2,297 results match your criteria Reflex Epilepsy

Laser ablative treatment of musicogenic epilepsy arising from dominant mesial temporal lobe: illustrative case.

J Neurosurg Case Lessons 2022 Jun 6;3(23):CASE2295. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Departments of Neurosurgery and.

Background: Musicogenic epilepsy (ME) is a rare reflex epilepsy in which seizures are triggered by musical stimuli. Prior descriptions of ME have suggested localization to the nondominant temporal lobe, primarily in neocortex. Although resection has been described as a treatment for ME, other surgical modalities, such as laser ablation, may effectively disrupt seizure networks in ME while incurring comparatively lower risks of morbidity. Read More

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Respiratory dysfunction in two rodent models of chronic epilepsy and acute seizures and its link with the brainstem serotonin system.

Sci Rep 2022 Jun 17;12(1):10248. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

CRNL, Lyon Neuroscience Research Center, Inserm U1028, CNRS UMR5292, Lyon 1 University, 95 bd Pinel, 69500, Bron, France.

Patients with drug-resistant epilepsy can experience respiratory alterations, notably during seizures. The mechanisms underlying long-term alterations in respiratory function remain unclear. As the brainstem 5-HT system is a prominent modulator of respiratory function, this study aimed at determining whether epilepsy is associated with alterations in both the respiratory function and brainstem serotonin (5-HT) system in rats. Read More

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The multibranched nerve: vagal function beyond heart rate variability.

John M Karemaker

Biol Psychol 2022 Jun 7:108378. Epub 2022 Jun 7.

Location AMC: Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Dept of Medical Biology, section Systems Physiology, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

This paper reviews the many functions of the vagus nerve, to understand how they interact in daily life and what might be accomplished by therapeutical electrical stimulation. A short historical introduction on the discovery and name-giving of the cranial nerves numbers 9 to 12 is followed by an overview of the functions that are under lower brain stem control: heart (rate, contractility), intestine (swallowing, peristalsis and glands secretions, feeling of satiety), lungs (bronchoconstriction, lung-irritant and stretch receptor signaling), blood pressure (by vascular wall stress sensing) and blood gases by specialized receptors. Key in the review is the physiology behind beat-by-beat heart rate variations, how everyday life is reflected in its variability, from exciting moments to quiet sleep, with the 'common faint' or vasovagal collapse as extreme example. Read More

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A Computational Biomarker of Photosensitive Epilepsy from Interictal EEG.

eNeuro 2022 May-Jun;9(3). Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Cardiff University Brain Research Imaging Centre, School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 4HQ, United Kingdom.

People with photosensitive epilepsy (PSE) are prone to seizures elicited by visual stimuli. The possibility of inducing epileptiform activity in a reliable way makes PSE a useful model to understand epilepsy, with potential applications for the development of new diagnostic methods and new treatments for epilepsy. A relationship has been demonstrated between PSE and both occipital and more widespread cortical hyperexcitability using various types of stimulation. Read More

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Focal thalamocortical circuit abnormalities in sleep related epilepsy caused by focal cortical dysplasia type II.

Seizure 2022 Jul 26;99:153-158. Epub 2022 May 26.

Department of Neurology, Epilepsy Center, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, United States.

Purpose To investigate the variations of the thalamocortical circuit between the focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) type II patients with sleep-related epilepsy (SRE) and those without SRE (non-SRE). Methods Patients with epilepsy who had histologically proven FCD type II were enrolled. Those without diffusion tensor image and 3-dimensional (3D) T1 MRI sequences were excluded. Read More

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Epilepsy with seizures induced by movement: A rare reflex epilepsy.

Seizure 2022 Jul 10;99:68-70. Epub 2022 May 10.

Complex Structure of Neurology, "SS. Annunziata Hospital", Taranto, Italy.

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Shadowboxing-induced reflex seizures in a patient with focal epilepsy.

Epilepsy Behav Rep 2022 18;19:100543. Epub 2022 Apr 18.

Department of Neurology, Neurological Institute, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan.

Exercise-induced reflex seizures are a rare form of reflex seizures that are exclusively induced by a specific type of exercise. Many patients with exercise-induced reflex seizures exhibit drug-resistance, and are therefore advised to avoid the triggering exercise. Here, we describe a focal epilepsy patient with shadowboxing-induced reflex seizures. Read More

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[Epilepsy with catamenial pattern].

Rev Neurol 2022 05;74(9):303-311

Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry. Western University, London, Ontario, Canadá.

Catamenial pattern epilepsy is defined as an increase in the frequency of seizures during a specific stage of the menstrual cycle compared to baseline. It has been described that around a third of women with epilepsy have a catamenial pattern. The changes in the seizure pattern would be explained by the influence of catamenial fluctuations, of female gonadal hormones on neuronal excitability. Read More

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Seizure Characteristics and Background Amplitude-Integrated Electroencephalography Activity in Neonatal Rats Subjected to Hypoxia-Ischemia.

Front Pediatr 2022 7;10:837909. Epub 2022 Apr 7.

Department of Pediatrics, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Objective: Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a major cause of epilepsy and chronic neurologic morbidity in premature infants. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of acute seizures and the pattern of background activity on amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) in neonatal rats with HIE.

Methods: Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) was induced in postnatal day (P) 3 neonatal rats (n = 12) by ligation of the left carotid artery and exposure to airtight hypoxia for 2 h. Read More

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Transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation augments postprandial inhibition of ghrelin.

Physiol Rep 2022 04;10(8):e15253

Burrell College of Osteopathic Medicine, Las Cruces, New Mexico, USA.

Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) facilitates weight loss in animals and patients treated with VNS for depression or epilepsy. Likewise, chronic transcutaneous auricular VNS (taVNS) reduces weight gain and improves glucose tolerance in Zucker diabetic fatty rats. If these metabolic effects of taVNS observed in rats translate to humans is unknown. Read More

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Epileptic seizures and link to memory processes.

AIMS Neurosci 2022 7;9(1):114-127. Epub 2022 Mar 7.

Department of Neuroscience, Canadian Centre for Behavioural Neuroscience, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB, Canada.

Epileptogenesis is a complex and not well understood phenomenon. Here, we explore the hypothesis that epileptogenesis could be "hijacking" normal memory processes, and how this hypothesis may provide new directions for epilepsy treatment. First, we review similarities between the hypersynchronous circuits observed in epilepsy and memory consolidation processes involved in strengthening neuronal connections. Read More

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The prefrontal cortex shows widespread decrease in H3 histamine receptor binding densities in rats with genetic generalized epilepsies.

Epilepsy Res 2022 05 4;182:106921. Epub 2022 Apr 4.

School of Pharmacy, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.

Distributions of brain H3 histamine receptors in regions of the prefrontal cortex were studied by assessing regional binding densities for [3 H](R)α-methylhistamine in coronal brain slices of normal rats and rats with genetically determined absence and/or audiogenic epilepsies. The three groups of epileptic rats displayed widespread significant decreases in H3 histamine receptor binding densities. A 20-25% decline was seen in the rostral aspects of the lateral prefrontal cortex, namely the granular, dysgranular, and dorsal agranular insular regions. Read More

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Association between family history of alcohol use disorder and catamenial epilepsy.

Andrew G Herzog

Epilepsia 2022 06 24;63(6):e63-e67. Epub 2022 Apr 24.

Harvard Neuroendocrine Unit, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether a family history of alcohol use disorder (AUD) might be a risk factor and possible clinical biomarker for catamenial epilepsy. The retrospective case-control data came from 119 women, aged 13-48 years, with intractable seizures. We report the relative risk for positive family history of AUD among women with catamenial epilepsy (Group 1) relative to women with noncatamenial epilepsy (Group 2). Read More

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[How our view of epileptogenesis and mechanism of epilepsy changes? The system epilepsies' concept].

Ideggyogy Sz 2022 Mar;75(3-04):79-97

Semmelweis Egyetem, Magatartástudományi Intézet, Budapest.

Background And Purpose: To examine the ways of epileptogenesis closely linked to the system epilepsies' concept.

Methods: We follow the ways of epileptic transformation in the declarative memory-system, in the sleep/arousal twin-systems, in the perisylvian neuronal network and in postinjury epilepsy, which we consider a general model of the epileptic transformation.

Results: In the presented systems, epileptogenesis shares a similar mechanism in the form of augmentation and derailment of plasticity and sleep-related synaptic homeo-stasis. Read More

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"Obvious" indications for Neural antibody testing in Epilepsy or Seizures: The ONES checklist.

Epilepsia 2022 Mar 27. Epub 2022 Mar 27.

Department of Clinical Neurological Sciences, London Health Sciences Centre, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada.

Objective: Numerous predictive scores have been developed to help determine which patients with epilepsy or seizures of unknown etiology should undergo neural antibody testing. However, their diagnostic advantage compared to only performing testing in patients with "obvious" indications (e.g. Read More

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Reflex seizures in rare monogenic epilepsies.

Seizure 2022 Apr 10;97:32-34. Epub 2022 Mar 10.

Department of Developmental Neurology, Medical University of Gdansk, ul. Debinki 7, 80-952, Gdansk, Poland.

Reflex seizures (RSs) are epileptic events consistently induced by specific triggers. They occur in epilepsies of varied etiologies and are often accompanied by spontaneous seizures. The genetic background of RSs is heterogeneous and polygenic or multifactorial inheritance is suspected in the majority of cases. Read More

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Identification and Characterization of Pure Sleep Epilepsy in a Cohort of Patients With a First Seizure.

Neurology 2022 05 14;98(18):e1857-e1864. Epub 2022 Mar 14.

From the Western Australian Adult Epilepsy Service (E.P., N.L., J.L.); and School of Medicine (J.D.), Royal Perth Hospital Unit, University of Western Australia, Australia.

Background And Objectives: Our aim was to study the development of pure sleep epilepsy after a first-ever seizure from sleep in adults.

Methods: This was a prospective observational study of patients seen at a tertiary hospital-based first seizure clinic between 2000 and 2011. Adults with a first-ever unprovoked seizure from sleep were consecutively recruited. Read More

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Predictors of hyperkinetic seizures.

Epilepsy Behav 2022 04 7;129:108629. Epub 2022 Mar 7.

IRCCS, Child Neuropsychiatry, Istituto G. Gaslini, Italy (Reference Center for Rare and Complex Epilepsies-EpiCARE), Italy; DINOGMI, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy. Electronic address:

Objective: To identify predisposing factors for hyperkinetic seizure occurrence in a representative cohort of surgically treated patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy.

Methods: We retrospectively recruited all seizure-free patients after epilepsy surgery with a postoperative follow-up ≥12 months. Patients were classified as presenting with hyperkinetic seizures if at least 2 episodes occurred during their disease history, based on clear-cut anamnestic description and/or video-EEG/stereo-EEG recordings. Read More

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Hyperekplexia: A Frequent Near Miss in Infants and Young Children.

Neurol India 2022 Jan-Feb;70(1):312-314

Department of Pediatrics, Child Neurology Division, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Hyperekplexia, an underdiagnosed motor paroxysm of infancy, mimics epilepsy closely. It is hallmarked by episodic and excessive startle response, brief episodes of intense, generalized hypertonia, or stiffness in response to unexpected auditory and/or tactile stimuli right from birth. Though a seemingly benign entity with an excellent prognosis, hyperekplexia has been occasionally associated with recurrent apneas, feeding difficulties, and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Read More

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PURA syndrome in a child with severe developmental delay: a challenging diagnosis.

Rev Neurol 2022 03;74(5):170-173

Centro Hospitalar Universitário de São João, Oporto, Portugal.

Introduction: PURA syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant condition caused by de novo pathogenic variants in PURA gene and characterized by a multisystemic phenotype that includes global neurodevelopmental delay, early hypotonia, absence of speech, feeding difficulties, hypersomnolence, epilepsy and movement disorders.

Case Report: We report a 9-year-old girl with hypotonia and feeding difficulties with failure to thrive since the neonatal period. At the age of 3 years motor and intellectual delay were evident, she had a wide-based gait, no speech and an exaggerated acoustic startle response. Read More

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Long-term clinical course and prognosis of hot water epilepsy: 15-Year follow-up.

Epilepsy Behav 2022 04 15;129:108607. Epub 2022 Feb 15.

Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Fırat University, Elazig, Turkey.

Objective: Hot water epilepsy (HWE) is a type of reflex epilepsy triggered by bathing with hot water. Hot water epilepsy is generally considered as a self-limiting benign disease although its long-term course and prognosis remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to determine the long-term clinical course and prognosis of hot water epilepsy and possible factors affecting them. Read More

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Geraniol enhances inhibitory inputs to the paraventricular thalamic nucleus and induces sedation in mice.

Phytomedicine 2022 Jan 29;98:153965. Epub 2022 Jan 29.

SUSTech Center for Pain Medicine, School of Medicine, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen 518055, China; Department of Anesthesiology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 201620, China. Electronic address:

Background: Plant extracts with sedative effects have a long history of clinical use for treating insomnia and epilepsy. Geraniol (GE), a plant-derived acyclic monoterpene, reduces locomotion and prolongs barbiturate-induced anesthesia in rats. However, the mechanisms of GE in sedation remain elusive. Read More

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January 2022

Visually sensitive seizures: An updated review by the Epilepsy Foundation.

Epilepsia 2022 04 7;63(4):739-768. Epub 2022 Feb 7.

Department of Neurosurgery and Epilepsy, University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Light flashes, patterns, or color changes can provoke seizures in up to 1 in 4000 persons. Prevalence may be higher because of selection bias. The Epilepsy Foundation reviewed light-induced seizures in 2005. Read More

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Reduction of photoparoxysmal response from patients with drug-resistant photosensitive epilepsy by using Z1 filters.

Neurologia (Engl Ed) 2022 Jan-Feb;37(1):79-81

Ophthalmology Department, Hospital Británico de Buenos Aires, Argentina.

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January 2022

Anticonvulsive Effects and Pharmacokinetic Profile of Cannabidiol (CBD) in the Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) or N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) Models of Seizures in Infantile Rats.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Dec 22;23(1). Epub 2021 Dec 22.

Laboratory of Developmental Epileptology, Institute of Physiology, Czech Academy of Sciences, Vídeňská 1083, 142 20 Prague, Czech Republic.

In spite of use of cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive cannabinoid, in pediatric patients with epilepsy, preclinical studies on its effects in immature animals are very limited. In the present study we investigated anti-seizure activity of CBD (10 and 60 mg/kg administered intraperitoneally) in two models of chemically induced seizures in infantile (12-days old) rats. Seizures were induced either with pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) or N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). Read More

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December 2021

Disorders of arousal and sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy - overview and challenges night is a battlefield of sleep and arousal promoting forces.

Neurol Sci 2022 Feb 5;43(2):927-937. Epub 2022 Jan 5.

Department of Medicine and Surgery, Sleep Disorders Center, University Hospital of Parma, Via Gramsci 14, 43126, Parma, Italy.

Arousability and reactivity to sensory stimuli are essential features of sleep, discriminating it from coma and keeping the sleeper in contact with the environment. Arousals and oscillations during sleep serve the reversibility of sleep and carry an alarm function awakening the sleeper in danger. In this review, we will explore mechanisms and circuits involved in arousal intrusions within the sleep texture, focusing on the significance of these phenomena in two sleep-related conditions: NREM sleep parasomnias and sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy. Read More

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February 2022

Drug-resistant 'Non-Lesional' Visual Sensitive Epilepsies of Childhood - Electroclinical Phenotype-Genotype Associations.

Neurol India 2021 Nov-Dec;69(6):1701-1705

Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.

Background: Sporadic nonlesional intractable visual-sensitive epilepsies of childhood represent a challenging subset of epilepsies in terms of management and prognostication given a propensity to evolve as epileptic encephalopathy.

Objective: To study the genetic heterogeneity of drug-resistant visual sensitive epilepsy of childhood.

Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted on patients in the pediatric age group between 2016 and 2018, with drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) and video electro encephalography (VEEG) documented reflex photosensitivity, eye-condition sensitivity. Read More

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January 2022

Focal cortical dysplasia links to sleep-related epilepsy in symptomatic focal epilepsy.

Epilepsy Behav 2022 02 27;127:108507. Epub 2021 Dec 27.

Department of Neurology, Epilepsy Center, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Objective: In sleep-related epilepsy (SRE), epileptic seizures predominantly occur during sleep, but the clinical characteristics of SRE remain elusive. We aimed to identify the clinical features associated with the occurrence of SRE in a large cohort of symptomatic focal epilepsy.

Methods: We retrospectively included patients with four etiologies, including focal cortical dysplasia (FCD), low-grade tumors (LGT), temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (TLE-HS), and encephalomalacia. Read More

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February 2022

SYNGAP1-related developmental and epileptic encephalopathy: The impact on daily life.

Epilepsy Behav 2022 02 23;127:108500. Epub 2021 Dec 23.

Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Surgical Sciences, Dentistry, Gynecology and Pediatrics, University of Verona, Verona, Italy; Research Center for Pediatric Epilepsies Verona, IT, Verona, Italy.

SYNGAP1-developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (SYNGAP1-DEE) has been recently featured as a distinct genetic disease characterized by global psychomotor delay mainly involving language, moderate-to-severe cognitive impairment, autism spectrum disorder, and a generalized epilepsy with spontaneous and reflex seizures. The severity and variability of function impairment and the impact on patients' and caregivers' daily life are still poorly acknowledged. The SYNGAP1 Italian Family Association developed a survey, shared online with caregivers, exploring several issues, including: epilepsy outcome, comorbidities, daily-living skills, hospitalizations, rehabilitation treatments, economic burden, and COVID-19 pandemic impact. Read More

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February 2022

Teaching Video NeuroImage: Reflex Epilepsy: Seizures Induced by Vigorous Exercise.

Neurology 2022 02 14;98(8):e875. Epub 2021 Dec 14.

From the Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

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February 2022