2,048 results match your criteria Reoviruses

The nonstructural p17 protein of a fusogenic bat-borne reovirus regulates viral replication in virus species- and host-specific manners.

PLoS Pathog 2022 06 2;18(6):e1010553. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan.

Nelson Bay orthoreovirus (NBV), a member of the family Reoviridae, genus Orthoreovirus, is a bat-borne virus that causes respiratory diseases in humans. NBV encodes two unique nonstructural proteins, fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST) protein and p17 protein, in the S1 gene segment. FAST induces cell-cell fusion between infected cells and neighboring cells and the fusogenic activity is required for efficient viral replication. Read More

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Structural Analysis of Monomeric RNA-Dependent Polymerases Revisited.

J Mol Evol 2022 Aug 31;90(3-4):283-295. Epub 2022 May 31.

Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico, Mexico.

In the past few years, our understanding of the RNA virosphere has changed dramatically due to the growth and spurt of metagenomics, exponentially increasing the number of RNA viral sequences, and providing a better understanding of their range of potential hosts. As of today, the only conserved protein among RNA viruses appears to be the monomeric RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. This enzyme belongs to the right-hand DNA-and RNA polymerases, which also includes reverse transcriptases and eukaryotic replicative DNA polymerases. Read More

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Recombinant Expressing Grass Carp Reovirus VP6 Induces Mucosal Immunity Against Grass Carp Reovirus Infection.

Front Immunol 2022 11;13:914010. Epub 2022 May 11.

Key Laboratory of Fishery Drug Development of Ministry of Agriculture, Key Laboratory of Aquatic Animal Immune Technology of Guangdong Province, Pearl River Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

Grass carp haemorrhagic disease caused by grass carp reovirus II is a serious disease of the aquaculture industry and vaccination is the only effective method of GCRV protection. In this study, was used as oral vaccine delivery to express the GCRV II VP6 protein. We evaluated the protective efficacy of the live vaccine strain to induce mucosal immune protection. Read More

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Molecular Characterization of Outer Capsid Proteins VP5 and VP7 of Grass Carp Reovirus.

Viruses 2022 05 12;14(5). Epub 2022 May 12.

State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China.

Aquareovirus, which is a member of the Reoviridae family, was isolated from aquatic animals. A close molecular evolutionary relationship between aquareoviruses and mammalian orthoreoviruses was revealed. However, the functions of the aquareovirus genome-encoded proteins are poorly understood. Read More

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Identification and Functional Analyses of Host Proteins Interacting with the p17 Protein of Avian Reovirus.

Viruses 2022 04 25;14(5). Epub 2022 Apr 25.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, China.

Avian reovirus (ARV) causes viral arthritis, chronic respiratory diseases, retarded growth and malabsorption syndrome. However, the precise molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here, we report the host cellular proteins that interact with ARV p17 by yeast two-hybrid screening. Read More

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First report on co-isolation and whole-genomic characterisation of mammalian orthorubulavirus 5 and mammalian orthoreovirus type 3 from domestic pigs in India.

Arch Virol 2022 Jul 23;167(7):1529-1545. Epub 2022 May 23.

ICAR-National Institute of High Security Animal Diseases, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, 462022, India.

During a surveillance study to monitor porcine epidemic diarrohoea virus and transmissible gastroenteritis virus in India, a total of 1043 swine samples including faeces (n = 264) and clotted blood (n = 779) were collected and tested. Five samples (four faecal and one serum) showed cytopathic effects in Vero cells. Transmission electron microscopy of infectious cell supernatant revealed the presence of two types of virions. Read More

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Comparative pathogenesis of turkey reoviruses.

Avian Pathol 2022 Jun 17:1-10. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Department of Veterinary Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN, USA.

Turkey reoviruses have been implicated in multiple disease syndromes resulting in significant economic losses to the turkey industry. It has been known for decades that turkey enteric reovirus (TERV) is involved in poult enteritis complex, but turkey arthritis reovirus (TARV), the causative agent of tenosynovitis in turkeys, emerged in 2011. In 2019, we isolated reovirus from several cases of hepatitis in turkeys and tentatively named it turkey hepatitis reovirus (THRV). Read More

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Homology-based classification of accessory proteins in coronavirus genomes uncovers extremely dynamic evolution of gene content.

Mol Ecol 2022 Jul 30;31(13):3672-3692. Epub 2022 May 30.

Scientific Institute IRCCS E. MEDEA, Bioinformatics, Bosisio Parini, Italy.

Coronaviruses (CoVs) have complex genomes that encode a fixed array of structural and nonstructural components, as well as a variety of accessory proteins that differ even among closely related viruses. Accessory proteins often play a role in the suppression of immune responses and may represent virulence factors. Despite their relevance for CoV phenotypic variability, information on accessory proteins is fragmentary. Read More

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Development of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of novel chicken orthoreovirus.

Pol J Vet Sci 2022 Mar;25(1):109-118

College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, No.61 Daizong Street, Tai'an 271018, China.

A novel avian orthoreovirus (N-ARV) variant characterized with obvious arthritis and synovial inflammation, was isolated from Shandong, China in May 2016. It caused chicken poor growth and enormous economic losses to the poultry industry of China. However, there are few effective methods for detecting the antibody levels of N-ARV. Read More

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A nonstructural protein encoded by a rice reovirus induces an incomplete autophagy to promote viral spread in insect vectors.

PLoS Pathog 2022 05 9;18(5):e1010506. Epub 2022 May 9.

Vector-borne Virus Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Ecological Pest Control for Fujian and Taiwan Crops, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, Fujian, China.

Viruses can hijack autophagosomes as the nonlytic release vehicles in cultured host cells. However, how autophagosome-mediated viral spread occurs in infected host tissues or organs in vivo remains poorly understood. Here, we report that an important rice reovirus, rice gall dwarf virus (RGDV) hijacks autophagosomes to traverse multiple insect membrane barriers in the midgut and salivary gland of leafhopper vector to enhance viral spread. Read More

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Reovirus μ2 protein modulates host cell alternative splicing by reducing protein levels of U5 snRNP core components.

Nucleic Acids Res 2022 05;50(9):5263-5281

Département de biochimie et de génomique fonctionnelle, Faculté de médecine et des sciences de la santé, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Québec J1E 4K8, Canada.

Mammalian orthoreovirus (MRV) is a double-stranded RNA virus from the Reoviridae family presenting a promising activity as an oncolytic virus. Recent studies have underlined MRV's ability to alter cellular alternative splicing (AS) during infection, with a limited understanding of the mechanisms at play. In this study, we investigated how MRV modulates AS. Read More

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Pteropine Orthoreovirus, PRV7S (Sikamat Virus) Demonstrates Oncolysis in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cell Lines.

Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) 2022 04;27(4):138

School of Medicine, International Medical University, 57000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Background: Oncolytic properties had been demonstrated in Mammalian Orthoreovirus (MRV) and Avian Orthorevirus (ARV). Besides MRV and ARV, Pteropine Orthoreovirus (PRV) is also categorized under the genus PRV7S (Sikamat virus) is an orthoreovirus isolated in Malaysia. Present study aims to investigate the oncolytic effects of PRV7S on ranges of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells through apoptosis in comparison to MRV3. Read More

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Sleeping With the Enemy? The Current Knowledge of Piscine Orthoreovirus (PRV) Immune Response Elicited to Counteract Infection.

Front Immunol 2022 6;13:768621. Epub 2022 Apr 6.

Centro de Biotecnología Acuícola, Facultad de Química y Biología, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) is a virus in the genus Orthoreovirus of the Reoviridae family, first described in 2010 associated with Heart and Skeletal Muscle Inflammation (HSMI) in Atlantic salmon (). Three phases of PRV infection have been described, the early entry and dissemination, the acute dissemination phase, and the persistence phase. Depending on the PRV genotype and the host, infection can last for life. Read More

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Unrecognized diversity of mammalian orthoreoviruses in North American bats.

Virology 2022 Jun 1;571:1-11. Epub 2022 Apr 1.

Department of Comparative, Diagnostic, and Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32610, USA. Electronic address:

Bats have recently been identified as potential reservoir hosts for mammalian orthoreoviruses (MRVs) throughout Europe and China. Here we present the first evolutionary and biological characterization of bat-borne MRVs in North America, including phylogenomic analysis, in vitro relative infectivity in bat and other mammalian cell cultures, host cell receptor specificity, and epifluorescence microscopy of viral factory formation. Through genetic and phylogenetic comparisons, we show that two divergent MRV serotype 2 (T2) strains - isolated from a silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans) and a big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus) from Pennsylvania, USA - provide an evolutionary link to an MRV strain (T2W) recovered from an 8-week-old infant who died in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada in 1997. Read More

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The Reovirus σ3 Protein Inhibits NF-κB-Dependent Antiviral Signaling.

J Virol 2022 05 13;96(9):e0051522. Epub 2022 Apr 13.

Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, USA.

Viral antagonism of innate immune pathways is a common mechanism by which viruses evade immune surveillance. Infection of host cells with reovirus leads to the blockade of NF-κB, a key transcriptional regulator of the hosts' innate immune response. One mechanism by which reovirus infection results in inhibition of NF-κB is through a diminishment in levels of upstream activators, IKKβ and NEMO. Read More

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Complete sequence and genetic characterization of a novel insect-specific reovirus discovered from Laodelphax striatellus.

Virology 2022 05 4;570:117-122. Epub 2022 Apr 4.

State Key Laboratory for Managing Biotic and Chemical Threats to the Quality and Safety of Agro-products, Key Laboratory of Biotechnology in Plant Protection of Ministry of Agriculture and Zhejiang Province, Institute of Plant Virology, Ningbo University, Ningbo, 315211, China. Electronic address:

The small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), is an efficient vector of several economically important plant viruses. In this study, a novel reovirus-like virus was identified in L. striatellus, named Laodelphax striatellus reovirus (LSRV). Read More

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Virulence of Emerging Arthrotropic Avian Reoviruses Correlates With Their Ability to Activate and Traffic Interferon-γ Producing Cytotoxic CD8 T Cells Into Gastrocnemius Tendon.

Front Microbiol 2022 14;13:869164. Epub 2022 Mar 14.

Department of Veterinary Pathology, Western College of Veterinary Medicine (WCVM), University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.

Newly emerging arthrotropic avian reoviruses (ARVs) are genetically divergent, antigenically heterogeneous, and economically costly. Nevertheless, the mechanism of emerging ARV-induced disease pathogenesis and potential differences in virulence between virus genotypes have not been adequately addressed. In this study, the life cycle of ARV, including the formation of cytoplasmic ARV neo-organelles, paracrystalline structures, and virus release mechanisms, were characterized in the infected host cell by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Read More

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[Purification of mammalian orthoreovirus serotype 3 Dearing Sigma1 protein and preparation of polyclonal antibody].

Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi 2022 Feb;38(2):171-176

Department of Pathogenic Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Jinzhou Medical University, Jinzhou 121000, China. *Corresponding author, E-mail:

Objective To prepare T3Dsigma1 polyclonal antibody with purified sigma1 fusion protein of mammalian orthoreovirus (MRV) serotype 3 Dearing (T3D). Methods The recombinant plasmid T3DS1-pET28a was transformed into Rosetta (DE3) competent cells, and the isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) was used to induce a large amount of target proteins which were subjected to purification by histidine-tagged Ni-IDA chromatography column to obtain the T3Dsigma1 fusion protein. New Zealand white rabbits were immunized with the purified protein to prepare polyclonal antibodies specific against sigma1 protein. Read More

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February 2022

The Murine Neuronal Receptor NgR1 Is Dispensable for Reovirus Pathogenesis.

J Virol 2022 04 30;96(8):e0005522. Epub 2022 Mar 30.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicinegrid.471408.e, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Engagement of host receptors is essential for viruses to enter target cells and initiate infection. Expression patterns of receptors in turn dictate host range, tissue tropism, and disease pathogenesis during infection. Mammalian orthoreovirus (reovirus) displays serotype-dependent patterns of tropism in the murine central nervous system (CNS) that are dictated by the viral attachment protein σ1. Read More

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Transcriptomics Reveal Several Novel Viruses from Canegrubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Central Queensland, Australia.

Viruses 2022 03 21;14(3). Epub 2022 Mar 21.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia.

Canegrubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) are major pests of sugarcane crops in Australia, but despite long-term and intensive research, no commercially viable biological control agents have been identified. We used the RNA-Seq approach to explore the viriomes of three different species of canegrubs from central Queensland, Australia to identify potential candidates for biological control. We identified six novel RNA viruses, characterized their genomes, and inferred their evolutionary relationships with other closely related viruses. Read More

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A CRISPR-Cas9 screen reveals a role for WD repeat-containing protein 81 (WDR81) in the entry of late penetrating viruses.

PLoS Pathog 2022 03 23;18(3):e1010398. Epub 2022 Mar 23.

Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, United States of America.

Successful initiation of infection by many different viruses requires their uptake into the endosomal compartment. While some viruses exit this compartment early, others must reach the degradative, acidic environment of the late endosome. Mammalian orthoreovirus (reovirus) is one such late penetrating virus. Read More

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Avian Reoviruses From Wild Birds Exhibit Pathogenicity to Specific Pathogen Free Chickens by Footpad Route.

Front Vet Sci 2022 24;9:844903. Epub 2022 Feb 24.

Department of Veterinary Infectious Diseases and Avian Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine and Center for Poultry Diseases Control, Jeonbuk National University, Iksan, South Korea.

Avian reoviruses (ARVs) are ubiquitous in domestic poultry with 80% of them being non-pathogenic and they are frequently found in clinically healthy birds. ARVs have also been known to be the etiological agents of viral arthritis (VA), tenosynovitis, myocarditis, runting-stunting syndrome (RSS), and respiratory and enteric disease in chickens. Significant economic losses during the process of poultry husbandry are due, in part, to unmitigated ARV infections throughout the poultry industry. Read More

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February 2022

Reovirus infection is regulated by NPC1 and endosomal cholesterol homeostasis.

PLoS Pathog 2022 03 9;18(3):e1010322. Epub 2022 Mar 9.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America.

Cholesterol homeostasis is required for the replication of many viruses, including Ebola virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus-1. Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) is an endosomal-lysosomal membrane protein involved in cholesterol trafficking from late endosomes and lysosomes to the endoplasmic reticulum. We identified NPC1 in CRISPR and RNA interference screens as a putative host factor for infection by mammalian orthoreovirus (reovirus). Read More

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High prevalence of CsRV2 in cultured Callinectes danae: Potential impacts on soft-shell crab production in Brazil.

J Invertebr Pathol 2022 05 3;190:107739. Epub 2022 Mar 3.

Institute of Marine and Environmental Technology, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21202, USA.

Crabs can be infected by a variety of pathogenic micro-organisms but the most damaging are viruses. Naturally-occurring Callinectes sapidus reovirus 1 (CsRV1) is thought to contribute to mortality of Callinectes sapidus in soft crab culture in the USA. In Brazil, soft crabs are frequently produced using Callinectes danae, which suffers a similar rate of mortality in culture as C. Read More

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The quantitative proteomic analysis of rare minnow, Gobiocypris rarus, infected with virulent and attenuated isolates of grass carp reovirus genotype Ⅱ.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2022 Apr 24;123:142-151. Epub 2022 Feb 24.

Yangtze River Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuhan, 430223, China; College of Biological Science and Engineering, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang, 330045, China. Electronic address:

Grass carp reovirus genotype Ⅱ (GCRV II) causes severe hemorrhagic disease in grass carp and affects the aquaculture industry in China. GCRV Ⅱ isolates have been collected from different epidemic areas in China, and these isolates can lead to different degrees of hemorrhagic symptoms in grass carp. Rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) is widely used as a model fish to study the mechanism of hemorrhagic disease because of its high sensitivity to GCRV. Read More

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Presence of Recombinant Bat Coronavirus GCCDC1 in Cambodian Bats.

Viruses 2022 01 18;14(2). Epub 2022 Jan 18.

Programme in Emerging Infectious Diseases, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore 169857, Singapore.

Bats have been recognized as an exceptional viral reservoir, especially for coronaviruses. At least three bat zoonotic coronaviruses (SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2) have been shown to cause severe diseases in humans and it is expected more will emerge. One of the major features of CoVs is that they are all highly prone to recombination. Read More

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January 2022

Isolation and Genomic Characterization of Avian Reovirus From Wild Birds in South Korea.

Front Vet Sci 2022 28;9:794934. Epub 2022 Jan 28.

Department of Veterinary Infectious Diseases and Avian Diseases, Center for Poultry Diseases Control, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jeonbuk National University, Iksan, South Korea.

Avian reoviruses (ARVs) cause severe arthritis, tenosynovitis, pericarditis, and depressed growth in chickens, and these conditions have become increasingly frequent in recent years. Studies on the role of wild birds in the epidemiology of ARVs are insufficient. This study provides information about currently circulating ARVs in wild birds by gene detection using diagnostic RT-PCR, virus isolation, and genomic characterization. Read More

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January 2022

Production and Purification of Candidate Subunit Vaccines by IC-Tagging Protein Encapsulation.

Methods Mol Biol 2022 ;2465:27-40

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Centro Singular de Investigación en Química Biolóxica e Materiais Moleculares (CIQUS), University of Santiago de Compostela, A Coruña, Spain.

Particulate material is more efficient in eliciting immune responses. Here we describe the production of micro- and nanospheres formed by protein muNS-Mi from avian reoviruses, loaded with foreign epitopes for their use as vaccines. Read More

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Genetic variation analysis of the sigma B protein gene of novel duck reovirus in southeastern China from 2011 to 2020.

J Virol Methods 2022 05 31;303:114479. Epub 2022 Jan 31.

Collage of Life Science and Engineering, Foshan University, 18 Jiangwan Street, Foshan, 528231, Guangdong Province, China. Electronic address:

The novel duck reovirus (NDRV) disease first appeared in China in 2011. Infected ducks may be of various ages and breeds. Sigma B protein, which is the key component of NDRV's outer capsid, may trigger group-specific neutralizing antibodies linked to NDRV infection, pathogenicity, and immune defense. Read More

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p17-Modulated Hsp90/Cdc37 Complex Governs Oncolytic Avian Reovirus Replication by Chaperoning p17, Which Promotes Viral Protein Synthesis and Accumulation of Viral Proteins σC and σA in Viral Factories.

J Virol 2022 03 2;96(6):e0007422. Epub 2022 Feb 2.

Institute of Molecular Biology, National Chung Hsing Universitygrid.260542.7, Taichung, Taiwan.

In this work we have determined that heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is essential for avian reovirus (ARV) replication by chaperoning the ARV p17 protein. p17 modulates the formation of the Hsp90/Cdc37 complex by phosphorylation of Cdc37, and this chaperone machinery protects p17 from ubiquitin-proteasome degradation. Inhibition of the Hsp90/Cdc37 complex by inhibitors (17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin 17-AGG, and celastrol) or short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) significantly reduced expression levels of viral proteins and virus yield, suggesting that the Hsp90/Cdc37 chaperone complex functions in virus replication. Read More

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