1,021,305 results match your criteria Recent Patents on Chemical Engineering [Journal]


PTEN-deficient prostate cancer is associated with an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment mediated by increased expression of IDO1 and infiltrating FoxP3+ T regulatory cells.

Prostate 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Cancer Biology and Genetics, Queen's Cancer Research Institute, Queen's University, Kingston, Canada.

Background: Accumulating evidence shows that tumor cell-specific genomic changes can influence the cross talk between cancer cells and the surrounding tumor microenvironment (TME). Loss of the PTEN tumor suppressor gene is observed in 20% to 30% of prostate cancers (PCa) when first detected and the rate increases with PCa progression and advanced disease. Recent findings implicate a role for PTEN in cellular type I interferon response and immunosuppression in PCa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pros.23808DOI Listing

Behavioral and Biochemical Features of the Course and Surgical Treatment of Experimental Obstructive Hydrocephalus in Young Rats.

Dev Neurosci 2019 Apr 18:1-10. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.

Introduction: Hydrocephalus is a multifactorial disease, affecting the dynamics of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and leading to severe neurological impairment in children; in spite of the recent advances in hydrocephalus research, it has many physiopathological aspects that still remain poorly understood, especially after treatment.

Objectives: To analyze the clinical, radiological, histopathological, and biochemical aspects of kaolin-induced hydrocephalus in an experimental model, both in the acute phase and after shunt treatment, by means of behavioral tests, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, histopathological studies, and level of inflammatory interleukins in the CSF.

Methods: Seven-day-old Wistar rats were used and subdivided into three subgroups: treated hydrocephalic (n = 24), untreated hydrocephalic (n = 17), and controls (n = 5). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000497433DOI Listing

Obesity Induces Ovarian Inflammation and Reduces Oocyte Quality.

Reproduction 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

J Wood, Animal Science, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, 68583-0908, United States.

In the US, 36.5 percent of women between the ages of 20-39 are obese. This obesity results in not only metabolic disorders including type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease, but also impaired female fertility. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/REP-18-0583DOI Listing

Multiple distinct O-Mannosylation pathways in eukaryotes.

Curr Opin Struct Biol 2019 Apr 15;56:171-178. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Copenhagen Center for Glycomics, Departments of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3, DK-2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark. Electronic address:

Protein O-mannosylation (O-Man), originally discovered in yeast five decades ago, is an important post-translational modification (PTM) conserved from bacteria to humans, but not found in plants or nematodes. Until recently, the homologous family of ER-located protein O-mannosyl transferases (PMT1-7 in yeast; POMT1/POMT2 in humans), were the only known enzymes involved in directing O-Man biosynthesis in eukaryotes. However, recent studies demonstrate the existence of multiple distinct O-Man glycosylation pathways indicating that the genetic and biosynthetic regulation of O-Man in eukaryotes is more complex than previously envisioned. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0959440X183017
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbi.2019.03.003DOI Listing
April 2019
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Machine learning and big data in psychiatry: toward clinical applications.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Apr 15;55:152-159. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Max Planck UCL Centre for Computational Psychiatry and Ageing Research, University College London, London, England, United Kingdom; Division of Psychiatry, University College London, London, England, United Kingdom; Camden and Islington NHS Foundation Trust, London, England, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Psychiatry is a medical field concerned with the treatment of mental illness. Psychiatric disorders broadly relate to higher functions of the brain, and as such are richly intertwined with social, cultural, and experiential factors. This makes them exquisitely complex phenomena that depend on and interact with a large number of variables. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09594388183008
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2019.02.006DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Overview of bioremediation with technology assessment and emphasis on fungal bioremediation of oil contaminated soils.

J Environ Manage 2019 Apr 15;241:156-166. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

PROFNIT - Professional Post-Graduate Program in Intellectual Property and Technology Transfer for Innovation, Federal University of Bahia, Campus de Ondina, R. Barão de Jeremoabo, 147, Ondina, Salvador, BA, 40170-115, Brazil; José de Anchieta College, Av. João Durval Carneiro, n. 3039, São João, Feira de Santana, BA, 44051-605, Brazil. Electronic address:

Environmental contamination is a problem that requires sustainable solutions. Bioremediation technologies have been developed in the last decades and are increasingly used to mitigate environmental accidents and systematic contaminations. A review of bioremediation technologies, based on published article and patent documents, is presented for different types of contaminated matrices, bioremediation agents and contaminants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.04.019DOI Listing

Changes in chemsex and sexual behaviour over time, among a cohort of MSM in London and Brighton: Findings from the AURAH2 study.

Int J Drug Policy 2019 Apr 15;68:54-61. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

UCL Centre for Population research in Sexual Health and HIV, Institute for Global Health, UCL, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Background: Recent evidence has suggested that chemsex (the use of mephedrone, crystal methamphetamine and γ -hydroxybutyrate/ γ -butryolactone (GHB/GBL) to enable, enhance and prolong sexual interactions) has increased among men having sex with men (MSM) attending sexual health clinics in large UK cities. To date there has been no data from the UK or Europe that describes changes in chemsex over time within a cohort of MSM.

Methods: The prospective cohort study, Attitudes to and Understanding Risk of Acquisition of HIV over Time (AURAH2), collected online questionnaire data from HIV negative or undiagnosed MSM (at enrolment) from 2015 to 2018, recruited from sexual health clinics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2019.03.021DOI Listing

Gateway to the Golgi: molecular mechanisms of nucleotide sugar transporters.

Curr Opin Struct Biol 2019 Apr 15;57:127-134. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3QU, UK. Electronic address:

The Golgi apparatus plays a central role in the secretory pathway as a hub for posttranslational modification, protein sorting and quality control. To date, there is little structural or biochemical information concerning the function of transporters that reside within this organelle. The SLC35 family of nucleotide sugar transporters link the synthesis of activated sugar molecules and sulfate in the cytoplasm, with the luminal transferases that catalyse their attachment to proteins and lipids during glycosylation and sulfation. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0959440X183013
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbi.2019.03.019DOI Listing
April 2019
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Folding the genome into mitotic chromosomes.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 Apr 15;60:19-26. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Division of Experimental Pathology, Cancer Institute of the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research (JFCR), Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address:

How linear DNA molecules are packaged into compact cylindrical chromosomes in preparation for cell division has remained one of the central outstanding questions in cell biology. Condensin is a highly conserved protein complex that universally determines large-scale DNA geometry during mitotic chromosome assembly. A wide range of recently developed approaches, including super resolution microscopy, single molecule imaging, Hi-C analyses and computational modeling, have profoundly changed how we view mitotic chromosomes. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09550674193002
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2019.03.005DOI Listing
April 2019
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Ghrelin signalling within the rat nucleus accumbens and skilled reach foraging.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2019 Apr 8;106:183-194. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. Electronic address:

Motivation alters behaviour in a complex manner and nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell has been implied as a key structure regulating such behaviour. Recent studies show that acute ghrelin signalling enhances motivation when assessed in a simple motor task. The aim of the present study was to define the role of ghrelin signalling on motivation in a more complex motor behaviour. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03064530193012
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2019.04.008DOI Listing
April 2019
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Exposure effects of endotoxin-free titanium-based wear particles to human osteoblasts.

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2019 Apr 10;95:143-152. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Physics, UNESP, São Paulo State University, 17033-360, Bauru, SP, Brazil.

Titanium-based materials are widely employed by the biomedical industry in orthopedic and dental implants. However, when placed into the human body, these materials are highly susceptible to degradation processes, such as corrosion, wear, and tribocorrosion. As a consequence, metallic ions or particles (debris) may be released, and although several studies have been conducted in recent years to better understand the effects of their exposure to living cells, a consensual opinion has not yet been obtained. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmbbm.2019.04.003DOI Listing

Chronic exposure to green light aggravates high-fat diet-induced obesity and metabolic disorders in male mice.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2019 Apr 15;178:94-104. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 211198, PR China; School of Life Science and Technology, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 211198, PR China; State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210023, PR China. Electronic address:

Light is involved in many critical physiological or biochemical processes of human beings, such as visual sensing and the production of vitamin D. Recent studies have showed that the lights of different wavelengths have a profound influence in life activities. For example, blue light promotes alertness, whereas green light (GL) induces sleep in mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.04.013DOI Listing

Combined effects of environmental xeno-estrogens within multi-component mixtures: Comparison of in vitro human- and zebrafish-based estrogenicity bioassays.

Chemosphere 2019 Apr 9;227:334-344. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Institut National de l'Environnement Industriel et des risques (INERIS), Unité Ecotoxicologie in vitro et in vivo, UMR-I 02 SEBIO, 60550, Verneuil-en-Halatte, France. Electronic address:

Some recent studies showed that in vitro bioassays based on fish or human estrogen receptor (ER) activation may have distinct responses to environmental samples, highlighting the need to better understand bioassay-specific ER response to environmental mixtures. For this purpose, we investigated a 12-compound mixture in two mixture ratios (M1 and M2) on zebrafish (zf) liver cells stably expressing zfERα (ZELHα cells) or zfERβ2 (ZELHβ2 cells) and on human ER-reporter gene (MELN) cells. The mixture included the well-known ER ligands bisphenol A (BPA) and genistein (GEN), and other compounds representatives of a freshwater background contamination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.04.060DOI Listing

Wettability of rock/CO/brine and rock/oil/CO-enriched-brine systems:Critical parametric analysis and future outlook.

Adv Colloid Interface Sci 2019 Apr 1;268:91-113. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

School of Engineering, Edith Cowan University (ECU), Joondalup, WA, Australia.

CO geo-sequestration is a promising technology to permanently store CO in geological formations to control the atmospheric carbon footprint. In addition, CO is frequently utilized in enhanced oil recovery operations to accelerate oil production. Both, CO geo-storage and EOR, are significantly influenced by the wettability of the associated rock/CO/brine systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cis.2019.03.009DOI Listing

Combination of the endogenous promoter-intron significantly improves salt and drought tolerance conferred by TdSHN1 transcription factor in transgenic tobacco.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2019 Apr 12;139:435-445. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Laboratory of Plant Biotechnology and Improvement, University of Sfax, Center of Biotechnology of Sfax, Route Sidi Mansour, Km 6 B.P' 1177, 3018, Sfax, Tunisia. Electronic address:

Recent years have witnessed a renewed interest in introns as a tool to increase gene expression. We previously isolated TdSHN1 gene encoding a transcription factor in durum wheat. Here we show that TdSHN1 intron contains many CT-stretches and the motif CGATT known to be important for IME. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2019.04.009DOI Listing

Refining memory assessment of elderly people with cognitive impairment: Insights from the short-term memory binding test.

Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2019 Apr 1;83:114-120. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Department of Basic Psychology II (Cognitive Processes), Faculty of Psychology, Complutense University of Madrid, Spain.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) affects temporary memory for bound features more remarkably than for individual features. Such selective impairments manifest from presymptomatic through dementia stages via titration procedures. A recent study suggested that without titration and with high memory load the binding selectivity may disappear in people at risk of AD such as those with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01674943193008
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2019.03.025DOI Listing
April 2019
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Unlocking the trove of metabolic treasures: activating silent biosynthetic gene clusters in bacteria and fungi.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2019 Apr 15;51:9-15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Michael G. DeGroote Institute of Infectious Disease Research and Department of Biology McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

Bacteria and fungi are prolific producers of secondary metabolites, yet they house a multitude of silent biosynthetic gene clusters that are poorly expressed and whose products are unknown or 'cryptic'. Stimulating the expression of these clusters and accessing their associated molecules is a major priority, as they are expected to have a veritable cornucopia of bioactivites. Here, we highlight three strategies that have been the focus of recent developments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2019.03.003DOI Listing

The Reference Genome Sequence of Scutellaria baicalensis Provides Insights into the Evolution of Wogonin Biosynthesis.

Mol Plant 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Plant Functional Genomics and Resources, Shanghai Chenshan Botanical Garden, Shanghai Chenshan Plant Science Research Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China; John Innes Centre, Norwich, NR4 7UH UK. Electronic address:

Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi is important in Chinese Traditional Medicine where preparations of dried roots, 'Huang Qin', are used for liver and lung complaints including complementary cancer treatments. We report a high-quality reference genome sequence for S. baicalensis where 93% of the 408. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S16742052193013
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molp.2019.04.002DOI Listing
April 2019
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De novo Domestication: An Alternative Route toward New Crops for the Future.

Mol Plant 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China. Electronic address:

Current global agricultural production must feed over 7 billion people. However, productivity varies greatly across the globe and is under threat from both increased competitions for land and climate change and associated environmental deterioration. Moreover, the increase in human population size and dietary changes are putting an ever-greater burden on agriculture. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molp.2019.03.016DOI Listing

De-escalation of complexity in oncoplastic breast surgery: Case series from a specialized breast center.

Breast 2019 Apr 9;46:12-18. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Multidisciplinary Breast Unit, Azienda Ospedaliera Cannizzaro, Catania, Italy.

Introduction: Oncoplastic breast surgery has evolved the surgical treatment of breast cancer over the past two decades. This practice still lacks validation and poses several dilemmas in terms of safety, local and systemic control, timing of adjuvant treatments and cost-effectiveness. Our case series investigates the effects of a reduced surgical complexity on cosmetic results and quality of life. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.breast.2019.04.002DOI Listing

Repeated ketamine infusions for antidepressant-resistant PTSD: Methods of a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Contemp Clin Trials 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

National Center for PTSD, Clinical Neurosciences Division, US Department of Veterans Affairs, West Haven, CT, USA; Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA. Electronic address:

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating disorder with limited medication treatment options. Recent reports have described the dearth of research on new drug development as a crisis in the pharmacotherapy of PTSD. There are only two PTSD medications approved by the U. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cct.2019.04.009DOI Listing

Finally an evidence-based indication for injectable phloroglucinol!

J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

CHU Toulouse, Pôle de Gynécologie Obstétrique, Hôpital Paule de Viguier, Toulouse, F-31059, France; Université de Toulouse III, UMR1027, Toulouse, F-31073, France. Electronic address:

Background: While phloroglucinol is widely prescribed in European countries for its antispasmodic properties, recent high quality data failed to demonstrate its superiority to placebo in alleviating abdominal pain. Rumors suggest that injectable presentation of phloroglucinol may erase povidone-iodine stains. We thus aimed to evaluate its efficacy in this new indication. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S24687847193013
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jogoh.2019.04.008DOI Listing
April 2019
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Genome-wide identification, phylogeny and function analysis of GRAS gene family in Dendrobium catenatum (Orchidaceae).

Gene 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100193, China. Electronic address:

Background: In recent years, the molecular mechanism of plant growth and development has been reported in detail. GRAS genes, a plant-specific family of transcription factor, play critical roles in the process. GRAS transcription factors are associated with axillary shoot meristem formation, radial root patterning, phytohormones (gibberellins) signal transduction, light signaling, and abiotic or biotic stress. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2019.04.038DOI Listing

Association between the mannose-binding lectin (MBL)-2 gene variants and serum MBL with pulmonary tuberculosis: An update meta-analysis and systematic review.

Microb Pathog 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Respiratory Medicine and Critical Care Medicine, West China Hospital/West China School of Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, China. Electronic address:

In recent years, many studies have demonstrated that the MBL-2 gene polymorphisms may be associated with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) susceptibility. Moreover, some studies have shown that serum MBL levels were influenced by the MBL-2 gene polymorphisms and that it plays an important role in tuberculosis infection. However, the results of these studies were inconsistent and underpowered. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08824010193039
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2019.04.023DOI Listing
April 2019
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Reconciliation of Recent Helicobacter pylori Treatment Guidelines in a Time of Increasing Resistance to Antibiotics.

Gastroenterology 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and infectious diseases, Otto-von-Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany, and Ludwig Maximilian University Clinic, Med. Clinic II, Muenchen, Germany.

Increasing resistance to antibiotics, worldwide, has adverse effects on the effectiveness of standard therapies to eradicate Helicobacter pylori infection. We reviewed guidelines developed by expert groups in Europe, Canada, and the United States for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection. We compared the recommendations of these guidelines, reconciled them, and addressed the increasing resistance of H pylori to antibiotic therapy regimens. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00165085193570
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2019.04.011DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

The ELAV family of RNA-binding proteins in synaptic plasticity and long-term memory.

Neurobiol Learn Mem 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA. Electronic address:

The mechanisms of de novo gene expression and translation of specific gene transcripts have long been known to support long-lasting changes in synaptic plasticity and behavioral long-term memory. In recent years, it has become increasingly apparent that gene expression is heavily regulated not only on the level of transcription, but also through post-transcriptional gene regulation, which governs the subcellular localization, stability, and likelihood of translation of mRNAs. Specific families of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) bind transcripts which contain AU-rich elements (AREs) within their 3' UTR and thereby govern their downstream fate. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S10747427193007
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nlm.2019.04.007DOI Listing
April 2019
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Lipids: Two sites of the same coin in lung fibrosis.

Cell Signal 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Biochemistry, Universities of Giessen and Marburg Lung Center, Giessen, Germany. Electronic address:

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by progressive extracellular matrix deposition in the lung parenchyma leading to the destruction of lung structure, respiratory failure and premature death. Recent studies revealed that the pathogenesis of IPF is associated with alterations in the synthesis and the activity of lipids, lipid regulating proteins and cell membrane lipid transporters and receptors in different lung cells. Furthermore, deregulated lipid metabolism was found to contribute to the profibrotic phenotypes of lung fibroblasts and alveolar epithelial cells. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08986568193008
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cellsig.2019.04.007DOI Listing
April 2019
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Economic evaluation of California prenatal participation in the special supplemental nutrition program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) to prevent preterm birth.

Prev Med 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Research and Evaluation Unit, Public Health Foundation Enterprises- Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (PHFE WIC), 12781 Schabarum Ave., Irwindale, CA 91706.

There is growing evidence that prenatal participation in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) reduces the risk of adverse birth outcomes. With recent changes in health care, rising health care costs, and increasing rates of prematurity in the U.S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2019.04.011DOI Listing

Prediction and perception: insights for (and from) tinnitus.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

School of Behavioral and Brain Sciences, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080, USA; Global Brain Health Institute, Institute of Neuroscience, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

More than 150 years have passed since Helmholtz first described perception as a process of unconscious inference about the causes of sensations. His ideas have since inspired a wealth of literature investigating the mechanisms underlying these inferences. In recent years, much of this work has converged on the notion that the brain is a hierarchical generative model of its environment that predicts sensations and updates itself based on prediction errors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2019.04.008DOI Listing

Mesenchymal Stem Cells: from Regeneration to Cancer.

Pharmacol Ther 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME 04609, USA. Electronic address:

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent tissue stem cells that differentiate into a number of mesodermal tissue types, including osteoblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes and myofibroblasts. MSCs were originally identified in the bone marrow (BM) of humans and other mammals, but recent studies have shown that they are multilineage progenitors in various adult organs and tissues. MSCs that localize at perivascular sites function to rapidly respond to external stimuli and coordinate with the vascular and immune systems to accomplish the wound healing process. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01637258193006
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pharmthera.2019.04.005DOI Listing
April 2019
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Prioritized Brain Selenium Retention and Selenoprotein Expression: Nutritional Insights into Parkinson's Disease.

Mech Ageing Dev 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Geriatrics and Neurology, the Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital, China; Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China. Electronic address:

Selenium (Se), an essential trace mineral, confers its physiological functions mainly through selenoproteins, most of which are oxidoreductases. Results from animal, epidemiological, and human genetic studies link Parkinson's disease to Se and certain selenoproteins. Parkinson's disease is characterized by multiple motor and non-motor symptoms that are difficult to diagnose at early stages of the pathogenesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mad.2019.04.004DOI Listing

Switching Gears, Structuring the Right Search Strategy.

Neuron 2019 Apr;102(2):273-275

Centre for Neural Circuits and Behaviour, The University of Oxford, Tinsley Building, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3SR, UK. Electronic address:

Nematodes can use local and global search strategies to find food. In this issue of Neuron, López-Cruz et al. (2019) unravel a neural circuit mechanism that allows worms to select and switch between these search modes depending on recent experience of food. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.03.040DOI Listing

Development, qualification, and validation of the Filovirus Animal Nonclinical Group anti-Ebola virus glycoprotein immunoglobulin G enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for human serum samples.

PLoS One 2019 18;14(4):e0215457. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Battelle, West Jefferson, OH, United States of America.

The need for an efficacious vaccine against highly pathogenic filoviruses was reinforced by the recent and devastating 2014-2016 outbreak of Ebola virus (EBOV) disease in Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia that resulted in more than 10,000 casualties. Such a vaccine would need to be vetted through a U.S. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215457PLOS

Imperfect Bayesian inference in visual perception.

PLoS Comput Biol 2019 Apr 18;15(4):e1006465. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Psychology, University of Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden.

Optimal Bayesian models have been highly successful in describing human performance on perceptual decision-making tasks, such as cue combination and visual search. However, recent studies have argued that these models are often overly flexible and therefore lack explanatory power. Moreover, there are indications that neural computation is inherently imprecise, which makes it implausible that humans would perform optimally on any non-trivial task. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1006465
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1006465DOI Listing
April 2019
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Sumatriptan increase skin flap survival through activation of 5HT 1b/1d receptors in rats: the mediating role of nitric oxide pathway.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Random pattern skin flaps are applicable to reconstruct any defects in plastic surgery. However, they are limited to apply due to necrosis. Sumatriptan, a selective 5HT 1b/1d agonist, routinely use to subset acute migraine attack. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PRS.0000000000005740DOI Listing
April 2019
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Does Compensatory Anterior Pelvic Tilt Decrease After Bilateral Periacetabular Osteotomy?

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2019 May;477(5):1168-1175

E. Daley, I. Zaltz, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Beaumont Health, Royal Oak, MI, USA N. Nahm, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI, USA D. Koueiter, Orthopedic Research Laboratories, Beaumont Health, Royal Oak, MI, USA.

Background: The kinetic link among the lumbar spine, pelvic tilt, and the hip has been hypothesized, but this relationship requires further study in acetabular dysplasia. Anecdotal reports suggest that patients may compensate for acetabular dysplasia with an involuntary increase in anterior pelvic tilt; it is not known if this relationship is affected by acetabular reorientation.

Questions/purposes: (1) Does compensatory pelvic tilt decrease on preoperatively obtained standing AP pelvis radiographs compared with those obtained at a minimum of 6 months after bilateral periacetabular osteotomy (PAO)? (2) Does a modified surrogate measurement of pelvic tilt, the pubic symphysis to sacroiliac (PS-SI) index, correlate with a physical synthetic bones model in which pelvic tilt can be directly measured? (3) Can the PS-SI index demonstrate high interrater reliability?

Methods: We assessed the surgical records of one surgeon, who participates in the longitudinally maintained Academic Network of Conservational Hip Outcomes Research (ANCHOR) registry, for patients who had undergone the second side of a staged bilateral PAO between 2007 and 2016; there were 113 such patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CORR.0000000000000560DOI Listing

Purging of malignant cell contamination prior to spermatogonia stem cell autotransplantation to preserve fertility: progress & prospects.

Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This systematic review evaluates the state of the art in terms of strategies used to detect and remove contaminated malignant cells from testicular biopsy prior to spermatogonia stem cells (SSCs) autotransplantation to restore fertility.

Recent Findings: Several trials have been done in past two decades to determine the reliable methods of detecting and purging cancer cells prior to SSCs autotransplantation.

Summary: The success in treating childhood cancer has dramatically increased over the past few decades. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MED.0000000000000481DOI Listing

Outpatient talc administration via indwelling pleural catheters for malignant effusions.

Curr Opin Pulm Med 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Academic Respiratory Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Purpose Of Review: Malignant pleural effusion is a common cause of breathlessness and signifies advanced disease. Common options for definitive pleural intervention include insertion of an indwelling pleural catheter (IPC) or talc pleurodesis.

Recent Findings: Administration of graded talc through an IPC offers an increased chance of pleurodesis compared with IPC drainage alone and is not associated with a significant risk of adverse events. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCP.0000000000000587DOI Listing

Inflammatory bowel disease during pregnancy: management of a disease flare or remission.

Authors:
Anita Afzali

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Purpose Of Review: Roughly half of the nearly 1.6 million people with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are women of reproductive age. Caring for women with IBD who are also pregnant can be challenging, particularly if with a disease flare or in remission, as there are special considerations needed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0000000000000541DOI Listing

The role of the transition clinic from pediatric to adult inflammatory bowel disease care.

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The transition of patients from pediatric to adult centered care represents not only the means to transfer medical care to a group of providers who specialize in adult care but also is part of the process of the transfer of healthcare responsibility from the family to a patient. The intent of this review is to provide a summary of some of the important studies published in the past 2 years that advance this knowledge.

Recent Findings: Progress has been made in the recognition of the process of transition, including developing tools to assess transition readiness, improving routes of communication along with patient education. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0000000000000535DOI Listing

Vitamin D Trends in the Pediatric Orthopaedic Population: A Survey.

J Pediatr Orthop 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Palmetto Health-USC Orthopedic Center, Columbia, SC.

Background: Within the last decade, multiple studies have demonstrated the potential health benefits of vitamin D supplementation including improved bone health, reduced fracture risk, protection from autoimmune disease, and decreased cancer risk. Because of the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pediatric populations and despite recent evidence of increased vitamin D supplementation in the United States, our goal is to assess the knowledge of current vitamin D recommendations among pediatric orthopaedists and fellows within the Pediatric Society of North America (POSNA). It is our purpose to use the data to increase awareness and understanding of vitamin D among all pediatric providers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPO.0000000000001394DOI Listing
April 2019
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XGBoost Model for Chronic Kidney Disease Diagnosis.

IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a menace that is affecting 10% of the world population and 15% of the South African population. The early and cheap diagnosis of this disease with accuracy and reliability will save 20,000 lives in South Africa per year. Scientists are developing smart solutions with Artificial Intelligence (AI). Read More

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https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8693581/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TCBB.2019.2911071DOI Listing
April 2019
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Weakly Supervised Adversarial Domain Adaptation for Semantic Segmentation in Urban Scenes.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Semantic segmentation, a pixel-level vision task, is developed rapidly by using convolutional neural networks (CNNs). Training CNNs requires a large amount of labeled data, but manually annotating data is difficult. For emancipating manpower, in recent years, some synthetic datasets are released. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIP.2019.2910667DOI Listing

Exploiting Typicality for Selecting Informative and Anomalous Samples in Videos.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

In this paper, we present a novel approach to find informative and anomalous samples in videos exploiting the concept of typicality from information theory. In most video analysis tasks, selection of the most informative samples from a huge pool of training data in order to learn a good recognition model is an important problem. Furthermore, it is also useful to reduce the annotation cost as it is time-consuming to annotate unlabeled samples. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIP.2019.2910634DOI Listing

Identification, Pathogenicity, and Spore Trapping of Associated with Twig and Shoot Dieback in California.

Plant Dis 2019 Apr 17:PDIS08181425RE. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

5 Department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

Corda, 1831 species are well-documented pathogens of citrus that are associated with leaf and fruit anthracnose diseases. However, their role in twig and shoot dieback diseases of citrus has recently become more prominent. Recent surveys of orchards in the Central Valley of California have revealed . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-08-18-1425-REDOI Listing

Causes of Excess Deaths in Puerto Rico After Hurricane Maria: A Time-Series Estimation.

Am J Public Health 2019 Apr 18:e1-e3. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Raul Cruz-Cano is with the School of Public Health, University of Maryland, College Park. Erin L. Mead is with the School of Medicine, University of Connecticut, Farmington.

To determine the number and causes of excess deaths in Puerto Rico after Hurricane Maria made landfall on September 20, 2017. We obtained monthly vital statistics data on all deaths from January 2008 through October 2017. We conducted a time-series analysis to estimate excess mortality in September and October 2017 overall and by age, sex, and cause of death. Read More

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https://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/10.2105/AJPH.2019.3050
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2019.305015DOI Listing
April 2019
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Nanogels and microgels: From model colloids to applications, recent developments and future trends.

Langmuir 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Nanogels and microgels are soft, deformable and penetrable objects with an internal gel-like structure that is swollen by the dispersing solvent. Their softness and the potential to respond to external stimuli like temperature, pressure, pH, ionic strength and different analytes make them interesting as soft model systems in fundamental research as well as for a broad range of applications, in particular in the field of biological applications. Recent tremendous developments in their synthesis open access to systems with complex architectures and compositions allowing for tailoring microgels with specific properties. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.8b04304DOI Listing

Characterizing Properties and Environmental Behaviors of Dissolved Organic Matter Using Two-Dimensional Correlation Spectroscopic Analysis.

Environ Sci Technol 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) exists ubiquitously in environments and plays critical roles in pollutant mitigation, transformation and organic geochemical cycling. Understanding its properties and environmental behaviors is critically important to develop water treatment processes and environmental remediation strategies. Generalized two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS), which has numerous advantages including enhancing spectral resolution and discerning specific order of structural change under an external perturbation, could be used as a powerful tool to interpret a wide range of spectroscopic signatures relating to DOM. Read More

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http://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.est.9b01103
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b01103DOI Listing
April 2019
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Superstrong Noncovalent Interface between Melamine and Graphene Oxide.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

There have been growing academic interests in the study of strong organic molecule-graphene (or graphene oxide (GO)) systems, owing to their essential noncovalent nature and the consequent chemo-mechanical behavior within interface. A more recent experimental measurement [Chem, 2018, 4, 896-910] reported that the melamine-GO interface exhibits a remarkable noncovalent binding strength up to ~1 nN, even comparable with typical covalent bonds. But the poor understanding on the complex noncovalent nature in particular makes it challenging to unveil the mystery of this high-performance interface. Read More

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http://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsami.9b02971
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.9b02971DOI Listing
April 2019
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