44,572 results match your criteria Radiation-Induced Brachial Plexopathy


Long-Term Consequences of the Chernobyl Radioactive Fallout: An Exploration of the Aggregate Data.

Milbank Q 2018 Dec;96(4):814-857

University of Padua.

Policy Points Policymakers should invest more on researching the long-term health effects of low-ionizing radiation exposure, as we are far from reaching a consensus on a topic that is of enormous importance for public health and safety. Public policies such as those limiting the import of contaminated food from areas hit by a radioactive disaster or those regulating the resident population's access to such areas should follow a precautionary approach. Neoplasm diagnosis and medical care should be designed in order to take into account the possible role of long-term, low-dose radiation exposure. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Modeling and multi-scale characterization of the quantitative imaging based fibrosis index reveals pathophysiological, transcriptome and proteomic correlates of lung fibrosis induced by fractionated irradiation.

Int J Cancer 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Translational Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT), German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

Pulmonary fibrosis represents a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Therapy induced lung fibrosis constitutes a pivotal dose-limiting side effect of radiotherapy and other anticancer agents. We aimed to develop objective criteria for assessment of fibrosis and discover pathophysiological and molecular correlates of lung fibrosis as a function of fractionated whole thoracic irradiation. Read More

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December 2018

The effectiveness of mouthwashes in alleviating radiation-induced oral mucositis in head and neck cancer patients: a systematic review.

Oral Radiol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Institute of Biomedical & Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima, 734-8553, Japan.

Objective: The aim of the study was to perform a systematic literature search and meta-analysis to reveal the most effective mouthwash for head and neck cancer patients who are experiencing radiation therapy-induced mucositis.

Methods: Using two electronic databases, a literature search and data interpretation were systematically performed as follows: (i) problem specification, (ii) devising of a literature search plan, (iii) literature search and retrieval of publications, and (iv) meta-analysis and data interpretation. The main problem was specified as follows: what mouthwash is effective in alleviating oral mucositis for head and neck cancer patients who are undergoing radiotherapy?

Results: The literature search yielded 354 titles and abstracts. Read More

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December 2018

COMPUTATIONAL MODELING OF LOW DOSE HYPER-RADIOSENSITIVITY AND INDUCED RADIORESISTANCE APPLYING THE PRINCIPLE OF MINIMUM MUTATION LOAD.

Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Radiation Biophysics Group, Environmental Physics Department, MTA Centre for Energy Research, Budapest, Hungary.

Low dose hyper-radiosensitivity (HRS) and induced radioresistance (IRR) can be observed in the dose dependence of survival of many different cell lines. While surviving fraction decreases exponentially in a large-scale view, a local minimum can be found at around 0.5 Gy. Read More

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December 2018

SIMULATION OF EARLY RADIATION-INDUCED DNA DAMAGE ON DIFFERENT TYPES OF CELL NUCLEI.

Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

IRSN, Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, BP17, Fontenay aux Roses, France.

This work presents a comparison of simulated early radiation-induced DNA damage represented by yields of double-strand breaks (DSB) in three different human cell nuclei geometries representing fibroblasts, lymphocytes and endothelial cells for protons and alpha particles of different energies and for different irradiation configurations. Each cell nucleus model includes a multi-scale description of the DNA target from the molecular level to the whole human genome representation (6 Gbp) in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle and was generated with the DnaFabric software that takes into account the physical, physico-chemical and chemical stages was used to simulate the irradiation of the different cell nuclei. Results show an increase of DSB/primary/μm with an increase of DNA density and an increase of DSB/Gy/Gbp with an increase of the cell nucleus volume which indicates that the cell nucleus shape and size have an impact on early DNA damage, which may play a role in latter effects. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

INTER-PATIENT VARIABILITY IN DOSES TO NEARBY ORGANS IN BREAST-CANCER RADIOTHERAPY: INFERENCE FROM ANATOMIC FEATURES.

Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany.

With improved cure rates and prolonged patient survival after breast-cancer radiotherapy, radiation-induced second cancers and heart diseases become increasingly important. The heart, lungs and contralateral breast are the most critical organs for these long-term effects. Doses to these organs and hence the risks differ between radiotherapy techniques and especially among patients. Read More

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December 2018
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BYSTANDER WI-38 CELLS MODULATE DNA DOUBLE-STRAND BREAK REPAIR IN MICROBEAM-TARGETED A549 CELLS THROUGH GAP JUNCTION INTERCELLULAR COMMUNICATION.

Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

SPICE-BIO research core, International Open Laboratory, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage-ku, Chiba, Japan.

Bi-directional signaling involved in radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) between irradiated carcinoma cells and their surrounding non-irradiated normal cells is relevant to radiation cancer therapy. Using the SPICE-NIRS microbeam, we delivered 500 protons to A549-GFP lung carcinoma cells, stably expressing H2B-GFP, which were co-cultured with normal WI-38 cells. The level of γ-H2AX, a marker for DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), was subsequently measured up to 24-h post-irradiation in both targeted and bystander cells. Read More

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December 2018

A COMPARISON BETWEEN X-RAY AND CARBON ION IRRADIATION IN HUMAN NEURAL STEM CELLS.

Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Physics, University of Pavia, via Bassi 6, Pavia, Italy.

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is characterized by a poor prognosis and a median survival of ~12-18 months. GBM is usually managed by neurosurgery followed by both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Since GBM develops resistance to conventional therapies, treatment with C-ions is promising to completely eradicate the tumoural mass. Read More

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December 2018

INVESTIGATION INTO THE PROBABILITY FOR MISCOUNTING IN FOCI-BASED ASSAYS.

Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department 6.5 Radiation Effects, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Bundesallee 100, Braunschweig, Germany.

When early radiation damage to biological systems is studied based on the formation of foci at the location of DNA double-strand breaks, the foci observed in irradiated cells either may be induced by ionizing radiation (IR) interactions or they may be due to other causes that lead to observation of foci also in unirradiated cells. Generally, to take account of the latter, additional samples are taken where the exposure to IR is skipped in the protocol. The data analysis relies on statistical independence of the frequency distributions of background and radiation-induced foci. Read More

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December 2018

HOW DETECTION OF PLASMID DNA FRAGMENTATION AFFECTS RADIATION STRAND BREAK YIELDS.

Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Radiation Dosimetry, Nuclear Physics Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Na Truhlárce 39/64, Prague, Czech Republic.

A compromised detection of radiation-induced plasmid DNA fragments results in underestimation of calculated damage yields. Electrophoretic methods are easy and cheap, but they can only detect a part of the fragments, neglecting the shortest ones. These can be detected with atomic force microscopy, but at the expense of time and price. Read More

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December 2018

Non-invasive imaging techniques for early diagnosis of radiation-induced squamous cell carcinoma of the lip.

Rom J Morphol Embryol 2018 ;59(3):949-953

"Victor Babeş" National Institute for Research and Development in Pathology and Biomedical Sciences, Bucharest, Romania;

Ionizing radiation was used in the past for treatment of several benign cutaneous conditions, and particularly hemangiomas. Even though radiotherapy was generally effective, it significantly augmented the risk for malignancies, resulting in a consequent heavy decline of its use for benign conditions. However, radiation-induced neoplasia is still encountered in adult patients irradiated during childhood or adolescence. Read More

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January 2018

Protective Role of Nuclear Factor-Erythroid 2-Related Factor 2 Against Radiation-Induced Lung Injury and Inflammation.

Front Oncol 2018 23;8:542. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Department of Radiation and Medical Oncology Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) is one of the most common and fatal complications of thoracic radiotherapy. Inflammatory cell infiltration, imbalance of inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative damage were reported to be involved during RILI pathogenesis, especially in the early phase of RILI. Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a key transcriptional regulator of antioxidative cascades, and regulates life span of mice after administration of thoracic irradiation. Read More

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November 2018

Proton therapy for treatment of intracranial benign tumors in adults: A systematic review.

Cancer Treat Rev 2018 Dec 1;72:56-64. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Radiation Oncology Department, Centre François Baclesse, Caen, France; Archade, Advanced Resource Center for Hadrontherapy in Europe, Caen, France; Normandy University, Université de Caen Basse Normandie, Caen, France; Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, Caen, France.

Introduction: The depth-dose distribution of a proton beam, materialized by the Bragg peak makes it an attractive radiation modality as it reduces exposure of healthy tissues to radiations, compared with photon therapy Prominent indications, based on a long-standing experience are: intraocular melanomas, low-grade skull-base and spinal canal malignancies. However, many others potential indications are under investigations such as the benign morbid conditions that are compatible with an extended life-expectancy: low grade meningiomas, paragangliomas, pituitary adenomas, neurinomas craniopharyngioma or recurrent pleomorphic adenomas.

Materials: Given the radiation-induced risk of secondary cancer and the potential neurocognitive and functional alteration with photonic radiotherapy, we systematically analyzed the existing clinical literature about the use of proton therapy as an irradiation modality for cervical or intracranial benign tumors. Read More

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December 2018

Radiation-induced enteritis.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Section of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Houston, TX 77030.

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December 2018

A Functional Immune System Is Required For The Systemic Genotoxic Effects Of Localised Irradiation.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Research Division, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia; Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. Electronic address:

Introduction: Non-targeted effects of ionizing radiation, by which unirradiated cells and tissues are also damaged, are a relatively new paradigm in radiobiology. We recently reported radiation-induced abscopal effects (RIAEs) in normal tissues, namely DNA damage, apoptosis, and activation of the local and systemic immune responses in C57BL6/J mice after irradiation of a small region of the body [1]. High dose-rate synchrotron-generated broad beam or multi-planar X-ray microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) was used with various field sizes and doses. Read More

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December 2018

Clarifying the relative impacts of vascular and nerve injury that culminate in erectile dysfunction in a pilot study using a rat model of prostate irradiation and a thrombopoietin mimetic.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Duke University School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Durham, NC 27710. Electronic address:

Purpose: Radiation therapy (RT) offers an important and curative approach to treating prostate cancer but is associated with a high incidence of erectile dysfunction (ED). It is not clear if the etiology of radiation-induced ED (RI-ED) is driven by RT-mediated injury to the vasculature, the nerves, or both. This pilot study sought to distinguish the impacts of vascular and nerve injury in RI-ED by applying a vascular radioprotectant in a rat model of prostate RT. Read More

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December 2018

Immune mechanisms mediating abscopal effects in radioimmunotherapy.

Pharmacol Ther 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Division of Immunology and Immunotherapy, Center for Applied Medical Research (CIMA),; Department of Immunology and immunotherapy, University Clinic of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain/; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Cáncer (CIBERONC), Madrid, Spain.

Radiotherapy of cancer has been traditionally considered as a local therapy without noticeable effects outside the irradiated fields. However, ionizing radiation exerts multiple biological effects on both malignant and stromal cells that account for a complex spectrum of mechanisms beyond simple termination of cancer cells. In the era of immunotherapy, interest in radiation-induced inflammation and cell death has considerably risen, since these mechanisms lead to profound changes in the systemic immune response against cancer antigens. Read More

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December 2018

The absence of the RecN protein suppresses the cellular defects of Deinococcus radiodurans irradiated cells devoid of the PprA protein by limiting recombinational repair of DNA lesions.

DNA Repair (Amst) 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Institute for Integrative Biology of the Cell (I2BC), CEA, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91198, Gif-sur-Yvette cedex, France. Electronic address:

The Deinococcus radiodurans bacterium is one of the most radioresistant organisms known. It can repair hundreds of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks without loss of viability and reconstitute an intact genome through RecA-dependent and RecA-independent DNA repair pathways. Among the Deinococcus specific proteins required for radioresistance, the PprA protein was shown to play a major role for accurate chromosome segregation and cell division after completion of DNA repair. Read More

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November 2018

Emerging Role of Secondary Bystander Effects Induced by Fractionated Proton Microbeam Radiation.

Radiat Res 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

c   SPICE-BIO Research Core, National Institute of Radiological Sciences International Open Laboratory, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, Inage-ku, Chiba, 263-8555 Japan.

Increased understanding of radiation-induced secondary bystander effect (RISBE) is relevant to radiation therapy since it likely contributes to normal tissue injury and tumor recurrence, subsequently resulting in treatment failure. In this work, we developed a simple method based on proton microbeam radiation and a transwell insert co-culture system to elucidate the RISBE between irradiated human lung cancer cells and nonirradiated human normal cells. A549 lung cancer cells received a single dose or fractionated doses of proton microbeam radiation to generate the primary bystander cells. Read More

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December 2018

Therapeutic potential of natural plant products and their metabolites in preventing radiation enteropathy resulting from abdominal or pelvic irradiation.

Int J Radiat Biol 2018 Dec 7:1-43. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

a Division of Radiation Health, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy.

Purpose: Radiation-induced gastrointestinal injury or radiation enteropathy is an imminent risk during radiation therapy of abdominal or pelvic tumors. Despite remarkable technological advancements in image-guided radiation delivery techniques, the risk of intestinal injury after radiotherapy for abdominal or pelvic cancers has not been completely eliminated. The irradiated intestine undergoes varying degrees of adverse structural and functional changes, which can result in transient or long-term complications. Read More

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December 2018

Analysis of a lectin microarray identifies altered sialylation of mouse serum glycoproteins induced by whole-body radiation exposure.

J Radiat Res 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Experimental Oncology, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3, Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima, Japan.

Microarrays containing 45 different lectins were analyzed to identify global changes in the glycosylation of serum glycoproteins from mice exposed to whole-body γ-radiation. The results showed that radiation exposure increased and decreased the relative amounts of α-2,3- and α-2,6-sialic acids, respectively. The expression of α-2,3- and α-2,6-sialyltransferase genes in the liver was analyzed to determine whether changes in their expression were responsible for the sialic acid changes. Read More

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December 2018
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BIOINFORMATIC ANALYSIS OF DOSE- AND TIME-DEPENDENT miRNome RESPONSES.

Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Laboratory of Biomedical Technologies, Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), Rome, Italy.

The advent of new 'omics' techniques determined a massive boost in the measurement of the whole spectra of molecules within cells, favoring promising new radiobiological studies at low doses. The main aim of this work was to assess the radiation-induced perturbations of miRNA profiles and their temporal dynamics. Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells were irradiated with low doses of γ-rays. Read More

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December 2018
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LONG-TERM HEALTH RISK AFTER BREAST-CANCER RADIOTHERAPY: OVERVIEW OF PASSOS METHODOLOGY AND SOFTWARE.

Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Klinik für Strahlentherapie, Universität Leipzig, Stephanstr. 9a, Leipzig, Germany.

Breast-cancer radiotherapy reduces the recurrence rates and improves patient survival. However, it also increases the incidence of second cancers and of heart disease. These radiation-induced long-term health risks become increasingly important with improved cure rates and prolonged patient survival. Read More

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December 2018

Effects of High- and Low-LET Radiation on Human Hematopoietic System Reconstituted in Immunodeficient Mice.

Radiat Res 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

a   Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York.

Over the last 50 years, a number of important physiological changes in humans who have traveled on spaceflights have been catalogued. Of major concern are the short- and long-term radiation-induced injuries to the hematopoietic system that may be induced by high-energy galactic cosmic rays encountered on interplanetary space missions. To collect data on the effects of space radiation on the human hematopoietic system in vivo, we used a humanized mouse model. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Casticin inhibits growth and enhances ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis through the suppression of STAT3 signaling cascade.

J Cell Biochem 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Science in Korean Medicine, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Casticin (CTC), one of the major components of Vitex rotundifolia L., has been reported to exert significant beneficial pharmacological activities and can function as an antiprolactin, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, analgesic, and immunomodulatory agent. This study aimed at investigating whether the proapoptotic effects of CTC may be mediated through the abrogation of signal transducers and activators of transcription-3 (STAT3) signaling pathway in a variety of human tumor cells. Read More

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December 2018

Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease as a cause of severe pulmonary hypertension in a dog.

Acta Vet Scand 2018 Dec 5;60(1):78. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 108, 3508 TD, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) is a rare cause of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in humans and can be classified in idiopathic, heritable, drug and radiation-induced, and associated with connective tissue disease or human immunodeficiency virus infection. Recently, biallelic mutations of the EIF2AK4 gene have been discovered as a cause for an autosomal recessive form of PVOD in humans. In dogs, PAH is poorly characterized and is generally considered to be idiopathic or secondary to (for example) congenital left-to right cardiovascular shunts or heartworm disease. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Protective Role of α2-Macroglobulin against Jaw Osteoradionecrosis in a Preclinical Rat Model.

J Oral Pathol Med 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, The Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, 510655, China.

Objective: We have previously demonstrated the effect of alpha-2-macroglobulin (α2M) in the remediation of radiation-induced cellular damage. Here, we investigated the protective effects of α2M in a preclinical rat model of jaw osteoradionecrosis (ORN).

Methods: Eighteen rats were divided randomly into three groups: the control group, the radiation therapy (RT) alone group, and the radiated mandibles pretreated with α2M (α2M + RT) group. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Radiogenomic Predictors of Adverse Effects following Charged Particle Therapy.

Int J Part Ther 2018 21;5(1):103-113. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Department of Radiation Oncology and Department of Genetics & Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

Radiogenomics is the study of genomic factors that are associated with response to radiation therapy. In recent years, progress has been made toward identifying genetic risk factors linked with late radiation-induced adverse effects. These advances have been underpinned by the establishment of an international Radiogenomics Consortium with collaborative studies that expand cohort sizes to increase statistical power and efforts to improve methodologic approaches for radiogenomic research. Read More

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September 2018

Radiation-induced gray matter atrophy in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after intensity modulated radiotherapy: a MRI magnetic resonance imaging voxel-based morphometry study.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2018 Oct;8(9):902-909

Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310009, China.

Background: Gray matter (GM) damage after radiotherapy (RT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients can result in cognitive impairment, while there may be no visible brain tissue change according to the conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study investigated radiation-induced GM volume differences between NPC patients who received RT and those who did not.

Methods: High-resolution brain structural MRI data from two groups of patients were acquired. Read More

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October 2018

The concept of rapid rescue radiosurgery in the acute management of critically located brain metastases: A retrospective short-term outcome analysis.

Surg Neurol Int 2018 30;9:218. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Department of Neurosurgery, Karolinska Institute, Centre for Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Adaptive hypofractionated gamma knife radiosurgery has been used to treat brain metastases in the eloquent regions while limiting the risk of adverse radiation effect (ARE). Ablative responses might be achieved within days to weeks with the goal to preserve the neurological function. The application of this treatment modality in selected acute/subacute settings has been termed Rapid Rescue Radiosurgery (RRR) in our department. Read More

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October 2018

Blueberry extract attenuates γ-radiation-induced hepatocyte damage by modulating oxidative stress and suppressing NF-κB in male rats.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2018 Nov 4;25(7):1272-1277. Epub 2018 Jul 4.

Biochemistry Department, Science Faculty in Alsolimania, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia.

Radiation exposure is known to produce many harmful effects in biological systems, and these effects are often mediated by oxygen free radicals. Because blueberries are rich in antioxidant compounds such as anthocyanins and phenolic acids, we divided forty adult rats into four treatment groups of 10 (G1-4) as follows: G1 rats were used as a control, G2 rats were irradiated with 8 Gy at 2 Gy/week at a dose rate of 0.5 Gy/min, G3 rats were administered blueberry extract (200 mg/kg) and G4 rats were administered blueberry extract during the same irradiation period. Read More

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November 2018

Tumour-vasculature development via endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition after radiotherapy controls CD44v6 cancer cell and macrophage polarization.

Nat Commun 2018 11 30;9(1):5108. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Division of Radiation Biomedical Research, Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences, Seoul, 139-706, Korea.

It remains controversial whether targeting tumour vasculature can improve radiotherapeutic efficacy. We report that radiation-induced endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) leads to tumour vasculature with abnormal SMANG2 pericyte recruitment during tumour regrowth after radiotherapy. Trp53 (but not Tgfbr2) deletion in endothelial cells (ECs) inhibited radiation-induced EndMT, reducing tumour regrowth and metastases with a high CD44v6 cancer-stem-cell (CSC) content after radiotherapy. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Regeneration after radiation- and immune-mediated tissue injury is not enhanced by type III interferon signaling.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Klinik und Poliklinik fu¨r Innere Medizin 3, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany. Electronic address:

Purpose: Type I interferon (IFN-I) and IL-22 modulate regeneration of the thymus and intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) after cytotoxic stress like irradiation. Radiation-induced damage to thymic tissues and IECs is a crucial aspect during the pathogenesis of inadequate immune reconstitution and acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) with myeloablative total body irradiation (TBI), respectively. IL-22 and IFN-I reduce severity of acute GVHD after allo-HSCT with myeloablative TBI. Read More

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November 2018

Phase I/II trial of helical IMRT-based stereotactic body radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma.

Dig Liver Dis 2018 Nov 17. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: To report the results of a phase I/II study of helical IMRT-based stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

Methods: Eligibility included Child-Turcotte-Pugh class A or B, ≤3 lesions, and cumulative tumor diameter ≤6 cm. Dose was escalated from 36 Gy to 60 Gy delivered in 4 fractions. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Malnutrition screening in outpatients receiving hyperbaric oxygen therapy: an opportunity for improvement?

Diving Hyperb Med 2018 Dec;48(4):206-207

Nutrition Department, Alfred Health, Melbourne.

Outpatients who receive hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) may represent a group at significant risk of malnutrition owing to the underlying conditions that are often treated with HBOT (e.g., non-healing diabetic wounds and radiation-induced skin injury). Read More

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December 2018
7 Reads

Radiosurgery or hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy after craniospinal irradiation in children and adults with medulloblastoma and ependymoma.

Childs Nerv Syst 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Radiotherapy, The Maria Sklodowska-Curie Institute - Oncology Center, Gliwice Branch, Ul. Wybrzeże AK 15, 44-101, Gliwice, Poland.

Purpose: To assess the results and tolerance of radiosurgery/hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy performed after craniospinal irradiation for recurrent tumor.

Methods: Fourteen patients aged 3-46 years, diagnosed with medulloblastoma (10), anaplastic ependymoma (3), and primitive neuroectodermal tumor (1). All patients had craniospinal irradiation (CSI) with the total dose of 30. Read More

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December 2018

Reconstitution of the Ataxia-Telangiectasia Cellular Phenotype With Lentiviral Vectors.

Front Immunol 2018 20;9:2703. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Institute of Biopathology and Regenerative Medicine, Center for Biomedical Research, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.

Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a complex disease arising from mutations in the gene (Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated), which plays crucial roles in repairing double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs). Heterogeneous immunodeficiency, extreme radiosensitivity, frequent appearance of tumors and neurological degeneration are hallmarks of the disease, which carries high morbidity and mortality because only palliative treatments are currently available. Gene therapy was effective in animal models of the disease, but the large size of the cDNA required the use of HSV-1 or HSV/AAV hybrid amplicon vectors, whose characteristics make them unlikely tools for treating A-T patients. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Radiation-Induced Reactions in The Liver - Modulation of Radiation Effects by Lifestyle-Related Factors.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Dec 3;19(12). Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Human Resources Development Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, QST, Chiba-shi 263-8555, Japan.

Radiation has a wide variety of effects on the liver. Fibrosis is a concern in medical fields as one of the acute effects of high-dose irradiation, such as with cancer radiotherapies. Cancer is also an important concern following exposure to radiation. Read More

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December 2018

Naringin prevents ultraviolet-B radiation-induced oxidative damage and inflammation through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ in mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH-3T3) cells.

J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2018 Dec 4:e22263. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, India.

The present study, we investigate the preventive role of naringin, a dietary flavonoid, against ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation (280-320 nm) induced oxidative damage and inflammatory responses in mouse embryonic fibroblast cell lines (NIH-3T3). In this study, 20 mJ/cm of UVB radiation induces cell cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, DNA damage, and antioxidants depletion in NIH-3T3 cells. Treatment with naringin (60 µM) prior UVB exposure prevented the cell cytotoxicity, ROS generation, DNA damage, and antioxidants depletion in NIH-3T3 cells. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read
1.925 Impact Factor

Toward Automatic Detection of Radiation-Induced Cerebral Microbleeds Using a 3D Deep Residual Network.

J Digit Imaging 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

UCSF-UC Berkeley Graduate Program in Bioengineering, San Francisco, USA.

Cerebral microbleeds, which are small focal hemorrhages in the brain that are prevalent in many diseases, are gaining increasing attention due to their potential as surrogate markers of disease burden, clinical outcomes, and delayed effects of therapy. Manual detection is laborious and automatic detection and labeling of these lesions is challenging using traditional algorithms. Inspired by recent successes of deep convolutional neural networks in computer vision, we developed a 3D deep residual network that can distinguish true microbleeds from false positive mimics of a previously developed technique based on traditional algorithms. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Determining RBE for development of lung fibrosis induced by fractionated irradiation with carbon ions utilizing fibrosis index and high-LET BED model.

Clin Transl Radiat Oncol 2019 Jan 2;14:25-32. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Translational Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

Background And Purposes: Carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT) with raster scanning technology is a promising treatment for lung cancer and thoracic malignancies. Determining normal tissue tolerance of organs at risk is of utmost importance for the success of CIRT. Here we report the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of CIRT as a function of dose and fractionation for development of pulmonary fibrosis using well established fibrosis index (FI) model. Read More

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January 2019
1 Read

Protective Effect of JXT Ethanol Extract on Radiation-Induced Hematopoietic Alteration and Oxidative Stress in the Liver.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2018 28;2018:9017835. Epub 2018 Oct 28.

Department of Basic Theory of Chinese Medicine, School of Pre-Clinical Medicine, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510060, China.

This study aims at investigating the radioprotective effect of ethanol extract from Ji-Xue-Teng (JXT, ) on radiation-induced hematopoietic alteration and oxidative stress in the liver. Mice were exposed to a single acute -radiation for the whole body at the dose of 6.0 Gy, then subjected to administration of amifostine (45 mg/kg) or JXT (40 g crude drug/kg) once a day for 28 consecutive days, respectively. Read More

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October 2018
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Protection Against Radiation-Induced Micronuclei in Rat Bone Marrow Erythrocytes by Curcumin and Selenium L-Methionine.

Iran J Med Sci 2018 Nov;43(6):645-652

Department of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The search for potent radioprotective agents for the amelioration of radiation side effect is an important aim in radiobiology. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of curcumin and seleno-L-methionine against radiation-induced micronucleus formation in rat bone marrow.

Methods: In total, 40 male rats were divided into 8 groups (n=5 each), including control, curcumin or seleno-L-methionine treated alone or in combination, 2 Gy irradiation, irradiation of treated groups with curcumin or seleno-L-methionine or their combination. Read More

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November 2018
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Ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage is prognostic for outcome in melanoma.

Nat Med 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Molecular Oncology Group, Cancer Research UK Manchester Institute, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

The melanoma genome is dominated by ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced mutations. Their relevance in disease progression is unknown. Here we classify melanomas by mutation signatures and identify ten recurrently mutated UVR signature genes that predict patient survival. Read More

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December 2018
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Radiotherapy of prostate cancer in renal transplant recipients: single-center experience.

Neoplasma 2018 Sep 4. Epub 2018 Sep 4.

Department of Urology with Kidney Transplant Center, Comenius University Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Bratislava, Bratislava, Slovakia.

This study analyzed the long-term outcomes of localized prostate cancer in renal transplant recipients after radiotherapy treatment - mainly brachytherapy. We retrospectively analyzed clinical data of renal transplant recipients between 2003 and 2016 at a single tertiary center, and identified four patients with high serum PSA level during regular follow-up, 1-108 months after primary renal transplantation. The mean age of patients with detected high serum PSA level with 9. Read More

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September 2018
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Prophylaxis with oral zinc sulfate against radiation-induced oropharyngeal mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer: Protocol for a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Nov;97(48):e13310

Department of Nursing, Peking University of Stomatology Hospital, Beijing.

Background: Oropharyngeal mucositis is considered to be an inevitable and the most troubling side effect of head and neck irradiation, which is caused by the direct toxic action of radiation on oral mucosa. Several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have investigated the efficacy of zinc sulfate in prevention of radiation-induced oropharyngeal mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer. However, the definite conclusions have not been confirmed. Read More

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November 2018
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Elucidation of molecular expression associated with abnormal development and sterility caused by electron beam irradiation in Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

Int J Radiat Biol 2018 Nov 30:1-34. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

a Department of Plant Medicine , College of Agriculture, Life and Environment Sciences, Chungbuk National University , Cheongju , Republic of Korea.

Purpose: The objective of the present study was to elucidate the mode of indirect action of electron beam irradiation at the molecular level against a quarantine pest, Spodoptera litura (F.).

Materials And Methods: Electron beam irradiation (50 - 200 Gy) was applied to S. Read More

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November 2018