997,410 results match your criteria Recent Patents on Nanotechnology [Journal]


Recommendations on thromboprophylaxis in major joint arthroplasty - many guidelines, little consensus?

J Thromb Haemost 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Section for Surgical Pathophysiology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University, 2100, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Venous thromboembolic events remain a concern in total hip and knee arthroplasty. Consequently, several guidelines on thromboprophylaxis have been established. However, despite similarities in methodology for evaluation of evidence, discrepancies in guideline recommendations continue to exist. Read More

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December 2018

Arousal from hibernation and reactivation of Eptesicus fuscus gammaherpesvirus (EfHV) in big brown bats.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Department of Microbiology, Western College of Veterinary Microbiology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.

Many viruses that cause serious and often fatal disease in humans have spilled over from bats. Recent evidence suggests that stress may enhance virus shedding by bats increasing the possibility of transmission to other species. To understand the reasons for spillover it is therefore important to determine the molecular pathways that link stress to virus reactivation and shedding in bats. Read More

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December 2018

Genomic insights into the vulnerability of sympatric whitefish species flocks.

Mol Ecol 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Department of Fish Ecology and Evolution, Centre of Ecology, Evolution and Biogeochemistry, EAWAG Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Seestrasse 79, 6047, Kastanienbaum, Switzerland.

The erosion of habitat heterogeneity can reduce species diversity directly but can also lead to the loss of distinctiveness of sympatric species through speciation reversal. We know little about changes in genomic differentiation during the early stages of these processes, which can be mediated by anthropogenic perturbation. Here, we analyse three sympatric whitefish species (Coregonus spp) sampled across two neighbouring and connected Swiss pre-alpine lakes, which have been differentially affected by anthropogenic eutrophication. Read More

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December 2018

Developmental mutant mouse models for external genitalia formation.

Congenit Anom (Kyoto) 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Developmental Genetics, Institute of Advanced Medicine, Wakayama Medical University (WMU), Wakayama, Japan.

Development of external genitalia and perineum is the subject of developmental biology as well as toxicology and teratology researches. Cloaca forms in the lower (caudal) end of endoderm. Such endodermal epithelia and surrounding mesenchyme interact with various signals to form the external genitalia. Read More

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November 2018

Advances in understanding obligate biotrophy in rust fungi.

New Phytol 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

UMR 1136 INRA/Université de Lorraine Interactions Arbres/Microorganismes, INRA Centre Grand Est - Nancy, 54280, Champenoux, France.

Rust fungi (Pucciniales) are the largest group of plant pathogens and represent one of the most devastating threats to agricultural crops worldwide. Despite the economic importance of these highly specialized pathogens, many aspects of their biology remain obscure largely because rust fungi are obligate biotrophs. The rise of genomics and advances in high-throughput sequencing technology have presented new options for identifying candidate effector genes involved in pathogenicity mechanisms of rust fungi. Read More

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December 2018

The Challenge to Search for New Nervous System Disease Biomarker Candidates: the Opportunity to Use the Proteogenomics Approach.

J Mol Neurosci 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Laboratory of Functional Genomics and Bioinformatics, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz), Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, prion diseases, schizophrenia, and multiple sclerosis are the most common nervous system diseases, affecting millions of people worldwide. The current scientific literature associates these pathological conditions to abnormal expression levels of certain proteins, which in turn improved the knowledge concerning normal and affected brains. However, there is no available cure or preventive therapy for any of these disorders. Read More

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December 2018

Gut microbiome approaches to treat obesity in humans.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Department of Food and Nutrition, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, State University of São Paulo (UNESP), Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

The rising worldwide prevalence of obesity has become a major concern having many implications for the public health and the economy. It is well known that many factors such as lifestyle, increased intake of foods high in fat and sugar and a host's genetic profile can lead to obesity. Besides these factors, recent studies have pointed to the gut microbiota composition as being responsible for the development of obesity. Read More

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December 2018

Cancer control planning: self-assessment for pre-planning, development, implementation and evaluation of national cancer control plans.

Cancer Causes Control 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD, USA.

The development of cancer control plans as a clearly defined concept began in the U.S. in the early 1990s. Read More

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December 2018

Functional roles of Grainyhead-like transcription factors in renal development and disease.

Pediatr Nephrol 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Robert-Rössle-Strasse 10, 13125, Berlin, Germany.

Proper renal function relies on the tightly regulated development of nephrons and collecting ducts. This process, known as tubulogenesis, involves dynamic cellular and molecular changes that instruct cells to form highly organized tubes of epithelial cells which compartmentalize the renal interstitium and tubular lumen via assembly of a selective barrier. The integrity and diversity of the various renal epithelia is achieved via formation of intercellular protein complexes along the apical-basal axis of the epithelial cells. Read More

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December 2018
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Impact of large-scale tree planting in Yunnan Province, China, on the water supply balance in Southeast Asia.

Environ Monit Assess 2018 Dec 15;191(1):20. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Chongqing College of Arts and Sciences, Chongqing, 402160, China.

Along with rapid economic development and population growth, anthropogenic disturbances to natural ecosystems increase the progressively worsening environmental problems in and around water resources, making the potential ecological risks more severe and unpredictable. In order to cope with the increasingly serious issues related to the ecological environment and poverty alleviation, the Government of Yunnan in Southwest China launched a large-scale afforestation campaign (plantation forestry) on the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, which is the main source of several major river systems in Southeast Asia. In this study, we use GIS to investigate the impacts of a large-scale afforestation on the water storage balance of Southeast Asia. Read More

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December 2018

Lack of Standard Definitions of Primary and Secondary (Non)responders After Primary Gastric Bypass and Gastric Sleeve: a Systematic Review.

Obes Surg 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Máxima Medical Center, Eindhoven/Veldhoven, The Netherlands.

Lack of standard definitions of primary and secondary (non)responders after RYGB and SG makes it impossible to compare the literature. The aim was to analyze the different definitions used. MEDLINE® was searched for literature published between 01-07-2014 and 01-07-2017 concerning (1) patients who received a primary RYGB or SG and (2) the outcomes of primary and secondary (non)responders. Read More

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December 2018

Contribution of monoaminergic mechanisms to the discriminative stimulus effects of 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) in Sprague-Dawley rats.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Psychology, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI, 49008, USA.

Rationale: 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a popular synthetic cathinone reported to have a high abuse potential. Recent preclinical research indicates the psychopharmacology of MDPV is comparable to cocaine. Despite a recent influx of research on the psychopharmacology of MDPV, few studies have employed preclinical drug discrimination methods to discern the neurochemical mechanisms involved in its interoceptive stimulus effects. Read More

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December 2018

Official controls regarding artisanal ice cream shops: public health policies and consumer protection in the Italian and European legislative frameworks.

Ann Ig 2019 Jan-Feb;31(1):76-85

Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences and Translational Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Ice cream is a widely enjoyed food that is especially popular during summer. To ensure it is safe and ready-to-eat for consumers, legislation imposes a series of obligations for food business operators, and for competent authorities that have to carry out official controls, including official sampling. This article reviews the general and specific requirements applicable to the premises where ice cream is produced, concerning aspects related to health notification obligations and to implementing and maintaining procedures based on the principles of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point system. Read More

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December 2018

Current Status and Challenges of Endoscopic Treatments for Duodenal Tumors.

Digestion 2018 Dec 14;99(1):21-26. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Division of Research and Development for Minimally Invasive Treatment, Cancer Center, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo,

Background: Superficial tumors of the duodenum, other than ampullary tumors, have been traditionally considered rare. However, reports of this kind of tumor have increased in recent times, and the demand for minimally invasive treatments have also increasing.

Summary: Adenomas and intramucosal carcinomas are target lesions for treatment. Read More

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December 2018

Molecular Basis of Cystinosis: Geographic Distribution, Functional Consequences of Mutations in the CTNS Gene, and Potential for Repair.

Nephron 2018 Dec 14;141(2):1-14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Development and Regeneration, Organ Systems Cluster, KU Leuven, Leuven,

Mutations in the CTNS gene encoding the lysosomal membrane cystine transporter cystinosin are the cause of cystinosis, an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease. More than 140 CTNS mutations have been reported worldwide. Recent studies have discovered that cystinosin exerts other key cellular functions beyond cystine transport such as regulation of oxidative state, lysosomal dynamics and autophagy. Read More

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December 2018

Recent Incidence Trend of Surgically Resected Esophagogastric Junction Adenocarcinoma and Microsatellite Instability Status in Japanese Patients.

Digestion 2018 Dec 14;99(1):6-13. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Cancer Institute Hospital of Japanese Foundation of Cancer Research, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: The incidence trend of esophagogastric junction (EGJ) adenocarcinoma in Japan has not been sufficiently investigated. Little is known about the microsatellite instability (MSI) status of this tumor.

Summary: Previously published studies analyzing the trend of EGJ adenocarcinoma in Japan were reviewed. Read More

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December 2018

Atlantoaxial fixation using C1 posterior arch screws: feasibility study, morphometric data, and biomechanical analysis.

Authors:

J Neurosurg Spine 2018 Dec 14:1-9. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

OBJECTIVEC1-2 is a highly mobile complex that presents unique surgical challenges to achieving biomechanical rigidity and fusion. Posterior wiring methods have been largely replaced with segmental constructs using the C1 lateral mass, C1 pedicle, C2 pars, and C2 pedicle. Modifications to reduce surgical morbidity led to the development of C2 laminar screws. Read More

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December 2018

Role of TLR4 in the gut-brain axis in Parkinson's disease: a translational study from men to mice.

Gut 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Objective: Recent evidence suggesting an important role of gut-derived inflammation in brain disorders has opened up new directions to explore the possible role of the gut-brain axis in neurodegenerative diseases. Given the prominence of dysbiosis and colonic dysfunction in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), we propose that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated intestinal dysfunction could contribute to intestinal and central inflammation in PD-related neurodegeneration.

Design: To test this hypothesis we performed studies in both human tissue and a murine model of PD. Read More

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December 2018

Yield of peripheral sodium channels gene screening in pure small fibre neuropathy.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, The Netherlands

Background: Neuropathic pain is common in peripheral neuropathy. Recent genetic studies have linked pathogenic voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) variants to human pain disorders. Our aims are to determine the frequency of , and variants in patients with pure small fibre neuropathy (SFN), analyse their clinical features and provide a rationale for genetic screening. Read More

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December 2018

Cancer diagnosis using nanomaterials based electrochemical nanobiosensors.

Biosens Bioelectron 2018 Nov 19;126:773-784. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Nanotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technology, Tehran Medical Sciences , Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Cancer is one of the most important causes of mortality in the world, which can be severely reduced by early detection to avoid future problems in the field of economics and mental health. Hence, electrochemical nanobiosensors as portable devices for rapid detection of  cancer biomarkers, have found an important place in clinical medicine for diagnosis, managements or cancer screening. Although, these biosensors have been receiving attention in the recent years, their principles are unchanged. Read More

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November 2018

Prognostic role of microRNA-155 expression in gliomas: A meta-analysis.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2018 Dec 7;176:103-109. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Neurosurgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, China. Electronic address:

Recent studies have reported that microRNA-155 (miR-155) is linked to the clinical outcomes of many tumors. However, its role in prognosis of gliomas remains unclear. This meta-analysis aims to evaluate the prognostic value of miR-155 in the survival of patients with gliomas. Read More

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December 2018

Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel indole derivatives as potential HDAC/BRD4 dual inhibitors and anti-leukemia agents.

Bioorg Chem 2018 Dec 10;84:410-417. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Key Laboratory of Structure-Based Drugs Design & Discovery of Ministry of Education, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016, China. Electronic address:

HDAC inhibitors and BRD4 inhibitors were considered to be potent anti-cancer agents. Recent studies have demonstrated that HDAC and BRD4 participate in the regulation of some signal paths like PI3K-AKT. In this work, a series of indole derivatives that combine the inhibitory activities of BRD4 and HDAC into one molecule were designed and synthesized through the structure-based design method. Read More

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December 2018

Non canonical genetic material.

Curr Opin Biotechnol 2018 Dec 13;57:25-33. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

KU Leuven, Rega Institute for Medical Research, Medicinal Chemistry, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address:

To increase the scope of natural biosystem, nucleic acids have been intensively modified. One direction includes the development of a synthetic alternative to the native DNA and RNA, denoted Xenobiotic nucleic acids (XNAs) that are able to store and transfer genetic information either by base-modification or backbone-modification. Another line of research aims to develop alternative third base pair additional to natural A:T and G:C. Read More

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December 2018

Recent advances in metalloporphyrins for environmental and energy applications.

Chemosphere 2018 Dec 4;219:617-635. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan, Hubei, 430074, PR China; Hubei Provincial Engineering Laboratory of Solid Waste Treatment, Disposal and Recycling, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan, Hubei, 430074, PR China. Electronic address:

Porphyrin-based chemistry has reached an unprecedented period of rapid development after decades of study. Due to attractive multifunctional properties, porphyrins and their analogues have emerged as multifunctional organometals for environmental and energy purposes. In particular, pioneer works have been conducted to explore their application in pollution abatement, energy conversion and storage and molecule recognition. Read More

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December 2018

A review of recent strategies for acid mine drainage prevention and mine tailings recycling.

Chemosphere 2018 Nov 28;219:588-606. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Division of Sustainable Resources Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Japan.

Acid mine/rock drainage (AMD/ARD), effluents with low pH and high concentrations of hazardous and toxic elements generated when sulfide-rich wastes are exposed to the environment, is considered as a serious environmental problem encountered by the mining and mineral processing industries around the world. Remediation options like neutralization, adsorption, ion exchange, membrane technology, biological mediation, and electrochemical approach have been developed to reduce the negative environmental impacts of AMD on ecological systems and human health. However, these techniques require the continuous supply of chemicals and energy, expensive maintenance and labor cost, and long-term monitoring of affected ecosystems until AMD generation stops. Read More

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November 2018

Auspicious or suspicious - Does religiosity really promote elder well-being? Examining the belief-as-benefit effect among older Japanese.

Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2018 Dec 7;81:129-135. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Charles Sturt University, Bathurst, NSW, Australia. Electronic address:

Recent findings suggest that the belief-as-benefit effect (BABE) - the positive association between religiosity and health/well-being - is a spurious correlation voided by personality traits. The current paper investigates the cross-sectional relationships among personality, religiosity and psychological well-being in an older adult sample randomly-selected from Tokyo, Japan. Correlation and Hierarchical Regression Modelling (HRM)-with a two one-sided test (TOST) of equivalence-is utilized. Read More

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December 2018

Mechanical regulation of genome architecture and cell-fate decisions.

Authors:
G V Shivashankar

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2018 Dec 13;56:115-121. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Mechanobiology Institute, National University of Singapore, Singapore & FIRC Institute of Molecular Oncology (IFOM), Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Landmark experiments in vitro showed that somatic cells can be reprogrammed to stem-cells by the constitutive expression of particular transcription factors. However, in vivo cells naturally exhibit de-differentiation and trans-differentiation programs, thereby suggesting that the signals from the local mechanical microenvironment may be sufficient to induce stem-cell state transitions. In this review, we discuss recent evidence for the biophysical regulation of genome architecture and nuclear programs. Read More

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December 2018

Chemical induced conversion of mouse fibroblasts and human adipose-derived stem cells into skeletal muscle-like cells.

Biomaterials 2018 Dec 6;193:30-46. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon, 16419, South Korea. Electronic address:

Use of stem cells in regenerative medicine holds great promise in treating people suffering from various otherwise incurable ailments. Direct conversion of somatic cells to other lineages thereby bypassing the intermediate pluripotent state has enormous applicability with respect to time requirement for conversion as well as safety issues. Among various approaches, chemical induced cell conversion is safe yet effective, and the use of small molecules has thus increased greatly in recent years in regenerative fields due to easy applicability, efficient scalability, and consistent reproducibility. Read More

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December 2018

Recent preparative applications of redox enzymes.

Curr Opin Chem Biol 2018 Dec 12;49:105-112. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Merck & Co., Inc., Rahway, NJ, 07065, USA. Electronic address:

Redox enzymes offer many powerful transformations for the efficient industrial-scale synthesis of diverse chemicals desired by society. Here we survey recent preparative applications of redox enzymes, highlighting both mature enzyme platforms and promising technologies for future applications. While in some cases commercial enzymes can be employed directly on industrial scales, in other cases protein engineering is necessary to evolve an enzyme fit for non-biological substrates and conditions. Read More

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December 2018

When humans behave like monkeys: Feedback delays and extensive practice increase the efficiency of speeded decisions.

Cognition 2018 Dec 13;184:11-18. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

School of Psychology, University of Newcastle, Australia.

The study of non-human primates has been foundational in understanding the neural origins of human decision processes, yet the approach rests on the assumption that one can validly extrapolate from the animal to the human. In the context of decision making, this requires constancy across species in physiological and cognitive processes. The former cannot be experimentally validated and therefore remains assumed, and recent findings have called into question the latter: non-human primates become increasingly urgent as the time spent making a decision increases, but humans do not; from a normative perspective, monkeys are making closer-to-optimal decisions than humans. Read More

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December 2018

A mechanistic account of bodily resonance and implicit bias.

Cognition 2018 Dec 13;184:1-10. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

UCL Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, London, UK; UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, London, UK. Electronic address:

Implicit social biases play a critical role in shaping our attitudes towards other people. Such biases are thought to arise, in part, from a comparison between features of one's own self-image and those of another agent, a process known as 'bodily resonance'. Recent data have demonstrated that implicit bias can be remarkably plastic, being modulated by brief immersive virtual reality experiences that place participants in a virtual body with features of an out-group member. Read More

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December 2018

Emerging Trends in Financing of Adult Heart Transplantation in the United States.

JACC Heart Fail 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Brigham and Women's Hospital Heart and Vascular Center, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study examined longitudinal trends in types of payers for adult heart transplantations in the United States.

Background: In the last decade, volume of heart transplantations in the United States has substantially increased, a trend that has coincided with Medicaid expansion and greater insurance coverage in the general U.S. Read More

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December 2018

Differential accumulation of Tau phosphorylated at residues Thr231, Ser262 and Thr205 in hippocampal interneurons and its modulation by Tau mutations (VLW) and amyloid-β peptide.

Neurobiol Dis 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Cell Biology, Physiology and Immunology, Institut de Neurociències, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED, ISCIII), Spain; Vall d'Hebron Institute of Research, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated Tau protein (P-Tau). Our recent data showed a differential accumulation of Tau protein phosphorylated at Thr231 in distinct hippocampal neurons in VLW mice-an animal model that overexpresses mutated human Tau. Here we demonstrate that, in VLW mice, the accumulation of human P-Tau in the pyramidal cells induces the phosphorylation of murine Tau at Thr231 (pThr231) in hippocampal interneurons. Read More

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December 2018

Food restriction, but not seasonality, modulates the acute phase response of a neotropical bat.

Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Biociências Universidade Estadual Paulista Julho de Mesquita Filho, Rio Claro, São Paulo, Brazil.

Season and food intake are known to affect immune response of vertebrates yet their effects on metabolic rate have been rarely explored. We tested the effect of season and acute food restriction and their interaction on the energetic cost of immune response activation of a tropical vertebrate, the Seba's short-tailed fruit bat (Carollia perspicillata). We specifically stimulated the acute phase response (APR) with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to measure metabolic changes along with changes in body temperature (T), body mass (M), white blood cell counts and the Neutrophil/Lymphocyte ratio (N/L). Read More

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December 2018

Imprinted genes influencing the quality of maternal care.

Front Neuroendocrinol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Biomedicine Division, School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK, CF10 3AX, UK. Electronic address:

In mammals successful rearing imposes a cost on later reproductive fitness specifically on the mother creating the potential for parental conflict. Loss of function of three imprinted genes in the dam result in deficits in maternal care suggesting that, like maternal nutrients, maternal care is a resource over which the parental genomes are in conflict. However, the induction of maternal care is a complex and highly regulated process. Read More

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December 2018

LncRNAs in ovarian cancer.

Clin Chim Acta 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Zhangjiagang First People's Hospital, Zhangjiagang 215600, Jiangsu, PR China. Electronic address:

Ovarian cancer is one of the most common gynecologic malignancies and has a poor prognosis. Recently, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified as key regulators of cancer development. Studies have shown that the dysregulation of lncRNAs is frequently observed in ovarian cancer and greatly contributes to malignant phenotypical changes. Read More

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December 2018

Remnant lipoproteins and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

Clin Chim Acta 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Division of Cardiovascular and Internal Medicine, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kanazawa, Japan.

Lipoproteins are one of the major risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), among which, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles have been definitively shown to be causally associated with the development of ASCVD. Additionally, the concept of remnant lipoproteins has emerged as lipoprotein metabolism has been fully investigated. The principal concept of this lipoprotein category is triglyceride-rich lipoproteins significantly increase at the postprandial state. Read More

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December 2018

Full thickness intraoral mucosa barrier models for in vitro drug permeation studies employing microneedles.

J Pharm Sci 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Physiological Sciences, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas, Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

The use of permeation enhancers such as microneedles (MNs) to increase drug penetration across intraoral mucosa has increased in recent years. Permeation studies, commonly performed using vertical diffusion cells, are a well-established way to preview formulations and enhance their performance during the development stage. However, to our knowledge, the existing intraoral mucosa barrier models do not permit permeation using MNs-pretreated mucosa, due to their insufficient thickness. Read More

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December 2018

Potential and constraints for the application of CFD combined with Lagrangian particle tracking to dry powder inhalers.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Multiphase Flow Systems (MPS), Institute of Process Engineering, Otto-von-Guericke-University (OvGU) Magdeburg, Zeppelinstraße 1, D-06130 Halle (Saale), Germany.

For about 15 years the performance of dry powder inhalers (DPIs) has been numerically analysed through CFD (computational fluid dynamics) approaches with the objective of understanding the evolving flow structures and the resulting transport of drug particles. Naturally the main interest is the numerical prediction of the emitted fine particle fraction (FPF) which is able to penetrate the lung airways. Due to the mostly used drug formulations (i. Read More

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December 2018

Age-related changes in neural coding of envelope cues: peripheral declines and central compensation.

Neuroscience 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Otolaryngology, Harvard Medical School, and Eaton-Peabody Laboratories, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA, 02114, USA.

Aging listeners often experience difficulties in perceiving temporally complex acoustic cues in noisy environments. These difficulties likely have neurophysiological contributors from various levels of auditory processing. Cochlear synapses between inner hair cells and auditory nerve fibers exhibit a progressive decline with age which is not reflected in the threshold audiogram. Read More

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December 2018

Expression of calretinin among different neurochemical classes of interneuron in the superficial dorsal horn of the mouse spinal cord.

Neuroscience 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Institute of Neuroscience and Psychology, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, UK. Electronic address:

Around 75% of neurons in laminae I-II of the mouse dorsal horn are excitatory interneurons, and these are required for normal pain perception. We have shown that four largely non-overlapping excitatory interneuron populations can be defined by expression of the neuropeptides neurotensin, neurokinin B (NKB), gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and substance P. In addition, we recently identified a population of excitatory interneurons in glabrous skin territory that express dynorphin. Read More

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December 2018
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6-Phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase 3 and 4: A pair of valves for fine-tuning of glucose metabolism in human cancer.

Mol Metab 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Hunan Provincial Cancer Hospital and Cancer Hospital Affiliated to Xiangya Medical School, The Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410013, China; The Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Cancer Invasion of the Chinese Ministry of Education, Cancer Research Institute and School of Basic Medical Sciences, Central South University, Changsha, 410078, Hunan, China; The Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis of the Chinese Ministry of Health, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, 410008, Hunan, China. Electronic address:

Background: Cancer cells favor the use of less efficient glycolysis rather than mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to metabolize glucose, even in oxygen-rich conditions, a distinct metabolic alteration named the Warburg effect or aerobic glycolysis. In adult cells, bifunctional 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2, 6-bisphosphatase (PFKFB) family members are responsible for controlling the steady-state cytoplasmic levels of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, which allosterically activates 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase, the key enzyme catalyzing the rate-limiting reaction of glycolysis. PFKFB3 and PFKFB4 are the two main isoenzymes overexpressed in various human cancers. Read More

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December 2018

Deletion of myeloid IRS2 enhances adipose tissue sympathetic nerve function and limits obesity.

Mol Metab 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

MRC London Institute of Medical Sciences, Du Cane Road, London, W12 0NN, UK; Institute of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Du Cane Road, London, W12 0NN, UK. Electronic address:

Objective: Sympathetic nervous system and immune cell interactions play key roles in the regulation of metabolism. For example, recent convergent studies have shown that macrophages regulate obesity through brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation and beiging of white adipose tissue (WAT) via effects upon local catecholamine availability. However, these studies have raised issues about the underlying mechanisms involved including questions regarding the production of catecholamines by macrophages, the role of macrophage polarization state and the underlying intracellular signaling pathways in macrophages that might mediate these effects. Read More

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November 2018

Chronic hepatitis C infection - Noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis in the era of direct acting antivirals.

Dig Liver Dis 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Liver Center, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Significant advancements in the diagnosis and treatment of chronic hepatitis C infection and its associated fibrosis have revolutionized treatment of these patients over the last several years. Liver biopsy, the gold standard diagnostic method for evaluating liver fibrosis level, was routinely used prior to initiation of hepatitis C therapy, placing patients at an inherent risk of adverse events. The recent advent of noninvasive serologic and nonserologic measures of hepatic fibrosis level has reduced the need for liver biopsy significantly, thereby minimizing its associated risks. Read More

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November 2018

Increasing complexity and interactions of oxidative stress in chronic respiratory diseases: An emerging need for novel drug delivery systems.

Chem Biol Interact 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Priority Research Centre for Healthy Lungs, Hunter Medical Research Institute (HMRI) & School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, 2308, Australia; Faculty of Science, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, NSW, 2007, Australia; Centre for Inflammation, Centenary Institute, Sydney, NSW, 2050, Australia.

Oxidative stress is intensely involved in enhancing the severity of various chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), infections and lung cancer. Even though there are various existing anti-inflammatory therapies, which are not enough to control the inflammation caused due to various contributing factors such as anti-inflammatory genes and antioxidant enzymes. This leads to an urgent need of novel drug delivery systems to combat the oxidative stress. Read More

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December 2018

Proportionate and Disproportionate Functional Mitral Regurgitation: A New Conceptual Framework That Reconciles the Results of the MITRA-FR and COAPT Trials.

JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, Texas.

Traditional approaches to the characterization of secondary or functional mitral regurgitation (MR) have largely ignored the critical importance of the left ventricle (LV). We propose that patients with secondary MR represent a heterogenous group, which can be usefully subdivided based on understanding that the effective regurgitant orifice area (EROA) is dependent on left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV). According to the Gorlin hydraulic orifice equation, patients with heart failure, an LV ejection fraction of 30%, an LVEDV of 220 to 250 ml, and a regurgitant fraction of 50% would be expected to have an EROA of ≈0. Read More

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December 2018

Highly Pathogenic Avian H7N9 Influenza Viruses: Recent Challenges.

Trends Microbiol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Novel highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N9 viruses of the fifth epidemic wave infect humans and poultry. Recently, HPAI H7N9 viruses have evolved into different subtypes and genotypes, exhibited heightened virulence in mammals, and extended their host range, thereby posing a potential threat to public health and the poultry industry. Read More

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December 2018

Dyslipidaemia in Africa-comment on a recent systematic review - Authors' reply.

Lancet Glob Health 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town and Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa; Non-communicable Disease Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa. Electronic address:

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December 2018
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Dyslipidaemia in Africa-comment on a recent systematic review.

Authors:
Robert Newton

Lancet Glob Health 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Health Sciences, University of York, York, UK; Medical Research Council/Uganda Virus Research Institute and London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine Uganda Research Unit, Entebbe, Uganda. Electronic address:

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December 2018
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