supporting pregnancy. Very little is known about the genes and pathways that regulate chorionic girdle trophoblast development. Our aim was to identify genes and signalling pathways active in vivo in equine chorionic girdle trophoblast within a critical 7-days window. Read More

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October 2018

Maternal low-protein diet programmes low ovarian reserve in offspring

Reproduction 2018 Oct 1;156(4):299–311. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Ovarian Biology Laboratory, Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia

The ovarian reserve of primordial follicle oocytes is formed during in utero development and represents the entire supply of oocytes available to sustain female fertility. Maternal undernutrition during pregnancy and lactation diminishes offspring ovarian reserve in rats. In mice, maternal oocyte maturation is also susceptible to undernutrition, causing impaired offspring cardiovascular function. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Role of early life nutrition on regulating the hypothalamic–anterior pituitary–testicular axis of the bull

Reproduction 2018 Oct 1;156(4):283–297. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Laboratory of Animal Reproduction, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland

The objective of this study was to examine the effect of nutrition during the first 18 weeks of life on the physiological and transcriptional functionality of the hypothalamic (arcuate nucleus region), anterior pituitary and testes in Holstein–Friesian bull calves. Holstein–Friesian bull calves with a mean (±S.D. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Contractility of the epididymal duct: function, regulation and potential drug effects

Reproduction 2018 Oct 1;156(4):R125–R141. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Signaling Group, Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany

During their transit through the epididymis, spermatozoa mature and acquire motility and fertilizing capacity. The smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of the epididymal duct are thought to be responsible for the adequate transport of spermatozoa. Thus, precise regulation of SMC function also represents a prerequisite for sperm maturation thereby contributing to male fertility. Read More

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October 2018
3 Reads

Programming of the reproductive axis by hormonal and genetic manipulation in mice

Reproduction 2018 Oct 1;156(4):R101–R109. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental- Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina

In mammals, the reproductive function is controlled by the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis. During development, mechanisms mediated by gonadal steroids exert an imprinting at the hypothalamic–pituitary level, by establishing sexual differences in the circuits that control male and female reproduction. In rodents, the testicular production of androgens increases drastically during the fetal/neonatal stage. Read More

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October 2018
3 Reads

Transposons and the PIWI pathway: genome defense in gametes and embryos

Reproduction 2018 Oct 1;156(4):R111–R124. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada

Hiding in plain sight within the genome of virtually every eukaryotic organism are large numbers of sequences known as transposable elements (TEs). These sequences often comprise 50% or more of the DNA in many mammals and are transcriptionally constrained by DNA methylation and repressive chromatin marks. Individual TEs, when relieved of these epigenetic constraints, can readily move from one genomic location to another, either directly or through RNA intermediates. Read More

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October 2018

Osmotic stress induces JNK-dependent embryo invasion in a model of implantation.

Reproduction 2018 10 16;156(5):421-428. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

J Aplin, Maternal and Fetal Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

In vitro culture during assisted reproduction technologies (ART) exposes pre-implantation embryos to environmental stressors, such as non-physiological nutritional, oxidative and osmotic conditions. The effects on subsequent implantation are not well understood but could contribute to poor ART efficiency and outcomes. We have used exposure to hyperosmolarity to investigate the effects of stress on the ability of embryos to interact with endometrial cells in an in vitro model. Read More

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October 2018
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Prostaglandin F2α promotes embryo implantation and development in the pig.

Reproduction 2018 10 16;156(5):405-419. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

A WacŁawik, Department of Hormonal Action Mechanisms, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Olsztyn, Poland

Successful establishment and development of pregnancy requires proper communication between developing conceptuses and the maternal reproductive tract. Prostaglandins are key players involved in the regulation of reproductive processes in mammals including pigs. Due to its luteolytic action, prostaglandin F2-alpha (PGF2α) is mainly considered as an undesirable factor during early pregnancy. Read More

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October 2018