1,568 results match your criteria Reflux Nephropathy Imaging


Contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography with intravesical administration of ultrasound contrast agent for the diagnosis of pediatric vesicoureteral reflux.

Exp Ther Med 2018 Dec 25;16(6):4546-4552. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

Department of Ultrasound, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430030, P.R. China.

Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is one of the most common urinary tract anomalies in children. It has been reported that VUR may be associated with reflux nephropathy. Ultrasound contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography (CeVUS) has become a routine diagnostic method for VUR in a number of European countries; however, it is not widely used in China. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2018.6793DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6257520PMC
December 2018
0.941 Impact Factor

Prenatal Urinary Tract Dilatation.

Urol Clin North Am 2018 Nov 7;45(4):641-657. Epub 2018 Sep 7.

Pediatric Urology, Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Children's Hospital of Richmond, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, VCU Medical Center, PO Box 980118, Richmond, VA 23298-0118, USA. Electronic address:

Urinary tract dilatation (UTD) is the most common congenital anomaly detected on prenatal ultrasonography (US), affecting 1% to 3% of all pregnancies. This article focuses on the prenatal detection of UTD and the postnatal evaluation and management based on the UTD grading system risk assessment. Prophylactic antibiotics and postnatal imaging are discussed. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00940143183005
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ucl.2018.06.011DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Ultrasound and color Doppler applications in chronic kidney disease.

J Nephrol 2018 Dec 6;31(6):863-879. Epub 2018 Sep 6.

Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) includes all clinical features and complications during the progression of various kidney conditions towards end-stage renal disease (ESRD). These conditions include immune and inflammatory disease such as: primary and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related glomerulonephritis; infectious disease such as pyelonephritis with or without reflux and tuberculosis; vascular disease such as chronic ischemic nephropathy; hereditary and congenital disease such as polycystic disease and congenital cystic dysplasia; metabolic disease including diabetes and hyperuricemia; and systemic disease (collagen disease, vasculitis, myeloma). During the progression of CKD, ultrasound imaging and color Doppler imaging (US-CDI) can differentiate the etiology of the renal damage in only 50-70% of cases. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s40620-018-0531-1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40620-018-0531-1DOI Listing
December 2018
7 Reads

Influence of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor -1 Gene Polymorphism on Renal Scarring After First Febrile Urinary Tract Infection in Infants.

Med Arch 2018 Apr;72(2):84-87

Clinic for Nuclear Medicine, University Clinical Center Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Background: The pathogenesis of renal scarring (RS) after first febrile urinary tract infection (UTI) in children is multifactorial. In addition to well-known risk factors, a role for genetic predisposition has been suggested.

Aims: To determine whether deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) polymorphisms at the plasminogen activator inhibitor -1 (PAI-1) gene were associated with evolution to RS following a febrile UTI in infants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/medarh.2018.72.84-87DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5911167PMC
April 2018
4 Reads

Bilateral multifocal acute lobar nephronia caused by .

BMJ Case Rep 2018 Apr 5;2018. Epub 2018 Apr 5.

Department of Paediatrics, Fuji City General Hospital, Shizuoka, Japan.

An 8-year-old boy presented to our hospital with complaints of fever, epigastric pain and headache. were isolated from urine and blood culture, bacteraemic urinary tract infection was clinically diagnosed. Although vancomycin and ampicillin were administrated, fever did not subside. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2018-224336DOI Listing
April 2018
3 Reads

Renal outcome of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract system: a single-center retrospective study.

Authors:
Rahime Renda

Minerva Urol Nefrol 2018 Apr 21;70(2):218-225. Epub 2017 Nov 21.

Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Antalya Research and Education Hospital, Antalya, Turkey -

Background: Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) have been defined in 20% to 50% of all fetal anomalies. The aim of this study was to determine the demographic and clinical characteristics of such patients, as well as to describe the outcome and risk factors that affect the prognosis.

Methods: The analysis investigated retrospective data from 303 patients diagnosed with CAKUT between January 2015 and April 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0393-2249.17.03034-XDOI Listing
April 2018
10 Reads

Elucidation of Renal Scars in Children With Vesicoureteral Reflux Using Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound: A Pilot Study.

Kidney Int Rep 2017 May 26;2(3):420-424. Epub 2017 Jan 26.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee, USA.

Introduction: Vesicoureteral reflux is a common disorder in children but can result in kidney scarring following acute pyelonephritis. The gold standard diagnostic to detect renal scars in children is Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy. DMSA has a number of limitations including radiation exposure, need for sedation, and radiotracer supply shortages. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ekir.2017.01.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5678645PMC
May 2017
19 Reads

Determination of threshold value for follow-up of isolated antenatal hydronephrosis detected in the second trimester.

J Pediatr Urol 2017 Dec 21;13(6):594-601. Epub 2017 Jun 21.

Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Emma Children's Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Introduction: Isolated antenatal hydronephrosis (ANH), defined as a dilation of the renal pelvis (≥5 mm), is one of the most common abnormalities detected on prenatal ultrasound. However, established cut-off values for postnatal follow-up differ between countries and are based on little evidence. The current protocol in the Netherlands for follow-up might be too conservative. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpurol.2017.06.001DOI Listing
December 2017
11 Reads

Decreased Identification of Vesicoureteral Reflux: A Cautionary Tale.

Front Pediatr 2017 11;5:175. Epub 2017 Aug 11.

Innate Immunity Translational Research Center, Children Foundation Research Institute, Le Bonheur Children's Hospital, Memphis, TN, United States.

Aim: To find the trend in patient's visits to our centers for vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). We hypothesize that VUR diagnosis and hence possible nephropathy recognition may be diminishing because of changing practice patterns.

Methods: Data were extracted from electronic medical records for new and follow-up patients aged 0-18 years with ICD-9/10 codes to correspond with VUR, VUR unilateral, VUR bilateral, and VUR with reflux nephropathy, as well as new patients with diagnoses of urinary tract infections (UTI) and pyelonephritis at two major pediatric centers from 2012 to 2015. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2017.00175DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5554494PMC
August 2017
9 Reads

Unilateral multicystic renal dysplasia: Prenatal diagnosis on ultrasound.

Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2017 Jul-Aug;28(4):916-920

Department of Radio Diagnosis and Imaging, G. R. Doshi and K. M. Mehta Institute of Kidney Diseases and Research Centre - Dr. H. L. Trivedi Institute of Transplantation Sciences, Civil Hospital Campus, Asarwa, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.

Multicystic renal dysplasia (MCRD) is the most common cause of abnormally enlarged kidney, diagnosed on antenatal ultrasound examination. It is an abnormality of the embryonic development in which the renal parenchyma is substituted by nonfunctioning renal tissue made up of cysts which do not communicate with each other. Vesicoureteric reflux (VUR), pelviureteric junction obstruction, vesicoureteric junction obstruction, and ureterocele are the most commonly seen abnormalities in contralateral kidney. Read More

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July 2017
8 Reads

Intrarenal Injection of Escherichia coli in a Rat Model of Pyelonephritis.

J Vis Exp 2017 07 18(125). Epub 2017 Jul 18.

Department of Radiology, Case Western Reserve University; Department of Pediatrics, Case Western Reserve University; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University;

Pyelonephritis is a bacterial infection of the kidney and is most commonly caused by Escherichia coli. Recurrent infections can cause significant renal inflammation and fibrosis ultimately resulting in declining kidney function. Before improved clinical management and prevention of pyelonephritis can be instituted, a reliable animal model must be established in order to study the mechanisms of progression, recurrence, and therapeutic efficacy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/54649DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5612360PMC
July 2017
10 Reads

Interobserver variability for interpretation of DMSA scans in the RIVUR trial.

J Pediatr Urol 2017 Dec 1;13(6):616.e1-616.e6. Epub 2017 Jun 1.

Department of Biostatistics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Introduction: Technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renal scans are used in the diagnosis of renal scarring. In the Randomized Intervention for Children with Vesicoureteral Reflux (RIVUR) trial that randomized 607 children, DMSA renal scans were used for evaluating the presence and the severity of renal scarring.

Objective: The aim was to determine interobserver variability in reporting of DMSA renal scans in the RIVUR trial. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S14775131173023
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpurol.2017.03.040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5711630PMC
December 2017
14 Reads

[Multispiral computer tomography in differential diagnosis of congenital uretheroidhydronefrosis in children].

Urologiia 2017 Jun(2):100-104

Tashkent Institute of Advanced Medical Education, Tashkent, Uzbekistan.

Aim: To identify the characteristic MSCT signs of pediatric ureterohydronephrosis allowing to assess the disease severity and differentiate between its various forms.

Material And Methods: Sixty five children with III-IV grade ureterohydronephrosis underwent a comprehensive examination including MSCT urography. The study comprised 40 (61. Read More

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June 2017
11 Reads

Long-term fate of the upper tracts following complete primary repair of bladder exstrophy.

J Pediatr Urol 2017 Aug 17;13(4):394.e1-394.e6. Epub 2017 May 17.

Division of Pediatric Urology, Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, WA, USA; Department of Urology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Introduction: Complete primary repair of bladder exstrophy (CPRE) is widely used for classic bladder exstrophy (CBE) closure. Long-term renal function with or without dilation in these patients is poorly characterized and may be impacted by bladder storage parameters or recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs).

Objective: We sought to assess our long-term experience with CPRE and investigate factors that may influence upper-tract deterioration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpurol.2017.03.036DOI Listing
August 2017
16 Reads

Crossed ectopic kidney: prenatal diagnosis and postnatal follow-up.

Prenat Diagn 2017 Jul 13;37(7):712-715. Epub 2017 Jun 13.

Prenatal Diagnostic Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Affiliated with the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Gan, Israel.

Objective: The objective of this study is to investigate prenatal diagnosis and postnatal outcome of fetuses with crossed ectopic kidney.

Method: Cases referred for an empty renal fossa and diagnosed with crossed ectopic kidney confirmed postnatally were analyzed retrospectively over a period of 10 years. Prenatal diagnosis was established following the detection of one kidney in a normal position and a second ipsilateral kidney fed by abnormal blood vessels on Doppler flow RESULTS: Between 2005 and 2015, 185 fetuses were referred for an empty renal fossa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pd.5070DOI Listing
July 2017
25 Reads

Prediction of renal cortical defect and scar using neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in children with febrile urinary tract infection.

Nuklearmedizin 2017 Jun 10;56(3):109-114. Epub 2017 May 10.

Sang Mi Lee, M.D., Ph.D., Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital,, 23-20 Byeongmyeong-dong,, Dongnam-gu, Cheonan,, Chungcheongnam-do, 330-721, Korea, Tel: +82-41-570-3540, Fax: +82-41-572-4655, E-mail:

Aim: This study is aimed to evaluate the predictive value of the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) for cortical defect on initial and follow-up Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan in children with the first febrile urinary tract infection (UTI).

Methods: We retrospectively enrolled 179 children with the first febrile UTI who underwent DMSA scan and laboratory tests. In patients with abnormal DMSA scan findings, follow-up DMSA scan was performed at least 6 months after the initial scan. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3413/Nukmed-0878-17-01DOI Listing
June 2017
42 Reads

ACR Appropriateness Criteria Urinary Tract Infection-Child.

J Am Coll Radiol 2017 May;14(5S):S362-S371

Specialty Chair, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is common in young children and may cause pyelonephritis and renal scarring. Long-term complications from renal scarring are low. The role of imaging is to evaluate for underlying urologic abnormalities and guide treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacr.2017.02.028DOI Listing
May 2017
36 Reads

Vascular endothelial growth factor-A gene polymorphism is associated with congenital renal lesions in children with urinary tract infections.

Acta Paediatr 2017 Aug 22;106(8):1348-1353. Epub 2017 May 22.

Department of Paediatrics, Heraklion University Hospital, Heraklion, Greece.

Aim: This study investigated the relationship between vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A)-460C/T functional gene polymorphism and renal parenchymal lesions, vesicoureteral reflux and other urinary tract abnormalities in children with a urinary tract infection (UTI).

Methods: VEGF-A-460C/T gene polymorphism was investigated with restriction length polymorphism analysis in 76 children with their first UTI and in 63 controls without infections. Genotype and allele frequencies were compared between children with UTIs and controls and between different groups with UTIs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apa.13897DOI Listing
August 2017
13 Reads

A first in human evaluation of a novel contrast media saving device.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2017 Nov 4;90(6):928-934. Epub 2017 May 4.

University Heart Centre Lübeck, Department of Cardiology, Angiology, and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Lübeck, Germany.

Objectives: This study evaluated the usability and contrast volume savings of the novel DyeVert™ System.

Background: During coronary diagnostic and interventional procedures, a substantial portion of injected contrast does not contribute to vessel imaging due to reflux into the ascending aorta. Contrast volume is the primary physician modifiable risk factor for prevention of contrast-induced acute kidney injury CI-AKI which is a frequent complication in patients undergoing coronary angiographic procedures and is related to increases in morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.27033DOI Listing
November 2017
9 Reads

Selective imaging modalities after first pyelonephritis failed to identify significant urological anomalies, despite normal antenatal ultrasounds.

Acta Paediatr 2017 Jul 22;106(7):1176-1183. Epub 2017 May 22.

Department of Paediatrics, Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Aim: We investigated the consequences of applying different imaging guidelines for urological anomalies after first pyelonephritis in children with normal routine antenatal ultrasounds.

Methods: The cohort comprised 472 children treated for their first culture-positive pyelonephritis and investigated with ultrasound and renal scintigraphy. We excluded patients with known urological anomalies and patients born before routine antenatal ultrasound. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apa.13894DOI Listing
July 2017
6 Reads

Predictors of upper tract damage in pediatric neurogenic bladder.

J Pediatr Urol 2017 Oct 22;13(5):503.e1-503.e7. Epub 2017 Mar 22.

Department of Pediatric Surgery & Surgery, Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi, India.

Introduction: Upper tract damage (UTD) is a life-threatening complication of neurogenic bladder (NB). Early identification of risk factors for UTD and institution of remedial measures may probably prevent UTD. The aim was to study the predictors of UTD in children 2 years or older with NB. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpurol.2017.02.026DOI Listing
October 2017
1 Read

Variation in the level of detail in pediatric voiding cystourethrogram reports.

J Pediatr Urol 2017 Jun 8;13(3):257-262. Epub 2016 Oct 8.

Department of Urology, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Introduction: Voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) provides a wealth of data on urinary tract function and anatomy, but few standards exist for reporting VCUG findings.

Objective: We aimed to assess variability in VCUG reports and to test our hypothesis that VCUG reports from pediatric facilities and pediatric radiologists are more complete than those performed at other facilities or by non-pediatric radiologists.

Study Design: We analyzed original VCUG reports from children enrolled in the Randomized Intervention for Children with Vesicoureteral Reflux (RIVUR) trial. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpurol.2016.08.025DOI Listing
June 2017
5 Reads

The Swedish infant high-grade reflux trial: UTI and renal damage.

J Pediatr Urol 2017 Apr 2;13(2):146-154. Epub 2017 Feb 2.

Department of Paediatrics, Queen Silvia Children's Hospital, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.

Introduction: High-grade vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in children is associated with recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) and renal damage. Breakthrough UTI despite continuous antibiotic prophylaxis (CAP) during the first years of life is a matter of concern and evokes early intervention. We investigated whether early endoscopic treatment (ET) of VUR grade 4-5 can reduce the risk of UTI recurrence and renal scarring. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpurol.2016.12.023DOI Listing
April 2017
2 Reads

Time to resolution: A prospective evaluation from the Society for Fetal Urology hydronephrosis registry.

J Pediatr Urol 2017 Jun 19;13(3):316.e1-316.e5. Epub 2017 Jan 19.

Division of Urology, Connecticut Children's Medical Center, Hartford, CT, USA.

Introduction: The resolution rate of prenatal urinary tract dilation (UTD) has been documented in several retrospective studies. The present study analyzed prospective observational registry data, with the aim of determining time to resolution among patients prenatally identified with mild postnatal UTD.

Materials And Methods: A total of 248 subjects, from four centers, were prospectively enrolled from 2008 to 2015. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpurol.2016.12.012DOI Listing
June 2017
1 Read

Imaging of the Pediatric Urinary System.

Radiol Clin North Am 2017 Mar 24;55(2):337-357. Epub 2016 Dec 24.

Department of Radiology, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, 8901 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20889, USA.

Recent advances in pediatric urinary tract imaging include development of alternative imaging methods without use of ionizing radiation; evolving understanding of the relationship of urinary tract infection, vesicoureteral reflux, and renal scarring, including the important role of dysfunctional voiding; development of a consensus nomenclature and risk-based classification for fetal and antenatal urinary tract dilation; advances in the understanding of sporadic and inherited renal cystic disease; and a proposed modification of the Bosniak criteria for distinguishing complex renal cysts from cystic renal tumors in children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rcl.2016.10.010DOI Listing
March 2017
12 Reads

Parenchyma-to-hydronephrosis Area Ratio Is a Promising Outcome Measure to Quantify Upper Tract Changes in Infants With High-grade Prenatal Hydronephrosis.

Urology 2017 Jun 19;104:166-171. Epub 2017 Jan 19.

Clinical Urology Research Enterprise (CURE) Program, McMaster Children's Hospital, Canada.

Objective: To explore the value of renal parenchyma-to-hydronephrosis area ratio (PHAR) in detecting trends of hydronephrosis (HN) improvement or worsening and response to surgical intervention.

Methods: Initial and follow-up sagittal renal ultrasound images of patients entered into a prenatal HN database from 2008 to 2016, with baseline Society for Fetal Urology (SFU) grades III and IV HN and without vesicoureteral reflux, were evaluated using National Institutes of Health-sponsored image-processing software. Renal parenchymal area, hydronephrosis area (HA), PHAR, anteroposterior diameter (APd), and SFU grade were captured at baseline and most recent visit. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2017.01.015DOI Listing
June 2017
3 Reads

Pleural Effusion Developing in Two Patients on Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis.

Authors:
Muhammad Asim

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2016 Nov;26(11):926-928

Department of Medicine, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar.

Two patients with end-stage-renal-disease on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) presented with pleural effusions. The aspirated fluid was categorised as transudate, based on alkaline pH, low protein and lactic dehydrogenase level. A striking feature of the pleural fluid was, its very high glucose content that resulted from translocation of dextrose containing peritoneal dialysate into the pleural space via a pleuroperitoneal connection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/2480DOI Listing
November 2016
8 Reads

The role of voiding cystourethrography in asymptomatic unilateral isolated ureteropelvic junction obstruction: A retrospective study.

J Pediatr Urol 2017 Apr 24;13(2):206.e1-206.e7. Epub 2016 Nov 24.

Division of Pediatric Urology, Aboul-Riche Children's Hospital, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Introduction: The presence of concomitant vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) and ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) is uncommon. Nevertheless, the reported VUR coexisting with asymptomatic unilateral isolated hydronephrosis (AUIH) requiring pyeloplasty for correction of UPJO was of low grade and mostly resolved during conservative follow-up. Therefore, VCUG may be not indicated in these children except if voiding symptoms, urinary tract infection (UTI), dilated ureters, or bladder and ureteric abnormalities are suspected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpurol.2016.10.018DOI Listing
April 2017
17 Reads

3D Laparoscopy in Neonates and Infants.

J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 2016 Dec 22;26(12):1021-1027. Epub 2016 Sep 22.

1 Department of Neonatal Surgery, Municipal Pediatric Hospital , Irkutsk, Russia .

Background: This study focuses on the successful application of three-dimensional (3D) laparoscopic surgeries in the treatment of congenital anomalies and acquired diseases in the young pediatric population. The purpose of this scientific work consists in highlighting the spectrum, indications, applicability, and effectiveness of 3D endosurgery in children.

Methods: Our experience is based on 110 endosurgical procedures performed in neonates and infants in the 3D format between January 2014 and May 2015. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/lap.2016.0155DOI Listing
December 2016
3 Reads

The Swedish infant high-grade reflux trial: Study presentation and vesicoureteral reflux outcome.

J Pediatr Urol 2017 Apr 24;13(2):130-138. Epub 2016 Oct 24.

Department of Paediatric Surgery, Paediatric Uronephrologic Centre, Queen Silvia Children's Hospital, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.

Introduction: High-grade vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in infants is associated with congenital renal abnormalities, recurrent UTI, and bladder dysfunction. Endoscopic treatment (ET) is a well-established method in children with low to moderate reflux grades, but there is a lack of randomised controlled trials regarding the use of ET versus continuous antibiotic prophylaxis in infants with high-grade VUR.

Objective: This study aimed to determine whether high-grade VUR in infants can be treated with endoscopic injection and whether ET is superior to antibiotic prophylaxis in the treatment of VUR. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpurol.2016.08.026DOI Listing
April 2017
2 Reads

Evaluation of abnormal radiological findings in children aged 2 to 36 months followed by recurrent urinary tract infection: a retrospective study.

Ren Fail 2017 Nov 6;39(1):100-103. Epub 2016 Nov 6.

d Department of Public Health , Celal Bayar University , Manisa , Turkey.

Our aim is to determine the rational usage of imaging techniques in order to prevent or minimize permanent renal damage in recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs). This study was enrolled children aged between 2 and 36 months, following-up with the diagnosis of recurrent UTI. All children had ultrasonography (USG) and dimercaptosuccinic acid scanning, 39 of them had underwent on voiding cystourethrography. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0886022X.2016.1251460DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6014493PMC
November 2017
11 Reads

Urinary Imaging Findings in Young Infants With Bacteremic Urinary Tract Infection.

Hosp Pediatr 2016 11 5;6(11):647-652. Epub 2016 Oct 5.

Pediatrics, Santa Clara Valley Medical Center, San Jose, California.

Objectives: To describe renal ultrasound (RUS) and voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) findings and determine predictors of abnormal imaging in young infants with bacteremic urinary tract infection (UTI).

Methods: We used retrospective data from a multicenter sample of infants younger than 3 months with bacteremic UTI, defined as the same pathogenic organism in blood and urine. Infants were excluded if they had any major comorbidities, known urologic abnormalities at time of presentation, required intensive unit care, or had no imaging performed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/hpeds.2015-0229DOI Listing
November 2016
12 Reads

Comprehensive First-Line Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Hypertension: Experience From a Single-Center Tertiary Referral Clinic.

J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2017 01 19;19(1):13-22. Epub 2016 Oct 19.

CardioNomics Research Group, Bristol Heart Institute, University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

European guidelines recommend that patients with hypertension be assessed for asymptomatic organ damage and secondary causes. The authors propose that a single magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan can provide comprehensive first-line imaging of patients assessed via a specialist hypertension clinic. A total of 200 patients (56% male, aged 51±15 years, office BP 168±30/96±16 mm Hg) underwent MRI of the heart, kidneys, renal arteries, adrenals and aorta. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jch.12920DOI Listing
January 2017
13 Reads

Delayed treatment of the first febrile urinary tract infection in early childhood increased the risk of renal scarring.

Acta Paediatr 2017 Jan 17;106(1):149-154. Epub 2016 Nov 17.

Department of Pediatric Nephrology, "P. and A. Kyriakou" Children's Hospital, Athens, Greece.

Aim: This study evaluated the controversial relationship between the duration of fever before treatment initiation (FBT) for a febrile urinary tract infection (UTI), with renal scarring based on dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigraphy (DMSA) findings.

Methods: The inpatient records of 148 children under two years of age with a first episode of febrile UTI were analysed. Acute and repeat DMSA findings, and clinical and laboratory parameters were evaluated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apa.13636DOI Listing
January 2017
18 Reads

Bilateral hydroureters and hydronephrosis in a neonate.

Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed 2018 Feb 14;103(1):20-21. Epub 2016 Oct 14.

Child Health Department, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman.

: A newborn boy was diagnosed antenatally with bilateral hydronephrosis. Postnatal renal ultrasound scan (USS) measured a renal pelvic anteroposterior diameter (APD) of 12 mm on the left side and 7 mm on the right side. The baby had good urine stream. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2016-311091DOI Listing
February 2018

Renal Parenchyma to Hydronephrosis Area Ratio (PHAR) as a Predictor of Future Surgical Intervention for Infants With High-grade Prenatal Hydronephrosis.

Urology 2017 Mar 3;101:85-89. Epub 2016 Oct 3.

Department of Surgery and McMaster Pediatric Surgery Research Collaborative, McMaster University, Ontario, Canada; Clinical Urology Research Enterprise (CURE) Program, McMaster Children's Hospital, Ontario, Canada; Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, McMaster University, Ontario, Canada.

Objective: To explore the potential value of an objective assessment, renal parenchyma to hydronephrosis area ratio (PHAR), as an early predictor of surgery.

Methods: Initial sagittal renal ultrasound (US) images of patients prospectively entered into a prenatal hydronephrosis database from January 2008 to January 2016 with baseline Society for Fetal Urology (SFU) grades III and IV prenatal hydronephrosis, without vesicoureteral reflux, were evaluated using the National Institutes of Health-sponsored image processing software. PHAR, anteroposterior diameter, SFU grade, and urinary tract dilation risk categories were contrasted with nuclear scan data (differential renal function and drainage time [t]) and analyzed for predictive value in determining the decision to proceed with surgery by drawing receiver operating characteristic curves. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00904295163064
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2016.09.029DOI Listing
March 2017
8 Reads

Multicystic dysplastic kidney: Assessment of the need for renal scintigraphy and the safety of conservative treatment.

Actas Urol Esp 2017 Jan - Feb;41(1):62-67. Epub 2016 Sep 22.

Urología Infantil, Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe, Valencia, España.

Objectives: To assess the need for implementing renal scintigraphy in the diagnosis of the multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK) and the safety of its conservative treatment.

Material And Methods: A retrospective study of patients with unilateral MCDK was conducted at our centre from January 2005 to August 2015. We calculated the positive predictive value (PPV) of ultrasonography, taking renal scintigraphy and pathology as the gold standard. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acuro.2016.05.004DOI Listing
October 2017
1 Read

Reliability of grading of vesicoureteral reflux and other findings on voiding cystourethrography.

J Pediatr Urol 2017 Apr 6;13(2):192-198. Epub 2016 Sep 6.

Department of Urology, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Introduction: Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) is the modality of choice to diagnose vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Although grading of VUR is essential for prognosis and clinical decision-making, the inter-observer reliability for grading has been shown to vary substantially. The Randomized Intervention for Children with VesicoUreteral Reflux (RIVUR) trial provides a large cohort of children with VUR to better understand the reliability of VCUG findings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpurol.2016.06.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5339054PMC
April 2017
5 Reads

Incidence and causes of urolithiasis in children between 0-2 years.

Minerva Urol Nefrol 2017 Apr 13;69(2):181-188. Epub 2016 Sep 13.

Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Dr Behcet Uz Child Disease And Surgery Education And Research Hospital, Izmir, Turkey.

Background: Urolithiasis (UL) is a common problem in pediatric nephrology practice. About 9-23% of all pediatric UL cases consist of patients under 1 years old. The aim of the present study was to determine etiologic causes, clinical features and short term prognosis of urolithiasis in the first two years of life. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0393-2249.16.02675-8DOI Listing
April 2017
3 Reads

Can We Further Improve the Quality of Nephro-Urological Care in Children with Myelomeningocele?

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2016 09 1;13(9). Epub 2016 Sep 1.

Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Cracow 30-663, Poland.

Myelomeningocele (MMC) results from a failure of normal neural tube fusion in early fetal development. Retrospective, observational study of medical data of 54 children treated in Pediatric Nephrology and Urology Clinics for five years was performed. The following data were analyzed: serum creatinine, eGFR, urine analysis, renal scintigraphy (RS), renal ultrasound, and urodynamics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13090876DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5036709PMC
September 2016
40 Reads

IMAGING DIAGNOSIS-RADIOGRAPHY AND ULTRASONOGRAPHY OF BILATERAL CONGENITAL URETEROVESICAL JUNCTION STENOSIS CAUSING HYDRONEPHROSIS AND HYDROURETER IN A FERRET (MUSTELA PUTORIUS FURO).

Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2017 May 4;58(3):E31-E36. Epub 2016 Aug 4.

Fundació Hospital Clínic Veterinari, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Spain.

An 8-month-old neutered male ferret was presented for vaccination and preventive treatment for adrenal gland disease. Abdominal ultrasound revealed severe bilateral hydronephrosis and hydroureter. Excretory urography and negative contrast cystography showed bilateral ureterovesical junction stenosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vru.12399DOI Listing
May 2017
20 Reads

New congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract and outcomes in Robo2 mutant mice with the inserted piggyBac transposon.

BMC Nephrol 2016 07 26;17(1):98. Epub 2016 Jul 26.

Department of Nephrology and Rheumatism, Children's Hospital of Fudan University, 399 WanYuan Road, Shanghai, 201102, China.

Background: Disruption of ROBO2 in humans causes vesicoureteral reflux (VUR)/congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT). PiggyBac (PB) is a DNA transposon, and its insertion often reduces-but does not eliminate-gene expression. The Robo2 insertion mutant exhibited non-dilating VUR, ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) not found in reported models. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12882-016-0308-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4962383PMC
July 2016
18 Reads

Posterior urethral valves: are neonatal imaging findings predictive of renal function during early childhood?

Pediatr Radiol 2016 Sep 11;46(10):1418-23. Epub 2016 Jul 11.

Department of Paediatric Radiology, CHRU Lille, Jeanne de Flandre Hospital, Lille, 59037, France.

Background: Obstructive renal dysplasia as observed on US is associated with posterior urethral valves and is regarded as predicting poor renal functional outcome.

Objective: To investigate whether any characteristic of urinary tract imaging at birth is predictive of renal function in children with prenatally diagnosed posterior urethral valves.

Materials And Methods: We reviewed clinical data including renal function (at birth and up to 3 years of age) and clinical outcome (urinary infection, dialysis, renal transplantation). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00247-016-3634-7DOI Listing
September 2016
13 Reads

Dimercaptosuccinic acid scan challenges in childhood urinary tract infection, vesicoureteral reflux and renal scarring investigation and management.

Minerva Urol Nefrol 2017 Apr 29;69(2):144-152. Epub 2016 Jun 29.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Patras Medical School, Patras, Greece.

Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a precipitating factor in acute pyelonephritis (APN), and a risk factor for renal scar formation, even if VUR and APN occur independently. There is no scientific evidence on a specific diagnostic evaluation of children after a febrile urinary tract infection (UTI). Based on recent literature and our clinical experience, we reviewed the role of 99mTc dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renal scan in UTI/VUR imaging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0393-2249.16.02509-1DOI Listing
April 2017
37 Reads

End-Stage Renal Disease in an Infant With Hajdu-Cheney Syndrome.

Ther Apher Dial 2016 Jun;20(3):318-21

Department of Pediatric Nephrology, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Hajdu-Cheney syndrome (HJCYS) is a rare, autosomal dominant, skeletal disorder caused by mutations in the NOTCH2 signaling pathway for which genetic testing has recently become available. Renal abnormalities are associated in at least 10% of cases. We present an 8-year-old Caucasian boy, born with multiple dysmorphic features consistent with HJCYS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1744-9987.12444DOI Listing
June 2016
12 Reads

[CONTRAST ENHANCED VOIDING UROSONOGRAPHY (CEVUS) IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF VESICOURETERAL REFLUX].

Lijec Vjesn 2016 Jan-Feb;138(1-2):39-46

Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is one of the most common urinary tract anomalies in children and can be associated with reflux nephropathy (RN). Some patients with RN develop chronic kidney disease, hypertension and a small number of patients progress to end-stage renal disease. Early detection of children with these clinical characteristics should be the goal of clinical, biochemical, and radiological evaluation of patients presenting with prenatal hydronephrosis or febrile urinary tract infection. Read More

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August 2016
9 Reads

Utility of sedation for young children undergoing dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scans.

Pediatr Radiol 2016 Oct 10;46(11):1573-8. Epub 2016 Jun 10.

University of North Carolina Kidney Center, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Background: No studies have examined whether use of sedation during a Tc-99 m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renal scan reduces patient discomfort.

Objective: To compare discomfort level during a DMSA scan to the discomfort level during other frequently performed uroradiologic tests, and to determine whether use of sedation during a DMSA scan modifies the level of discomfort.

Materials And Methods: We examined the discomfort level in 798 children enrolled in the Randomized Intervention for children with Vesicoureteral Reflux (RIVUR) and Careful Urinary Tract Infection Evaluation (CUTIE) studies by asking parents to rate their child's discomfort level with each procedure on a scale from 0 to 10. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00247-016-3649-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5039057PMC
October 2016
7 Reads

Renal tissue oxygenation in children with chronic kidney disease due to vesicoureteral reflux.

Pediatr Nephrol 2016 11 26;31(11):2103-11. Epub 2016 May 26.

Service of Nephrology and Hypertension, University Hospital of Lausanne (CHUV), Lausanne, Switzerland.

Background: Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a frequent cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children. Using blood oxygenation level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-MRI), we measured cortical and medullary oxygenation in children with CKD due to VUR and compared the results to those obtained on healthy controls.

Method: The study population comprised 37 children (19 with CKD due to VUR and 18 healthy age-matched controls). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-016-3419-0DOI Listing
November 2016
14 Reads

Discriminating renal nutcracker syndrome from asymptomatic nutcracker phenomenon using multidetector computed tomography.

Abdom Radiol (NY) 2016 08;41(8):1580-8

Department of Emergency Medicine, Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, 1342 Dongil-ro, Seoul, Nowon-gu, 139-707, Korea.

Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the ability of computed tomographic (CT) findings to discriminate nutcracker syndrome (NCS) from asymptomatic nutcracker phenomenon (NCP) and to investigate the diagnostic value of CT findings in diagnosis of NCS.

Methods: From January 2014 to April 2015, 216 patients who underwent initial urographic CT were included. Initially, 216 patients were categorized as "nutcracker" or "normal," based on the following CT criteria: (1) the presence of beak sign and (2) hilar-aortomesenteric left renal vein diameter ratio >4. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00261-016-0717-8DOI Listing
August 2016
18 Reads

[Renal scarring in children under 36 months hospitalised for acute pyelonephritis].

An Pediatr (Barc) 2017 Feb 16;86(2):76-80. Epub 2016 May 16.

Unidad de Gestión Clínica de Pediatría, Hospital Materno-Infantil, Hospital Regional Universitario de Málaga, Málaga, España.

Introduction: Acute pyelonephritis (APN) is one of the most common causes of serious bacterial infection in infants. Renal scarring is the most prevalent long-term complication.

Objectives: To review the incidence of renal scarring within 6 months after an episode of APN in children under 36 months and its relationship with imaging studies, clinical settings, and bacteriology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anpedi.2016.03.002DOI Listing
February 2017
11 Reads