424 results match your criteria Radiation Therapy General Principles

Impact of Hippocampal Avoidance - Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation in Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients.

Cancer Diagn Progn 2022 May-Jun;2(3):279-284. Epub 2022 May 3.

School of Medicine, National & Kapodistrian University, 3rd Department of Medicine, Sotiria General Hospital, Athens, Greece.

Background/aim: Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is a well-established treatment of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients following response to initial chemoradiotherapy. The benefit of PCI does, however, come at the cost of cognitive decline. This has been attributed to radiation-induced toxicity at the hippocampus, a crucial anatomic area for cognition. Read More

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Rules of Chinese Herbal Intervention of Radiation Pneumonia Based on Network Pharmacology and Data Mining.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2022 25;2022:7313864. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Graduate School of Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029, China.

Objective: To explore the mechanism and principles of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the management of radiation pneumonia.

Methods: The targets of radiation pneumonia were obtained by screening the GeneCards, OMIM, TTD, DrugBank, and HERB databases, analyzing ADME parameters. In addition, compounds and Chinese herbs that can act on the targets were screened from the TCMSP database. Read More

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Overcoming differential tumor penetration of BRAF inhibitors using computationally guided combination therapy.

Sci Adv 2022 Apr 29;8(17):eabl6339. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Center for Systems Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital Research Institute, Boston, MA, USA.

BRAF-targeted kinase inhibitors (KIs) are used to treat malignancies including BRAF-mutant non-small cell lung cancer, colorectal cancer, anaplastic thyroid cancer, and, most prominently, melanoma. However, KI selection criteria in patients remain unclear, as are pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) mechanisms that may limit context-dependent efficacy and differentiate related drugs. To address this issue, we imaged mouse models of BRAF-mutant cancers, fluorescent KI tracers, and unlabeled drug to calibrate in silico spatial PK/PD models. Read More

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Radiobiology of stereotactic radiotherapy.

Rep Pract Oncol Radiother 2022 22;27(1):57-62. Epub 2022 Mar 22.

Radiotherapy Unit, Oncology Department, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Careggi, University of Florence, Italy.

This paper focuses on the radiobiological mechanisms underlying the effects of stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT ) which, despite SRT expansion, have not yet been fully elucidated. Some authors postulated that radiobiology principles, as applied to conventional fractionations (5R: reoxygenation, repair, repopulation, redistribution, radioresistence), suffice in themselves to account for the excellent clinical results of SRT; others argued that the role of the 5R was limited. Recent preclinical data showed that hypofractionated ablative treatments altered the microenvironment, thus determining cell death either directly or indirectly. Read More

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Implementing a community-based shared care breast cancer survivorship model in Singapore: a qualitative study among primary care practitioners.

BMC Prim Care 2022 04 8;23(1):73. Epub 2022 Apr 8.

National Cancer Centre Singapore (Department of Pharmacy), Singapore, Singapore.

Background: The adaptability of existing recommendations on shared care implementation to Asian settings is unknown. This qualitative study aims to elicit public- and private-sectors primary care practitioners' (PCPs) perspectives on the sustainable implementation of a shared care model among breast cancer survivors in Singapore.

Methods: Purposive sampling was employed to engage 70 PCPs from SingHealth Polyclinics, National University Polyclinics, National Healthcare Group Polyclinics, and private practice. Read More

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Position Statement on the Diagnosis, Treatment, and Response Evaluation to Systemic Therapies of Advanced Neuroendocrine Tumors, With a Special Focus on Radioligand Therapy.

Oncologist 2022 04;27(4):e328-e339

Department of Nuclear Medicine Department and Molecular Imaging Research Group, University Hospital and Health Research Institute of Santiago de Compostela (IDIS), Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

Background: The aim of this study was to provide a guidance for the management of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) in clinical practice.

Material And Methods: Nominal group and Delphi techniques were used. A steering committee of 8 experts reviewed the current management of NETs, identified controversies and gaps, critically analyzed the available evidence, and formulated several guiding statements for clinicians. Read More

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Oncoplastic breast consortium recommendations for mastectomy and whole breast reconstruction in the setting of post-mastectomy radiation therapy.

Breast 2022 Jun 18;63:123-139. Epub 2022 Mar 18.

Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.

Aim: Demand for nipple- and skin- sparing mastectomy (NSM/SSM) with immediate breast reconstruction (BR) has increased at the same time as indications for post-mastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) have broadened. The aim of the Oncoplastic Breast Consortium initiative was to address relevant questions arising with this clinically challenging scenario.

Methods: A large global panel of oncologic, oncoplastic and reconstructive breast surgeons, patient advocates and radiation oncologists developed recommendations for clinical practice in an iterative process based on the principles of Delphi methodology. Read More

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Update on Image-Guided Thermal Lung Ablation: Society Guidelines, Therapeutic Alternatives, and Postablation Imaging Findings.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2022 Jun 15:1-15. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Department of Radiology, Division of Thoracic Imaging and Intervention, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit St, FND-202, Boston, MA 02114.

Percutaneous image-guided thermal ablation (IGTA) has been endorsed by multiple societies as a safe and effective lung-preserving treatment of primary lung cancer and metastases involving the lung and chest wall. This article reviews the role of IGTA in the care continuum of patients with thoracic neoplasms and discusses strategies to identify the optimal local therapy considering patient and tumor characteristics. The advantages and disadvantages of percutaneous thermal ablation compared with surgical resection and stereotactic body radiotherapy are summarized. Read More

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DNA repair defects in cancer and therapeutic opportunities.

Genes Dev 2022 03;36(5-6):278-293

Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA.

DNA repair and DNA damage signaling pathways are critical for the maintenance of genomic stability. Defects of DNA repair and damage signaling contribute to tumorigenesis, but also render cancer cells vulnerable to DNA damage and reliant on remaining repair and signaling activities. Here, we review the major classes of DNA repair and damage signaling defects in cancer, the genomic instability that they give rise to, and therapeutic strategies to exploit the resulting vulnerabilities. Read More

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Oncoplastic and Reconstructive Breast Surgery: A Comprehensive Review.

Cureus 2022 Jan 31;14(1):e21763. Epub 2022 Jan 31.

Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, University of Health Sciences, Sisli Hamidiye Etfal Teaching and Research Hospital, Istanbul, TUR.

Most of the approaches that were valid until recently in breast cancer surgery have undergone significant changes with rising awareness, increasing number of patients, and knowledge. It is important to repair the damage caused by surgical treatment performed in accordance with oncological principles and to obtain good cosmetic results. The quality-of-life indexes increase and body image is positively affected by the development of oncoplastic surgery and reconstruction techniques. Read More

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January 2022

Accelerators, Gantries, Magnets and Imaging Systems for Particle Beam Therapy: Recent Status and Prospects for Improvement.

Front Oncol 2021 15;11:737837. Epub 2022 Feb 15.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States.

The paper begins by emphasizing the clinical and commercial importance of proton or other charged particle such as carbon ion therapy, refers to the manufacturers of such systems of which more than 120 are installed or under construction worldwide by April 2021. A general review of charged particle therapy systems refers to six manufacturers and provides in tabular form some details of systems installed in the US, Europe, Asia, and elsewhere. In a description of the principles of particle beam therapy a comparison is made of the properties of photons (x-rays) versus protons and protons versus carbon ions. Read More

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February 2022

A Canadian national guideline on the neoadjuvant treatment of invasive breast cancer, including patient assessment, systemic therapy, and local management principles.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2022 May 28;193(1):1-20. Epub 2022 Feb 28.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre and University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Purpose: The neoadjuvant treatment of breast cancer (NABC) is a rapidly changing area that benefits from guidelines integrating evidence with expert consensus to help direct practice. This can optimize patient outcomes by ensuring the appropriate use of evolving neoadjuvant principles.

Methods: An expert panel formulated evidence-based practice recommendations spanning the entire neoadjuvant breast cancer treatment journey. Read More

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Offline generator for digitally reconstructed radiographs of a commercial stereoscopic radiotherapy image-guidance system.

J Appl Clin Med Phys 2022 Mar 3;23(3):e13492. Epub 2022 Feb 3.

Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Purpose: Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) research sometimes involves simulated changes to patient positioning using retrospectively collected clinical data. For example, researchers may simulate patient misalignments to develop error detection algorithms or positioning optimization algorithms. The Brainlab ExacTrac system can be used to retrospectively "replay" simulated alignment scenarios but does not allow export of digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) with simulated positioning variations for further analysis. Read More

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Guidelines for external radiotherapy and brachytherapy procedures: 3rd edition.

Cancer Radiother 2022 Feb-Apr;26(1-2):2-6. Epub 2021 Dec 22.

Société française de radiothérapie oncologique, centre Antoine-Béclère, 47, rue de la Colonie, 75013 Paris, France; Radiotherapy department, Sorbonne université, groupe hospitalier La Pitié-Salpêtrière, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, 75013 Paris, France.

The purpose of the first two editions of the guidelines for external radiotherapy procedures, published in 2007 and 2016 respectively, was to issue recommendations aimed at optimising, harmonising and standardising practices. The purpose of this third edition, which includes brachytherapy, is identical while also taking into account recent technological improvements (intensity modulation radiation therapy, stereotactic radiotherapy, and three-dimension brachytherapy) along with findings from literature. Part one describes the daily use of general principles (quality, security, image-guided radiation therapy); part two describes each treatment step for the main types of cancer. Read More

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February 2022

Beauty Is in the AI of the Beholder: Are We Ready for the Clinical Integration of Artificial Intelligence in Radiography? An Exploratory Analysis of Perceived AI Knowledge, Skills, Confidence, and Education Perspectives of UK Radiographers.

Front Digit Health 2021 11;3:739327. Epub 2021 Nov 11.

School of Biomedical Engineering and Imaging Sciences, King's College London, St Thomas' Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

The use of artificial intelligence (AI) in medical imaging and radiotherapy has been met with both scepticism and excitement. However, clinical integration of AI is already well-underway. Many authors have recently reported on the AI knowledge and perceptions of radiologists/medical staff and students however there is a paucity of information regarding radiographers. Read More

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November 2021

International efforts in geriatric radiation oncology.

J Geriatr Oncol 2022 04 13;13(3):356-362. Epub 2021 Nov 13.

Applied Radiation Therapy Trinity and Trinity St. James's Cancer Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland. Electronic address:

Introduction: Geriatric assessment (GA) has been recommended to form part of treatment decision making for older adults with cancer. However despite consensus guidelines from various organizations, GA does not appear to be a part of routine practice in radiation oncology. The aim of the current study was to explore the implementation of GA in radiation oncology. Read More

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Stereotactic Arrhythmia Radioablation as a Novel Treatment Approach for Cardiac Arrhythmias: Facts and Limitations.

Biomedicines 2021 Oct 13;9(10). Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Radiotherapy Unit, Second Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Rimini 1, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 124 62 Athens, Greece.

Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) is highly focused radiation therapy that targets well-demarcated, limited-volume malignant or benign tumors with high accuracy and precision using image guidance. Stereotactic arrhythmia radioablation (STAR) applies SABR to treat cardiac arrhythmias, including ventricular tachycardia (VT) and atrial fibrillation (AF), and has recently been a focus in research. Clinical studies have demonstrated electrophysiologic conduction blockade and histologic fibrosis after STAR, which provides a proof of principle for its potential for treating arrhythmias. Read More

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October 2021

Organic Photo-antimicrobials: Principles, Molecule Design, and Applications.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 11 22;143(43):17891-17909. Epub 2021 Oct 22.

State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China.

The emergence of multi-drug-resistant pathogens threatens the healthcare systems world-wide. Recent advances in phototherapy (PT) approaches mediated by photo-antimicrobials (PAMs) provide new opportunities for the current serious antibiotic resistance. During the PT treatment, reactive oxygen species or heat produced by PAMs would react with the cell membrane, consequently leaking cytoplasm components and effectively eradicating different pathogens like bacteria, fungi, viruses, and even parasites. Read More

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November 2021

The ESSO core curriculum committee update on surgical oncology.

Eur J Surg Oncol 2021 11 13;47(11):e1-e30. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Visceral Sarcoma Surgery Unit, Città della Salute e della Scienza, Turin, Italy.

Introduction: Surgical oncology is a defined specialty within the European Board of Surgery within the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS). Variation in training and specialization still occurs across Europe. There is a need to align the core knowledge needed to fulfil the criteria across subspecialities in surgical oncology. Read More

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November 2021

Cardiovascular Manifestations From Therapeutic Radiation: A Multidisciplinary Expert Consensus Statement From the International Cardio-Oncology Society.

JACC CardioOncol 2021 Sep 21;3(3):360-380. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Division of Medical Oncology, Duke Cancer Institute, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Radiation therapy is a cornerstone of cancer therapy, with >50% of patients undergoing therapeutic radiation. As a result of widespread use and improved survival, there is increasing focus on the potential long-term effects of ionizing radiation, especially cardiovascular toxicity. Radiation therapy can lead to atherosclerosis of the vasculature as well as valvular, myocardial, and pericardial dysfunction. Read More

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September 2021

Neuroendocrine and Adrenal Tumors, Version 2.2021, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2021 07 28;19(7):839-868. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

7Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center.

The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Neuroendocrine and Adrenal Gland Tumors focus on the diagnosis, treatment, and management of patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), adrenal tumors, pheochromocytomas, paragangliomas, and multiple endocrine neoplasia. NETs are generally subclassified by site of origin, stage, and histologic characteristics. Appropriate diagnosis and treatment of NETs often involves collaboration between specialists in multiple disciplines, using specific biochemical, radiologic, and surgical methods. Read More

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Chinese expert consensus of image-guided irreversible electroporation for pancreatic cancer.

J Cancer Res Ther 2021 Jul;17(3):613-618

Department of Interventional Therapy, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin, China.

Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a lethal disease with extremely high mortality. Although surgical resection is the optimal therapeutic approach for PC, about 30%-40% of those patients are not candidates for surgical resection when diagnosed. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy also could not claim a desirable effect on PC. Read More

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Identifying areas of emphasis for future palliative radiation therapy curricula via an examination of theMednet.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Jul 5;10(7):7370-7377. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Palliative radiation therapy is essential to the care of patients with advanced cancer. Unfortunately, despite their benefits, the principles of palliative radiation therapy and palliative and supportive care are underrepresented in radiation oncology residency curricula. In this study, we attempted to identify areas of emphasis for future palliative radiation therapy curricula by examining the relevant questions posted to theMednet. Read More

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A review of the research progress of interventional medical equipment and methods for prostate cancer.

Int J Med Robot 2021 Oct 6;17(5):e2303. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: Prostate cancer is a common disease in men and has a relatively high mortality rate. However, the interventional medical equipment used for prostate biopsy and brachytherapy has always been a social concern.

Methods: To understand interventional medical equipment for prostate cancer, the structure of manual, semi-automatic and automatic medical equipment were considered as the mainline, while the corresponding research on these structures were the auxiliary lines. Read More

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October 2021

Pediatric Hodgkin Lymphoma, Version 3.2021.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2021 06 30;19(6):733-754. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

26National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a highly curable form of cancer, and current treatment regimens are focused on improving treatment efficacy while decreasing the risk of late effects of treatment. The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for pediatric HL provide recommendations on the workup, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of classic HL, including principles of pathology, imaging, staging, systemic therapy, and radiation therapy. This portion of the NCCN Guidelines focuses on the management of pediatric classic HL in the upfront and relapsed/refractory settings. Read More

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Spleen angiosarcoma: a world review.

Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Oct 22;15(10):1115-1141. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of General Surgery, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore.

: Spleen angiosarcoma (SA) is a rare malignant neoplasm that arises from the splenic vascular endothelium, with only around 300 cases reported to date. Due to a limited number of reported cases, there is a paucity of data and a lack of understanding of its presentation, diagnosis, and management. In this study, we aim to provide a comprehensive review of SA. Read More

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October 2021

Technical Giants But Biologic Infants: Defining a More Sophisticated Role for Local Therapy in Metastatic Disease.

Semin Radiat Oncol 2021 07;31(3):200-204

Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA. Electronic address:

The role of radiation therapy in metastatic cancer is rapidly evolving with increased understanding of the oligometastatic state and improved technologies to deliver higher doses of radiation with greater precision and avoidance of normal tissues than before. Recent data have demonstrated that the use of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) in oligometastatic disease confers a survival benefit. Yet, the current enthusiasm must be balanced with caution. Read More

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Convection-Enhanced Delivery and Principles of Extracellular Transport in the Brain.

World Neurosurg 2021 07 24;151:163-171. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Neurological Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Stereotactic neurosurgery involves a targeted intervention based on congruence of image guidance to a reference fiducial system. This discipline has widespread applications in radiosurgery, tumor therapy, drug delivery, functional lesioning, and neuromodulation. In this article, we focused on convection-enhanced delivery to deliver therapeutic agents to the brain addressing areas of research and clinical development. Read More

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Current State of Personalized Genitourinary Cancer Radiotherapy in the Era of Precision Medicine.

Front Oncol 2021 7;11:675311. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States.

Radiation therapy plays a crucial role for the management of genitourinary malignancies, with technological advancements that have led to improvements in outcomes and decrease in treatment toxicities. However, better risk-stratification and identification of patients for appropriate treatments is necessary. Recent advancements in imaging and novel genomic techniques can provide additional individualized tumor and patient information to further inform and guide treatment decisions for genitourinary cancer patients. Read More

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Clinical target volume design of postoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy for major salivary gland tumours according to surgical principles: an innovative method.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2022 Apr 10;148(4):921-930. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center; State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, China.

Background: No international consensus has been reached regarding delineation of postoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy (PO-IMRT) clinical target volumes (CTV) for major salivary gland carcinoma (SGC). The purpose of this article was to report our experience according to surgical principles.

Methods: Between June 2010 and June 2018, 54 consecutive patients were enrolled. Read More

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