1,008,951 results match your criteria Recent Patents on Mechanical Engineering [Journal]


Integration of GWAS and brain eQTL identifies FLOT1 as a risk gene for major depressive disorder.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2019 Feb 16. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of the Chinese Academy of Sciences & Yunnan Province, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 650223, Kunming, Yunnan, China.

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the most prevalent mental disorder that affects more than 200 million people worldwide. Recent large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple risk variants that show robust association with MDD. Nevertheless, how the identified risk variants confer risk of MDD remains largely unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41386-019-0345-4DOI Listing
February 2019

Integrative analyses of major histocompatibility complex loci in the genome-wide association studies of major depressive disorder.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2019 Feb 16. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Yunnan Province, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, China.

Recent European genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed strong statistical correlations between MDD and numerous zero-to-high linked variants in the genomic region containing major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes (MHC region), but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still unclear. To better understand the roles of this genomic region in the neurobiology of MDD, we applied a convergent functional genomics approach to integrate GWAS data of MDD relevant biological phenotypes, gene-expression analyses results obtained from brain samples, and genetic analyses of independent Chinese MDD samples. We observed that independent MDD risk variants in the MHC region were also significantly associated with the relevant biological phenotypes in the predicted directions, including the emotional and cognitive-related phenotypes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41386-019-0346-3DOI Listing
February 2019

Leptomeningeal dissemination: a sinister pattern of medulloblastoma growth.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2019 Feb 15:1-9. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

3Cancer Research Program, Research Institute of the McGill University Health Center and Department of Surgery, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Leptomeningeal dissemination (LMD) is the defining pattern of metastasis for medulloblastoma. Although LMD is responsible for virtually 100% of medulloblastoma deaths, it remains the least well-understood part of medulloblastoma pathogenesis. The fact that medulloblastomas rarely metastasize outside the CNS but rather spread almost exclusively to the spinal and intracranial leptomeninges has fostered the long-held belief that medulloblastoma cells spread directly through the CSF, not the bloodstream. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2018.11.PEDS18506DOI Listing
February 2019

Validation of a methodology for neuro-urological and lumbosacral stimulation studies in domestic pigs: a humanlike animal model.

J Neurosurg Spine 2019 Feb 15:1-11. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

7Neurosurgery, Pellegrin Hospital, Bordeaux, Nouvelle Aquitaine; and.

OBJECTIVESpinal cord injuries (SCIs) result in loss of movement and sensory feedback, but also organ dysfunction. Nearly all patients with complete SCI lose bladder control and are prone to kidney failure if intermittent catheterization is not performed. Electrical stimulation of sacral spinal roots was initially considered to be a promising approach for restoring continence and micturition control, but many patients are discouraged by the need for surgical deafferentation as it could lead to a loss of sensory functions and reflexes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2018.11.SPINE18676DOI Listing
February 2019

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess the efficAcy and safety of Trimetazidine in patients with angina pectoris having been treated by percutaneous coronary intervention (ATPCI study): Rationale, design, and baseline characteristics.

Am Heart J 2019 Jan 15;210:98-107. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou (HEGP), Department of Cardiology, Paris, France; Université Paris-Descartes, Paris, France; INSERM U-970, Paris, France.

Background: About 30% of angina patients have persisting symptoms despite successful revascularization and antianginal therapy. Moreover, in stable patients, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) does not improve survival as compared with medical therapy alone. Trimetazidine, an antianginal agent devoid of hemodynamic effect, may help reducing symptoms and improving outcomes after PCI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2018.12.015DOI Listing
January 2019

Recent advances of anti-cancer therapies including the use of cell-penetrating peptides.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2019 Feb 13;47:8-13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

University of Cologne, Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry, Zülpicher Str. 47a, 50674 Cologne, Germany. Electronic address:

Cancer is one of the major growing public health problems making the development of new anti-cancer treatment strategies still compulsory. Conventionally used chemotherapies are quite often associated with severe side effects. One reason is limited cell-permeability of the used drugs resulting in only poor overall bioavailability. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2019.01.003DOI Listing
February 2019

Risk factors for pelvic and distant recurrence in locally advanced cervical cancer.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2019 Feb 6;235:6-12. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Medical Oncology Department, A.C. Camargo Cancer Center, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objective: Despite the benefits of concomitant radiotherapy and cisplatin for locally advanced cervical cancer, recurrence rates remain high. New treatment strategies such as consolidation chemotherapy and different concomitant chemotherapy combinations have been tested in recent years. Identification of the best candidates for each treatment strategy could optimize results. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2019.01.028DOI Listing
February 2019

Graphene-based electrochemical biosensors for monitoring noncommunicable disease biomarkers.

Biosens Bioelectron 2019 Jan 29;130:276-292. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 01000 Kangar, Perlis, Malaysia; School of Bioprocess Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 02600 Arau, Perlis, Malaysia.

Graphene is a 2-dimensional nanomaterial with an atomic thickness has attracted a strong scientific interest owing to their remarkable optical, electronic, thermal, mechanical and electrochemical properties. Graphene-based materials particularly graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide are widely utilized in various applications ranging from food industry, environmental monitoring and biomedical fields as well as in the development of various types of biosensing devices. The richness in oxygen functional groups in the materials serves as a catalysis for the development of biosensors/electrochemical biosensors which promotes for an attachment of biological recognition elements, surface functionalization and compatible with micro- and nano- bio-environment. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09565663193007
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2019.01.047DOI Listing
January 2019
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Temporal and geographical variations in colorectal cancer incidence in Northern Iran 2004-2013.

Cancer Epidemiol 2019 Feb 13;59:143-147. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Research, Cancer Registry of Norway, Institute of Population-Based Cancer Research, Oslo, Norway; Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Genetic Epidemiology Group, Folkhälsan Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Helsinki University, Helsinki, Finland; Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

Introduction: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers in the Golestan province, Northern Iran. The purpose of this study is to describe colorectal cancer incidence patterns and trends in the province 2004-2013.

Methods: Data on CRC cases were obtained from the Golestan Population-based Cancer Registry (GPCR). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canep.2019.02.003DOI Listing
February 2019

Pumping the brakes: suppression of synapse development by MDGA-neuroligin interactions.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Feb 13;57:71-80. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Djavad Mowafaghian Centre for Brain Health and Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, 2211 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2B5, Canada. Electronic address:

Synapse development depends on a dynamic balance between synapse promoters and suppressors. MDGAs, immunoglobulin superfamily proteins, negatively regulate synapse development through blocking neuroligin-neurexin interactions. Recent analyses of MDGA-neuroligin complexes revealed the structural basis of this activity and indicate that MDGAs interact with all neuroligins with differential affinities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2019.01.002DOI Listing
February 2019

MHC I chaperone complexes shaping immunity.

Curr Opin Immunol 2019 Feb 13;58:9-15. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Institute of Biochemistry, Biocenter, Goethe University Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue Str. 9, 60438 Frankfurt/Main, Germany. Electronic address:

Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) molecules present peptides on the surface of most nucleated cells and allow the immune system to detect and eliminate infected or malignantly transformed cells. The peptides are derived from endogenous proteins by proteasomal degradation or aberrant translation, and are translocated from the cytosol into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP), a central component of the peptide-loading complex (PLC). The peptides are subsequently processed by ER-resident aminopeptidases (ERAP1/2) and loaded onto MHC I. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2019.01.001DOI Listing
February 2019

Increased cerebrospinal fluid neurofilament light chain in central nervous system inflammatory demyelinating disease.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2019 Feb 8;30:123-128. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Navy Clinical College, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032 Anhui, China; Department of Neurology, The Sixth Medical Centre, Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, 100048 China. Electronic address:

Background: Central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory demyelinating disease (IDD) is an immune-mediated disease that is pathologically characterized by demyelination and inflammatory infiltration in the CNS and includes clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), multiple sclerosis (MS), and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD). IDD is usually characterized by variable symptoms, multivariate imaging, uncertain reactions to treatment, and a variable prognosis, which makes it difficult to diagnose early. In recent years, the role of the neurofilament light chain (NFL), an axonal injury biomarker, in IDD has become increasingly important. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2019.02.009DOI Listing
February 2019

Boron supply maintains efficient antioxidant system, cell wall components and reduces aluminum concentration in roots of trifoliate orange.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2019 Feb 8;137:93-101. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Microelement Research Center, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei, 430070, PR China. Electronic address:

Aluminum (Al) toxicity in the acid soils (pH ≤ 5) is the major limiting abiotic factor affecting the productivity of crops. Boron (B) has been reported to alleviate Al toxicity. In spite of recent advances, it is not clear how B relieves Al toxicity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2019.02.003DOI Listing
February 2019

H NMR metabolomic analysis of skin and blubber of bottlenose dolphins reveal a functional metabolic dichotomy.

Comp Biochem Physiol Part D Genomics Proteomics 2019 Feb 10;30:25-32. Epub 2019 Feb 10.

Departamento de Recursos del Mar, Cinvestav Unidad Mérida, Mérida, Yucatán 97310, Mexico; CONACYT, Mexico. Electronic address:

The common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) is a carnivorous cetacean thriving in marine environment that is one of the apex predators of the marine food web. They are found in coastal and estuarine ecosystems which are known to be sensitive to environmental impacts. Dolphins are considered sentinel organisms for monitoring the health of coastal marine ecosystems in their role as predators that can bioaccumulate contaminants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbd.2019.02.004DOI Listing
February 2019

HDL cholesterol and ASCVD risk stratification: A debate.

Atherosclerosis 2019 Jan 16;283:7-12. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

McGill University Health Center/Royal Victoria Hospital Montréal, Québec, H4A 3J1, Canada. Electronic address:

This debate is designed to review the usefulness of the cholesterol mass within high-density lipoproteins (HDL-C) to predict the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). PRO: There is much current confusion regarding the role of high density lipoproteins (HDLs) in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). While it is an established fact that the concentration of HDL cholesterol is a robust, independent, inverse predictor of the risk of having an ASCVD event, recent studies have questioned whether HDLs actually protect against ASCVD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2019.01.001DOI Listing
January 2019

Cannabis for refractory epilepsy in children: A review focusing on CDKL5 Deficiency Disorder.

Epilepsy Res 2019 Feb 5;151:31-39. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Telethon Kids Institute, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia(2). Electronic address:

Severe paediatric epilepsies such as CDKL5 Deficiency Disorder (CDD) are extremely debilitating, largely due to the early-onset and refractory nature of the seizures. Existing treatment options are often ineffective and associated with a host of adverse effects, causing those that are affected to seek alternative treatments. Cannabis based products have attracted significant attention over recent years, primarily driven by reports of miraculous cures and a renewed public preference for 'natural' therapies, thus placing intense pressure on health professionals and the government for regulatory change. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2019.02.001DOI Listing
February 2019

RAMS: Remote and automatic mammogram screening.

Comput Biol Med 2019 Feb 5;107:18-29. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Quality of Life Technology Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Texas at Dallas, 800 W. Campbell Road, Richardson, TX, 75080, USA. Electronic address:

About one in eight women in the U.S. will develop invasive breast cancer at some point in life. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiomed.2019.01.024DOI Listing
February 2019

Advances in Immunotherapy Delivery from Implantable and Injectable Biomaterials.

Acta Biomater 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Chemistry, Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005, United states. Electronic address:

Macroscale biomaterials, such as preformed implantable scaffolds and injectable soft materials, possess powerful synergies with anti-cancer immunotherapies. Immunotherapies on their own typically have poor delivery properties, and often require repeated high-dose injections that result in serious off-tumor effects and/or limited efficacy. Rationally designed biomaterials allow for discrete localization and controlled release of immunotherapeutic agents, and have been shown in a large number of applications to improve outcomes in the treatment of cancers via immunotherapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2019.02.016DOI Listing
February 2019

Isavuconazole MICs distribution of 29 yeast species responsible for invasive infections (2015-2017).

Clin Microbiol Infect 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Institut Pasteur, Molecular Mycology Unit, National Reference Center for Invasive Mycoses & Antifungal, UMR2000, CNRS, Paris, France; Université Paris Descartes, Service des Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, Centre d'Infectiologie Necker-Pasteur, Hôpital Necker-Enfants malades, APHP, IHU Imagine. Electronic address:

Objectives: Isavuconazole is a recent extended-spectrum triazole with activity against yeasts. However, few data are available on the in vitro activity on rare yeast species. We report minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) distribution of isavuconazole compared to fluconazole for a large collection of common or rare yeasts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2019.02.007DOI Listing
February 2019

Fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) mitogenomics: A cautionary tale of defining sub-species from mitochondrial sequence monophyly.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Marine Evolution and Conservation, Groningen Institute of Evolutionary Life Sciences, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 7, 9747 AG, Groningen, The Netherlands; Center for Coastal Studies, 5 Holway Avenue, Provincetown, MA 02657, United States of America. Electronic address:

The advent of massive parallel sequencing technologies has resulted in an increase of studies based upon complete mitochondrial genome DNA sequences that revisit the taxonomic status within and among species. Spatially distinct monophyly in such mitogenomic genealogies, i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2019.02.003DOI Listing
February 2019

Optimizing intracellular signaling domains for CAR NK cells in HIV immunotherapy: a comprehensive review.

Drug Discov Today 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Tulane National Primate Research Center, Tulane University School of Medicine, Covington, LA 70433, USA; Department of Pharmacology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA. Electronic address:

Natural killer (NK) cells are innate immune lymphocytes with a key role in host defense against HIV infection. Recent advances in chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have made NK cells a prime target for expressing recombinant receptors capable of redirecting NK cytotoxic functions towards HIV-infected cells. In this review, we discuss the role of NK cells in HIV and the mechanisms of actions of HIV-targeting CAR strategies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drudis.2019.02.002DOI Listing
February 2019

RLIP: An existential requirement for breast carcinogenesis.

Biochim Biophys Acta Rev Cancer 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology & Oncology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX 79430, USA.

Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer among women worldwide. Due to its complexity in nature, effective BC treatment can encounter many challenges. The human RALBP1 gene encodes a 76-kDa splice variant protein, RLIP (ral-binding protein1, RalBP1), a stress-protective mercapturic acid pathway (MAP) transporter protein, that also plays a key role in regulating clathrin-dependent endocytosis (CDE) as a Ral effector. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbcan.2019.02.001DOI Listing
February 2019

Fragile X mental retardation protein positively regulates PKA anchor Rugose and PKA activity to control actin assembly in learning/memory circuitry.

Neurobiol Dis 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Vanderbilt Brain Institute, Departments of Biological Sciences, Cell and Developmental Biology, and Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University and Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37235, USA. Electronic address:

Recent work shows Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) drives the translation of very large proteins (>2000 aa) mediating neurodevelopment. Loss of function results in Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the leading heritable cause of intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Using the Drosophila FXS disease model, we discover FMRP positively regulates the translation of the very large A-Kinase Anchor Protein (AKAP) Rugose (>3000 aa), homolog of ASD-associated human Neurobeachin (NBEA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nbd.2019.02.004DOI Listing
February 2019

USP39 regulates DNA damage response and chemo-radiation resistance by deubiquitinating and stabilizing CHK2.

Cancer Lett 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Research Center for Translational Medicine, East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200120, China; Key Laboratory of Arrhythmias of the Ministry of Education of China, East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200120, China. Electronic address:

The serine/threonine kinase, CHK2 (checkpoint kinase 2), is a key mediator in DNA damage response and a tumor suppressor, which is implicated in promoting cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and DNA repair. Accumulating evidence suggests that these functions are primarily exerted through phosphorylation downstream factors such as p53 and BRCA1. Recent studies have shown that ubiquitination is an important mode of regulation of CHK2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2019.02.015DOI Listing
February 2019

Two-dimensional cancer theranostic nanomaterials: Synthesis, surface functionalization and applications in photothermal therapy.

J Control Release 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

SRM Research Institute, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Kattankulathur 603203, Kanchipuram, India; Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Kattankulathur 603203, Kanchipuram, India. Electronic address:

In recent years, novel two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials are of great interest for diverse potential applications such as device fabrication, energy storage, sensing and theranostics because of their superlative physical features namely, large surface area, minimal thickness, tunable composition and easier surface modification methods. Rapid exploration in design and fabrication of 2D nano-structures have opened new avenue for cancer theranostics as it can encapsulate group of cancer cells and inflict major damage with great specificity in a non-invasive manner. Among the reported 2D materials such as graphene and its derivatives, metallic compounds, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDC), black phosphorous and MXenes (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2019.02.015DOI Listing
February 2019

Do theta oscillations explain the somatosensory change detection mechanism?

Biol Psychol 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Intelligent Robotics Institute, School of Mechatronical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, China; Key Laboratory of Biomimetic Robots and Systems, Ministry of Education, Beijing, China.

Recent research has indicated that the mismatch negativity (MMN) is elicited in response to a discernible small change of a somatosensory stimulus applied on the hand. However, the neural mechanism for detecting small change of somatosensory stimulus remains unknown. In the present study, we developed a novel pressure stimulation device using air jet applied on the index finger pad, and determined the just noticeable differences (JNDs) of pressure discrimination for each subject. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2019.02.001DOI Listing
February 2019

Identification of small molecule inhibitors targeting the Zika virus envelope protein.

Antiviral Res 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Microbiology and Blavatnik Institute, Harvard Medical School, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address:

The recent emergence of Zika virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus, in the Americas has shed light on the severe neurological diseases associated with infection, notably congenital microcephaly in newborns and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. Despite the recent focus on Zika virus, there are currently no approved vaccines or antiviral therapies available to treat or prevent infection. In this study we established a competitive amplified luminescent proximity homogeneous assay (ALPHAscreen) to identify small molecule inhibitors targeting the envelope protein of Zika virus (Zika E). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2019.02.008DOI Listing
February 2019
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Interactions between plasmids and other mobile genetic elements affect their transmission and persistence.

Plasmid 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, P.O. Box 6050, Langnes, Tromsø, Norway. Electronic address:

Plasmids are genetic elements that play a role in bacterial evolution by providing new genes that promote adaptation to diverse conditions. Plasmids are also known to reduce bacterial competitiveness in the absence of selection for plasmid-encoded traits. It is easier to understand plasmid persistence when considering the evidence that plasmid maintenance can improve during co-evolution with the bacterial host, i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plasmid.2019.01.003DOI Listing
February 2019

Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensing of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus.

J Virol Methods 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of biotechnology and plant breeding, faculty of agriculture, Ferdowsi university of Mashhad, Iran.

Current techniques for plant virus detection, such as RT- PCR and ELISA, require multistep procedures and rely on sophisticated equipment. Due to the global spread of plant viruses, the development of simpler, faster and cheaper assay methods is inevitable. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) had raised much interest during recent years due to their novel optical properties or diagnostic purposes. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01660934183028
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2019.02.004DOI Listing
February 2019
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The role of type I interferons in CD4 T cell differentiation.

Immunol Lett 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Division of Immunology, Transplantation and Infectious Diseases and Experimental Imaging Center, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute and Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, 20132, Italy. Electronic address:

Type I interferons (IFNs) released upon viral infections play different and opposing roles in disease outcome. This pleiotropic effect is mainly influenced by the cellular sources, timing and target cells for these molecules. The effect of type I IFN signaling on the activation and differentiation of antiviral CD4 T cells remains ill defined, with studies reporting either a beneficial or a detrimental role, depending on the context of infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.imlet.2019.01.013DOI Listing
February 2019

G Protein-Coupled Receptors are Dynamic Regulators of Digestion and Targets for Digestive Diseases.

Gastroenterology 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, and Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Convergent Bio-Nano Science and Technology, Monash University, Parkville, VIC 3052, Australia; Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia; Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University in the City of New York, 21 Audubon Avenue, Rm 209, New York City, NY 10032, USA. Electronic address:

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest family of transmembrane signaling proteins. Within the gastrointestinal tract, GPCRs expressed by epithelial cells sense contents of the lumen, and GPCRs expressed by epithelial cells, myocytes, neurons, and immune cells participate in communication amongst cells. GPCRs control digestion, mediate digestive diseases, and coordinate repair and growth. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2019.01.266DOI Listing
February 2019

Eph/ephrin signalling in the development and function of the mammalian cochlea.

Authors:
Jean Defourny

Dev Biol 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

GIGA-Neurosciences, Unit of Cell and Tissue Biology, University of Liège, C.H.U. B36, B-4000, Liège, Belgium. Electronic address:

In mammals, the functional development of the cochlea requires the tight regulation of multiple molecules and signalling pathways including fibroblast growth factors, bone morphogenetic proteins, Wnt and Notch signalling pathways. Over the last decade, the Eph/ephrin system also emerged as a key player of the development and function of the mammalian cochlea. In this review, we discuss the recent advances on the role of Eph/ephrin signalling in patterning the cochlear sensory epithelium and the complex innervation of mechanosensory hair cells by spiral ganglion neurons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ydbio.2019.02.004DOI Listing
February 2019

Transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of extra macrochaetae during Drosophila adult peripheral neurogenesis.

Dev Biol 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx NY 10461, USA; Department of Developmental and Molecular Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx NY 10461, USA; Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx NY 10461, USA. Electronic address:

Regulation of the Drosophila ID protein Extra macrochaetae (Emc) is important because reduced Emc levels have been proposed to favor proneural gene activity and thereby define a prepattern for neurogenesis. Recent studies suggest a major role for post-translational control of Emc levels. To further define the mechanisms of Emc regulation, we identified two redundant cis-regulatory regions by germline transformation-rescue experiments that make use of new molecularly-defined emc mutants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ydbio.2019.02.003DOI Listing
February 2019

The impact of terrain on lower limb bone structure.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 Feb 16. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

Department of Anthropology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts.

Objectives: Lower limb diaphyseal geometry is often used to evaluate mobility in past populations. Diaphyseal dimensions such as high shape (I /I ) indices generally thought to reflect high mobility may also result from walking over rough terrain. This study investigates the possible effects of terrain on lower limb diaphyseal cross-sectional geometric dimensions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23790DOI Listing
February 2019

Weak effects of geolocators on small birds: a meta-analysis controlled for phylogeny and publication bias.

J Anim Ecol 2019 Feb 16. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

The Czech Academy of Sciences, Institute of Vertebrate Biology, Květná 8, 603 65, Brno, Czech Republic.

Currently, the deployment of tracking devices is one of the most frequently used approaches to study movement ecology of birds. Recent miniaturisation of light-level geolocators enabled studying small bird species whose migratory patterns were widely unknown. However, geolocators may reduce vital rates in tagged birds and may bias obtained movement data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.12962DOI Listing
February 2019

Drug-Drug Interactions of Infectious Disease Treatments in Low Income Countries: A Neglected Topic?

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2019 Feb 16. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Despite recent advances in recognizing and reducing the risk of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) in developed countries, there are still significant challenges in managing DDIs in low income countries (LICs) worldwide. In the treatment of major infectious diseases in these regions, multiple factors contribute to ineffective management of DDIs that lead to loss of efficacy or increased risk of adverse events to patients. Some of these difficulties, however, can be overcome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpt.1397DOI Listing
February 2019

Isolated teeth from La Ferrassie: Reassessment of the old collections, new remains, and their implications.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 Feb 16. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

Département Homme et environnement, Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Musée de l'Homme, UMR 7194 CNRS, Université de Perpignan "Via Domitia", EPCC-CERP de Tautavel, Paris, France.

Objectives: We provide the description and comparative analysis of six new teeth from the site of La Ferrassie. Our goal is to discuss their taxonomic attribution, and to provide an updated inventory of Neandertal and modern human remains from La Ferrassie in their associated archeological context.

Materials And Methods: We use external and internal anatomy, classic morphometrics, and geometric morphometrics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23798DOI Listing
February 2019

Radiation dose in nuclear medicine: the hybrid imaging.

Radiol Med 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Dipartimento di Biomedicina e Prevenzione, Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.

Hybrid imaging procedures such as single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) showed a rapid diffusion in recent years because of their high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, due to a more accurate localization and definition of scintigraphic findings. However, hybrid systems inevitably lead to an increase in patient radiation exposure because of the added CT component. Effective doses due to the radiopharmaceuticals can be estimated by multiplying the administered activities by the effective dose coefficients, while for the CT component the dose-length product can be multiplied by a conversion coefficient k. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11547-019-00989-yDOI Listing
February 2019

Recent advances in the pathogenesis of microvascular complications in diabetes.

Arch Pharm Res 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Leading-Edge Research Center for Drug Discovery and Development for Diabetes and Metabolic Disease, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu, South Korea.

Millions of people worldwide have diabetes, which is diagnosed by fasting blood glucose levels exceeding 126 mg/dL. Regardless of the type of diabetes, prolonged hyperglycemia is damaging to several organs including eyes, kidneys, nerve, and/or heart. The damages are associated with a high risk of morbidity and mortality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12272-019-01130-3DOI Listing
February 2019

Dams, Chinese investments, and EIAs: A race to the bottom in South America?

Ambio 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

School of Geography and Development, University of Arizona, 1064 E. Lowell Street, Tucson, AZ, 85719, USA.

The political economy of dam development in South America is changing as a result of a resurgence in water infrastructure investments. The arrival of Chinese-funded projects in the region has altered a context traditionally dominated by multilateral development banks. Tensions are escalating around new dam projects and the environmental impact assessment process is increasingly the site of politicization around water in the region. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13280-018-01145-yDOI Listing
February 2019

Danish pheasant and mallard hunters comply with the lead shot ban.

Ambio 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Institute for Bioscience - Kalø, Aarhus University, Grenåvej 14, 8410, Rønde, Denmark.

Denmark implemented a total ban on the use of lead shot for hunting and clay target shooting in 1996. Compliance was not studied systematically until recently. However, sporadic police checks and individual studies indicated that compliance was far from complete in the early years after regulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13280-019-01152-7DOI Listing
February 2019

Improvement in Quality of Care for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes in Hungary Between 2008 and 2016: Results from Two Population-Based Representative Surveys.

Diabetes Ther 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Public Health, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary.

Introduction: Due to the increasing trends of recent decades, diabetes prevalence has reached a frequency of 1/11 adults worldwide. However, this disadvantageous trend has not been accompanied by worsened outcome indicators; better short-term (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13300-019-0582-xDOI Listing
February 2019

Acute multiple sclerosis lesion pathology does not predict subsequent clinical course-a biopsy study.

Ir J Med Sci 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Neuropathology, Beaumont Hospital, Beaumont Road, Dublin, Ireland.

Background: Knowledge of the clinical outcome in tumefactive demyelination remains limited.

Aims: This study aims to characterise the natural history of biopsy-proven, pathogen-free, cerebral demyelination in an adult Irish population.

Methods: We identified all patients with biopsy-proven demyelination in a single neuropathology centre between 1999 and 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11845-019-01983-zDOI Listing
February 2019

Microarray Immunodiagnostics for Aeroallergens.

Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 2019 Feb 15;19(1):10. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Humanitas University, Pieve Emanuele, MI, Italy.

Purpose Of Review: The impact of new technologies, especially multiplexed molecular allergy diagnostics based on allergen arrays, on the management of complex patients with respiratory allergies has been important.

Recent Findings: Currently, the detailed characteristics of the IgE profile of the patient, such as sensitization to genuine or cross-reacting components or the sensitization to potentially harmful allergens, allow an allergist to tailor treatment in the context of precision medicine rules. A number of relevant articles have been published in recent years on this topic, and, in this review, the new added values of allergen array-based diagnostics are reported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11882-019-0832-zDOI Listing
February 2019

Genetic characterization of bovine coronavirus in Vietnam.

Virus Genes 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Viral Disease Division, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency (QIA), Gimcheon, Gyeongbuk, 39660, Republic of Korea.

A maximum clade credibility tree constructed using the full-length spike (S) and hemagglutinin-esterase genes revealed that Vietnamese Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) strains belong to a single cluster (C1); therefore, they might share a common origin with Cuban and Chinese BCoV strains. The omega values of cluster 1 (C1) and cluster 2 (C2) were 0.15734 and 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11262-019-01647-1DOI Listing
February 2019

Imaging of hip and thigh muscle injury: a pictorial review.

Insights Imaging 2019 Feb 15;10(1):20. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Pediatric Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Medical Center Rostock, Ernst-Heydemann-Str. 6, 18057, Rostock, Germany.

Muscle injuries of the hip and thigh are a highly relevant issue in competitive sports imaging. The gold standard in diagnostic imaging of muscle injuries is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Radiologists need to be familiar with typical MRI findings in order to accurately detect and classify muscle injuries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13244-019-0702-1DOI Listing
February 2019

Diagnosis and Management of CMV Colitis.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2019 Feb 15;21(2). Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Pediatric Gastroenterology Unit, Pediatrics Department, "Dana-Dwek" Children's Hospital, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, 6 Weizman Street, 6423906, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Purpose Of Review: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis is a relatively common end-organ infectious complication in immunocompromised hosts which negatively affects clinical outcomes. This paper presents the contemporary approaches to the diagnosis and management of CMV colitis and discusses some of the controversies of this condition, focusing on methods of diagnosis.

Recent Findings: While certain risk factors for CMV colitis are well recognized, the clinical as well as endoscopic features of this condition are nonspecific. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-019-0664-yDOI Listing
February 2019

Diabetes Management in Older Adults With Chronic Kidney Disease.

Curr Diab Rep 2019 Feb 15;19(3):11. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Older adults often live with chronic disease including diabetes and its complications. In this review, we examine the complexity and heterogeneity of older adults with diabetes and chronic kidney disease, explore the nuances in their diabetes-related monitoring, and discuss their best diabetes management.

Recent Findings: Although there remains an overall lack of studies in older adults with diabetes and chronic kidney disease, recent reports have highlighted their vulnerabilities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11892-019-1128-3DOI Listing
February 2019

Human Babesiosis in China: a systematic review.

Parasitol Res 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Immunity and Metabolism, Department of Pathogenic Biology and Immunology, National Demonstration Center for Experimental Basic Medical Science Education, Xuzhou Medical University, 221004, Xuzhou, People's Republic of China.

Human babesiosis, a worldwide emerging tick-borne disease, is caused by the intraerythrocytic apicomplexan parasite, babesia. In recent years, the number of infected patients globally has continued to rise, and thus human babesiosis poses a significant public health threat. Therefore, stronger initiatives should be undertaken to prevent further spread and development of this disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-019-06250-9DOI Listing
February 2019

Sexual and ethnic polymorphism render prosthetic overhang and under-coverage inevitable using off-the shelf TKA implants.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Laboratoire AMIS, UMR 5288 CNRS, Université Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France.

Purpose: Unexplained pain and stiffness after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) often result from mismatch between implant geometry and knee morphology, which depends on patient size, sex, and ethnicity. This study aimed to determine whether size, sex, or ethnicity are independently associated with distal femoral morphology in healthy Caucasian and Asian knees, and to compare anatomic ratios to those of commercially available TKA implants.

Methods: Two series of computed tomography (CT) angiograms from France (264 knees) and China (259 knees) were used to digitize osteometric landmarks at the level of the femoral epicondyles, to measure anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) dimensions at the anterior, posterior, medial, and lateral zones. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00167-019-05410-9DOI Listing
February 2019
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