1,956 results match your criteria Reoviruses

A TGFβ Signaling Inhibitor, SB431542, Inhibits Reovirus-mediated Lysis of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells in a TGFβ-independent Manner.

Anticancer Res 2021 May;41(5):2431-2440

Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan;

Background/aim: Oncolytic reovirus, which is a non-enveloped virus possessing a 10-segmented double-stranded RNA genome, has been anticipated as a novel class of antitumor agent. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is considered to be a target suitable for reovirus-mediated virotherapy. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β plays an important role in the pathogenesis of HCC. Read More

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Isolation and characterization of mammalian orthoreovirus type 3 from a fecal sample from a wild boar in Japan.

Arch Virol 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

School of Veterinary Medicine, Azabu University, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, 252-5201, Japan.

Mammalian orthoreoviruses (MRVs) have been identified in various mammalian species, including humans, bats, and pigs. However, isolation and complete genome sequences of MRVs from wild boars have not yet been reported. In this study, we isolated, sequenced, and analyzed an MRV from a free-living wild boar in Japan using the porcine-sapelovirus-resistant cell line N1380. Read More

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Genomic sequences and pathogenic characteristics of two variant duck reoviruses associated with spleen necrosis.

Infect Genet Evol 2021 Apr 3;92:104847. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Avian Immunosuppressive Diseases Division, State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin 150069, PR China; Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center for the Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Disease and Zoonosis,Yangzhou University,Yangzhou 225009,PR China. Electronic address:

Emerging variant novel duck reovirus (NDRV) strains that cause spleen swelling and necrosis have seriously threatened the waterfowl industry since 2017. However, there is no report about the complete genomic sequence of emerging variant strains isolated from Cherry valley ducks. In this study, we acquired the complete genome sequences of two variant NDRV strains, SD19/6201 and SD19/6202, and analyzed their genetic and evolutionary relationship with other orthoreoviruses. Read More

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Piscine Orthoreovirus (PRV)-3, but Not PRV-2, Cross-Protects against PRV-1 and Heart and Skeletal Muscle Inflammation in Atlantic Salmon.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Mar 6;9(3). Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Department of Fish Health, Norwegian Veterinary Institute, 0454 Oslo, Norway.

Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI), caused by infection with (PRV-1), is a common disease in farmed Atlantic salmon (). Both an inactivated whole virus vaccine and a DNA vaccine have previously been tested experimentally against HSMI and demonstrated to give partial but not full protection. To understand the mechanisms involved in protection against HSMI and evaluate the potential of live attenuated vaccine strategies, we set up a cross-protection experiment using PRV genotypes not associated with disease development in Atlantic salmon. Read More

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The virome of German bats: comparing virus discovery approaches.

Sci Rep 2021 04 1;11(1):7430. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Centre for Biological Threats and Special Pathogens, Robert Koch Institute, Seestrasse 10, 13353, Berlin, Germany.

Bats are known to be reservoirs of several highly pathogenic viruses. Hence, the interest in bat virus discovery has been increasing rapidly over the last decade. So far, most studies have focused on a single type of virus detection method, either PCR, virus isolation or virome sequencing. Read More

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The Effects of Human Reoviruses on Cancer Cells Derived from Hepatocellular Carcinoma Biopsies.

Clin Lab 2021 Mar;67(3)

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer around the world. Since this cancer is highly resistant to the existing treatments, we used a novel method, which selectively targets HCC cancer cells to improve the treatment process. As normal cells are resistant to reovirus replication, we used oncolytic reoviruses, which can infect, replicate in, and destroy cancer cells. Read More

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Inhibition of HIF-1α accumulation in prostate cancer cells is initiated during early stages of mammalian orthoreovirus infection.

Virology 2021 Jun 7;558:38-48. Epub 2021 Mar 7.

Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, 50011, USA. Electronic address:

Mammalian orthoreovirus (MRV) is a safe and effective cancer killing virus that has completed Phase I-III clinical trials against numerous cancer types. While many patients experience benefit from MRV therapy, pre-defined set points necessary for FDA approval have not been reached. Therefore, additional research into MRV biology and the effect of viral therapy on different tumor genetic subtypes and microenvironments is necessary to identify tumors most amenable to MRV virotherapy. Read More

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Diversity and classification of reoviruses in crustaceans: A proposal.

J Invertebr Pathol 2021 Mar 10;182:107568. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Institute of Marine and Environmental Technology, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Baltimore, MD 21202, USA. Electronic address:

A variety of reoviruses have been described in crustacean hosts, including shrimp, crayfish, prawn, and especially in crabs. However, only one genus of crustacean reovirus - Cardoreovirus - has been formally recognized by ICTV (International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses) and most crustacean reoviruses remain unclassified. This arises in part from ambiguous or incomplete information on which to categorize them. Read More

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A Single Point Mutation, Asn→Lys, Dictates the Temperature-Sensitivity of the Reovirus tsG453 Mutant.

Viruses 2021 02 12;13(2). Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Room 543 Basic Medical Sciences Building, 745 Bannatyne Avenue, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3E OJ9, Canada.

Studies of conditionally lethal mutants can help delineate the structure-function relationships of biomolecules. Temperature-sensitive () mammalian reovirus (MRV) mutants were isolated and characterized many years ago. Two of the most well-defined MRV mutants are , which contains mutations in the S2 gene encoding viral core protein σ2, and , which contains mutations in the S4 gene encoding major outer-capsid protein σ3. Read More

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February 2021

The Paradoxes of Viral mRNA Translation during Mammalian Orthoreovirus Infection.

Viruses 2021 02 11;13(2). Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Baker Institute for Animal Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, NY 14853, USA.

De novo viral protein synthesis following entry into host cells is essential for viral replication. As a consequence, viruses have evolved mechanisms to engage the host translational machinery while at the same time avoiding or counteracting host defenses that act to repress translation. Mammalian orthoreoviruses are dsRNA-containing viruses whose mRNAs were used as models for early investigations into the mechanisms that underpin the recognition and engagement of eukaryotic mRNAs by host cell ribosomes. Read More

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February 2021

Captivating Perplexities of 5' RNA Caps.

Viruses 2021 02 13;13(2). Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Department of Medical Microbiology & Immunology, Li Ka Shing Institute of Virology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada.

RNAs with methylated cap structures are present throughout multiple domains of life. Given that cap structures play a myriad of important roles beyond translation, such as stability and immune recognition, it is not surprising that viruses have adopted RNA capping processes for their own benefit throughout co-evolution with their hosts. In fact, that RNAs are capped was first discovered in a member of the family, , before these findings were translated to other domains of life. Read More

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February 2021

Confocal Microscopy of Reovirus Transport in Living Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons.

Bio Protoc 2020 Nov 20;10(22):e3825. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, USA.

Neurotropic reoviruses repurpose host machinery to traffic over long distances in neuronal processes and access distal replication sites. Understanding mechanisms of neuronal transmission is facilitated by using simplified primary neuronal culture models. Advances in the design of compartmentalized microfluidic devices lend robustness to neuronal culture models by enabling compartmentalization and manipulation of distinct neuronal processes. Read More

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November 2020

Genomic characterization of avian and neoavian orthoreoviruses detected in pheasants.

Virus Res 2021 May 22;297:198349. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Institute for Veterinary Medical Research, Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungaria krt. 21, Budapest, 1143, Hungary. Electronic address:

Avian reoviruses are well-known pathogens seriously affecting the productivity of poultry industry. Game birds represent a small segment of the agricultural sector and much remained to be learnt about factors affecting productivity. Here we show that reovirus infections might occur in pheasants and demonstrate that reoviruses of pheasants are of diverse origin. Read More

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Asymmetric profiles of infection and innate immunological responses in human iPS cell-derived small intestinal epithelial-like cell monolayers following infection with mammalian reovirus.

Virus Res 2021 Apr 10;296:198334. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan. Electronic address:

The intestinal mucosa plays an important role as an immune barrier due to its continual exposure to invading pathogens, including viruses. It is thus highly important to evaluate virus infection profiles in the intestinal mucosa for prevention of virus infection and development of antivirus medicines; however, only a few enterocyte lines are available as in vitro intestinal models for the evaluation of virus infection. In this study, we evaluated profiles of infection and innate immune responses following infection with a mammalian orthoreovirus (hereafter reovirus), which has often been used as a tractable model for studies of viral pathogenesis, in human iPS cell-derived small intestinal epithelial-like cell (hiPS-SIEC) monolayers and cells of a human colon adenocarcinoma cell line, Caco-2. Read More

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Mesenchymal stem cell carriers enhance antitumor efficacy induced by oncolytic reovirus in acute myeloid leukemia.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 May 8;94:107437. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Immunology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang 550025, China; Key Laboratory of Adult Stem Cell Translational Research (Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences), Guiyang 550004, China; Department of Pediatrics, Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi 563000, China. Electronic address:

Chemotherapy is the main treatment for acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but the therapeutic efficacy is modest, and most commonly manifests as relapse from remission. Thus, improving long-term AML survival is a crucial clinical challenge. In recent years, oncolytic virotherapy has provided an alternative approach for AML treatment. Read More

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Isolation and pathogenicity analysis of mink orthoreoviruses.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2021 Feb 8. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Key Laboratory of Special Animal Epidemic Disease, Institute of Special Animal and Plant Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Changchun, China.

Mammalian orthoreoviruses (MRVs) can infect many mammals including human, and numerous higher virulent MRVs have been reported in recent years. The first mink orthoreovirus was reported in China in 2011. In the present study, three new strains of mammalian orthoreoviruses were isolated from mink and found to be most closely related to human strain MRV2Tou05 and other human strains. Read More

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February 2021

Mammalian Orthoreovirus (MRV) Is Widespread in Wild Ungulates of Northern Italy.

Viruses 2021 02 3;13(2). Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell'Emilia Romagna (IZSLER), 25124 Brescia, Italy.

Mammalian orthoreoviruses (MRVs) are emerging infectious agents that may affect wild animals. MRVs are usually associated with asymptomatic or mild respiratory and enteric infections. However, severe clinical manifestations have been occasionally reported in human and animal hosts. Read More

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February 2021

Identification of Coronaviruses, Paramyxoviruses, Reoviruses, and Rotaviruses among Bats in Nigeria.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 Jan 18. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

2Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Bats are often consumed by some ethnic groups in Nigeria despite association of bats with many important emerging viruses. More than 300 bats representing eight species were captured during 2010-2011 in eight locations of northern Nigeria. Available fecal swabs (n = 95) were screened for the presence of arenaviruses, CoVs, paramyxoviruses (PMVs), reoviruses, rhabdoviruses, and influenza viruses using generic reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays. Read More

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January 2021

Reovirus and the Host Integrated Stress Response: On the Frontlines of the Battle to Survive.

Viruses 2021 01 28;13(2). Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA.

Cells are continually exposed to stressful events, which are overcome by the activation of a number of genetic pathways. The integrated stress response (ISR) is a large component of the overall cellular response to stress, which ultimately functions through the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor-2 (eIF2α) to inhibit the energy-taxing process of translation. This response is instrumental in the inhibition of viral infection and contributes to evolution in viruses. Read More

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January 2021

Control of Capsid Transformations during Reovirus Entry.

Viruses 2021 01 21;13(2). Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA.

Mammalian orthoreovirus (reovirus), a dsRNA virus with a multilayered capsid, serves as a model system for studying the entry of similar viruses. The outermost layer of this capsid undergoes processing to generate a metastable intermediate. The metastable particle undergoes further remodeling to generate an entry-capable form that delivers the genome-containing inner capsid, or core, into the cytoplasm. Read More

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January 2021

Reovirus RNA recombination is sequence directed and generates internally deleted defective genome segments during passage.

J Virol 2021 Jan 20. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center

For viruses with segmented genomes, genetic diversity is generated by genetic drift, reassortment, and recombination. Recombination produces RNA populations distinct from full-length gene segments and can influence viral population dynamics, persistence, and host immune responses. Viruses in the family, including rotavirus and mammalian orthoreovirus (reovirus), have been reported to package segments containing rearrangements or internal deletions. Read More

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January 2021

Cross-sectional study of histopathology and piscine orthoreovirus during a marine production cycle of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in British Columbia, Canada.

J Fish Dis 2020 Sep 27;43(9):1019-1028. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Animal Health Centre, Ministry of Agriculture, Abbotsford, BC, Canada.

Two cohorts of farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., in British Columbia, Canada, were sampled for histopathology (nine organs) and piscine orthoreovirus (PRV-1) PCR after seawater entry at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 13, 16 and 19 months (20 fish per cohort per date). One cohort-from a PRV+ hatchery-remained PRV+ throughout the study (sample prevalence 80%-100%). Read More

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September 2020

Emerging new avian reovirus variants from cases of enteric disorders and arthritis/tenosynovitis in Brazilian poultry flocks.

Br Poult Sci 2021 Jun 22;62(3):361-372. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

School of Veterinary Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

1. The objective of this study was to characterise circulating Brazilian avian reovirus (ARV) strains by genetic analysis of the σC protein encoded by segment 1 of the viral genome and compare these with those of viral strains used for immunising commercial poultry.2. Read More

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Evolutionarily related small viral fusogens hijack distinct but modular actin nucleation pathways to drive cell-cell fusion.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 01;118(1)

University of California Berkeley/University of California San Francisco Graduate Group in Bioengineering, Berkeley, CA 94720;

Fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST) proteins are a diverse family of nonstructural viral proteins. Once expressed on the plasma membrane of infected cells, they drive fusion with neighboring cells, increasing viral spread and pathogenicity. Unlike viral fusogens with tall ectodomains that pull two membranes together through conformational changes, FAST proteins have short fusogenic ectodomains that cannot bridge the intermembrane gap between neighboring cells. Read More

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January 2021

Extensive Phylogenetic Analysis of Piscine Orthoreovirus Genomic Sequences Shows the Robustness of Subgenotype Classification.

Pathogens 2021 Jan 7;10(1). Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE C1A4P3, Canada.

(PRV) belongs to the family and has been described mainly in association with salmonid infections. The genome of PRV consists of about 23,600 bp, with 10 segments of double-stranded RNA, classified as small (S1 to S4), medium (M1, M2 and M3) and large (L1, L2 and L3); these range approximately from 1000 bp (segment S4) to 4000 bp (segment L1). How the genetic variation among PRV strains affects the virulence for salmonids is still poorly understood. Read More

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January 2021

Genomes reveal genetic diversity of Piscine orthoreovirus in farmed and free-ranging salmonids from Canada and USA.

Virus Evol 2020 Jul 31;6(2):veaa054. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Fisheries & Oceans Canada, Nanaimo, British Columbia, Canada.

Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV-1) is a segmented RNA virus, which is commonly found in salmonids in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. PRV-1 causes the heart and skeletal muscle inflammation disease in Atlantic salmon and is associated with several other disease conditions. Previous phylogenetic studies of genome segment 1 (S1) identified four main genogroups of PRV-1 (S1 genogroups I-IV). Read More

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Characterization of a Novel Mitovirus of the Sand Fly Using Genomic and Virus-Host Interaction Signatures.

Viruses 2020 12 23;13(1). Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Bioinformatics Postgraduate Program, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo 05508-000, Brazil.

Hematophagous insects act as the major reservoirs of infectious agents due to their intimate contact with a large variety of vertebrate hosts. is the main vector of in the New World, but its role as a host of viruses is poorly understood. In this work, RNA libraries were subjected to progressive assembly using viral profile HMMs as seeds. Read More

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December 2020

Genetic characterization and pathogenicity of a divergent broiler-origin orthoreovirus causing arthritis in China.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2020 Dec 20. Epub 2020 Dec 20.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, Shandong Province, China.

Since 2013, there have been an increasing number of cases of arthritis in broilers caused by avian orthoreovirus (ARV) in China, and the virus remains highly virulent in chicks with high-level maternal antibodies. However, little information is available about the complete gene analysis and pathogenicity of the epidemic ARVs. In the study, the ARV strain (V-ARV-SD26) was isolated from broilers associated with arthritis in Shandong Province. Read More

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December 2020

Metagenomic characterisation of additional and novel avian viruses from Australian wild ducks.

Sci Rep 2020 12 17;10(1):22284. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Geelong Centre for Emerging Infectious Diseases, Geelong, VIC, 3220, Australia.

Birds, notably wild ducks, are reservoirs of pathogenic and zoonotic viruses such as influenza viruses and coronaviruses. In the current study, we used metagenomics to detect and characterise avian DNA and RNA viruses from wild Pacific black ducks, Chestnut teals and Grey teals collected at different time points from a single location. We characterised a likely new species of duck aviadenovirus and a novel duck gyrovirus. Read More

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December 2020