115,367 results match your criteria Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy
Neuron 2018 Dec;100(5):1241-1251.e7
Institute of Molecular and Clinical Ophthalmology Basel, Basel, Switzerland; Neural Circuit Laboratories, Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Basel, Switzerland; University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address:
Large numbers of brain regions are active during behaviors. A high-resolution, brain-wide activity map could identify brain regions involved in specific behaviors. We have developed functional ultrasound imaging to record whole-brain activity in behaving mice at a resolution of ∼100 μm. Read More
J Appl Physiol (1985) 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Neuroscience Research Australia and The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.
Briefly occluding the airway during inspiration produces a short-latency reflex inhibition in human inspiratory muscles. This occlusion reflex seems specific to respiratory muscles; however, it is not known whether the reflex inhibition has a uniform effect across a motoneurone pool when a muscle is recruited concurrently for breathing and posture. In this study, participants were seated and breathed through a mouthpiece that occluded inspiratory airflow for 250 ms at a volume threshold of 0. Read More
Arch Gynecol Obstet 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.
Department of Women's Health, University Women's Hospital Tuebingen, Calwerstrasse 7, 72076, Tübingen, Germany.
Purpose: To determine the false-positive rates (FPR) associated with screening for trisomy 18/13 using first-trimester combined screening (FTCS) and an ultrasound plus cfDNA-based approach (US-cfDNA), which includes a detailed ultrasound examination, a cfDNA analysis and a FTCS reflex backup test for cases with uninformative results.
Methods: This is a sub-analysis of a randomized controlled trial, which was performed between 2015 and 2016. Pregnant women with a normal first-trimester ultrasound examination at 11-13 weeks' gestation (NT < 3. Read More
Ann Nutr Metab 2018 3;73 Suppl 5:15-20. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Glutamate (Glu), either as one of the amino acids of protein or in free form, constitutes up to 8-10% of amino acid content in the human diet, with an intake of about 10-20 g/day in adults. In the intestine, postprandial luminal Glu concentrations can be of the order of mM and result in a high intra-mucosal Glu concentration. Glu absorbed from the intestinal lumen is for a large part metabolized by enterocytes in various pathways, including the production of energy to support intestinal motility and functions. Read More
J Spinal Cord Med 2018 Dec 3:1-8. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
d Neurology Unit , Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico , Milan , Italy.
Objective: Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) represents a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative diseases characterized by progressive spasticity and lower limb weakness. We assessed the effects of transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) in HSP.
Design: A double-blind, randomized, crossover and sham-controlled study. Read More
Neuromodulation 2018 Dec 2. Epub 2018 Dec 2.
Department of Urology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, South Korea.
Objectives: Incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) accounts for two-thirds of all SCIs in clinical practice. Preclinical research on the effect of sacral neuromodulation (SNM) on bladder function, however, has been focused only on animal models of complete SCI. We aimed to evaluate the effect of early SNM on bladder responses in a rat model of incomplete SCI. Read More
J Intensive Care Soc 2018 Nov 22;19(4):365-367. Epub 2018 Mar 22.
Department of Intensive Care, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth, UK.
We report the case of an 18-year-old gentleman who presented to the emergency department following a large overdose of amitriptyline. He was comatose on admission but his neurology further deteriorated to global loss of brainstem reflexes. He made a full but slow neurological recovery. Read More
Saudi J Biol Sci 2018 Nov 21;25(7):1332-1338. Epub 2016 Apr 21.
Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, College of Nursing, King Saud University, P.O. Box 642, Riyadh 11421, Saudi Arabia.
The effects of the perinatal oral exposure to Gum Arabic (GA) on mice offspring was examined. GA was added to the drinking water of pregnant female Swiss-Webster strain mice at doses of 1 and 4 g/kg body weight, starting from the first day of pregnancy. The treatment continued until the fifteenth day after delivery, after which mothers were switched to plain tap water. Read More
Neurol India 2018 Nov-Dec;66(6):1822-1824
Department of Neuroanaesthesiology and Critical Care, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
Brain Res Bull 2018 Nov 28;144:132-139. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine, Yide Road, Yuexiu District, Guangdong, Guangzhou, 510006, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:
Ventrolateral medulla(VLM) was one of the essential part of central pattern generator(CPG) in swallowing and electro-acupuncture(EA) was an important intervention in swallowing disorder. But the effect and mechanism of EA at acupoints on swallowing were unknown. The present aim to detect the effect of EA at Lianquan (CV23) on swallowing and swallowing-related(SR) interneuron in VLM. Read More
Pulm Pharmacol Ther 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Comenius University in Bratislava, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine in Martin, Department of Pharmacology, Martin, Slovakia.
Introduction: Mucoactive agent, erdosteine, besides mucolytic activity, is characterized by many other pharmacodynamic properties which could be beneficial in the management of inflammatory conditions.
Background: s: Using guinea pig experimental model of allergic inflammation, we evaluated the ability of erdosteine to modulate airway defence mechanisms and inflammation after 10 days (10 mg/kg/day) administration.
Methods: In vivo changes in specific airway resistance and amplitude of tracheal contraction were estimated to evaluate the bronchodilatory effect. Read More
J Clin Neurosci 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.
Orthopedic Surgery Department, Sacré-Coeur Hospital, P.O. Box 116, Hazmieh, Lebanon.
Diagnosing piriformis syndrome (PS) throughout the past decades was not that easy, however peroneal H-reflex was proved as reliable test for PS with the change in wave amplitude and delay in conduction as parameters for diagnosis. We interpreted these parameters according to treatment's results carried out for patients presenting clinical PS, aiming to define a threshold value for peroneal H-reflex delay to accurately diagnose. A retrospective mono-centric review of 27 patients, 9 females and 18 males, aged 22-65 years, benefited from peroneal H-reflex test and treated for clinical PS. Read More
Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.
London Health Sciences Centre, 10033, Clinical Neurological Sciences, London, Ontario, Canada.
Background: In evaluating autonomic dysfunction, the autonomic reflex screen (ARS) is an established set of standardized tests to evaluate the presence and severity of autonomic dysfunction. Our laboratory previously reported normative data on 121 healthy individuals; however, the sample size in older individuals was reduced compared to other age groups. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to provide updated normative values representative of young, middle aged and older individuals from Southwestern Ontario. Read More
Curr Opin Neurol 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.
Department of Neurology.
Purpose Of Review: To review emerging vision-based assessments in the evaluation of concussion.
Recent Findings: Involvement of the visual pathways is common following concussion, the mildest form of traumatic brain injury. The visual system contains widely distributed networks that are prone to neurophysiologic changes after a concussion, resulting in visual symptoms and ocular motor dysfunction. Read More
Otol Neurotol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Switzerland.
Objective: To compare the neurotological results of five patients suffering from progressive hearing loss and ataxia due to superficial siderosis (SS) with the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings.
Study Design: Retrospective case review.
Setting: Primary and hospital care center. Read More
Histopathology 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.
Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC.
Aims: Invasive breast cancer patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) immunohistochemical (IHC) scores of 3+ or 2+ with reflex in situ hybridization (ISH) positivity are suitable for anti-HER2 therapies. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the prognoses between IHC 3+ patients and IHC 2+/ISH+ patients are different.
Methods And Results: We analyzed the clinicopathological information of 886 consecutive cases of HER2-positive early breast cancer. Read More
Laryngoscope 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.
Department of Otolaryngology, University of Tokushima School of Medicine, Tokushima, Japan.
Objectives/hypothesis: Meniere's disease (MD) patients can show normal head impulses despite poor caloric test results. This study aimed to investigate the discrepancy in the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) in MD patients and whether endolymphatic hydrops (EH) influence the VOR.
Study Design: Prospective, cross-sectional observational study. Read More
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2018 Nov;38(11):1294-1299
Department of Anesthesiology, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400014, China.
Objective: To investigate the effects of propofol combined with hypoxia on cognitive function of immature rats and the possible role of p38 pathway and tau protein in mediating such effects.
Methods: Ninety 7-day-old (P7) SD rats were randomized for daily intraperitoneal injection of propofol (50 mg/kg) or lipid emulsion (5.0 mL/kg) for 7 consecutive days. Read More
J Neurol Sci 2018 Nov 22;396:216-218. Epub 2018 Nov 22.
Department of Neurology, Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.
Clin Neurophysiol 2018 Nov 26;130(1):109-110. Epub 2018 Nov 26.
University Clinic of Neurology, Medical Faculty, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Vodnjanska Str. 17, MK-1000 Skopje, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.
Biomech Model Mechanobiol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Biomechanics Division, Department of Structural Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), 7491, Trondheim, Norway.
A Hill model-based phenomenological method for muscle activation was used to investigate defectiveness of the palatal muscle tone during sleep for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. Based on the stretch-stress characteristic of muscle activation when the eccentric contraction is considered, a specifically defined phenomenological strain-energy function was used, as well as the Holzapfel-type strain-energy function for the passive part. A continuum mechanical framework, including the stress tensor and elasticity tensor, was obtained, based on the defined strain-energy function. Read More
Toxicol Res (Camb) 2018 Nov 9;7(6):1191-1204. Epub 2018 Aug 9.
Department of Zoology , Sri Venkateswara University , Tirupati - 517502 , India . Email: ; ; Tel: +91-9247593000.
The aim of this study was to assess the reproductive toxic effects of arsenic on adult Wistar rats exposed to lead during the perinatal period. The pregnant rats were allowed access to tap water containing 819 mg of lead (Pb) per L or without Pb from conception until weaning. Litter size, survival rate and developmental milestones of the pups delivered by Pb exposed dams were comparable to those of the control rats. Read More
Front Neurol 2018 19;9:979. Epub 2018 Nov 19.
Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Faculty of Medicine, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
Loss of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) affects visual acuity during head movements. Previous studies have shown that compensatory eye-saccades improve visual acuity and that the timing of the saccade is important. Most of the tests involved in testing VOR are made with passive head movement, that do not necessarily reflect the activities of daily living and thus not being proportionate to symptoms and distresses of the patients. Read More
Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2018 Nov 28;90:169-176. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Department of Pharmacology, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; National Institute for Translational Medicine (INCT-TM, CNPq/FAPESP/CAPES), Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. Electronic address:
The Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) strain has been suggested as an animal model of schizophrenia, considering that adult SHRs display behavioral abnormalities that mimic the cognitive, psychotic and negative symptoms of the disease and are characteristic of its animal models. SHRs display: (I) deficits in fear conditioning and latent inhibition (modeling cognitive impairments), (II) deficit in prepulse inhibition of startle reflex (reflecting a deficit in sensorimotor gating, and associated with psychotic symptoms), (III) diminished social behavior (modeling negative symptoms) and (IV) hyperlocomotion (modeling the hyperactivity of the dopaminergic mesolimbic system/ psychotic symptoms). These behavioral abnormalities are reversed specifically by the administration of antipsychotic drugs. Read More
Ann Phys Rehabil Med 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Service de rééducation neurolocomotrice, EA 7377 BIOTN, laboratoire analyse et restauration du mouvement, université Paris-Est Créteil, hôpitaux universitaires Henri-Mondor, Assistance publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, 51, avenue du Maréchal-de-Lattre-de-Tassigny, 94010 Créteil, France.
This paper revisits the taxonomy of the neurophysiological consequences of a persistent impairment of motor command execution in the classic environment of sensorimotor restriction and muscle hypo-mobilization in short position. Around each joint, the syndrome involves 2 disorders, muscular and neurologic. The muscular disorder is promoted by muscle hypo-mobilization in short position in the context of paresis, in the hours and days after paresis onset: this genetically mediated, evolving myopathy, is called spastic myopathy. Read More
JBRA Assist Reprod 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.
Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, New Hope Fertility Center, New York, NY.
Some of the common side effects of the injectable gonadotropins, used during fertility treatments, are pain at the injection site, skin erythema, muscle pain, and rarely vasovagal reflex. These side effects cause inconvenience and lower patient's tolerance for fertility treatments.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of an FDA-approved dose of nasal human menopausal gonadotropins (Menopur) in women undergoing fertility treatment. Read More
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.
Angiotensin II (AngII) is locally produced in human skin and contributes to the reflex vasoconstriction (VC) response in aged but not young skin. We hypothesized that the exogenous AngII-mediated VC response will be greater in older adults and will be affected by inhibition of adrenoreceptor or angiotensin II type II receptor (ATR) pathways. Three microdialysis (MD) fibers were placed in the forearm skin of 11 young (26 ± 3 years) and 11 older (68 ± 4 years) individuals for perfusion of 1) Ringer's (control), 2) adrenoreceptor blockade with yohimbine + propranolol, and 3) ATR inhibition with PD-123319. Read More
Eye (Lond) 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.
Oxford Eye Hospital, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK.
Background: 'Kissing puncta' (KP) or punctal apposition is an anatomical phenomenon sparsely reported in the English literature. We describe our experience of managing chronic epiphora in patients with punctal apposition.
Methods: A retrospective audit of five patients (nine eyes) with KP associated with epiphora. Read More
Int J Cardiol 2018 Nov 18. Epub 2018 Nov 18.
Centre for Heart Rhythm Disorders (CHRD), South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute (SAHMRI), University of Adelaide and Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, Australia.
Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained arrhythmia and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The autonomic nervous system has a significant role in the milieu predisposing to the triggers, perpetuators and substrate for atrial fibrillation. It has direct electrophysiological effects and causes alterations in atrial structure. Read More
Alcohol 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.
Department of Biobehavioral Health, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, 16802, United States of America. Electronic address:
Binge alcohol drinking is a health burden in the United States which has an alarming economic impact. Unfortunately, medications available for alcohol abuse have low efficacy or adverse side effects creating a need to evaluate novel therapies. Growing research suggests that 18-Methoxycoronaridine (18-MC), an α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist, may be effective at reducing ethanol consumption. Read More
J Appl Physiol (1985) 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.
Center for Physical Activity Research, University Hospital of Copenhagen, Denmark.
Hypoxia increases heart rate (HR) in humans by sympathetic activation and vagal withdrawal. However, in anaesthetized dogs hypoxia increases vagal activity and reduces HR if pulmonary ventilation does not increase and we evaluated whether that observation applies to awake humans. Ten healthy males were exposed to 15 min of normoxia and hypoxia (10. Read More
Pain Med 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.
Department of Psychiatry, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon.
Eur J Neurol 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.
Department of Neurology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas (UNICAMP).
Introduction: SPAST mutations are the most common cause of hereditary spastic paraplegia (SPG4-HSP), which is characterized by progressive lower limb weakness, spasticity and hyperreflexia. There are few studies about non-motor manifestations in this disease and none about autonomic involvement. Therefore, our aim was to determine the frequency and pattern of autonomic complaints in patients with SPG4-HSP, as well as to determine the clinical relevance and the possible factors associated with these manifestations. Read More
Orbit 2018 Nov 29:1-6. Epub 2018 Nov 29.
b Department of Pathology, Majumdar Shaw Cancer Center , Narayana Health City , Bangalore , India.
A 19-year-old female student presented with painless, progressive proptosis in the right eye for the past six months causing significant cosmetic blemish and double vision. Clinical evaluation revealed normal visual acuity, normal pupillary reflex, severe proptosis, and dystopia. Orbital imaging revealed a heterogeneous mass in superior orbit displacing the globe inferiorly and causing extensive bony erosion of frontal bone superiorly and invading the frontal sinus. Read More
Tokai J Exp Clin Med 2018 Dec 20;43(4):153-160. Epub 2018 Dec 20.
Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tokai University School of Medicine, 143 Shimokasuya, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193, Japan:
Objective: Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) has been widely used for the treatments of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF); however, AF recurrence remains a significant challenge. We evaluated relation between autonomic nervous activity and AF recurrence using heart rate variability (HRV) and deceleration and acceleration capacity (DC/AC) analyses.
Methods: High-resolution Holter electrocardiogram was performed in 56 PAF patients pre- and 3 and 6 months post-PVI by cryoballoon. Read More
Cell Rep 2018 Nov;25(9):2497-2509.e4
Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Electronic address:
Melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are indispensable for non-image-forming visual responses that sustain under prolonged illumination. For sustained signaling of ipRGCs, the melanopsin photopigment must continuously regenerate. The underlying mechanism is unknown. Read More
Brain Behav 2018 Nov 28:e01153. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Department of Pediatrics, Beatrix Children's Hospital, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.
Introduction: During early childhood, typical human motor behavior reveals a gradual transition from automatic motor patterns to acquired motor skills, by the continuous interplay between nature and nurture. During the wiring and shaping of the underlying motor networks, insight into the neurological phenotype of developmental motor patterns is incomplete. In healthy, typically developing children (0-3 years of age), we therefore aimed to investigate the neurological phenotype of developmental motor patterns. Read More
Int J Hyperthermia 2018 Nov 1:1-10. Epub 2018 Nov 1.
a Institute of Sport Science and Innovations , Lithuanian Sports University , Kaunas , LT , Lithuania.
Healthy aging is associated with a progressive decline in motor performance and thermoregulatory efficiency. Functional consequences of severe whole-body hyperthermia on neurophysiological functions in healthy aged men have not been investigated. To determine whether severe whole-body hyperthermia (increase in rectal temperature of about 2. Read More
Neurocrit Care 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.
Department of Ophthalmology, Emory University School of Medicine, 1648 Pierce Drive NE, Atlanta, GA, 30307, USA.
The aim of this study was to assess the current state of automated pupillometry technology and its application in the neurointensive care unit (neuroICU). We performed a literature search using the PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases from database inception through a search end date of October 18, 2018, to identify studies reporting on the use of automated pupillometry in the care of critically ill patients with neurological impairment. Two independent reviewers reviewed all titles and abstracts in two filtering phases. Read More
Aesthetic Plast Surg 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.
Department of Plastic Surgery, ID Hospital, 142 Dosan dae-ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul, 06039, Korea.
Background: Postoperative eyelid asymmetry is the most common complaint of patients after undergoing blepharoplasty and ptosis correction surgery. Calibrating eyelid asymmetry during ptosis correction surgery is still difficult for surgeons despite the development of innovative procedures. Our levator pull-out suture technique for correcting postoperative eyelid asymmetry after ptosis surgery is introduced. Read More
Front Aging Neurosci 2018 12;10:367. Epub 2018 Nov 12.
Aix-Marseille Univ, CNRS, ISM, Equipe Plasticité des Systèmes Nerveux et Musculaire, Faculté des Sciences du Sport, Marseille, France.
This study was designed to evaluate the effect of aging on the activity of metabosensitive afferent fibers (thin muscle afferents from group III and IV) and to determine if physical activity performed at old age may influence the afferent discharge. Afferents from and muscles were recorded on non-exercised rats aged of 3, 6, 12, and 20 months and on animals aged of 12 and 20 months performing a daily incremental treadmill exercise protocol during the last 8 weeks preceding the recordings. Metabosensitive afferent fibers were activated with potassium chloride (KCl) and lactic acid (LA) injections into the blood stream or by muscle electrically-induced fatigue (EIF). Read More
Front Neuroanat 2018 13;12:85. Epub 2018 Nov 13.
Department of Physiology, College Graduate Studies, Chicago College of Osteopathic Medicine, Midwestern University, Downers Grove, IL, United States.
Most terrestrial animals demonstrate an autonomic reflex that facilitates survival during prolonged submersion under water. This diving response is characterized by bradycardia, apnea and selective increases in peripheral vascular resistance. Stimulation of the nose and nasal passages is thought to be primarily responsible for providing the sensory afferent signals initiating this protective reflex. Read More
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2018 Nov 2. Epub 2018 Nov 2.
Department of Ophthalmology, Dunedin Public Hospital, Dunedin, New Zealand.
The purpose of this study was to assess and quantify lower lid excursion following repair of lower lid retraction. In this retrospective cohort study, a case review of patients who had undergone ear cartilage grafting for lower lid retraction was undertaken. Surgical correction involved the placement of autologous cartilage between the tarsal plate and lower lid retractors. Read More
Handb Clin Neurol 2018 ;158:135-144
Baylor Institute for Rehabilitation, Frisco, TX, United States.
The assessment and treatment of sport-related concussion (SRC) often requires a multifaceted approach. Vestibular dysfunction represents an important profile of symptoms and pathology following SRC, with high prevalence and association with prolonged recovery. Signs and symptoms of vestibular dysfunction may include dizziness, vertigo, disequilibrium, nausea, and visual impairment. Read More
J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.
3 Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute , Seattle, Washington.
Objective: We explored patient perspectives after a positive human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling result to describe experiences and information needs for this home-based screening modality.
Materials And Methods: We recruited women who tested high-risk (hr) HPV positive during a pragmatic trial evaluating mailed hrHPV self-sampling kits as an outreach strategy for women overdue for Pap screening in a U.S. Read More
Curr Opin Behav Sci 2018 Apr 3;20:138-144. Epub 2018 Feb 3.
National Center for Adaptive Neurotechnologies, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, P.O. Box 22002, Albany, NY 12201, USA.
Operant conditioning of the spinal stretch reflex (SSR) or its electrical analog, the H-reflex, is a valuable experimental paradigm for studying the acquisition and maintenance of a simple motor skill. The CNS substrate of this skill consists of brain and spinal cord plasticity that operates as a hierarchy-the learning experience induces plasticity in the brain that guides and maintains plasticity in the spinal cord. This is apparent in the two components of the skill acquisition: task-dependent adaptation, reflecting brain plasticity; and long-term change, reflecting gradual development of spinal plasticity. Read More