345 results match your criteria Radiation Therapy General Principles


Palliative radiation oncology programs: design, build, succeed!

Ann Palliat Med 2019 Mar 11. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Wauwatosa, WI, USA.

The palliation of symptoms caused by advanced cancer is one of the most common indications for radiation therapy. Radiation therapy is an efficient and effective treatment for the palliation of pain, bleeding, obstruction, compression of nerves or the spinal cord and other local symptoms caused by tumors. The general principles of palliative radiation therapy are to use the shortest course of palliative radiation therapy needed to achieve the desired goal. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm.2018.12.09DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Treatment of Stage I Hard Palate Cancer with High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Using Molds: Cost-Based Perspective.

J Pharm Bioallied Sci 2019 Feb;11(Suppl 1):S67-S71

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, MNR Dental College and Hospital, Sangareddy, Telangana, India.

Introduction: Treatment of T1N0M0 (T1 = greatest tumor size < 2 cm, N0 = regional lymph nodes not palpable by clinical examination, M0 = No evidence of distant metastasis) (Green FL, Page DL, Fleming ID, Fritz AG, Balch CM, Haller DG, Morrow M. AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. New York: Springer; 2002) lesions of hard palate carcinoma by radiotherapy carries equal results with the advantage of cosmesis and can avoid surgical complications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_193_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6398313PMC
February 2019

Mechanisms and therapeutic potentials of cancer immunotherapy in combination with radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy.

Cancer Lett 2019 Jun 19;452:66-70. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Liver Transplantation Center of the First Affiliated Hospital and Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Personalized Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, PR China. Electronic address:

Immunotherapies based on T cells have gained significant success in the treatment of diverse cancers, however, several limitations also exist, including low response, acquired resistance and severe side effects, which lead to unfavorable outcomes. Recent studies found that traditional therapies, radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy may affect the immune condition in situ and cause abscopal effect, which may improve the response of immunotherapies, enhance the efficiency, and reduce the untoward effect. Here, we review the mechanisms uncovering the cancer immunotherapy and immunogenic effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, aiming to highlight the principles underlying the therapeutic potentials of cancer immunotherapy in combination with radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy and ultimately guide better designs for future synergistic cancer therapies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2019.02.048DOI Listing
June 2019
2 Reads
5.621 Impact Factor

B7-H3-targeted radioimmunotherapy of human cancer.

Curr Med Chem 2019 Feb 28. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama. United States.

Background: Targeted radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is an attractive approach to selectively localize therapeutic radionuclides to malignant cells within primary and metastatic tumors while sparing normal tissues from the effects of radiation. Many human malignancies express B7-H3 on the tumor cell surface, while expression on the majority of normal tissues is limited, presenting B7-H3 as a candidate target for RIT. This review provides an overview of the general principles of targeted RIT and discusses publications that have used radiolabeled B7-H3-targeted antibodies for RIT of cancer in preclinical or clinical studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/0929867326666190228120908DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Calculation of absorbed dose in radiotherapy by solution of the linear Boltzmann transport equations.

Authors:
James L Bedford

Phys Med Biol 2019 Jan 10;64(2):02TR01. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Joint Department of Physics, The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London SM2 5PT, United Kingdom.

Over the last decade, dose calculations which solve the linear Boltzmann transport equations have been introduced into clinical practice and are now in widespread use. However, knowledge in the radiotherapy community concerning the details of their function is limited. This review gives a general description of the linear Boltzmann transport equations as applied to calculation of absorbed dose in clinical radiotherapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6560/aaf0e2DOI Listing
January 2019

My best case: homeopathic management of adverse effects of tamoxifen.

Wien Med Wochenschr 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

General Practice Department, Faculty of Medicine, Strasbourg University, Strasbourg, France.

Background: Nearly half of patients discontinue tamoxifen hormone therapy early because of side effects, thus increasing the risk of breast cancer recurrence. Could a homeopathic treatment improve compliance?

Methods: A patient suffering from side effects of tamoxifen was seen in consultation every 2 months for 10 months by a senior homeopathic doctor and a registrar.

Results: Case analysis and repertorisation led to the identification of Pulsatilla as the simillimum drug and tamoxifen 7c as the etiological treatment. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10354-018-0672-9
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10354-018-0672-9DOI Listing
December 2018
11 Reads

Chemo-Radiation After Upfront Rectal Resections-a Clinical Dilemma.

Indian J Surg Oncol 2018 Dec 18;9(4):495-500. Epub 2018 Aug 18.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery and Colorectal Surgical Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400012 India.

To compare the impact of adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy (ACRT) versus adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) alone on recurrence and survival in patients with stage II and III rectal adenocarcinoma undergoing upfront curative resection. Prospective observational review of colorectal database at Tata Memorial Hospital from July 2010 to March 2015 identified 84 patients who underwent upfront curative resection for stage II or III rectal cancer. None of the patient received preoperative chemo-radiation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13193-018-0805-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6265169PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Deep learning in medical imaging and radiation therapy.

Med Phys 2019 Jan 20;46(1):e1-e36. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, 60637, USA.

The goals of this review paper on deep learning (DL) in medical imaging and radiation therapy are to (a) summarize what has been achieved to date; (b) identify common and unique challenges, and strategies that researchers have taken to address these challenges; and (c) identify some of the promising avenues for the future both in terms of applications as well as technical innovations. We introduce the general principles of DL and convolutional neural networks, survey five major areas of application of DL in medical imaging and radiation therapy, identify common themes, discuss methods for dataset expansion, and conclude by summarizing lessons learned, remaining challenges, and future directions. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/mp.13264
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mp.13264DOI Listing
January 2019
67 Reads

Place of Sterotactic Radiotherapy in Treatment of Extramedullary Plasmocytoma.

J Craniofac Surg 2018 Nov;29(8):e807

Kayseri Education and Research Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Kayseri, Turkey.

In conclusion, extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMPs) initially develop as localized disease. These tumors are quite sensitive to radiotherapy (RT) and the response is often complete recovery after RT. In addition, highly sensitive, conformal radiosurgery can be preferred to conventional RT; however, further studies are needed to define indications and therapeutic fractions in stereotactic RT of plasmacytoma since guidelines and clinical trials are lacking. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000004844DOI Listing
November 2018
6 Reads

Multidisciplinary teams for the proper management of patients with genitourinary tumors: When topics set scientific societies' agenda.

Tumori 2019 Apr 5;105(2):161-167. Epub 2018 Jul 5.

1 Prostate Cancer Unit, Prostate Cancer Programme, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori di Milano, Milan, Italy.

Introduction: The multidisciplinary management of oncologic patients is identified as the bottom line element of quality in tumor care.

Methods: In 2015, 7 Italian scientific societies representing the specialists involved in the diagnosis and treatment of genitourinary tumors joined efforts in the Italian uro-oncologic multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) project. The aims were to promote the reorganization of genitourinary cancer care, switching to a multidisciplinary approach, reach a consensus on the core elements for the setup of MDTs in genitourinary oncology, and support health policy makers and managers in remodeling of the assistance and care of uro-oncologic patients on a national level. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0300891618784789DOI Listing
April 2019
18 Reads

Can Endorectal Ultrasound, MRI, and Mucosa Integrity Accurately Predict the Complete Response for Mid-Low Rectal Cancer After Preoperative Chemoradiation? A Prospective Observational Study from a Single Medical Center.

Dis Colon Rectum 2018 08;61(8):903-910

Department of General Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Background: Patients with locally advanced rectal cancer could be managed by a watch-and-wait approach if they achieve clinical complete response after preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Mucosal integrity, endorectal ultrasound, and rectal MRI are used to evaluate clinical complete response; however, the accuracy remains questionable. Clinical practice based on those assessment methods needs more data and discussion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DCR.0000000000001135DOI Listing
August 2018
44 Reads
3.750 Impact Factor

Relative Biological Effectiveness Uncertainties and Implications for Beam Arrangements and Dose Constraints in Proton Therapy.

Semin Radiat Oncol 2018 06;28(3):256-263

Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Current clinical implementation of proton radiation therapy assumes a constant relative biological effectiveness (RBE) value of 1.1 throughout the treatment field, for both the target and organs at risks. Although few in vivo clinical data suggest that this approximation is clinically significant, in vitro studies demonstrate the dependency of RBE on dose, fractionation, proton energy, and linear energy transfer, as well as patient radiosensitivity and definition of endpoint. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semradonc.2018.02.010DOI Listing
June 2018
2 Reads

Principles and practice of high-dose rate penile brachytherapy: Planning and delivery techniques.

Pract Radiat Oncol 2018 Nov - Dec;8(6):e386-e391. Epub 2018 Jun 8.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.

Purpose: To allow for organ preservation, high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy may be used in the treatment of localized penile cancer. Penile cancer is a rare malignancy that accounts for <1% of cancers in men in the United States. The standard treatment for localized disease is partial amputation of the penis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prro.2018.06.002DOI Listing
January 2019
29 Reads

Precision cardio-oncology: understanding the cardiotoxicity of cancer therapy.

NPJ Precis Oncol 2017 12;1(1):31. Epub 2017 Sep 12.

3Professor of Biochemistry and Director, Zhengzhou Central Laboratory of Antibody Research, Henan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Zhengzhou, Henan China.

Current oncologic treatments have brought a strong reduction in mortality in cancer patients. However, the cancer therapy-related cardiovascular complications, in particular chemo-therapy and radiation therapy-induced cardiotoxicities are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in people living with or surviving cancer. The simple fact is that all antineoplastic agents and radiation therapy target tumor cells but also result in collateral damage to other tissues including the cardiovascular system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41698-017-0034-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5871905PMC
September 2017
26 Reads

Magnetic Hyperthermia and Radiation Therapy: Radiobiological Principles and Current Practice .

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2018 Jun 3;8(6). Epub 2018 Jun 3.

ICCOM-CNR via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy.

Hyperthermia, though by itself generally non-curative for cancer, can significantly increase the efficacy of radiation therapy, as demonstrated by in vitro, in vivo, and clinical results. Its limited use in the clinic is mainly due to various practical implementation difficulties, the most important being how to adequately heat the tumor, especially deep-seated ones. In this work, we first review the effects of hyperthermia on tissue, the limitations of radiation therapy and the radiobiological rationale for combining the two treatment modalities. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/2079-4991/8/6/401
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano8060401DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6027353PMC
June 2018
5 Reads

The European Society of Gynaecological Oncology/European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology/European Society of Pathology guidelines for the management of patients with cervical cancer.

Radiother Oncol 2018 Jun 1;127(3):404-416. Epub 2018 May 1.

University Hospital, Careggi, Florence, Italy.

Background: Despite significant advances in the screening, detection, and treatment of preinvasive cervical lesions, invasive cervical cancer is the fifth most common cancer in European women. There are large disparities in Europe and worldwide in the incidence, management, and mortality of cervical cancer.

Objective: The European Society of Gynaecological Oncology (ESGO), the European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology (ESTRO), and the European Society of Pathology (ESP) jointly develop clinically relevant and evidence-based guidelines in order to improve the quality of care for women with cervical cancer across Europe and worldwide. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2018.03.003DOI Listing
June 2018
21 Reads

The European Society of Gynaecological Oncology/European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology/European Society of Pathology Guidelines for the Management of Patients with Cervical Cancer.

Virchows Arch 2018 Jun 4;472(6):919-936. Epub 2018 May 4.

University Hospital, Careggi, Florence, Italy.

Background: Despite significant advances in the screening, detection, and treatment of preinvasive cervical lesions, invasive cervical cancer is the fifth most common cancer in European women. There are large disparities in Europe and worldwide in the incidence, management, and mortality of cervical cancer.

Objective: The European Society of Gynecological Oncology (ESGO), the European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology (ESTRO), and the European Society of Pathology (ESP) jointly develop clinically relevant and evidence-based guidelines in order to improve the quality of care for women with cervical cancer across Europe and worldwide. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00428-018-2362-9DOI Listing
June 2018
14 Reads

Epigenetic agents in combined anticancer therapy.

Future Med Chem 2018 05 20;10(9):1113-1130. Epub 2018 Apr 20.

First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Kateřinská 32, 121 08, Prague 2, Czech Republic.

In the last decade, epigenetic drugs (such as inhibitors of DNA methyltransferases and histone deacetylases) have been intensively used for cancer treatment. Their applications have shown high anticancer effectivity and tolerable side effects. However, they are unfortunately not effective in the treatment of some types and phenotypes of cancers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/fmc-2017-0203DOI Listing
May 2018
5 Reads

Gamma knife radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations: general principles and preliminary results in a Swiss cohort.

Swiss Med Wkly 2018 3;148:w14602. Epub 2018 Apr 3.

University of Lausanne, Faculty of Biology and Medicine, Lausanne, Switzerland / Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Neurosurgery Service and Gamma Knife Centre, Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV), Lausanne, Switzerland.

Introduction: Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are a type of vascular malformation characterised by an abnormal connection between arteries and veins, bypassing the capillary system. This absence of capillaries generates an elevated pressure (hyperdebit), in both the AVM and the venous drainage, increasing the risk of rupture. Management modalities are: observation, microsurgical clipping, endovascular treatment and radiosurgery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4414/smw.2018.14602DOI Listing
October 2018
11 Reads

Reengineering the Physical Microenvironment of Tumors to Improve Drug Delivery and Efficacy: From Mathematical Modeling to Bench to Bedside.

Trends Cancer 2018 04 13;4(4):292-319. Epub 2018 Mar 13.

Edwin L. Steele Laboratories, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA. Electronic address:

Physical forces have a crucial role in tumor progression and cancer treatment. The application of principles of engineering and physical sciences to oncology has provided powerful insights into the mechanisms by which these forces affect tumor progression and confer resistance to delivery and efficacy of molecular, nano-, cellular, and immuno-medicines. Here, we discuss the mechanics of the solid and fluid components of a tumor, with a focus on how they impede the transport of therapeutic agents and create an abnormal tumor microenvironment (TME) that fuels tumor progression and treatment resistance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trecan.2018.02.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5930008PMC
April 2018
3 Reads

Meningiomas: Overview and New Directions in Therapy.

Semin Neurol 2018 02 16;38(1):112-120. Epub 2018 Mar 16.

Neurology Clinic and National Center for Tumor Diseases, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

The majority of meningiomas, the most common primary brain tumor, are considered to be benign, and characteristic magnetic resonance imaging features allow a preliminary diagnosis. Meningiomas can be classified in the World Health Organization system as grade I, II, or III, depending on various histological features. In many cases, observation is the preferred management option, although this means the absence of a histological diagnosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0038-1636502DOI Listing
February 2018
2 Reads

Identifying and managing the risks of medical ionizing radiation in endourology.

Can J Urol 2018 02;25(1):9154-9160

Department of Urology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Introduction: The risks of exposure to medical ionizing radiation is of increasing concern both among medical professionals and the general public. Patients with nephrolithiasis are exposed to high levels of ionizing radiation through both diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. Endourologists who perform a high-volume of fluoroscopy guided procedures are also exposed to significant quantities of ionizing radiation. Read More

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February 2018
11 Reads

Ultrasonography as a Diagnostic, Therapeutic, and Research Tool in Orthopaedic Surgery.

J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2018 Mar;26(6):187-196

From the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery (Dr. Li and Ms. Curry) and the Department of Radiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (Dr. Murakami), and the Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (Dr. Yi).

Ultrasonography is an imaging modality that facilitates the diagnosis of pathology and injection therapy without exposing the patient to radiation. In addition, ultrasonography has become popular because of its portability, low cost, and production of real-time tomographic images that provide a cross-sectional view of anatomic structures. Despite its benefits and widespread adoption in general medicine and other specialties, however, ultrasonography is not as well adapted as a diagnostic and research tool in orthopaedic surgery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5435/JAAOS-D-16-00221DOI Listing
March 2018
2 Reads

Re-irradiation in Gynaecological Malignancies: A Review.

Authors:
A H Sadozye

Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 2018 02 9;30(2):110-115. Epub 2017 Dec 9.

Beatson West of Scotland Cancer Centre, Gartnavel General Hospital, Glasgow, UK. Electronic address:

Re-irradiation in gynaecological malignancies has become an increasingly frequent consideration. This can be delivered in multiple settings, with the most common being a patient with a history of cervical cancer developing a new vaginal cancer or endometrial cancer with local recurrence after hysterectomy and adjuvant pelvic radiation. A systematic review of the literature has unearthed a handful of reports, most delivering brachytherapy, with a small number on both external beam radiotherapy and stereotactic ablative radiotherapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clon.2017.11.013DOI Listing
February 2018
1 Read

Re-irradiation for recurrent glioma- the NCI experience in tumor control, OAR toxicity and proposal of a novel prognostic scoring system.

Radiat Oncol 2017 Nov 29;12(1):191. Epub 2017 Nov 29.

Radiation Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, NIH, 9000 Rockville Pike, Building 10, CRC, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.

Purpose/objectives: Despite mounting evidence for the use of re-irradiation (re-RT) in recurrent high grade glioma, optimal patient selection criteria for re-RT remain unknown. We present a novel scoring system based on radiobiology principles including target independent factors, the likelihood of target control, and the anticipated organ at risk (OAR) toxicity to allow for proper patient selection in the setting of recurrent glioma.

Materials/methods: Thirty one patients with recurrent glioma who received re-RT (2008-2016) at NCI - NIH were included in the analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13014-017-0930-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5707810PMC
November 2017
8 Reads

Training Canadian surgeons in oncoplastic breast surgery: Where do we stand?

Can J Surg 2017 12;60(6):369-371

From the Division of Surgical Oncology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, Ont. (Khayat, Brackstone); the Division of Surgical Oncology, Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (Maxwell); the Department of Surgery, Royal Victoria Regional Health Centre, Barrie, Ont. (Hanrahan); the Division of General Surgery, Trillium Health Partners, Mississauga, Ont. (Richardson, Kappala); and the Division of Surgical Oncology, the Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ont. (Arnaout).

Summary: Breast-conserving surgery with adjuvant radiation therapy is widely accepted as a universal standard of care for women with early-stage breast cancer. Oncoplastic breast-conserving surgery (OPS) techniques have emerged in recent years, facilitating the achievement of better cosmetic results while adhering to good oncological principles. Compared with the rest of the international community, Canada has been fairly slow in its clinical uptake of OPS. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5726963PMC
December 2017
1 Read

Engineering and physical sciences in oncology: challenges and opportunities.

Nat Rev Cancer 2017 11 13;17(11):659-675. Epub 2017 Oct 13.

Department of Chemical Engineering, David H. Koch Institute for Integrated Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.

The principles of engineering and physics have been applied to oncology for nearly 50 years. Engineers and physical scientists have made contributions to all aspects of cancer biology, from quantitative understanding of tumour growth and progression to improved detection and treatment of cancer. Many early efforts focused on experimental and computational modelling of drug distribution, cell cycle kinetics and tumour growth dynamics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrc.2017.83DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5683724PMC
November 2017
65 Reads

Oncolytic Viral Therapy for Mesothelioma.

Front Oncol 2017 24;7:179. Epub 2017 Aug 24.

Hematology-Oncology-Transplant, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States.

The limited effectiveness of conventional therapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma demands innovative approaches to this difficult disease. Even with aggressive multimodality treatment of surgery, radiation, and/or chemotherapy, the median survival is only 1-2 years depending on stage and histology. Oncolytic viral therapy has emerged in the last several decades as a rapidly advancing field of immunotherapy studied in a wide spectrum of malignancies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2017.00179DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5573749PMC
August 2017
4 Reads

How Can We Improve Education of Breast Surgeons Across Europe?

Chirurgia (Bucur) 2017 Jul-Aug;112(4):365-366

The proposed global curriculum developed by the American Society of Surgical Oncology (SSO) and the European Society of Surgical Oncology (ESSO) and the textbook: provides a state-of- the- art of breast cancer surgery, complements the syllabus and curriculum of the Union Europeenne des Medecins Specialistes (UEMS) examination in breast surgery/ European Board of Surgery Qualification in Breast Surgery (EBSQinBS) administered by ESSO (1) Knowledge and understanding of the principles of breast cancer incidence, aetiology, risk factors, genetics, premalignant and high-risk lesions, pathology, prognostic and predictive factors, risk prediction models, screening, diagnosis and imaging, breast cancer, oncoplastic, reconstructive breast surgery, axillary surgery and future perspective for this, radiation therapy, neoadjuvant and adjuvant systemic treatment- endocrine-, immuno- and chemotherapy, side effects and toxicities of treatment, locoregional recurrence, follow-up, locally advanced breast cancer, metastatic breast cancer, breast cancer in young and elderly patients, survivor issues, lymphedema, palliative care, chroni pain, body image and sexuality, fertility issues, cognitive functions, etc.) (1) ESSO fellowships: for instance BSSO (Brazilian Society of Surgical Oncology)-ESSO fellowship, ESSO members are being offered the opportunity by the BSSO to apply for a visiting observership in Brazil; ESSO fellowship in Breast Surgery- the fellowship provides further specialised training in the multi-modality clinical care specific to the breast cancer patient and a deeper training in breast cancer research; training fellowships- to allow young surgeons to visit a specialist breast unit in Europe, to help them to expand their experience and learn new techniques; congress fellowships- for each ESSO congress the ESSO Scientific Committee awards a number of fellowship grantsto participants from low-income countries to attend the congress; EYSAC (ESSO Young Surgeons and Alumni Club) research fellowship; SSO/ ESSO fellowshipthrough its partnership with ESSO, SSO provides a grant to attend the SSO Annual Symposium; Reciprocal International Exchange Programmes with Japan, Latin America and North America (2). ESSO courses and masterclasses: expanded portfolio of courses, in- and outside Europe, basic and advanced, international faculty, multidisciplinary approach, learning methods: hands-on with human cadavers, workshops in small groups, live and case demonstrations, interactive sessions, 3D videos (for instance in 2017 ESSO course on ultrasound of breast in Barcelona, advanced course on oncoplastic surgery in Barcelona, advanced course on breast cancer surgery in Naples) (2). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21614/chirurgia.112.4.365DOI Listing
March 2018
14 Reads

Immunotherapy in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment: Current Status and the Role of Imaging.

J Thorac Imaging 2017 Sep;32(5):300-312

Departments of *Diagnostic Radiology ‡Thoracic/Head and Neck Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX †Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related mortality and is responsible for more deaths than breast, prostate, and colon cancer combined. Most patients are diagnosed with advanced disease at the time of presentation, and treatment options have traditionally included surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation. However, significant advances in the molecular characterization of lung cancer have led to the creation of effective immunotherapies that assist in the recognition of cancer as foreign by the host immune system, stimulate the immune system, and relieve the inhibition that allows tumor growth and spread. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RTI.0000000000000291DOI Listing
September 2017
36 Reads

Oncoplastic breast surgery: comprehensive review.

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2017 06;21(11):2572-2585

Department of Medicine and Surgery, Plastic Surgery Division, University of Parma, Parma; Cutaneous, Mini-invasive, Regenerative and Plastic Surgery Unit, Parma University Hospital, Parma, Italy.

Breast cancer is the most common female cancer in Western populations, affecting 12.5% of women, with 1.38 million patients per year. Read More

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June 2017
16 Reads

General Management Principles of the Pregnant Woman.

Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2017 04 22;38(2):123-134. Epub 2017 May 22.

Department of Medicine, Women's Medicine Collaborative, The Miriam Hospital, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.

Pregnancy is a dynamic process that consists of profound physiological changes mediated by hormonal, mechanical, and circulatory pathways. Understanding of changes in physiology is essential for distinguishing abnormal and normal signs and symptoms in a pregnant patient. These physiological changes also have important pharmacotherapeutic considerations for a pregnant patient. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0037-1602167DOI Listing
April 2017
4 Reads

Primary Tumors of the Osseous Chest Wall and Their Management.

Thorac Surg Clin 2017 May 1;27(2):181-193. Epub 2017 Mar 1.

Division of General Thoracic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street Southwest, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.

Primary osseous tumors of the chest wall are uncommon neoplasms. They occur in a wide variety of pathologic forms, most of which can be distinguished by unique radiologic appearance. Management of these tumors depends on the diagnosis and stage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.thorsurg.2017.01.012DOI Listing
May 2017
5 Reads

Targeting Immunotherapy to the Tumor Microenvironment.

J Cell Biochem 2017 10 15;118(10):3049-3054. Epub 2017 May 15.

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts, 02215.

Targeting drugs to the tumor microenvironment has long been appreciated as a means of increasing local concentrations and decreasing systemic toxicities. How drug targeting might apply to immune-based therapies is less clear. In this review, we explain the immunology of cancer, with a focus on the principles of in situ vaccination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.26005DOI Listing
October 2017
1 Read

Gynecologic Malignancies in Pregnancy: Balancing Fetal Risks With Oncologic Safety.

Obstet Gynecol Surv 2017 Mar;72(3):184-193

Attending Surgeon, Breast Service, Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

Importance: Cancer occurs in 0.05% to 0.1% of all pregnancies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/OGX.0000000000000407DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5358514PMC
March 2017
2 Reads

Indian Society of Neuro-Oncology consensus guidelines for the contemporary management of medulloblastoma.

Neurol India 2017 Mar-Apr;65(2):315-332

Neuro-Oncology Disease Management Group, Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Introduction: The high success rate in the management medulloblastoma achieved in the western world is not exactly mirrored in developing countries including India. Socio-demographic differences, health-care disparity, and lack in uniformity of care with resultant widespread variations in the clinical practice are some of the reasons that may partly explain this difference in outcomes. Patients with medulloblastoma require a multi-disciplinary team approach involving but not limited to neuro-radiology, neurosurgery; neuropathology, molecular biology, radiation oncology, pediatric medical oncology and rehabilitative services for optimizing outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0028-3886.201841DOI Listing
March 2017
21 Reads

[Perineal reconstruction: Salvage surgery with 2flaps technique].

Cir Cir 2017 Dec 6;85 Suppl 1:1-5. Epub 2017 Mar 6.

Departamento de Cirugía General y del Aparato Digestivo, Hospital Universitario Insular de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, España.

Background: The principles of perineal reconstructive surgery comprise adequate filling of the defect along with stable and durable skin coverage, with a low morbidity rate. Two-flap perineal reconstruction is a simple, fast and reliable technique that uses a single donor site. This improves scar position with low morbidity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.circir.2017.02.001DOI Listing
December 2017
9 Reads

Primary penile cancer organ sparing treatment.

Cent European J Urol 2016 17;69(4):377-383. Epub 2016 Oct 17.

Urooncology Department, Maria Sklodowska Curie, Memorial Cancer Hospital, Warsaw, Poland.

Introduction: Surgical treatment of penile cancer is usually associated with mutilation; alterations in self-esteem and body image; affecting sexual and urinary functions; and declined health-related quality of life. Recently, organ sparing treatment has appeared and led to limiting these complications.

Material And Methods: An extensive review of the literature concerning penile-preserving strategies was conducted. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5173/ceju.2016.890DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5260461PMC
October 2016
23 Reads

ACR appropriateness criteria nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancers.

Head Neck 2017 03 29;39(3):407-418. Epub 2016 Dec 29.

Duke University, Durham, North Carolina.

The American College of Radiology (ACR) Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hed.24639DOI Listing
March 2017
21 Reads

Oncological Outcomes and Complications After Volume Replacement Oncoplastic Breast Conservations-The Glasgow Experience.

Breast Cancer (Auckl) 2016 19;10:223-228. Epub 2016 Dec 19.

The New Victoria Infirmary, Glasgow, Scotland, UK.

Introduction: Oncoplastic breast conservation surgery (OBCS) combines the principles of surgical oncology and plastic surgery. OBCS has now become a growing option for the treatment of breast cancer and forms a part of breast-conserving therapy (BCT). We sought to investigate and report our experience in two breast units in Glasgow (Victoria Infirmary and Western Infirmary) on volume replacement OBCS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4137/BCBCR.S41017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5170883PMC
December 2016
11 Reads

Radiation, Fear, and Common Sense Adaptations in Patient Care.

Nurs Clin North Am 2016 Dec;51(4):675-695

Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS), Oak Ridge Associated Universities, PO Box 117, MS 39, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA. Electronic address:

Lack of understanding about the basic nature of radiation exposure and contamination may lead to unreasonable fear in nursing staff. A brief review of a well-known case shows that in general, both the public and health care providers are radiophobic. Studies have shown that the level of fear correlates inversely with an understanding of radiation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cnur.2016.07.003DOI Listing
December 2016
6 Reads

ESMO / ASCO Recommendations for a Global Curriculum in Medical Oncology Edition 2016.

Authors:
Christian Dittrich Michael Kosty Svetlana Jezdic Doug Pyle Rossana Berardi Jonas Bergh Nagi El-Saghir Jean-Pierre Lotz Pia Österlund Nicholas Pavlidis Gunta Purkalne Ahmad Awada Susana Banerjee Smita Bhatia Jan Bogaerts Jan Buckner Fatima Cardoso Paolo Casali Edward Chu Julia Lee Close Bertrand Coiffier Roisin Connolly Sarah Coupland Luigi De Petris Maria De Santis Elisabeth G E de Vries Don S Dizon Jennifer Duff Linda R Duska Alexandru Eniu Marc Ernstoff Enriqueta Felip Martin F Fey Jill Gilbert Nicolas Girard Andor W J M Glaudemans Priya K Gopalan Axel Grothey Stephen M Hahn Diana Hanna Christian Herold Jørn Herrstedt Krisztian Homicsko Dennie V Jones Lorenz Jost Ulrich Keilholz Saad Khan Alexander Kiss Claus-Henning Köhne Rainer Kunstfeld Heinz-Josef Lenz Stuart Lichtman Lisa Licitra Thomas Lion Saskia Litière Lifang Liu Patrick J Loehrer Merry Jennifer Markham Ben Markman Marius Mayerhoefer Johannes G Meran Olivier Michielin Elizabeth Charlotte Moser Giannis Mountzios Timothy Moynihan Torsten Nielsen Yuichiro Ohe Kjell Öberg Antonio Palumbo Fedro Alessandro Peccatori Michael Pfeilstöcker Chandrajit Raut Scot C Remick Mark Robson Piotr Rutkowski Roberto Salgado Lidia Schapira Eva Schernhammer Martin Schlumberger Hans-Joachim Schmoll Lowell Schnipper Cristiana Sessa Charles L Shapiro Julie Steele Cora N Sternberg Friedrich Stiefel Florian Strasser Roger Stupp Richard Sullivan Josep Tabernero Luzia Travado Marcel Verheij Emile Voest Everett Vokes Jamie Von Roenn Jeffrey S Weber Hans Wildiers Yosef Yarden

ESMO Open 2016 29;1(5):e000097. Epub 2016 Sep 29.

Department of General Medical Oncology , University Hospitals Leuven , Leuven , Belgium.

The European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) and the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) are publishing a new edition of the ESMO/ASCO Global Curriculum (GC) thanks to contribution of 64 ESMO-appointed and 32 ASCO-appointed authors. First published in 2004 and updated in 2010, the GC edition 2016 answers to the need for updated recommendations for the training of physicians in medical oncology by defining the standard to be fulfilled to qualify as medical oncologists. At times of internationalisation of healthcare and increased mobility of patients and physicians, the GC aims to provide state-of-the-art cancer care to all patients wherever they live. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/esmoopen-2016-000097DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5070299PMC
September 2016
61 Reads

Consensus opinion on MRI simulation for external beam radiation treatment planning.

Radiother Oncol 2016 11 9;121(2):187-192. Epub 2016 Nov 9.

The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Aim: To determine the levels at which consensus could be reached regarding general and site-specific principles of MRI simulation for offline MRI-aided external beam radiation treatment planning.

Methods: A process inspired by the Delphi method was employed to determine levels of consensus using a series of questionnaires interspersed with controlled opinion feedback.

Results: In general, full consensus was reached regarding general principles of MRI simulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2016.09.018DOI Listing
November 2016
9 Reads

Buttock Reconstruction in Sarcoma Surgery: An Esthetic Sigmoidplasty Closure for Large Circular Defects Using Double Opposing Skin Flaps.

Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2016 Oct 13;4(10):e1039. Epub 2016 Oct 13.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Inkosi Albert Luthuli Central Hospital, Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

Background: Large defects arising from extirpation surgery of buttock sarcomas requiring adjuvant radiotherapy are best closed with flap surgery. The traditional solutions are derived from an approach to pressure sores, which were designed for the ischial, sacral, or trochanteric areas, and have now been adapted for true buttock defects. This invariably destroys the esthetics of the buttock. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/GOX.0000000000001039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5096521PMC
October 2016
15 Reads

Challenges in Diagnosis and Treatment of Lung Cancer in People with Intellectual Disabilities: Current State of Knowledge.

Lung Cancer Int 2016 26;2016:6787648. Epub 2016 Sep 26.

Descartes University, Paris, France; Unit of Thoracic Oncology Service, Groupe Hospitalier Paris Saint Joseph, 185 rue Raymond Losserand, 75 014 Paris, France.

As the life expectancy of people with intellectual disability (ID) has progressed, they have become similarly at risk of cancer as individuals of the general population. Epidemiological studies indicate a reduced incidence and mortality from lung cancer in the total population of persons with ID. However, the pattern is heterogeneous and the risk is strongly correlated with the impairment level; persons with mild intellectual impairment have higher cancer risk, and this subgroup also has the highest tobacco consumption (the major risk factor for lung cancer) compared to individuals with more severe impairment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/6787648DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5056278PMC
September 2016
9 Reads

Can Aidi injection alleviate the toxicity and improve the clinical efficacy of radiotherapy in lung cancer?: A meta-analysis of 16 randomized controlled trials following the PRISMA guidelines.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2016 Aug;95(35):e4517

aEvidence-Based Medicine Center, MOE Virtual Research Center of Evidence-based Medicine at Zunyi Medical College, Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical College bDepartment of Respiratory Medicine (Center for Evidence-Based and Translational Medicine of Major Infectious Diseases), Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical College cGrade 2012 Students, Department of Public Health dDepartment of Clinical Pharmacy, Zunyi Medical College eDepartment of Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical College, Zunyi, Guizhou, China.

Background/introduction: Aidi injection plus radiotherapy is widely used for lung cancer in China. Can Aidi injection alleviate the toxicity and improve the clinical efficacy of radiotherapy in lung cancer? Has Aidi injection the attenuation and synergistic efficacy to radiotherapy? There is lack of strong evidence to prove it.

Objectives: To reveal its real attenuation and synergistic efficacy to radiotherapy and provide sufficient evidence for adjuvant chemotherapy strategies to lung cancer, we systematically evaluated all related studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000004517DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5008545PMC
August 2016
13 Reads

[Guidelines for external radiotherapy and brachytherapy: 2nd edition].

Cancer Radiother 2016 Sep 9;20 Suppl:S4-7. Epub 2016 Aug 9.

Société française de radiothérapie oncologique, centre Antoine-Béclère, 45, rue des Saints-Pères, 75005 Paris, France; Institut Sainte-Catherine, 250, chemin de Baigne-Pieds, CS 80005, 84918 Avignon cedex 9, France.

In 2007, a first edition was published with the objective to produce guidelines for optimization, harmonization and homogenization of practices in external radiation therapy in France. The second edition, including brachytherapy, has the same objective and takes into account recent technologic improvements (intensity modulation radiation therapy, stereotactic radiotherapy, and 3-dimension brachytherapy) and results of literature. The first part is about daily use of general principles (quality, security, image-guided radiation therapy) and the second is to describe each treatment step in main cancers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canrad.2016.07.014DOI Listing
September 2016
7 Reads

Developing Antitumor Magnetic Hyperthermia: Principles, Materials and Devices.

Recent Pat Anticancer Drug Discov 2016 ;11(4):360-375

Faculty of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory 1-2, Moscow 119991, Russian Federation.

Background And Objective: Methods of local or loco-regional anticancer treatment are of the utmost importance because the therapeutic 'power' is applied directly to the disease site. Consequently, general toxicity is minimized. Hyperthermia, that is, a sustained increase of intratumoral temperature up to 45oC, has been investigated as a perspective treatment modality alone and/or in combination with ionizing radiation or chemotherapy. Read More

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March 2017
4 Reads

[Some Approaches to Activation of Antitumor Resistance Mechanisms and Functional Analogs in Categories of Synergetics].

Biofizika 2016 Mar-Apr;61(2):359-73

This paper briefly reviews the ways of activation of the antitumor resistance mechanisms developed on the basis of the concept of the periodic system of general nonspecific adaptational reactions of the body. The principles of the formation of effective influences by electromagnetic radiation using biologically active substances are described. A comparison of the criteria and conceptions of the theory of adaptational reactions to some concepts and categories of synergetics is made. Read More

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June 2016
9 Reads

Soft tissue sarcomas in skin: presentations and management.

Semin Oncol 2016 06 23;43(3):413-8. Epub 2016 Feb 23.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC.

Soft tissue sarcomas are a rare but heterogeneous family of malignant tumors that are predominantly found deep to the integumentary layer. Only a small number of these primary mesenchymal tumors actually originate from the dermal layers. A systematic approach to the evaluation and workup of these neoplasms can prevent inappropriate management. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.seminoncol.2016.02.026DOI Listing
June 2016
21 Reads