44,537 results match your criteria Radiation-Induced Lumbosacral Plexopathy


Analysis of a lectin microarray identifies altered sialylation of mouse serum glycoproteins induced by whole-body radiation exposure.

J Radiat Res 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Experimental Oncology, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3, Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima, Japan.

Microarrays containing 45 different lectins were analyzed to identify global changes in the glycosylation of serum glycoproteins from mice exposed to whole-body γ-radiation. The results showed that radiation exposure increased and decreased the relative amounts of α-2,3- and α-2,6-sialic acids, respectively. The expression of α-2,3- and α-2,6-sialyltransferase genes in the liver was analyzed to determine whether changes in their expression were responsible for the sialic acid changes. Read More

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December 2018
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BIOINFORMATIC ANALYSIS OF DOSE- AND TIME-DEPENDENT miRNome RESPONSES.

Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Laboratory of Biomedical Technologies, Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), Rome, Italy.

The advent of new 'omics' techniques determined a massive boost in the measurement of the whole spectra of molecules within cells, favoring promising new radiobiological studies at low doses. The main aim of this work was to assess the radiation-induced perturbations of miRNA profiles and their temporal dynamics. Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells were irradiated with low doses of γ-rays. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

LONG-TERM HEALTH RISK AFTER BREAST-CANCER RADIOTHERAPY: OVERVIEW OF PASSOS METHODOLOGY AND SOFTWARE.

Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Klinik für Strahlentherapie, Universität Leipzig, Stephanstr. 9a, Leipzig, Germany.

Breast-cancer radiotherapy reduces the recurrence rates and improves patient survival. However, it also increases the incidence of second cancers and of heart disease. These radiation-induced long-term health risks become increasingly important with improved cure rates and prolonged patient survival. Read More

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December 2018

Effects of High- and Low-LET Radiation on Human Hematopoietic System Reconstituted in Immunodeficient Mice.

Radiat Res 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

a   Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York.

Over the last 50 years, a number of important physiological changes in humans who have traveled on spaceflights have been catalogued. Of major concern are the short- and long-term radiation-induced injuries to the hematopoietic system that may be induced by high-energy galactic cosmic rays encountered on interplanetary space missions. To collect data on the effects of space radiation on the human hematopoietic system in vivo, we used a humanized mouse model. Read More

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December 2018
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Casticin inhibits growth and enhances ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis through the suppression of STAT3 signaling cascade.

J Cell Biochem 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Science in Korean Medicine, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Casticin (CTC), one of the major components of Vitex rotundifolia L., has been reported to exert significant beneficial pharmacological activities and can function as an antiprolactin, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, analgesic, and immunomodulatory agent. This study aimed at investigating whether the proapoptotic effects of CTC may be mediated through the abrogation of signal transducers and activators of transcription-3 (STAT3) signaling pathway in a variety of human tumor cells. Read More

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December 2018

Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease as a cause of severe pulmonary hypertension in a dog.

Acta Vet Scand 2018 Dec 5;60(1):78. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 108, 3508 TD, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) is a rare cause of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in humans and can be classified in idiopathic, heritable, drug and radiation-induced, and associated with connective tissue disease or human immunodeficiency virus infection. Recently, biallelic mutations of the EIF2AK4 gene have been discovered as a cause for an autosomal recessive form of PVOD in humans. In dogs, PAH is poorly characterized and is generally considered to be idiopathic or secondary to (for example) congenital left-to right cardiovascular shunts or heartworm disease. Read More

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December 2018

Protective Role of α2-Macroglobulin against Jaw Osteoradionecrosis in a Preclinical Rat Model.

J Oral Pathol Med 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, The Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, 510655, China.

Objective: We have previously demonstrated the effect of alpha-2-macroglobulin (α2M) in the remediation of radiation-induced cellular damage. Here, we investigated the protective effects of α2M in a preclinical rat model of jaw osteoradionecrosis (ORN).

Methods: Eighteen rats were divided randomly into three groups: the control group, the radiation therapy (RT) alone group, and the radiated mandibles pretreated with α2M (α2M + RT) group. Read More

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December 2018
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Radiogenomic Predictors of Adverse Effects following Charged Particle Therapy.

Int J Part Ther 2018 21;5(1):103-113. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Department of Radiation Oncology and Department of Genetics & Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

Radiogenomics is the study of genomic factors that are associated with response to radiation therapy. In recent years, progress has been made toward identifying genetic risk factors linked with late radiation-induced adverse effects. These advances have been underpinned by the establishment of an international Radiogenomics Consortium with collaborative studies that expand cohort sizes to increase statistical power and efforts to improve methodologic approaches for radiogenomic research. Read More

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September 2018

Radiation-induced gray matter atrophy in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after intensity modulated radiotherapy: a MRI magnetic resonance imaging voxel-based morphometry study.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2018 Oct;8(9):902-909

Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310009, China.

Background: Gray matter (GM) damage after radiotherapy (RT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients can result in cognitive impairment, while there may be no visible brain tissue change according to the conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study investigated radiation-induced GM volume differences between NPC patients who received RT and those who did not.

Methods: High-resolution brain structural MRI data from two groups of patients were acquired. Read More

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October 2018

The concept of rapid rescue radiosurgery in the acute management of critically located brain metastases: A retrospective short-term outcome analysis.

Surg Neurol Int 2018 30;9:218. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Department of Neurosurgery, Karolinska Institute, Centre for Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Adaptive hypofractionated gamma knife radiosurgery has been used to treat brain metastases in the eloquent regions while limiting the risk of adverse radiation effect (ARE). Ablative responses might be achieved within days to weeks with the goal to preserve the neurological function. The application of this treatment modality in selected acute/subacute settings has been termed Rapid Rescue Radiosurgery (RRR) in our department. Read More

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October 2018

Blueberry extract attenuates γ-radiation-induced hepatocyte damage by modulating oxidative stress and suppressing NF-κB in male rats.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2018 Nov 4;25(7):1272-1277. Epub 2018 Jul 4.

Biochemistry Department, Science Faculty in Alsolimania, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia.

Radiation exposure is known to produce many harmful effects in biological systems, and these effects are often mediated by oxygen free radicals. Because blueberries are rich in antioxidant compounds such as anthocyanins and phenolic acids, we divided forty adult rats into four treatment groups of 10 (G1-4) as follows: G1 rats were used as a control, G2 rats were irradiated with 8 Gy at 2 Gy/week at a dose rate of 0.5 Gy/min, G3 rats were administered blueberry extract (200 mg/kg) and G4 rats were administered blueberry extract during the same irradiation period. Read More

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November 2018

Tumour-vasculature development via endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition after radiotherapy controls CD44v6 cancer cell and macrophage polarization.

Nat Commun 2018 Nov 30;9(1):5108. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Division of Radiation Biomedical Research, Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences, Seoul, 139-706, Korea.

It remains controversial whether targeting tumour vasculature can improve radiotherapeutic efficacy. We report that radiation-induced endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) leads to tumour vasculature with abnormal SMANG2 pericyte recruitment during tumour regrowth after radiotherapy. Trp53 (but not Tgfbr2) deletion in endothelial cells (ECs) inhibited radiation-induced EndMT, reducing tumour regrowth and metastases with a high CD44v6 cancer-stem-cell (CSC) content after radiotherapy. Read More

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November 2018
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Regeneration after radiation- and immune-mediated tissue injury is not enhanced by type III interferon signaling.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Klinik und Poliklinik fu¨r Innere Medizin 3, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany. Electronic address:

Purpose: Type I interferon (IFN-I) and IL-22 modulate regeneration of the thymus and intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) after cytotoxic stress like irradiation. Radiation-induced damage to thymic tissues and IECs is a crucial aspect during the pathogenesis of inadequate immune reconstitution and acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) with myeloablative total body irradiation (TBI), respectively. IL-22 and IFN-I reduce severity of acute GVHD after allo-HSCT with myeloablative TBI. Read More

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November 2018

Phase I/II trial of helical IMRT-based stereotactic body radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma.

Dig Liver Dis 2018 Nov 17. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: To report the results of a phase I/II study of helical IMRT-based stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

Methods: Eligibility included Child-Turcotte-Pugh class A or B, ≤3 lesions, and cumulative tumor diameter ≤6 cm. Dose was escalated from 36 Gy to 60 Gy delivered in 4 fractions. Read More

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November 2018

Malnutrition screening in outpatients receiving hyperbaric oxygen therapy: an opportunity for improvement?

Diving Hyperb Med 2018 Dec;48(4):206-207

Nutrition Department, Alfred Health, Melbourne.

Outpatients who receive hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) may represent a group at significant risk of malnutrition owing to the underlying conditions that are often treated with HBOT (e.g., non-healing diabetic wounds and radiation-induced skin injury). Read More

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December 2018
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Radiosurgery or hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy after craniospinal irradiation in children and adults with medulloblastoma and ependymoma.

Childs Nerv Syst 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Radiotherapy, The Maria Sklodowska-Curie Institute - Oncology Center, Gliwice Branch, Ul. Wybrzeże AK 15, 44-101, Gliwice, Poland.

Purpose: To assess the results and tolerance of radiosurgery/hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy performed after craniospinal irradiation for recurrent tumor.

Methods: Fourteen patients aged 3-46 years, diagnosed with medulloblastoma (10), anaplastic ependymoma (3), and primitive neuroectodermal tumor (1). All patients had craniospinal irradiation (CSI) with the total dose of 30. Read More

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December 2018

Reconstitution of the Ataxia-Telangiectasia Cellular Phenotype With Lentiviral Vectors.

Front Immunol 2018 20;9:2703. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Institute of Biopathology and Regenerative Medicine, Center for Biomedical Research, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.

Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a complex disease arising from mutations in the gene (Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated), which plays crucial roles in repairing double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs). Heterogeneous immunodeficiency, extreme radiosensitivity, frequent appearance of tumors and neurological degeneration are hallmarks of the disease, which carries high morbidity and mortality because only palliative treatments are currently available. Gene therapy was effective in animal models of the disease, but the large size of the cDNA required the use of HSV-1 or HSV/AAV hybrid amplicon vectors, whose characteristics make them unlikely tools for treating A-T patients. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Radiation-Induced Reactions in The Liver - Modulation of Radiation Effects by Lifestyle-Related Factors.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Dec 3;19(12). Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Human Resources Development Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, QST, Chiba-shi 263-8555, Japan.

Radiation has a wide variety of effects on the liver. Fibrosis is a concern in medical fields as one of the acute effects of high-dose irradiation, such as with cancer radiotherapies. Cancer is also an important concern following exposure to radiation. Read More

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December 2018

Naringin prevents ultraviolet-B radiation-induced oxidative damage and inflammation through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ in mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH-3T3) cells.

J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2018 Dec 4:e22263. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, India.

The present study, we investigate the preventive role of naringin, a dietary flavonoid, against ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation (280-320 nm) induced oxidative damage and inflammatory responses in mouse embryonic fibroblast cell lines (NIH-3T3). In this study, 20 mJ/cm of UVB radiation induces cell cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, DNA damage, and antioxidants depletion in NIH-3T3 cells. Treatment with naringin (60 µM) prior UVB exposure prevented the cell cytotoxicity, ROS generation, DNA damage, and antioxidants depletion in NIH-3T3 cells. Read More

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December 2018
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Toward Automatic Detection of Radiation-Induced Cerebral Microbleeds Using a 3D Deep Residual Network.

J Digit Imaging 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

UCSF-UC Berkeley Graduate Program in Bioengineering, San Francisco, USA.

Cerebral microbleeds, which are small focal hemorrhages in the brain that are prevalent in many diseases, are gaining increasing attention due to their potential as surrogate markers of disease burden, clinical outcomes, and delayed effects of therapy. Manual detection is laborious and automatic detection and labeling of these lesions is challenging using traditional algorithms. Inspired by recent successes of deep convolutional neural networks in computer vision, we developed a 3D deep residual network that can distinguish true microbleeds from false positive mimics of a previously developed technique based on traditional algorithms. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Determining RBE for development of lung fibrosis induced by fractionated irradiation with carbon ions utilizing fibrosis index and high-LET BED model.

Clin Transl Radiat Oncol 2019 Jan 2;14:25-32. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Translational Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

Background And Purposes: Carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT) with raster scanning technology is a promising treatment for lung cancer and thoracic malignancies. Determining normal tissue tolerance of organs at risk is of utmost importance for the success of CIRT. Here we report the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of CIRT as a function of dose and fractionation for development of pulmonary fibrosis using well established fibrosis index (FI) model. Read More

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January 2019
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Protective Effect of JXT Ethanol Extract on Radiation-Induced Hematopoietic Alteration and Oxidative Stress in the Liver.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2018 28;2018:9017835. Epub 2018 Oct 28.

Department of Basic Theory of Chinese Medicine, School of Pre-Clinical Medicine, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510060, China.

This study aims at investigating the radioprotective effect of ethanol extract from Ji-Xue-Teng (JXT, ) on radiation-induced hematopoietic alteration and oxidative stress in the liver. Mice were exposed to a single acute -radiation for the whole body at the dose of 6.0 Gy, then subjected to administration of amifostine (45 mg/kg) or JXT (40 g crude drug/kg) once a day for 28 consecutive days, respectively. Read More

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October 2018
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Protection Against Radiation-Induced Micronuclei in Rat Bone Marrow Erythrocytes by Curcumin and Selenium L-Methionine.

Iran J Med Sci 2018 Nov;43(6):645-652

Department of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The search for potent radioprotective agents for the amelioration of radiation side effect is an important aim in radiobiology. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of curcumin and seleno-L-methionine against radiation-induced micronucleus formation in rat bone marrow.

Methods: In total, 40 male rats were divided into 8 groups (n=5 each), including control, curcumin or seleno-L-methionine treated alone or in combination, 2 Gy irradiation, irradiation of treated groups with curcumin or seleno-L-methionine or their combination. Read More

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November 2018
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Ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage is prognostic for outcome in melanoma.

Nat Med 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Molecular Oncology Group, Cancer Research UK Manchester Institute, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

The melanoma genome is dominated by ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced mutations. Their relevance in disease progression is unknown. Here we classify melanomas by mutation signatures and identify ten recurrently mutated UVR signature genes that predict patient survival. Read More

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December 2018
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Radiotherapy of prostate cancer in renal transplant recipients: single-center experience.

Neoplasma 2018 Sep 4. Epub 2018 Sep 4.

Department of Urology with Kidney Transplant Center, Comenius University Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Bratislava, Bratislava, Slovakia.

This study analyzed the long-term outcomes of localized prostate cancer in renal transplant recipients after radiotherapy treatment - mainly brachytherapy. We retrospectively analyzed clinical data of renal transplant recipients between 2003 and 2016 at a single tertiary center, and identified four patients with high serum PSA level during regular follow-up, 1-108 months after primary renal transplantation. The mean age of patients with detected high serum PSA level with 9. Read More

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September 2018
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Prophylaxis with oral zinc sulfate against radiation-induced oropharyngeal mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer: Protocol for a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Nov;97(48):e13310

Department of Nursing, Peking University of Stomatology Hospital, Beijing.

Background: Oropharyngeal mucositis is considered to be an inevitable and the most troubling side effect of head and neck irradiation, which is caused by the direct toxic action of radiation on oral mucosa. Several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have investigated the efficacy of zinc sulfate in prevention of radiation-induced oropharyngeal mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer. However, the definite conclusions have not been confirmed. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Elucidation of molecular expression associated with abnormal development and sterility caused by electron beam irradiation in Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

Int J Radiat Biol 2018 Nov 30:1-34. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

a Department of Plant Medicine , College of Agriculture, Life and Environment Sciences, Chungbuk National University , Cheongju , Republic of Korea.

Purpose: The objective of the present study was to elucidate the mode of indirect action of electron beam irradiation at the molecular level against a quarantine pest, Spodoptera litura (F.).

Materials And Methods: Electron beam irradiation (50 - 200 Gy) was applied to S. Read More

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November 2018

Early metabolic characterization of brain tissuesafter whole body radiation based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in a rat model.

Biomed Chromatogr 2018 Nov 30:e4448. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

State Key Laboratory of Radiation Medicine and Protection, School of Radiation Medicine and Protection, Medical College of Soochow University, School for Radiological and interdisciplinary Sciences (RAD-X), Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Radiation Medicine and Protection, Suzhou, P. R. China.

Radiation-induced brain injury contains acute, early delayed and late delayed damage based on the time-course and clinical manifestations. The acute symptoms are mostly transient and reversible, whereas the late delayed radiation-induced changes are progressive and irreversible. Therefore, evaluation of the organ specific early response to ionizing radiation exposure is necessary for improving treatment strategies and minimizing possible damages at early stage after radiation exposure. Read More

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November 2018
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Long-term follow-up of intensive chemotherapy followed by reduced-dose and reduced-field irradiation for intracranial germ cell tumor.

Authors:

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2018 Nov 1:1-8. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

OBJECTIVEThe authors analyzed the efficacy of intensive chemotherapy followed by reduced-dose and reduced-field irradiation for intracranial germ cell tumors (GCTs) and evaluated the long-term late effects caused by chemoradiotherapy (CRT).METHODSThe authors performed a retrospective study. The subjects were 24 patients who received CRT between April 1994 and April 2015. Read More

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November 2018

Experience of thyroid gland status screening in postchernobyl period.

Tsitol Genet 2016 Nov-Dec;50(6):8-14

The main results of thirty-year period of repeated screening programs and observational studies in contaminated and non-contaminated regions of Belarus are analyzed. The possible reasons of discrepant and contradictory data about the consequences of Chernobyl catastrophe delivered by different study groups during early period after the accident are discussed. High incidence of thyroid nodular disease and cancer in children and adolescence after the catastrophe are described. Read More

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November 2018

Mitigating respiratory motion in radiotherapy: rapid, shallow, non-invasive mechanical ventilation for internal thoracic targets.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Radiotherapy Physics, Northern Centre for Cancer Care, The Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

Purpose: Reducing respiratory motion during the delivery of radiotherapy reduces the volume of healthy tissues irradiated and may decrease radiation induced toxicity. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential for rapid shallow non-invasive mechanical ventilation to reduce internal anatomy motion for radiotherapy purposes.

Material And Methods: Ten healthy volunteers (age 22-54years; mean 38years; 6 female and 4 male) were scanned on an MR scanner during normal breathing and at 2 ventilator induced frequencies; 20 and 25 breaths per minute for 3 minutes. Read More

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November 2018
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Organs at Risk Considerations for Thoracic Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy: What Is Safe for Lung Parenchyma?

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York City, NY. Electronic address:

Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has become standard of care for inoperable early stage non-small cell lung cancer and is often used for recurrent lung cancer and pulmonary metastases. Radiation-induced lung toxicity (RILT), including radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis, is a major concern for which it is important to understand dosimetric and clinical predictors.

Methods: This study was undertaken through the American Association of Physicists in Medicine's Working Group on Biological Effects of Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Role of N-Acetyl Cysteine and Acetyl-L-Carnitine Combination Treatment on DNA-Damage-Related Genes Induced by Radiation in HEI-OC1 Cells.

Int J Radiat Biol 2018 Nov 29:1-28. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

a Bozyaka Teaching and Research Hospital Hospital , Department of Otorhinolaryngology , Izmir , Turkey.

Purpose: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) on ionizing radiation (IR)-induced cytotoxicity and change in DNA damage-related genes in House Ear Institute-Organ of Corti 1 (HEI-OC1) cells.

Methods: HEI-OC1 cells were irradiated with 5 Gy radiation and treated by eight combinations of NAC and/or ALC: control, NAC, ALC, IR, NAC + IR, ALC + NAC, ALC + IR, and ALC + NAC + IR. Cell viability, apoptotic cell death and DNA damage were measured at the 72 hour. Read More

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November 2018

Radiation Induced Bystander Phenomenon: Insight and Implications in Radiotherapy.

Int J Radiat Biol 2018 Nov 29:1-48. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

a Stress biology Lab, UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research , Kolkata Centre .

Purpose: Despite of the extensive utilization of radiotherapy in cancer treatments, clinicians often face challenges in achieving desired outcomes. This is because of the existence of secondary radiation effects like bystander phenomenon that influence radiation non-targeted cells and tissues. The concept of bystander effects of radiation was first proposed in the latter half of the last century which led to a paradigm shift in classical dogma of radiation biology. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Proteomic Profiling of Human Hepatic Stellate Cell Line LX2 Responses to Irradiation and TGF-β1.

J Proteome Res 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the main target of radiation damage and primarily contribute to the development of radiation-induced liver fibrosis. However, the molecular events underlying the radiation-induced activation of HSCs are not fully elucidated. In the present study, human HSC line LX2 was treated with X-ray irradiation and/or TGF-β1 and profibrogenic molecules were evaluated. Read More

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November 2018

LINE-1 Hypomethylation is Associated With Radiation-Induced Genomic Instability in Industrial Radiographers.

Environ Mol Mutagen 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.

Global DNA hypomethylation is proposed as a potential biomarker for cancer risk associated with genomic instability, which is an important factor in radiation-induced cancer. However, the associations among radiation exposure, changes in DNA methylation, and carcinogenesis are unclear. The aims of this study were (1) to examine whether low-level occupational radiation exposure induces genomic DNA hypomethylation; and (2) to determine the relationships between radiation exposure, genomic DNA hypomethylation and radiation-induced genomic instability (RIGI) in industrial radiographers. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Trehalose inhibits cell proliferation and amplifies long-term temozolomide- and radiation-induced cytotoxicity in melanoma cells: A role for autophagy and premature senescence.

J Cell Physiol 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Molecular and Developmental Medicine, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.

Cutaneous melanomas frequently metastasize to the brain, with temozolomide (TMZ) plus radiotherapy (RT) offering little control of these lesions. We tested whether trehalose, a natural glucose disaccharide proved to induce autophagy, could enhance the effect of TMZ and ionizing radiation (IR). In two melanoma cell lines (A375 and SK-Mel-28), which greatly differ in chemosensitivity and radiosensitivity, trehalose significantly inhibited short-term cell proliferation and also enhanced IR-induced cytostasis. Read More

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November 2018

Expression of interferon regulatory factors (IRF-1 and IRF-2) during radiation-induced damage and regeneration of bone marrow by transplantation in mouse.

Mol Biol Rep 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Molecular Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, 110067, India.

Interferon regulatory factors (IRF-1 and IRF-2) are transcription factors of IRF-family that regulate expression of genes for cytokines, chemokines and growth factors in mammalian cells. IRF-1 and IRF-2 play crucial roles in the differentiation of bone marrow cells for immune response. Bone marrow (BM) is the soft lymphoid organ that contains many types of stem cells and produces different types of cells of the blood and immune system. Read More

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November 2018

Therapeutic Benefit of Placentrex in the Management of Acute Chemo Radiation Induced Mucositis in Oral Cancer Patients

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2018 Nov 29;19(11):3099-3103. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute, Porur, Chennai, India. Email: cvdivyambika@ sriramachandra.edu.in

Background: A troublesome and usually unavoidable consequence of Head and Neck chemo radiation is oral mucositis which decreases patients’ compliance and negatively influences the outcome of therapy by increasing overall treatment time. Currently, no single effective recommended treatment exists for this problem and a variety of supportive care measures have been practiced with limited benefits. This study was done to evaluate the therapeutic benefit of Placentrex in the management of oral mucositis seen in oral cancer patients undergoing treatment with concurrent chemoradiation. Read More

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November 2018

Proton radiation-induced cancer progression.

Life Sci Space Res (Amst) 2018 Nov 18;19:31-42. Epub 2018 Aug 18.

Department of Cell Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 6000 Harry Hines Blvd., Dallas, TX 75390, USA. Electronic address:

There are considerable health risks related to ionizing and proton radiation exposure. While there is a long history of health risks associated with ionizing (photon) radiation exposure, there is a limited understanding of the long-term health risks associated with proton radiation exposure. Since proton radiation is becoming more common in cancer therapy, the long-term biological effects of proton radiation remain less well characterized in terms of radiotherapy and well as for astronauts during deep space explorations. Read More

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November 2018

Chemical Degradation Pathways in Siloxane Polymers Following Phenyl Excitations.

J Phys Chem B 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

We use ensembles of quantum-based molecular dynamics simulations to predict the chemical reactions that follow radiation-induced excitations of phenyl groups in a model copolymer of polydimethylsiloxane and polydiphenylsiloxane. Our simulations span a wide range of highly porous and condensed phase densities, and include both wet and dry conditions. We observe that in the absence of water, excited phenyl groups tend to abstract hydrogen from other methyl or phenyl side groups to produce benzene, with the under-hydrogenated group initiating subsequent intrachain cyclization reactions. Read More

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November 2018

Reduction of radiation­induced nitrative stress in leucocytes and kidney cells of rats upon administration of polyphenolic complex concentrates from red wine.

Tsitol Genet 2016 May-Jun;50(3):46-56

The research has shown that exposure to ionizing radiation at the dose of 30 cGy leads to the activation of NO-synthase way of nitrogen oxide synthesis, as well as to the accumulation of its stable metabolites and 3’-nitrotyrosine modified proteins in rat peripheral blood leucocytes and the renal cortical layer. NO-synthase activity was preserved at the control value through the consumption of red wine natural polyphenolic complex concentrates by the irradiated animals. The content of proteins modified by tyrosine nitration decreased in the early period of post-radiation exposure due to the influence of the investigated concentrate. Read More

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November 2018

Naturally-Derived PHA-L Protein Nanoparticle as a Radioprotector Through Activation of Toll-Like Receptor 5.

J Biomed Nanotechnol 2019 Jan;15(1):62-76

High energy ray in medical diagnosis and therapy can benefit to patients, but can also cause the significant damages to biomolecules such as DNA, as well as free radical generation, inevitably leading to numerous side effects. Small molecular radioprotectors provide an effective route to preserve the healthy tissue and whole body from ionizing radiation, but always have a short circulation time in body. Inorganic nanoparticles show major protection effect but their heavy metal components considerably jeopardize translational promise due to suboptimal biocompatibility. Read More

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January 2019

Evidence of a Dose Threshold for Radiation-Induced Leukemia.

Authors:
Jerry M Cuttler

Dose Response 2018 Oct-Dec;16(4):1559325818811537. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Cuttler & Associates Inc, Vaughan, Ontario, Canada.

In 1958, Neil Wald presented data on the incidence of leukemia among the Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors. These data, which suggested a dose-response threshold for radiation-induced leukemia, were included in the first UNSCEAR report (1958). However, this evidence of a threshold was not recognized. Read More

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November 2018

Topical silymarin administration for prevention of acute radiodermatitis in breast cancer patients: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Phytother Res 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Pharmaceutical Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Radiation-induced dermatitis is one of the most common side effects of radiotherapy. Silymarin, a flavonoid extracted from the Silybum marianum, exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of silymarin gel in prevention of radiodermatitis in patients with breast cancer. Read More

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November 2018

Evaluation of radiation-induced cardiac toxicity in breast cancer patients treated with Trastuzumab-based chemotherapy.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 100 Blossom Street, Boston, MA, 02114, USA.

Purpose: Patients with Her2-positive breast cancer treated with trastuzumab have higher rates of cardiotoxicity (CT). Left-breast radiation might increase the risk for CT from cardiac exposure to radiation. The goal of our study is to evaluate the contribution of radiotherapy (RT) in the development of CT in breast cancer patients receiving trastuzumab. Read More

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November 2018
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Risk of radiation-induced lens opacities among surgeons and interventional medical staff.

Radiol Phys Technol 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Occupational Medicine, University of Rome "Tor Vergata", Viale Oxford 81, 00133, Rome, Italy.

The main effect of ionizing radiation on the eyes is the onset of posterior cortical and subcapsular cataracts. Recent studies have raised questions about the mechanism of ocular damage and the threshold dose for the onset of such effects. Currently, operators may be exposed to ionizing radiation during surgical procedures. Read More

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November 2018

Phase II trial on SBRT for unresectable liver metastases: long-term outcome and prognostic factors of survival after 5 years of follow-up.

Radiat Oncol 2018 Nov 26;13(1):234. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Radiotherapy and Radiosurgery Department, Humanitas Cancer Center, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Via Manzoni 56, 20089, Rozzano, Milan, Italy.

Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term efficacy and survival prognostic factors of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for un-resectable liver metastases in patients enrolled in a prospective phase II trial.

Methods And Materials: 5-year local control (LC), overall survival (OS), progression free survival (PFS) and toxicity rates were analyzed in patients with un-resectable liver metastases enrolled in a Phase II Trial on liver SBRT, with a prescription dose of 75Gy in 3 consecutive fractions.

Results: A total of 61 patients with 76 lesions were enrolled, with a median follow-up time of 6. Read More

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November 2018