1,022,630 results match your criteria Recent Patents on Mechanical Engineering [Journal]


An Open Science Approach to Artificial Intelligence in Healthcare.

Yearb Med Inform 2019 Apr 25. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

Kyoto University, Japan.

Objectives: Artificial Intelligence (AI) offers significant potential for improving healthcare. This paper discusses how an "open science" approach to AI tool development, data sharing, education, and research can support the clinical adoption of AI systems.

Method: In response to the call for participation for the 2019 International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) Yearbook theme issue on AI in healthcare, the IMIA Open Source Working Group conducted a rapid review of recent literature relating to open science and AI in healthcare and discussed how an open science approach could help overcome concerns about the adoption of new AI technology in healthcare settings. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-1677898DOI Listing

Role of Artificial Intelligence within the Telehealth Domain.

Yearb Med Inform 2019 Apr 25. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

IBM Research, Brazil.

Objectives: This paper provides a discussion about the potential scope of applicability of Artificial Intelligence methods within the telehealth domain. These methods are focussed on clinical needs and provide some insight to current directions, based on reports of recent advances.

Methods: Examples of telehealth innovations involving Artificial Intelligence to support or supplement remote health care delivery were identified from recent literature by the authors, on the basis of expert knowledge. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-1677897DOI Listing

The infusion of menthol into the esophagus evokes cold sensations in healthy subjects but induces heartburn in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

Dis Esophagus 2019 Apr 25. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

Department of Pathophysiology Jessenius Faculty of Medicine in Martin (JFM CU), Comenius University in Bratislava, Martin, Slovakia.

Recent studies in animal models have reported that some afferent fibers innervating the esophagus express the cold receptor TRPM8. In the somatosensory system the stimulation of TRPM8 leads to cold sensations and in certain circumstances alleviates pain. It is therefore hypothesized in this paper that the esophageal infusion of the TRPM8 activator menthol evokes cold sensations from the esophagus and alleviates heartburn in humans. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/dote/doz038DOI Listing

Recent Advances in the Discovery and Delivery of TLR7/8 Agonists as Vaccine Adjuvants.

Authors:
David J Dowling

Immunohorizons 2018 Jul 2;2(6):185-197. Epub 2018 Jul 2.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115

The need for new adjuvants is absolutely cardinal to the development of new vaccines and to further optimizing current immunization approaches. However, only a few classes of adjuvants are presently incorporated in vaccines approved for human use. Recent advances in the discovery and delivery of TLR agonists as vaccine adjuvants have begun to open up a new toolbox for vaccinologists. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/immunohorizons.1700063DOI Listing

Multisensory factors in postural control: Varieties of visual and haptic effects.

Gait Posture 2019 Apr 17;71:87-91. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

University of Maryland, College Park, United States.

Background Previous work on balance control in children and adults highlights the importance of multisensory information. Work in this vein has examined two principal input sources - the role of visual and haptic information on balance. Recent work has explored the impact of a different form of haptic input - object holding - on balance in young infants. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2019.04.018DOI Listing

An integrated assessment and spatial-temporal variation analysis of neonicotinoids in pollen and honey from noncrop plants in Zhejiang, China.

Environ Pollut 2019 Apr 10;250:397-406. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology for Industrial Pollution Control of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, 310032, Zhejiang, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Recent studies have shown that neonicotinoids in pollen and honey (collected by honeybees) are likely to pose risks to honeybees. However, data on the integrated residue and spatial-temporal variation of neonicotinoids from noncrop plants, the principle sources of pollen for honey bees, are very limited, especially in China. In this study, we employed a novel assessment method based on the relative potency factor to calculate the integrated residue of seven neonicotinoids in pollen and honey samples collected from noncrop plants in 12 stations of Zhejiang province in three consecutive months. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.04.004DOI Listing

Multimetal tolerance mechanisms in bacteria: The resistance strategies acquired by bacteria that can be exploited to 'clean-up' heavy metal contaminants from water.

Aquat Toxicol 2019 Apr 16;212:1-10. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Zoology and Biotechnology, H.N.B. Garhwal Central University, SRT Campus, Badshahi Thaul, Tehri, Uttarakhand, India.

Heavy metal pollution is one of the major environmental concerns worldwide. Toxic heavy metals when untreated get accumulated in environment and can pose severe threats to living organisms. It is well known that metals play a major role either directly or indirectly in different metabolic processes of bacteria. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2019.04.011DOI Listing

Flexible bioelectrodes with enhanced wrinkle microstructures for reliable electrochemical modification and neuromodulation in vivo.

Biosens Bioelectron 2019 Apr 17;135:181-191. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Micro/Nano Fabrication, Department of Micro/Nano Electronics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, China. Electronic address:

Limited electrode size with high electrochemical performance and reliability of modified materials are two of the main concerns for flexible neural electrodes in recent years. Here, an effective fabrication method of enhanced micro-scale wrinkles based on oil-pretreated hyperelastic substrates (PDMS and Ecoflex) is proposed for the application of microelectrode biosensors. Compared to pre-stretching or compressing methods, this approach has better advantages including compatibility with MEMS processes on wafer and easy replication. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2019.04.025DOI Listing

Waterproof breathable layers - A review.

Adv Colloid Interface Sci 2019 Mar 13;268:114-135. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, American University of Beirut, PO Box 11-236, Beirut 1107-2020, Lebanon. Electronic address:

Waterproof breathable layers (WPBLs) can be classified into two large groups of hydrophilic nonporous and hydrophobic porous layers. These layers (e.g. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cis.2019.03.006DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Investigating the impact of autocorrelation on time-varying connectivity.

Neuroimage 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Biostatistics, Johns Hopkins University, USA. Electronic address:

In recent years, a number of studies have reported on the existence of time-varying functional connectivity (TVC) in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data. The sliding-window technique is currently one of the most commonly used methods to estimate TVC. Although previous studies have shown that autocorrelation can negatively impact estimates of static functional connectivity, its impact on TVC estimates is not well known at this time. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S10538119193032
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2019.04.042DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Orienting spatial attention to sounds enhances visual processing.

Authors:
Viola S Störmer

Curr Opin Psychol 2019 Mar 22;29:193-198. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Department of Psychology, University of California, San Diego, United States. Electronic address:

Attention, the mechanism by which information is selected for further processing, has mostly been studied within the visual system. While this research has been exceptionally successful, it is important to understand how attention operates across the sensory modalities. This review focuses on recent studies showing that orienting to a peripheral, salient sound affects visual processing: it enhances visual perception, boosts visual-cortical responses, and modulates visual cortex activity before the appearance of a visual object. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2352250X183016
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2019.03.010DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Dissociating the impact of attention and expectation on early sensory processing.

Curr Opin Psychol 2019 Mar 23;29:181-186. Epub 2019 Mar 23.

Neurosciences Graduate Program, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0109, USA; Department of Psychology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-1090, USA; Kavli Foundation for the Brain and Mind, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0109, USA. Electronic address:

Most studies that focus on understanding how top-down knowledge influences behavior attempt to manipulate either 'attention' or 'expectation' and often use the terms interchangeably. However, having expectations about statistical regularities in the environment and the act of willfully allocating attention to a subset of relevant sensory inputs are logically distinct processes that could, in principle, rely on similar neural mechanisms and influence information processing at the same stages. In support of this framework, several recent studies attempted to isolate expectation from attention, and advanced the idea that expectation and attention both modulate early sensory processing. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2019.03.014DOI Listing

The cell in the ink: Improving biofabrication by printing stem cells for skeletal regenerative medicine.

Biomaterials 2019 Apr 14;209:10-24. Epub 2019 Apr 14.

Bone and Joint Research Group, Centre for Human Development, Stem Cells and Regeneration, Institute of Developmental Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK. Electronic address:

Recent advances in regenerative medicine have confirmed the potential to manufacture viable and effective tissue engineering 3D constructs comprising living cells for tissue repair and augmentation. Cell printing has shown promising potential in cell patterning in a number of studies enabling stem cells to be precisely deposited as a blueprint for tissue regeneration guidance. Such manufacturing techniques, however, face a number of challenges including; (i) post-printing cell damage, (ii) proliferation impairment and, (iii) poor or excessive final cell density deposition. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2019.04.009DOI Listing

Antimicrobial Polymer Modifications to Reduce Microbial Bioburden on Endotracheal Tubes and Ventilator Associated Pneumonia.

Acta Biomater 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, United States. Electronic address:

Hospital associated infections (HAIs), infections acquired by patients during care in a hospital, remain a prevalent issue in the healthcare field. These infections often occur with the use of indwelling medical devices such as endotracheal tubes (ETTs) that can result in ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). When examining the various routes of infection, VAP is associated with the highest incidence, rate of morbidity, and economic burden. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S17427061193028
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2019.04.042DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Unravelling the mechanisms of PFOS toxicity by combining morphological and transcriptomic analyses in zebrafish embryos.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Apr 15;674:462-471. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

IDAEA-CSIC, Jordi Girona, 18, 08034 Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Exposure to PFOS (perfluorooctanesulfonate) has been related to toxic effects on lipid metabolism, immunological response, and different endocrine systems. We present here a transcriptomic analysis of zebrafish embryos exposed to different concentrations of PFOS (0.03-1. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.04.200DOI Listing

Natural products in Licorice for the therapy of liver diseases: Progress and future opportunities.

Pharmacol Res 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Virginia Commonwealth University, 1217 E Marshall St. KMSB, Richmond, VA 23298, USA; School of Chinese Materia Medica, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, 11 Beisanhuandonglu road, Beijing 100029, China. Electronic address:

Liver diseases related complications represent a significant source of morbidity and mortality worldwide, creating a substantial economic burden. Oxidative stress, excessive inflammation, and dysregulated energy metabolism significantly contributed to liver diseases. Therefore, discovery of novel therapeutic drugs for the treatment of liver diseases are urgently required. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2019.04.025DOI Listing

A comparative study of the epiligament of the medial collateral and the anterior cruciate ligament in the human knee. Immunohistochemical analysis of collagen type I and V and procollagen type III.

Ann Anat 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Medical University of Sofia, Bulgaria.

Background: Recent reports in rat models have shown that fibroblasts in the epiligament, an enveloping tissue of the ligament, are not static cells and play an important role during the early ligament healing of isolated grade III injury of the collateral ligaments of the knee. Fibroblasts produce collagen types I, III and V and infiltrate within the ligament body via the endoligament. In addition, similarities have been reported between the structure of the epiligament of the medial collateral ligament and anterior cruciate ligament of the knee in rat and in human. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09409602193005
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aanat.2019.04.002DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Reelin: Diverse roles in central nervous system development, health and disease.

Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Graduate Entry Medical School and Health Research Institute, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland. Electronic address:

Over the past 20 years the structure and function of Reelin, an extracellular glycoprotein with a role in cell migration and positioning during development has been elucidated. Originally discovered in mice exhibiting a peculiar gait and hypoplastic cerebellar tissue, Reelin is secreted from Cajal-Retzius neurons during embryonic life and has been shown to act as a stop signal, guiding migrating radial neurons in a gradient-dependent manner. Reelin carries out its function by binding to the receptors, very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) and apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2) resulting in the phosphorylation of the intracellular protein Disabled-1 (Dab-1) which is essential for effective Reelin signaling. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S13572725193008
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocel.2019.04.009DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Raman Spectroscopy identifies differences in ochronotic and non-ochronotic cartilage; a potential novel technique for monitoring ochronosis.

Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Lancaster Medical School, Faculty of Health & Medicine, Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster, UK. Electronic address:

Objective: Alkaptonuria (AKU) is a rare, inherited disorder of tyrosine metabolism, where patients are unable to breakdown homogentisic acid (HGA), which increases systemically over time. It presents with a clinical triad of features; HGA in urine, ochronosis of collagenous tissues, and the subsequent ochronotic arthritis of these tissues. In recent years the advance in the understanding of the disease and the potential treatment of the disorder looks promising with the data on the efficacy of nitisinone. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S10634584193095
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joca.2019.04.012DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Deep learning in bioinformatics: introduction, application, and perspective in big data era.

Methods 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

KAUST; CBRC; CEMSE. Electronic address:

Deep learning, which is especially formidable in handling big data, has achieved great success in various fields, including bioinformatics. With the advances of the big data era in biology, it is foreseeable that deep learning will become increasingly important in the field and will be incorporated in vast majorities of analysis pipelines. In this review, we provide both the exoteric introduction of deep learning, and concrete examples and implementations of its representative applications in bioinformatics. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymeth.2019.04.008DOI Listing

Liposomes used as a vaccine adjuvant-delivery system: From basics to clinical immunization.

J Control Release 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

School of Pharmacy, Anhui Medical University, 81 Plum Hill Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032, China. Electronic address:

Liposomes are widely utilized as a carrier to improve therapeutic efficacy of agents thanks to their merits of high loading capacity, targeting delivery, reliable protection of agents, good biocompatibility, versatile structure modification and adjustable characteristics, such as size, surface charge, membrane flexibility and the agent loading mode. In particular, in recent years, through modification with immunopotentiators and targeting molecules, and in combination with innovative immunization devices, liposomes are rapidly developed as a multifunctional vaccine adjuvant-delivery system (VADS) that has a high capability in inducing desired immunoresponses, as they can target immune cells and even cellular organelles, engender lysosome escape, and promote Ag cross-presentation, thus enormously enhancing vaccination efficacy. Moreover, after decades of development, several products developed on liposome VADS have already been authorized for clinical immunization and are showing great advantages over conventional vaccines. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2019.04.025DOI Listing

Manipulating neck temperature alters contagious yawning in humans.

Physiol Behav 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Biological Sciences, Nova Southeastern University, United States; Psychology Program, SUNY Polytechnic Institute, United States. Electronic address:

The existence of yawning across a diverse array of species has led many researchers to postulate its neurological significance. One hypothesis, which has garnered recent support, posits that yawns function to cool the brain by flushing hyperthermic blood away from the skull while simultaneously introducing a cooler arterial supply. The current study tested this hypothesis by examining how manipulations aimed at modifying carotid artery temperature, which in turn directly alters cranial temperature, influences contagious yawning in humans. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2019.04.016DOI Listing

Using word embedding technique to efficiently represent protein sequences for identifying substrate specificities of transporters.

Anal Biochem 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li, 32003, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Membrane transport proteins and their substrate specificities play crucial roles in various cellular functions. Identifying the substrate specificities of membrane transport proteins is closely related to protein-target interaction prediction, drug design, membrane recruitment, and dysregulation analysis, thus being an important problem for bioinformatics researchers. In this study, we applied word embedding approach, the main cause for natural language processing breakout in recent years, to protein sequences of transporters. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ab.2019.04.011DOI Listing

Fibrosis and secondary lymphedema: chicken or egg?

Transl Res 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Department of Surgery, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York. Electronic address:

Secondary lymphedema is a common complication of cancer treatment resulting in progressive fibroadipose tissue deposition, increased risk of infections, and, in rare cases, secondary malignancies. Until recently, the pathophysiology of secondary lymphedema was thought to be related to impaired collateral lymphatic formation after surgical injury. However, more recent studies have shown that chronic inflammation-induced fibrosis plays a key role in the pathophysiology of this disease. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S19315244193007
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trsl.2019.04.001DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Emerging therapeutic strategies for transplantation-induced acute kidney injury: protecting the organelles and the vascular bed.

Expert Opin Ther Targets 2019 Apr 25. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

b Inserm U1082 , Poitiers , F-86000 , France.

Introduction: Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a significant clinical challenge faced by clinicians in a broad variety of clinical settings such as perioperative and intensive care. Renal IRI induced acute kidney injury (AKI) is a global public health concern associated with high morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. Areas covered: This paper focuses on the pathophysiology of transplantation-related AKI and recent findings on cellular stress responses at the intersection of 1. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14728222.2019.1609451DOI Listing

Advances in Porous Organic Polymers for Efficient Water Capture.

Chemistry 2019 Apr 25. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

University of Fribourg, Department of Chemistry, Chemin du Musée 9, 1700, Fribourg, SWITZERLAND.

Desiccant driven dehumidification for maintaining the proper humidity levels and atmospheric water capture with minimum energy penalty are important aspects in heat pumps, refrigeration, gas and liquid purifications, gas sensing, and clean water production for improved human health and comfort. Water adsorption using nanoporous materials has emerged as a viable alternative to energy intensive industrial processes, thus understanding the significance of their porosity, high surface areas, vast pore volumes, chemical and structural features relative to the water adsorption is quite important. In this review article, we present important features of nanoporous materials including zeolites, porous carbons as well as crystalline and amorphous porous organic polymers (POPs) to define the interactions between the water molecules and the polar/non-polar functional groups on the surface of these nanoporous materials. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.201900940DOI Listing

Proteomics; applications in familial Parkinson's disease.

J Neurochem 2019 Apr 25. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Our understanding of the biological basis of Parkinson's disease (PD) has been greatly improved in recent years by the identification of mutations that lead to inherited PD. One of the strengths of using genetics to try to understand disease biology is that it is inherently unbiased and can be applied at a genome-wide scale. More recently, many studies have used another set of unbiased approaches, proteomics, to query the function of familial PD genes in a variety of contexts. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jnc.14708DOI Listing

Selection signatures in four German warmblood horse breeds: Tracing breeding history in the modern sport horse.

PLoS One 2019 25;14(4):e0215913. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

Institute of Genome Biology, Leibniz-Institute for Farm Animal Biology, Dummerstorf, Germany.

The study of selection signatures helps to find genomic regions that have been under selective pressure and might host genes or variants that modulate important phenotypes. Such knowledge improves our understanding of how breeding programmes have shaped the genomes of livestock. In this study, 942 stallions were included from four, exemplarily chosen, German warmblood breeds with divergent historical and recent selection focus and different crossbreeding policies: Trakehner (N = 44), Holsteiner (N = 358), Hanoverian (N = 319) and Oldenburger (N = 221). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215913PLOS
April 2019
1 Read

Towards interpretable machine learning models for diagnosis aid: A case study on attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

PLoS One 2019 25;14(4):e0215720. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

Department of Engineering Innovation Management, Faculty of Engineering, University of Mons, Mons, Belgium.

Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that has heavy consequences on a child's wellbeing, especially in the academic, psychological and relational planes. The current evaluation of the disorder is supported by clinical assessment and written tests. A definitive diagnosis is usually made based on the DSM-V criteria. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215720PLOS

Achieving optimal best practice: An inquiry into its nature and characteristics.

PLoS One 2019 25;14(4):e0215732. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

Department of Industrial Engineering and Management Information, Huafan University, New Taipei City, Taiwan.

The study of optimal best practice within the context of academia has produced both empirical and theoretical contributions. Optimal best practice, also coined as optimal functioning, is concerned with a person's personal best-that is, "what is the best that I can do for this academic subject?" Research in the social sciences has, to date, explored different types of optimal best-physical, cognitive, emotional, and social. What is of considerable interest, as a related matter, is a question of how a person reaches and experiences a level of optimal best practice. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215732PLOS

VarWatch-A stand-alone software tool for variant matching.

PLoS One 2019 25;14(4):e0215618. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

Institute of Medical Informatics and Statistics, Kiel University, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany.

Massively parallel DNA sequencing of clinical samples holds great promise for the gene-based diagnosis of human inherited diseases because it allows rapid detection of putatively causative mutations at genome-wide level. Without additional evidence complementing their initial bioinformatics evaluation, however, the clinical relevance of such candidate genetic variants often remains unclear. In consequence, dedicated 'matching' services have been established in recent years that aim at the discovery of other, comparable case reports to facilitate individual diagnoses. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215618PLOS
April 2019
1 Read

Optimization of DNA extraction from human urinary samples for mycobiome community profiling.

PLoS One 2019 25;14(4):e0210306. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, United States of America.

Introduction: Recent data suggest the urinary tract hosts a microbial community of varying composition, even in the absence of infection. Culture-independent methodologies, such as next-generation sequencing of conserved ribosomal DNA sequences, provide an expansive look at these communities, identifying both common commensals and fastidious organisms. A fundamental challenge has been the isolation of DNA representative of the entire resident microbial community, including fungi. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0210306PLOS

Application of a targeted-enrichment methodology for full-genome sequencing of Dengue 1-4, Chikungunya and Zika viruses directly from patient samples.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Apr 25;13(4):e0007184. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore.

The frequency of epidemics caused by Dengue viruses 1-4, Zika virus and Chikungunya viruses have been on an upward trend in recent years driven primarily by uncontrolled urbanization, mobility of human populations and geographical spread of their shared vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Infections by these viruses present with similar clinical manifestations making them challenging to diagnose; this is especially difficult in regions of the world hyperendemic for these viruses. In this study, we present a targeted-enrichment methodology to simultaneously sequence the complete viral genomes for each of these viruses directly from clinical samples. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007184DOI Listing

Details in the evaluation of circular RNA detection tools: Reply to Chen and Chuang.

PLoS Comput Biol 2019 Apr 25;15(4):e1006916. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

Institute of Fundamental and Frontier Sciences, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.

In their comment, Chen and Chuang [1] pointed out several weak points of our recent paper [2]. Here we respond in detail to clarify the dataset we used in our work. We also discuss the three confounding factors they listed in their comment. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1006916DOI Listing

Clinical and molecular epidemiology of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Oman.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Apr 25;13(4):e0007100. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

Clinical Sciences, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, United Kingdom.

Background: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a serious disease with a high fatality rate reported in many countries. The first case of CCHF in Oman was detected in 1995 and serosurveys have suggested widespread infection of humans and livestock throughout the country.

Methodology: Cases of CCHF reported to the Ministry of Health (MoH) of Oman between 1995 and 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007100
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007100DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Consumption of Alcohol Beverages and Binge Drinking Among Pregnant Women Aged 18-44 Years - United States, 2015-2017.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2019 Apr 26;68(16):365-368. Epub 2019 Apr 26.

Drinking alcohol during pregnancy can cause fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs), including birth defects that involve central nervous system impairment, behavioral disorders, and impaired intellectual development, which can lead to difficulties with school and employment. A recent study in four U.S. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6816a1DOI Listing

Ex Situ Liver Machine Perfusion As An Emerging Graft Protective Strategy In Clinical Liver Transplantation: The Dawn of A New Era.

Transplantation 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

The disparity between the number of available donor livers and patients awaiting a liver transplant has led transplant centers to accept suboptimal livers. There has been no universally accepted tool to predict the post-transplant function of these organs to safely increase the donor pool, protect these livers against ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) or improve their quality before implantation. Ex situ liver machine preservation has emerged as a promising novel graft protective strategy in the field of liver transplantation with remarkable ongoing research and evolving clinical trials within Europe and the US. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TP.0000000000002772DOI Listing

ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 212: Pregnancy and Heart Disease.

Authors:

Obstet Gynecol 2019 May;133(5):e320-e356

Maternal heart disease has emerged as a major threat to safe motherhood and women's long-term cardiovascular health. In the United States, disease and dysfunction of the heart and vascular system as "cardiovascular disease" is now the leading cause of death in pregnant women and women in the postpartum period () accounting for 4.23 deaths per 100,000 live births, a rate almost twice that of the United Kingdom (). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0000000000003243DOI Listing

ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 212 Summary: Pregnancy and Heart Disease.

Authors:

Obstet Gynecol 2019 May;133(5):1067-1072

Maternal heart disease has emerged as a major threat to safe motherhood and women's long-term cardiovascular health. In the United States, disease and dysfunction of the heart and vascular system as "cardiovascular disease" is now the leading cause of death in pregnant women and women in the postpartum period () accounting for 4.23 deaths per 100,000 live births, a rate almost twice that of the United Kingdom (). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0000000000003244DOI Listing

Home and Birth Center Birth in the United States: Time for Greater Collaboration Across Models of Care.

Obstet Gynecol 2019 May;133(5):1033-1050

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, and the Department of Anthropology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon.

There has been a small, but significant, increase in community births (home and birth-center births) in the United States in recent years. The rate increased by 20% from 2004 to 2008, and another 59% from 2008 to 2012, though the overall rate is still low at less than 2%. Although the United States is not the only country with a large majority of births occurring in the hospital, there are other high-resource countries where home and birth-center birth are far more common and where community midwives (those attending births at home and in birth centers) are far more central to the provision of care. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0000000000003215DOI Listing

Is microcirculatory assessment ready for regular use in clinical practice?

Authors:
Daniel De Backer

Curr Opin Crit Care 2019 Jun;25(3):280-284

Department of Intensive Care, CHIREC Hospitals, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.

Purpose Of Review: The present review discusses the current role of microcirculatory assessment in the hemodynamic monitoring of critically ill patients.

Recent Findings: Videomicroscopic techniques have demonstrated that microvascular perfusion is altered in critically ill patients, and especially in sepsis. These alterations are associated with organ dysfunction and poor outcome. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCC.0000000000000605DOI Listing

Measuring cardiac output at the bedside.

Authors:
Stephen J Huang

Curr Opin Crit Care 2019 Jun;25(3):266-272

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Nepean Hospital, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Purpose Of Review: Bedside cardiac output (CO) measurement is an important part of routine hemodynamic monitoring in the differential diagnosis of circulatory shock and fluid management. Different choices of CO measurement devices are available. The purpose of this review is to review the importance of CO [or stroke volume (SV)] measurement and to discuss the various methods (devices) used in determination of CO. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCC.0000000000000599DOI Listing

Optimizing fluid therapy in shock.

Curr Opin Crit Care 2019 Jun;25(3):246-251

Director Acute Respiratory Intensive Care Unit, Emory University Hospital, Atlanta, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Shock, best defined as acute circulatory failure is classified into four major groups, namely hypovolemic, cardiogenic, obstructive, and distributive (vasodilatory). The purpose of this review is to provide a practical approach to fluid optimization in patients with the four types of shock.

Recent Findings: Large-volume fluid resuscitation has traditionally been regarded as the cornerstone of resuscitation of shocked patients. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCC.0000000000000604DOI Listing

Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survivors need both cardiological and neurological rehabilitation!

Curr Opin Crit Care 2019 Jun;25(3):240-243

Limburg Brain Injury Center.

Purpose Of Review: Most survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) suffer from cardiologic symptoms and approximately half of them experience cognitive problems because of hypoxic brain damage. Symptoms of anxiety and depression are also common. This review aims to give an overview of recent literature on rehabilitation treatment aiming at improvement of quality of life after OHCA. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCC.0000000000000609DOI Listing
June 2019
1 Read

Assessment of neurocognitive function after cardiac arrest.

Curr Opin Crit Care 2019 Jun;25(3):234-239

Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Neurology, Lund, Skane University Hospital, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Purpose Of Review: Impaired neurocognitive function is common in cardiac arrest survivors and the use of specific neurocognitive assessments are recommended in both clinical trials and daily practice. This review examines the most recent evidence to guide in the selection of neurocognitive outcome assessment tools after cardiac arrest.

Recent Findings: Neurocognitive impairment after cardiac arrest was recently reported as one of the major predictors for societal participation, highlighting the need for neurocognitive assessments. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCC.0000000000000607DOI Listing

Assessing brain injury after cardiac arrest, towards a quantitative approach.

Authors:
Tobias Cronberg

Curr Opin Crit Care 2019 Jun;25(3):211-217

Department of Clinical Sciences, Neurology, Lund University, Skane University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.

Purpose Of Review: Withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy due to a presumed poor neurological prognosis precedes most deaths in patients who have been resuscitated after an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and are being treated in an ICU. Guidelines to support these critical decisions recommend a multimodal strategy based on advanced diagnostic methods. This review will discuss clinical experience with the 2015 guidelines and recent developments towards more accurate quantification of posthypoxic brain injury. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCC.0000000000000611DOI Listing

Cardiac arrest: prediction models in the early phase of hospitalization.

Curr Opin Crit Care 2019 Jun;25(3):204-210

Sudden Death Expertise Center, INSERM U970 (Team 4), PARCC, Paris.

Purpose Of Review: There is a need for an early assessment of outcome in patients with return of spontaneous circulation after cardiac arrest. During the last decade, several models were developed in order to identify predictive factors that may facilitate prognostication and stratification of outcome.

Recent Findings: In addition to prognostication tools that are used in intensive care, at least five scores were recently developed using large datasets, based on simple and immediately available parameters, such as circumstances of arrest and early in-hospital indicators. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCC.0000000000000613DOI Listing

Important considerations for women in the late reproductive and perimenopausal years desiring myomectomy.

Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Division of Minimally Invasive Gynecologic Surgery, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To review important considerations in the counseling and management of women over the age of 40 desiring a myomectomy for symptomatic fibroids.

Recent Findings: Women in the late reproductive and perimenopausal years may choose a myomectomy over a hysterectomy for reasons of fertility preservation or a personal desire to retain their uterus. Data suggest that laparoscopic myomectomy is a low-risk procedure that can be offered to older women, though the age-related risk of uterine malignancy must be evaluated. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/GCO.0000000000000551DOI Listing

Impact of obesity on male and female reproductive outcomes.

Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Purpose Of Review: The association between obesity and infertility has gained increasing provider and public awareness. The purpose of this review is to outline the recent research into the pathophysiology regarding obesity and its impact of reproductive function in both women and men.

Recent Findings: A BMI more than 25 has a detrimental impact on the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in both men and women, leading to alterations of HPG hormones, gametogenesis, as well as an increase in inflammation and lipotoxicity from excessive adipose tissue. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00001703-900000000-9924
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/GCO.0000000000000549DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read
  • Page 1 of 20453