1,685 results match your criteria Reflux Nephropathy Imaging

[Pediatric renal abscesses: a diagnostic challenge].

Andes Pediatr 2022 Apr;93(2):222-228

Hospital Roberto del Río, Santiago, Chile.

Kidney abscess is an unusual entity in childhood with few studies about its clinical characteris tics.

Objective: To report the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and therapy used in a cohort of 20 children with kidney abscess.

Patients And Method: retrospective study of cases of kidney abscess during a 10-year period at the Hospital Roberto del Río. Read More

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Kidney Transplant in a Pediatric Patient With Congenital Abnormalities of the Urinary Tract.

Exp Clin Transplant 2022 05;20(Suppl 3):36-38

From the Republican Research Center of Emergency Medicine, Tashkent, Uzbekistan.

Kidney transplant is the gold standard surgical treatment for patients with end-stage chronic kidney disease. Over the past decade, the frequency and prevalence of chronic kidney disease in children have been increasing, with it being a serious problem worldwide. Kidney transplant in Uzbekistan is still at an early stage, with the first successful kidney transplant performed in 2018. Read More

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Prevalence of reflux nephropathy in Iranian children with solitary kidney: results of a multi-center study.

BMC Nephrol 2022 02 21;23(1):70. Epub 2022 Feb 21.

Department of Pediatrics, Hajar Shaherkord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran.

Background: Given the importance of the function of the remnant kidney in children with unilateral renal agenesis and the significance of timely diagnosis and treatment of reflux nephropathy to prevent further damage to the remaining kidney, we aimed to determine the prevalence of reflux nephropathy in this subgroup of pediatric patients.

Methods: In general, 274 children referred to pediatric nephrologists in different parts of Iran were evaluated, of whom 199 had solitary kidney and were included in this cross-sectional study. The reasons for referral included urinary tract infection (UTI), abnormal renal ultrasonography, being symptomatic, and incidental screening. Read More

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February 2022

Emphysematous cystitis with bilateral pyelonephritis in a pediatric patient with COVID-19.

BMJ Case Rep 2022 Feb 3;15(2). Epub 2022 Feb 3.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, Peoria, Illinois, USA.

A 15-year-old female adolescent with a medical history of recurrent urinary tract infections and grade 1 left-sided vesicoureteral reflux presented to the emergency room with abdominal and back pain. Labs revealed a haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) of 9.1% and a random blood glucose of 200 mg/dL, consistent with new-onset diabetes mellitus. Read More

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February 2022

Neonatal Urinary Tract Infection and Renal Nodular Lesion: A Rare Case of Xanthogranulomatous Pyelonephritis.

J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep 2022 Jan-Dec;10:23247096211066295

Unit of Pediatric Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, Centro Hospitalar Universitário São João, Porto, Portugal.

Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XPN) is an uncommon variant of chronic pyelonephritis with a poorly understood pathogenesis and a challenging diagnosis. It is rare in pediatric patients, particularly in the neonatal period. We report the case of an 18-day-old female neonate admitted to the emergency room due to macroscopic hematuria and poor feeding. Read More

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January 2022


Harefuah 2021 Dec;160(12):797-800

Pediatric Nephrology Unit, Dana-Dwek Children's Hospital, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center.

Introduction: Distended fetal bladder, also known as fetal megacystis, usually points to lower urinary tract obstruction (LUTO) which is most commonly caused by posterior urethral valves (PUV) in the male fetus. We present a short case-series of fetal megacystis without oligohydramnion where primary vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) was the leading aetiology. These cases also displayed a high rate of kidney dysplasia with early-onset renal dysfunction. Read More

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December 2021

Ocular phenotype in a patient with gene mutation-associated papillorenal syndrome.

Ophthalmic Genet 2022 Jun 10;43(3):385-388. Epub 2021 Dec 10.

Department of Ophthalmology, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: Papillorenal syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder associated with mutations in the gene and often presents with characteristic and specific optic disc findings, frequently with renal dysplasia. In at least half of cases, an identifiable mutation in the gene can be detected. We report the ocular findings in a second case of papillorenal syndrome with the c. Read More

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Contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography, a possible candidate for the diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux in children and adolescents; a systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Pediatr Urol 2022 02 3;18(1):61-74. Epub 2021 Nov 3.

Pediatric Chronic Kidney Diseases Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Introduction: The diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography (ceVUS) in the diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is still a subject of dispute.

Objective: Assessing the diagnostic value of ceVUS in VUR, performing a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Methods: An extensive search on Medline, Embase, Scopus and Web of Science databases was conducted by the end of 2020. Read More

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February 2022

Kidney and urinary tract findings among patients with Kabuki (make-up) syndrome.

Pediatr Nephrol 2021 12 27;36(12):4009-4012. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Background: Kabuki syndrome (KS) is a genetic disorder caused mainly by de novo pathogenic variants in KMT2D or KDM6A, characterized by recognizable facial features, intellectual disability, and multi-systemic involvement, including short stature, microcephaly, hearing loss, cardiac defects, and additional congenital anomalies. While congenital anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract (CAKUT) are known manifestations of this disorder, studies focused solely on kidney involvement are scarce, and its prevalence is most likely underestimated. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and nature of CAKUT and other renal manifestations, in a cohort of KS patients followed at a single tertiary center. Read More

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December 2021

Extravesical Common Sheath Ureteral Reimplantation Versus Intravesical Techniques for Refluxing Duplex Systems in Children.

Urol J 2021 Sep 21;18(6):658-662. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Urology department, Menoufia University Hospitals, Menoufia, Egypt.

Purpose: Retrospective comparative study of the efficacy of extravesical non-dismembered common sheath ureteral reimplantation (ECSR) versus intravesical common sheath ureteral reimplantation (ICSR) techniques for the correction of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in complete duplex systems.

Material And Methods: Between 2010 and 2019, ECSR was performed in 38 children (8 bilaterally), and the mean ages at presentation and at surgery were 31 and 57 months, respectively. The ICSR technique was performed in 25 units (25 patients). Read More

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September 2021

Risk of urinary tract infection in patients with hydroureter: An analysis from the Society of Fetal Urology Prenatal Hydronephrosis Registry.

J Pediatr Urol 2021 Dec 21;17(6):775-781. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

CHOC Children's, Division of Pediatric Urology, Orange, CA, USA; University of California, Irvine, Department of Urology, Irvine, CA, USA.

Background: Prenatal hydronephrosis is one of the most common anomalies detected on prenatal ultrasonography. Patients with prenatal hydronephrosis and ureteral dilation are at increased risk of urinary tract infection (UTI) and continuous antibiotic prophylaxis (CAP) is recommended. However, current guidelines do not define the minimum ureteral diameter that would be considered a dilated ureter in these patients. Read More

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December 2021

The association between the congenital heart diseases and congenital anomalies of the kidney and the urinary tract in nonsyndromic children.

Congenit Anom (Kyoto) 2022 Jan 23;62(1):4-10. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Department of Pediatrics, Karatay University, Konya, Turkey.

Several congenital heart diseases (CHD) are present in children with congenital anomalies of the kidney and the urinary tract (CAKUT) in syndromic or nonsyndromic patterns. The purpose of this study was to identify nonsyndromic children with CAKUT who required echocardiographic evaluation and to find the prevalence of CHD in these patients. Retrospective chart review of nonsyndromic patients with CAKUT between 2012 and 2018 was conducted. Read More

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January 2022

Envisioning treating genetically-defined urinary tract malformations with viral vector-mediated gene therapy.

J Pediatr Urol 2021 Oct 7;17(5):610-620. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Division of Cell Matrix Biology and Regenerative Medicine, School of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Biology Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, UK. Electronic address:

Human urinary tract malformations can cause dysfunctional voiding, urosepsis and kidney failure. Other affected individuals, with severe phenotypes on fetal ultrasound screening, undergo elective termination. Currently, there exist no specific treatments that target the primary biological disease mechanisms that generate these urinary tract malformations. Read More

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October 2021

A gravity-assisted approach to the management of urinary diversion: Tc-MAG3 diuresis renography with F + 10(sp) method.

Ann Nucl Med 2021 Oct 8;35(10):1127-1135. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Urology, A. Gemelli Hospital IRCCS-Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy.

Objective: Radical cystectomy with permanent urinary diversion is the gold standard treatment for invasive muscle bladder cancer. Hydronephrosis is common in these patients, but Ultrasound (US) or Computed Tomography Urography (CTU) scan are unable to discriminate obstructive from non-obstructive hydronephrosis. We used Diuresis Renography (DR) with F + 10 in seated position (sp) method in the identification of patients with a Uretero-ileal Anastomosis Stricture (UAS) who would benefit from surgical therapy. Read More

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October 2021

Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of transplant organs - liver and kidney - in children.

Pediatr Radiol 2021 Nov 12;51(12):2284-2302. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, University of Virginia Children's Hospital, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

Ultrasound (US) is the first-line imaging tool for evaluating liver and kidney transplants during and after the surgical procedures. In most patients after organ transplantation, gray-scale US coupled with color/power and spectral Doppler techniques is used to evaluate the transplant organs, assess the patency of vascular structures, and identify potential complications. In technically difficult or inconclusive cases, however, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) can provide prompt and accurate diagnostic information that is essential for management decisions. Read More

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November 2021

[Endometriosis of the ureter from the standpoint of implantation theory: some aspects of pathogenesis and clinical picture].

Urologiia 2021 03(1):126-130

Smolensk State Medical University, Smolensk, Russia.

The article describes such fundamental and applied aspects of pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of such rare disease as endometriosis of ureters. Frequent involvement of left ureter in its pelvic part, close to distal colon, associated with its inflammatory diseases followed by leaky gut syndrome with bacterial spread to the fallopian tube causing its inflammation and dysfunction, provoking menstrual reflux and predisposing to affection of left ovary, peritoneum and contact spread of endometriosis to ureteral wall. This mechanism fits to the regurgitation theory of endometriosis. Read More

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Bilateral pelvic kidneys with upper pole fusion and malrotation: a  case report and  review of the literature.

J Med Case Rep 2021 Apr 5;15(1):181. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Radiology, Wad-Medani Teaching Hospital, Wad Madani, Sudan.

Background: The incidence of ectopic kidneys is 1:12,000 clinically and 1:900 postmortem. Patients with pelvic mal-rotated kidneys are more susceptible to recurrent urinary tract infections, recurrent renal stones, and renal injury. Fusion of the kidney lower poles is relatively common compared to other types of renal anomalies. Read More

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Risk factors for kidney scarring and vesicoureteral reflux in 421 children after their first acute pyelonephritis, and appraisal of international guidelines.

Pediatr Nephrol 2021 09 23;36(9):2777-2787. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

Background: Acute pyelonephritis (AP) is a common bacterial infection in childhood. Follow-up guidelines on these children are controversial. This study aimed to identify risk factors for kidney scarring and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Read More

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September 2021

Compensatory renal hypertrophy in reflux nephropathy presenting as hypertensive emergency.

Oxf Med Case Reports 2021 Feb 15;2021(2):omaa132. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kepala Batas, Penang, Malaysia.

Hypertensive emergency in the paediatric population is not uncommon. However, due to its numerous etiologies, care should be taken in determining the approach of management. We report a case of a child who presented with double vision, giddiness and elevated blood pressure. Read More

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February 2021

The Rare Case of Perirenal Abscess in a Child-Possible Mechanisms and Methods of Treatment: A Case Report and Literature Review.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 Feb 9;57(2). Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Traumatology and Urology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 60-572 Poznan, Poland.

Renal and perirenal abscesses are very rare in children. They can be present as an acute emergency condition or insidiously as a chronic disease. The diagnosis is not so obvious, and it is a big challenge, especially when it can simulate a kidney tumor. Read More

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February 2021

Changes in Clinical Presentation and Renal Outcomes among Children with Febrile Urinary Tract Infection: 2005 vs 2015.

J Urol 2021 06 4;205(6):1764-1769. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Boston Children's Hospital, Department of Urology, Boston, Massachusetts.

Purpose: Recent studies have demonstrated trends of decreasing voiding cystourethrogram utilization rates and delayed vesicoureteral reflux diagnosis in some children. It is possible that such delays could lead to more children sustaining repeated episodes of febrile urinary tract infection, and potential kidney injury, prior to diagnosis and treatment.

Materials And Methods: Using single institutional, cross-sectional cohorts of patients in 2 time periods (2005 and 2015), we compared clinical presentation and renal outcomes among patients 13 years and younger with history of febrile urinary tract infection presenting for initial voiding cystourethrogram. Read More

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Posterior nutcracker syndrome: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2021 Feb 1;15(1):42. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Radiodiagnostic and Radiotherapy Unit, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences and Advanced Technologies "GF Ingrassia", Via Santa Sofia 78, 95123, Catania, Italy.

Background: Posterior nutcracker syndrome is defined by the compression of the left renal vein between the abdominal aorta and a lumbar vertebral body. It can be clinically manifest with intermittent hematuria, gonadal or spermatic reflux resulting in varicocele. Ultrasound is the first-line imaging which require  more accurate study  with contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Read More

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February 2021

Retrospective evaluation of the pediatric multicystic dysplastic kidney patients: experience of two centers from southeastern Turkey

Turk J Med Sci 2021 06 28;51(3):1331-1337. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Pediatric Nephrology, İzmir Tepecik Training and Research Hospital, İzmir, Turkey

Background/aim: The objective of this study is to determine the clinical features of unilateral multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK) patients.

Materials And Methods: The demographic, clinical, laboratory, and radiologic features of MCDK patients at Diyarbakır Children’s Hospital and Diyarbakır Gazi Yaşargil Training and Research Hospital between January 2008-June 2019 were retrospectively evaluated.

Results: A total of 111 [59 (53. Read More

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Is ultrasonography mandatory in all children at their first febrile urinary tract infection?

Pediatr Nephrol 2021 07 22;36(7):1809-1816. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

University of Trieste, Piazzale Europa 1, 34127, Trieste, Italy.

Background: This study investigated whether performing kidney ultrasound (KUS) only in children presenting either a pathogen other than E. coli at their first febrile urinary tract infection (fUTI) or experiencing fUTI recurrence would increase missed diagnoses of kidney anomalies.

Methods: Patients aged 2-36 months with fUTI who underwent KUS evaluation from 2 January 2013 to 31 June 2018 were enrolled. Read More

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Prenatal diagnosis and outcome of unilateral multicystic kidney.

J Obstet Gynaecol 2021 Oct 16;41(7):1071-1075. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Department of Urology, Pediatric Urology Unit, Istanbul University, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey.

We reviewed the records of 144 patients. The mean gestational age at first US diagnosis was 27.5 ± 4. Read More

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October 2021

Urinary biomarkers as point-of-care tests for predicting progressive deterioration of kidney function in congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract: trefoil family factors (TFFs) as the emerging biomarkers.

Pediatr Nephrol 2021 06 8;36(6):1465-1472. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Room No 4002, Fourth Floor, Teaching Block, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, 110029, India.

Background: Children with congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) are at high risk of progressive deterioration of kidney function and further developing stage 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD 5), even after a successful surgery. This prospective study was designed to determine whether urinary biomarkers can predict progressive deterioration of kidney function in children with CAKUT.

Methods: The study included 50 consecutive children, aged < 14 years, who were diagnosed with congenital uropathies (PUV, VUR, and PUJO) and 20 age-matched controls. Read More

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The fate of lower pole hydronephrosis after transurethral incision of upper pole ureteroceles in children with duplex systems.

J Pediatr Urol 2020 Dec 30;16(6):847.e1-847.e7. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Urology, Urological Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address:

Purpose: Duplex system is the most common upper urinary tract anomaly in childhood. The purpose of our study was to investigate the incidence, characteristics, and progression of lower pole hydronephrosis in children with duplex system who underwent transurethral incision (TUI) of upper pole ureterocele.

Materials And Methods: Among children who underwent transurethral incision of ureteroceles between 2006 and 2018, 69 renal units with duplex systems were included after exclusion of preoperative lower pole vesicoureteral reflux and follow up loss. Read More

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December 2020

The Spectrum of Renal Pathologies in Saudi Pediatrics Patients Using Ultrasound.

Pak J Biol Sci 2020 Jan;23(12):1614-1620

Background And Objective: The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has a high population of children with hereditary renal infections whose factors are linked to the X chromosomes. This study aims to determine the spectrum of renal pathologies in Saudi pediatrics patients as well as to link the genetic aspect to the development of renal diseases in Saudi children by using ultrasound.

Materials And Methods: The study, hence sought to analyze the outcomes of a cross-sectional retrospective study report at the Radiology department of King Fahad Medical City (KFMC) within 12 months retrogressively. Read More

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January 2020

A Case of Left Duplex Kidney with Hydronephrosis Mimicking a Left Renal Cyst in a 29-Year-Old Woman.

Am J Case Rep 2020 Nov 22;21:e927430. Epub 2020 Nov 22.

Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Cathay General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

BACKGROUND Duplex kidney, also known as duplex renal collecting system, consists of 2 ureters arising from a single kidney and is a common congenital anomaly. The condition is usually an asymptomatic normal variant. However, abnormal anatomic variants such as hydronephrosis, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), and ureterocele are sometimes observed in a patient with a duplicated kidney. Read More

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November 2020

Clinicopathological Analysis of Medullary Ray Injury in 1-Year Protocol Paediatric Renal Allograft Biopsies.

Nephron 2020 20;144 Suppl 1:79-85. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Department of Nephrology, Toho University Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Aim: Medullary ray injury was recently reported in renal transplant biopsies. This study was performed to clarify the clinicopathological features of medullary ray injury in paediatric living renal transplant recipients.

Methods: Paediatric recipients who completed a 5-year follow-up after living renal transplantation were enroled. Read More

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November 2021