125 results match your criteria Repetitive Head Injury Syndrome


Identifying degenerative effects of repetitive head trauma with neuroimaging: a clinically-oriented review.

Acta Neuropathol Commun 2021 05 22;9(1):96. Epub 2021 May 22.

Departments of Neurology, Radiology & Biomedical Imaging, Memory and Aging Center, Weill Institute for Neurosciences, University of California, San Francisco, 675 Nelson Rising Lane, Suite 190, San Francisco, CA, 94143, USA.

Background And Scope Of Review: Varying severities and frequencies of head trauma may result in dynamic acute and chronic pathophysiologic responses in the brain. Heightened attention to long-term effects of head trauma, particularly repetitive head trauma, has sparked recent efforts to identify neuroimaging biomarkers of underlying disease processes. Imaging modalities like structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) are the most clinically applicable given their use in neurodegenerative disease diagnosis and differentiation. Read More

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Examining the Research Criteria for Traumatic Encephalopathy Syndrome in Middle-Aged Men From the General Population Who Played Contact Sports in High School.

Front Neurol 2021 14;12:632618. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Charlestown, MA, United States.

There are no validated or agreed upon diagnostic clinical criteria for chronic traumatic encephalopathy or traumatic encephalopathy syndrome. This study examines the leading research criteria for traumatic encephalopathy syndrome (TES) in middle-aged men in the general population. Participants were 409 men between the ages of 35 and 55 recruited through an online crowdsourcing platform. Read More

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Validity of the 2014 traumatic encephalopathy syndrome criteria for CTE pathology.

Alzheimers Dement 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Boston University Alzheimer's Disease and CTE Centers, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Introduction: Validity of the 2014 traumatic encephalopathy syndrome (TES) criteria, proposed to diagnose chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in life, has not been assessed.

Methods: A total of 336 consecutive brain donors exposed to repetitive head impacts from contact sports, military service, and/or physical violence were included. Blinded to clinical information, neuropathologists applied National Institute on Neurological Disorders and Stroke/National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering CTE criteria. Read More

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Virtual Reality Tools for Assessing Unilateral Spatial Neglect: A Novel Opportunity for Data Collection.

J Vis Exp 2021 03 10(169). Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania; Laboratory for Cognition and Neural Stimulation, University of Pennsylvania; Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Pennsylvania.

Unilateral spatial neglect (USN) is a syndrome characterized by inattention to or inaction in one side of space and affects between 23-46% of acute stroke survivors. The diagnosis and characterization of these symptoms in individual patients can be challenging and often requires skilled clinical staff. Virtual reality (VR) presents an opportunity to develop novel assessment tools for patients with USN. Read More

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National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Consensus Diagnostic Criteria for Traumatic Encephalopathy Syndrome.

Neurology 2021 05 15;96(18):848-863. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

From the Boston University CTE Center (D.I.K.), Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston; Brain Injury Program (D.I.K.), Encompass Health Braintree Rehabilitation Hospital, Braintree, MA; University of Washington Memory & Brain Wellness Clinic (C.B.), Department of Neurology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle; Department of Neurology (D.W.D., C.H.A.), Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ; Boston University CTE Center (J.M., M.L.A.), Boston University Alzheimer's Disease Center, Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine; Boston University CTE Center (M.L.M.), Boston University School of Medicine, MA; Departments of Neurology (L.J.B.), Ophthalmology, and Population Health, New York University Grossman School of Medicine; Departments of Neurosciences and Psychiatry University of California San Diego (S.J.B.), La Jolla; Departments of Neurology and Psychiatry (W.B.B.), New York University Grossman School of Medicine; Center for Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine (D.L.B.), Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Department of Neurology, F. Edward Hebert School of Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD; Boston University CTE Center (R.C.C.), Boston University Alzheimer's Disease Center, Departments of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Boston University School of Medicine, MA; Departments of Rehabilitation Medicine and Neurology (K.D.-O.C.), Icahn School of Medicine, Mount Sinai, New York; Department of Neurology (Y.E.G.), Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, AZ; Rancho Los Amigos National Rehabilitation Center (B.D.J.), Downey, CA; Department of Neurology (B.D.J.), Keck School of Medicine of USC. Los Angeles, CA; Departments of Psychiatry and Neurology (T.W.M.), Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis; Veterans Affairs Northwest Mental Illness (E.R.P.), Research, Education, and Clinical Center, VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, WA; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences (E.R.P.), University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle; Mayo Clinic Alzheimer's Disease Research Center (R.C.P.), Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN; Department of Psychiatry and Psychology (J.V.W.), Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ; Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (R.D.Z.), Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Massachusetts General Hospital, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston; Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience (É.M.F.), Maastricht University, the Netherlands, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom; National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (D.J.B.), National Institutes of Health; National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (W.J.K.), Bethesda, MD; Boston University CTE Center (Y.T.), Boston University Alzheimer's Disease Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health; Boston University CTE Center (A.C.M.), Boston University Alzheimer's Disease Center, Departments of Neurology and Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine; VA Boston Healthcare System (A.C.M.), US Department of Veteran Affairs, MA; Psychiatry Neuroimaging Laboratory (M.E.S.), Departments of Psychiatry and Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; Chambers-Grundy Center for Transformative Neuroscience (J.L.C.), Department of Brain Health, University of Nevada School of Integrated Health Sciences; Cleveland Clinic Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health (J.L.C.), Las Vegas, NV; Banner Alzheimer's Institute (E.M.R.), Arizona State University; Department of Psychiatry (E.M.R.), University of Arizona, Phoenix, AZ; and Boston University CTE Center (R.A.S.), Boston University Alzheimer's Disease Center, Departments of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Anatomy & Neurobiology, Boston University School of Medicine, MA.

Objective: To develop evidence-informed, expert consensus research diagnostic criteria for traumatic encephalopathy syndrome (TES), the clinical disorder associated with neuropathologically diagnosed chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE).

Methods: A panel of 20 expert clinician-scientists in neurology, neuropsychology, psychiatry, neurosurgery, and physical medicine and rehabilitation, from 11 academic institutions, participated in a modified Delphi procedure to achieve consensus, initiated at the First National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Consensus Workshop to Define the Diagnostic Criteria for TES April, 2019. Before consensus, panelists reviewed evidence from all published cases of CTE with neuropathologic confirmation, and they examined the predictive validity data on clinical features in relation to CTE pathology from a large clinicopathologic study (n = 298). Read More

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Frequency and Predictors of Traumatic Encephalopathy Syndrome in a Prospective Cohort of Retired Professional Athletes.

Front Neurol 2021 23;12:617526. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States.

Traumatic encephalopathy syndrome (TES) is proposed to represent the long-term impact of repetitive head-injury exposure and the clinical manifestation of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). This study aimed to evaluate the frequency of TES in a cohort of retired professional contact sport athletes, compare the frequency of TES to clinical consensus diagnoses, and identify predictors that increase the likelihood of TES diagnosis. Participants were 85 retired professional contact sport athletes from a prospective cohort at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center and the University of Texas at Dallas. Read More

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February 2021

Exosomal neurofilament light: A prognostic biomarker for remote symptoms after mild traumatic brain injury?

Neurology 2020 06 27;94(23):e2412-e2423. Epub 2020 May 27.

From the National Institute of Nursing Research (V.A.G., C.L., C.D., J.M.G.), National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (P.S.), and Center for Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine (P.S., J.M.G.) and Department of Neurology (K.K., B.-X.Q.), Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, NIH; Walter Reed National Military Medical Center (K.K.), National Intrepid Center of Excellence, Bethesda, MD; Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation (W.C.W.), Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond; RTI International (T.N.), Research Triangle Park, NC; and Department of Neurology (R.D.-A.), University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

Objective: To measure exosomal and plasma levels of candidate blood biomarkers in veterans with history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and test their relationship with chronic symptoms.

Methods: Exosomal and plasma levels of neurofilament light (NfL) chain, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were measured using an ultrasensitive assay in a cohort of 195 veterans, enrolled in the Chronic Effects of Neurotrauma Consortium Longitudinal Study. We examined relationships between candidate biomarkers and symptoms of postconcussive syndrome (PCS), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depression. Read More

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The Behavioral Neuroscience of Traumatic Brain Injury.

Psychiatr Clin North Am 2020 06;43(2):305-330

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Traumatic brain injury is a calamity of various causes, pathologies, and extremely varied and often complex clinical presentations. Because of its predilection for brain systems underlying cognitive and complex behavioral operations, it may cause chronic and severe psychiatric illness that requires expert management. This is more so for the modern epidemic of athletic and military brain injuries which are dominated by psychiatric symptoms. Read More

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Second Impact Syndrome. Myth or reality?

Neurochirurgie 2021 May 10;67(3):265-275. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Bordeaux, Hôpital Pellegrin, EA 7435 - IMOTION (Imagerie moléculaire et thérapies innovantes en oncologie) Université de Bordeaux, 146, rue Leo-Saignat, Case 127, site Carrière - Zone Nord, Batiment 3B, 3(e) étage, 33076 Bordeaux, France. Electronic address:

Introduction: Second impact syndrome (SIS) is a devastating condition occurring in sport-induced mild brain injury. SIS is drastically defined by anamnestic, clinical and radiological criteria, which is unusual in the field of cranial traumatology. The purpose of this study was to provide a literature review of this syndrome. Read More

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Administration of diphenyl diselenide (PhSe) following repetitive mild traumatic brain injury exacerbates anxiety-like symptomology in a rat model.

Behav Brain Res 2020 03 8;382:112472. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Department of Neuroscience, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; Department of Psychology, The University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

Approximately 10-15 % of people that sustain mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) develop post-concussive syndrome (PCS). PCS is a complex array of symptoms that can result in physical, cognitive and emotional impairments. Following mTBI, there are also complex changes in the oxidative stress system and engagement of the inflammatory system, within the brain. Read More

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The long-term consequences of repetitive head impacts: Chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

Handb Clin Neurol 2019 ;167:337-355

Boston University Alzheimer's Disease and CTE Centers, Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, United States; Departments of Neurosurgery, and Anatomy & Neurobiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, United States. Electronic address:

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease associated with exposure to repetitive head impacts (RHI). Although described in boxers for almost a century, scientific and public interest in CTE grew tremendously following a report of postmortem evidence of CTE in the first former professional American football player in 2005. Neuropathologic diagnostic criteria for CTE have been defined, with abnormal perivascular deposition of hyperphosphorylated tau at the sulcal depths as the pathognomonic feature. Read More

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Noninvasive Brain Stimulation and Noninvasive Peripheral Stimulation for Neglect Syndrome Following Acquired Brain Injury.

Neuromodulation 2020 Apr 14;23(3):312-323. Epub 2019 Nov 14.

Medicine Department, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193, Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Vallès), Spain.

Objective: Hemispatial neglect is a frequent condition usually following nondominant hemispheric brain injury. It strongly affects rehabilitation strategies and everyday life activities. It is associated with behavioral and cognitive disability with a strong impact on patient's life. Read More

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Tau PET and multimodal brain imaging in patients at risk for chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

Neuroimage Clin 2019 17;24:102025. Epub 2019 Oct 17.

Memory and Aging Center, Department of Neurology, Weill Institute for Neurosciences, University of California, San Francisco, CA, 94158, United States; Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, United States; Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, United States; Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, United States.

Objective: To characterize individual and group-level neuroimaging findings in patients at risk for Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE).

Methods: Eleven male patients meeting criteria for Traumatic Encephalopathy Syndrome (TES, median age: 64) underwent neurologic evaluation, 3-Tesla MRI, and PET with [F]-Flortaucipir (FTP, tau-PET) and [C]-Pittsburgh compound B (PIB, amyloid-PET). Six patients underwent [F]-Fluorodeoxyglucose-PET (FDG, glucose metabolism). Read More

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September 2020

Treatment of Persistent Post-Traumatic Headache and Post-Concussion Symptoms Using Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A Pilot, Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Neurotrauma 2020 01 8;37(2):312-323. Epub 2019 Nov 8.

University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Persistent post-traumatic headache (PTH) after mild traumatic brain injury is one of the most prominent and highly reported persistent post-concussion symptoms (PPCS). Non-pharmacological treatments, including non-invasive neurostimulation technologies, have been proposed for use. Our objective was to evaluate headache characteristics at 1 month after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatment in participants with PTH and PPCS. Read More

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January 2020

PET-detectable tau pathology correlates with long-term neuropsychiatric outcomes in patients with traumatic brain injury.

Brain 2019 10;142(10):3265-3279

Department of Functional Brain Imaging Research, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, Chiba, Japan.

Tau deposits is a core feature of neurodegenerative disorder following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Despite ample evidence from post-mortem studies demonstrating exposure to both mild-repetitive and severe TBIs are linked to tau depositions, associations of topology of tau lesions with late-onset psychiatric symptoms due to TBI have not been explored. To address this issue, we assessed tau deposits in long-term survivors of TBI by PET with 11C-PBB3, and evaluated those associations with late-life neuropsychiatric outcomes. Read More

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October 2019

Investigation into repetitive concussion in sport (RECOS): study protocol of a prospective, exploratory, observational cohort study.

BMJ Open 2019 07 4;9(7):e029883. Epub 2019 Jul 4.

NIHR Surgical Reconstruction and Microbiology Research Centre, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK.

Introduction: Sport-related concussion management remains a diagnostic dilemma to clinicians in all strata of care, coaching staff and players alike. The lack of objective diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and over-reliance on subjective clinical assessments carries a significant health risk of undiagnosed concussive episodes and early return to play before full recovery increasing the risk of sustaining additional concussion, and leading to long-term sequelae and/or unfavourable outcome.

Objective: To identify a set of parameters (neuroimaging with neurophysiological, biological and neuropsychological tests) that may support pitch-side and outpatient clinical decision-making in order to objectively diagnose concussion, determine the severity of injury, guide a safe return to play and identify the potential predictors of the long-term sequelae of concussion. Read More

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Corneal Perforation After Corneal Cross-Linking in Keratoconus Associated With Potentially Pathogenic ZNF469 Mutations.

Cornea 2019 Aug;38(8):1033-1039

Stein Eye Institute, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA.

Purpose: To report a case of bilateral and repetitive corneal perforations after corneal cross-linking (CXL) for keratoconus in a woman harboring potentially pathogenic variants in the ZNF469 gene and to characterize the keratoconus phenotype in this woman and her daughter who shared the same ZNF469 mutations.

Methods: Clinical characterization of the proband and her daughter followed by sequencing of the genes associated with brittle cornea syndrome, ZNF469 and PRDM5, in both individuals.

Results: An Ashkenazi Jewish woman in her sixth decade presented with diffuse corneal thinning and progressive steepening consistent with keratoconus. Read More

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Elevated Tau in Military Personnel Relates to Chronic Symptoms Following Traumatic Brain Injury.

J Head Trauma Rehabil 2020 Jan/Feb;35(1):66-73

National Institute of Nursing Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (Drs Pattinson, Guedes, Lai, and Gill, Ms Motamedi, and Messrs Devoto and Peyer); Center for Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine, Rockville, Maryland (Dr Shahim and Mss Taylor and Dunbar); National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (Dr Shahim); Henry M. Jackson Foundation, Bethesda, Maryland (Mss Taylor and Dunbar and Dr Roy); and Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Department of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland (Dr Roy).

Objective: To understand the relationships between traumatic brain injury (TBI), blood biomarkers, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and postconcussive syndrome symptoms.

Design: Cross-sectional cohort study using multivariate analyses.

Participants: One hundred nine military personnel and veterans, both with and without a history of TBI. Read More

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A Pilot Randomised Double-Blind Study of the Tolerability and efficacy of repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Persistent Post-Concussion Syndrome.

Sci Rep 2019 04 2;9(1):5498. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Biomedical Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.

This study investigates the effect of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) on persistent post-concussion syndrome (PCS). The study design was a randomized (coin toss), placebo controlled, and double-blind study. Thirty-seven participants with PCS were assessed for eligibility; 22 were randomised and 18 completed the study requirements. Read More

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Novel tau filament fold in chronic traumatic encephalopathy encloses hydrophobic molecules.

Nature 2019 04 20;568(7752):420-423. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK.

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative tauopathy that is associated with repetitive head impacts or exposure to blast waves. First described as punch-drunk syndrome and dementia pugilistica in retired boxers, CTE has since been identified in former participants of other contact sports, ex-military personnel and after physical abuse. No disease-modifying therapies currently exist, and diagnosis requires an autopsy. Read More

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Modeling of inflicted head injury by shaking trauma in children: what can we learn? : Part I: A systematic review of animal models.

Forensic Sci Med Pathol 2019 Sep 4;15(3):408-422. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Division of Digital and Biometric Traces, Netherlands Forensic Institute, Laan van Ypenburg 6, 2497 GB, The Hague, The Netherlands.

Inflicted blunt force trauma and/or repetitive acceleration-deceleration trauma in infants can cause brain injury. Yet, the exact pathophysiologic mechanism with its associated thresholds remains unclear. In this systematic review an overview of animal models for shaking trauma and their findings on tissue damage will be provided. Read More

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September 2019

American Medical Society for Sports Medicine Position Statement on Concussion in Sport.

Clin J Sport Med 2019 03;29(2):87-100

Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Sport-related concussion (SRC) is a common injury in recreational and organized sport. Over the past 30 years, there has been significant progress in our scientific understanding of SRC, which in turn has driven the development of clinical guidelines for diagnosis, assessment, and management of SRC. In addition to a growing need for knowledgeable health care professionals to provide evidence-based care for athletes with SRC, media attention and legislation have created awareness and, in some cases, fear about many issues and unknowns surrounding SRC. Read More

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The King-Devick test in an outpatient concussion clinic: Assessing the diagnostic and prognostic value of a vision test in conjunction with exercise testing among acutely concussed adolescents.

J Neurol Sci 2019 Mar 22;398:91-97. Epub 2018 Dec 22.

Department of Psychiatry, University at Buffalo, SUNY, Buffalo, NY 14214, United States.

Objective: This study investigated the diagnostic and prognostic value of the King-Devick (K-D) test in conjunction with treadmill testing in adolescents after sport-related concussion (SRC) in an outpatient concussion management clinic without baseline measures.

Design: Prospective cohort.

Methods: The K-D test was administered pre- and post-exercise on a graded treadmill test to acutely concussed (AC, <10 days from injury, n = 46, 15. Read More

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Management of concussion in soccer.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2019 03 28;161(3):425-433. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Department of Neurosurgery, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Background: When participating in contact sports, (mild) head trauma is a common incident-observed in both professional and amateur sports. When head trauma results in transient neurological impairment, a sports-related concussion has occurred. Acute concussion, repetitive concussions, as well as cumulative "sub-concussive" head impacts may increase the risk of developing cognitive and behavioral deficits for athletes, as well as accelerated cerebral degeneration. Read More

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Tau Biology, Tauopathy, Traumatic Brain Injury, and Diagnostic Challenges.

J Alzheimers Dis 2019 ;67(2):447-467

College of Sciences, University of Texas, San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA.

There is considerable interest in the pathobiology of tau protein, given its potential role in neurodegenerative diseases and aging. Tau is an important microtubule associated protein, required for the assembly of tubulin into microtubules and maintaining structural integrity of axons. Tau has other diverse cellular functions involving signal transduction, cellular proliferation, developmental neurobiology, neuroplasticity, and synaptic activity. Read More

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Histological dating of subdural hematoma in infants.

Int J Legal Med 2019 Mar 15;133(2):539-546. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Forensic Department, APHM, La Timone, 264 rue St Pierre, 13385, Marseille, Cedex 05, France.

Background: After infant deaths due to non-accidental head injury (NAHI) with subdural hematoma (SDH), the magistrates ask experts to date the traumatic event. To do so, the expert only has tools based on adult series of NAHI. We aimed to develop an SDH dating system applicable to infants aged under 3 years. Read More

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Chronic traumatic encephalopathy: fluid biomarkers.

Handb Clin Neurol 2018 ;158:323-333

Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Mölndal, Sweden; Clinical Neurochemistry Laboratory, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Mölndal, Sweden.

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neuropathologic condition that has been described in individuals who have been exposed to repetitive head impacts, including concussions and subconcussive trauma. CTE cannot currently be diagnosed during life. Clinical symptoms of CTE (including changes in mood, behavior, and cognition) are nonspecific and may develop after a latency phase following the injuries. Read More

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Neuropsychiatry of sport-related concussion.

Handb Clin Neurol 2018 ;158:153-162

Department of Psychiatry, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, United States.

Changes in mood, emotions, and behavior are common components of the acute clinical picture of sport-related concussion (SRC). Common concussion symptom inventories such as the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool-5 (SCAT5) contain a large number of questions that assess these neuropsychiatric domains. In fact, of 22 items assessed by the SCAT5, arguably only five of the items do not overlap with symptoms assessed by standard measures of anxiety and depression, suggesting that concussion is best viewed as a neuropsychiatric syndrome. Read More

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Head trauma in sports - clinical characteristics, epidemiology and biomarkers.

J Intern Med 2019 06 18;285(6):624-634. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Mölndal, Sweden.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is clinically divided into a spectrum of severities, with mild TBI being the least severe form and a frequent occurrence in contact sports, such as ice hockey, American football, rugby, horse riding and boxing. Mild TBI is caused by blunt nonpenetrating head trauma that causes movement of the brain and stretching and tearing of axons, with diffuse axonal injury being a central pathogenic mechanism. Mild TBI is in principle synonymous with concussion; both have similar criteria in which the most important elements are acute alteration or loss of consciousness and/or post-traumatic amnesia following head trauma and no apparent brain changes on standard neuroimaging. Read More

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