392 results match your criteria Radiation Therapy General Principles


Clinical target volume design of postoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy for major salivary gland tumours according to surgical principles: an innovative method.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center; State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, China.

Background: No international consensus has been reached regarding delineation of postoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy (PO-IMRT) clinical target volumes (CTV) for major salivary gland carcinoma (SGC). The purpose of this article was to report our experience according to surgical principles.

Methods: Between June 2010 and June 2018, 54 consecutive patients were enrolled. Read More

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Stage Presentation, Care Patterns, Treatment Outcomes, and Impact of Radiotherapy on Overall Survival for Adrenocortical Carcinoma.

Clin Genitourin Cancer 2021 Mar 19. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT. Electronic address:

Introduction: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare cancer with few well-powered studies regarding epidemiology or outcomes and even fewer studies to guide an evidence-based management approach. The effect of radiation therapy (RT) is particularly understudied and remains unclear, outside of general oncologic principles. We sought to describe current care patterns in the management of ACC and how these practices affect survival outcomes using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Read More

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NCCN Guidelines® Insights: Melanoma: Cutaneous, Version 2.2021.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2021 Apr 1;19(4):364-376. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

30Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University.

Over the past few years, the NCCN Guidelines for Melanoma: Cutaneous have been expanded to include pathways for treatment of microscopic satellitosis (added in v2.2020), and the following Principles sections: Molecular Testing (added in v2.2019), Systemic Therapy Considerations (added in v2. Read More

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ACR-ABS-ACNM-ASTRO-SIR-SNMMI practice parameter for selective internal radiation therapy or radioembolization for treatment of liver malignancies.

Brachytherapy 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Radiology, American Radiology Association, Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, TX.

Purpose: The American College of Radiology (ACR), American Brachytherapy Society (ABS), American College of Nuclear Medicine (ACNM), American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), Society of Interventional Radiology (SIR), and Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI) have jointly developed a practice parameter on selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) or radioembolization for treatment of liver malignancies. Radioembolization is the embolization of the hepatic arterial supply of hepatic primary tumors or metastases with a microsphere yttrium-90 brachytherapy device.

Materials And Methods: The ACR -ABS -ACNM -ASTRO -SIR -SNMMI practice parameter for SIRT or radioembolization for treatment of liver malignancies was revised in accordance with the process described on the ACR website (https://www. Read More

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Implementation of Cardiac Stereotactic Radiotherapy: From Literature to the Linac.

Cureus 2021 Feb 28;13(2):e13606. Epub 2021 Feb 28.

Radiation Medicine Program/Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre/University of Toronto, Toronto, CAN.

Stereotactic radiotherapy (SBRT) has been applied to treat cardiac arrhythmias, but our institution had not yet implemented this technique. Here, we explain how we used implementation science and knowledge translation to provide cardiac SBRT to a critically ill patient with malignancy-associated refractory ventricular tachycardia. We reviewed the critical factors that enabled the implementation of this urgent treatment, such as the context of the implementation, the characteristics of the intervention, and the stakeholders. Read More

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February 2021

Irradiator Commissioning and Dosimetry for Assessment of LQ α and β Parameters, Radiation Dosing Schema, and in vivo Dose Deposition.

J Vis Exp 2021 03 11(169). Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, West Virginia University;

Radiation dosimetry is critical in the accurate delivery and reproducibility of radiation schemes in preclinical models for high translational relevance. Prior to performing any in vitro or in vivo experiments, the specific dose output for the irradiator and individual experimental designs must be assessed. Using an ionization chamber, electrometer, and solid water setup, the dose output of wide fields at isocenter can be determined. Read More

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ESGO/ESTRO/ESP guidelines for the management of patients with endometrial carcinoma.

Radiother Oncol 2021 01;154:327-353

Department of Radiation Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden Netherlands.

A European consensus conference on endometrial carcinoma was held in 2014 to produce multidisciplinary evidence-based guidelines on selected questions. Given the large body of literature on the management of endometrial carcinoma published since 2014, the European Society of Gynaecological Oncology (ESGO), the European SocieTy for Radiotherapy & Oncology (ESTRO) and the European Society of Pathology (ESP) jointly decided to update these evidence-based guidelines and to cover new topics in order to improve the quality of care for women with endometrial carcinoma across Europe and worldwide. ESGO/ESTRO/ESP nominated an international multidisciplinary development group consisting of practicing clinicians and researchers who have demonstrated leadership and expertise in the care and research of endometrial carcinoma (27 experts across Europe). Read More

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January 2021

Using Co-design With Breast Cancer Patients and Radiographers to Develop "KEW" Communication Skills Training.

Front Psychol 2021 22;12:629122. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Population and Behavioural Sciences, School of Medicine, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, United Kingdom.

Previous work (FORECAST) has shown that concerns of breast cancer patients after finishing radiotherapy are responsive to conversations with radiographers during the treatment period. This study seeks to further understand radiographer and patient experiences, determine shared priorities for improvement in clinical interaction and develop communication guidelines and training to help radiographers support patients. Using the principles of Experience-Based Co-Design, semi-structured interviews were held with = 4 patients (videoed) and = 4 radiographers, followed by feedback events ( = 7) to validate findings. Read More

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February 2021

Radiation safety and knowledge: an international survey of 708 interventional pain physicians.

Reg Anesth Pain Med 2021 Mar 9. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Center for Pain Medicine, Western Reserve Hospital, Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio, USA.

Introduction: Interventional pain procedures have increased in complexity, often requiring longer radiation exposure times and subsequently higher doses. The practicing physician requires an in-depth knowledge and evidence-based knowledge of radiation safety to limit the health risks to themselves, patients and healthcare staff. The objective of this study was to examine current radiation safety practices and knowledge among interventional pain physicians and compare them to evidence-based recommendations. Read More

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Relapsed Rhabdomyosarcoma.

J Clin Med 2021 Feb 17;10(4). Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Cancer and Blood Disease Institute, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Pediatrics and Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90027, USA.

Relapsed rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) represents a significant therapeutic challenge. Nearly one-third of patients diagnosed with localized RMS and over two-thirds of patients with metastatic RMS will experience disease recurrence following primary treatment, generally within three years. Clinical features at diagnosis, including primary site, tumor invasiveness, size, stage, and histology impact likelihood of relapse and prognosis post-relapse. Read More

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February 2021

The Assisi Think Tank Meeting Breast Large Database for Standardized Data Collection in Breast Cancer-ATTM.BLADE.

J Pers Med 2021 Feb 19;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Radiation Oncology Section, University of Perugia and Perugia General Hospital, 06123 Perugia, Italy.

During the 2016 Assisi Think Tank Meeting (ATTM) on breast cancer, the panel of experts proposed developing a validated system, based on rapid learning health care (RLHC) principles, to standardize inter-center data collection and promote personalized treatments for breast cancer. The seven-step project included data collection, analysis, application, and evaluation on a data-sharing platform. The multidisciplinary team developed a consensus-based ontology of validated variables with over 80% agreement. Read More

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February 2021

ESGO/ESTRO/ESP Guidelines for the management of patients with endometrial carcinoma.

Virchows Arch 2021 Feb;478(2):153-190

Department of Pathology, Hospital Universitari Arnau de Vilanova, University of Lleida, CIBERONC, Irblleida, Spain.

A European consensus conference on endometrial carcinoma was held in 2014 to produce multidisciplinary evidence-based guidelines on selected questions. Given the large body of literature on the management of endometrial carcinoma published since 2014, the European Society of Gynaecological Oncology (ESGO), the European SocieTy for Radiotherapy & Oncology (ESTRO) and the European Society of Pathology (ESP) jointly decided to update these evidence-based guidelines and to cover new topics in order to improve the quality of care for women with endometrial carcinoma across Europe and worldwide. ESGO/ESTRO/ESP nominated an international multidisciplinary development group consisting of practicing clinicians and researchers who have demonstrated leadership and expertise in the care and research of endometrial carcinoma (27 experts across Europe). Read More

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February 2021

Radiation Oncology Applications in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery: A Nonsystematic Review of Concepts and Principles.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2021 Feb;147(2):314e-324e

From the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, MedStar Georgetown University Hospital; George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences; Associates in Radiation Medicine, PC; the Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women's Hospital; Harvard Medical School; Georgetown University School of Medicine; and the Division of Plastic Surgery, Weill Cornell Medical College and New York-Presbyterian Hospital.

Summary: Careful consideration of radiotherapy can determine the success of reconstructive therapy. There is a broad spectrum of radiotherapy modalities, both benign and malignant. Delivery mechanisms differ in the physical design, setup, radiation source, administrable dosage, and mode of delivery. Read More

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February 2021

DNA-Histone Cross-Links: Formation and Repair.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 21;8:607045. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Groupe "Mechanisms of DNA Repair and Carcinogenesis", Equipe Labellisée LIGUE 2016, CNRS UMR 9019, Université Paris-Saclay, Villejuif, France.

The nucleosome is a stretch of DNA wrapped around a histone octamer. Electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonds between histones and DNA are vital for the stable organization of nucleosome core particles, and for the folding of chromatin into more compact structures, which regulate gene expression via controlled access to DNA. As a drawback of tight association, under genotoxic stress, DNA can accidentally cross-link to histone in a covalent manner, generating a highly toxic DNA-histone cross-link (DHC). Read More

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December 2020

Prehabilitation in head and neck cancer patients: a literature review.

J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2021 Jan 6;50(1). Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Faculty of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Alberta, 8205 114St 2-70 Corbett Hall, Edmonton, Alberta, T6R 3T5, Canada.

Background: Dysphagia is one consequence of head and neck cancer that has a significant impact on quality of life for head and neck cancer survivors. While survival rates continue to improve, focus has shifted to maximizing long-term function, with prevention or prehabilitation programs becoming more common. Prehabilitation programs typically include an exercise regime that specifies the exercise type, the number of repetitions to complete per set, the number of sets of each exercise to complete per day, as well as the length of the treatment block. Read More

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January 2021

Consensus on the diagnosis and management of chronic leg ulcers - Brazilian Society of Dermatology.

An Bras Dermatol 2020 Nov-Dec;95 Suppl 1:1-18. Epub 2020 Oct 4.

Department of Dermatology, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Background: Chronic leg ulcers affect a large portion of the adult population and cause a significant social and economic impact, related to outpatient and hospital care, absence from work, social security expenses, and reduced quality of life. The correct diagnosis and therapeutic approach are essential for a favorable evolution.

Objective: To gather the experience of Brazilian dermatologists, reviewing the specialized literature to prepare recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of the main types of chronic leg ulcers. Read More

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December 2020

Synthesis of Recommendations From 25 Countries and 31 Oncology Societies: How to Navigate Through Covid-19 Labyrinth.

Front Oncol 2020 19;10:575148. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Department of Radiotherapy, School of Medicine, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece.

Introduction: Pandemic COVID-19 is an unexpected challenge for the oncological community, indicating potential detrimental effects on cancer patients. Our aim was to summarize the converging key points providing a general guidance in order to support decision making, pertaining to the oncologic care in the middle of a global outbreak.

Methods: We did an international online search in twenty five countries that have managed a surge in cancer patient numbers. Read More

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November 2020

Management of recurrent or progressive spinal metastases: reirradiation techniques and surgical principles.

Neurooncol Pract 2020 Nov 18;7(Suppl 1):i45-i53. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

With the growing incidence of new cases and the increasing prevalence of patients living longer with spine metastasis, a methodological approach to the management of patients with recurrent or progressive disease is increasing in relevance and importance in clinical practice. As a result, disease management has evolved in these patients using advanced surgical and radiotherapy technologies. Five key goals in the management of patients with spine metastases include providing pain relief, controlling metastatic disease at the treated site, improving neurologic deficits, maintaining or improving functional status, and minimizing further mechanical instability. Read More

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November 2020

NCCN Guidelines Insights: Soft Tissue Sarcoma, Version 1.2021.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2020 12 2;18(12):1604-1612. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

28UCSF Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center; and.

The NCCN Guidelines for Soft Tissue Sarcoma provide recommendations for the diagnosis, evaluation, treatment, and follow-up for patients with soft tissue sarcomas. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize the panel discussion behind recent important updates to the guidelines, including the development of a separate and distinct guideline for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs); reconception of the management of desmoid tumors; inclusion of further recommendations for the diagnosis and management of extremity/body wall, head/neck sarcomas, and retroperitoneal sarcomas; modification and addition of systemic therapy regimens for sarcoma subtypes; and revision of the principles of radiation therapy for soft tissue sarcomas. Read More

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December 2020

Technical challenges of linac-based stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy: short review for non-radiation oncologists.

Ann Palliat Med 2020 Oct 9. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Centre, NY, USA.

Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) is a radiation technique delivering high doses of radiation in a small number of treatments, to extracranial targets. It is standard of care in patients with inoperable early stage non-small cell lung cancer, and it is increasingly used in patients with oligometastatic disease. The main advantage of SABR is a steep dose gradient, allowing delivery of high biologically effective doses to the target, while minimizing irradiation exposure of the neighboring normal tissues. Read More

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October 2020

Modeling Resistance and Recurrence Patterns of Combined Targeted-Chemoradiotherapy Predicts Benefit of Shorter Induction Period.

Cancer Res 2020 11 9;80(22):5121-5133. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

Optimal integration of molecularly targeted therapies, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), with concurrent chemotherapy and radiation (CRT) to improve outcomes in genotype-defined cancers remains a current challenge in clinical settings. Important questions regarding optimal scheduling and length of induction period for neoadjuvant use of targeted agents remain unsolved and vary among clinical trial protocols. Here, we develop and validate a biomathematical framework encompassing drug resistance and radiobiology to simulate patterns of local versus distant recurrences in a non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) population with mutated EGFR receiving TKIs and CRT. Read More

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November 2020

Development of paediatric non-stage prognosticator guidelines for population-based cancer registries and updates to the 2014 Toronto Paediatric Cancer Stage Guidelines.

Lancet Oncol 2020 09;21(9):e444-e451

Cancer Institute (WIA), Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Population-based cancer registries (PBCRs) generate measures of cancer incidence and survival that are essential for cancer surveillance, research, and cancer control strategies. In 2014, the Toronto Paediatric Cancer Stage Guidelines were developed to standardise how PBCRs collect data on the stage at diagnosis for childhood cancer cases. These guidelines have been implemented in multiple jurisdictions worldwide to facilitate international comparative studies of incidence and outcome. Read More

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September 2020

Update on Multienergy CT: Physics, Principles, and Applications.

Radiographics 2020 Sep-Oct;40(5):1284-1308. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

From the Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN 55905 (P.R., S.L.); Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Mass (A.P., A.R.K.); Department of Radiology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Tex (F.K.); and Department of Radiology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (D.B.).

Multienergy CT involves acquisition of two or more CT measurements with distinct energy spectra. Using the differential attenuation of tissues and materials at different x-ray energies, multienergy CT allows distinction of tissues and materials beyond that possible with conventional CT. Multienergy CT technologies can operate at the source or detector level. Read More

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Corneal cross-linking versus standard care in children with keratoconus - a randomised, multicentre, observer-masked trial of efficacy and safety (KERALINK): a statistical analysis plan.

Trials 2020 Jun 12;21(1):523. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

NIHR Moorfields Clinical Research Facility, Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, UK.

Background: The KERALINK trial tests the hypothesis that corneal cross-linking (CXL) treatment reduces the progression of keratoconus in comparison to standard care in patients aged 10-16 years. This article describes the statistical analysis plan for this trial as an update to the published protocol. It is written before the end of the patient follow-up, while the outcome of the trial is still unknown. Read More

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Management of Lung Cancer During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

JCO Oncol Pract 2020 Sep 26;16(9):579-586. Epub 2020 May 26.

Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has had a devastating impact around the world. With high rates of transmission and no curative therapies or vaccine yet available, the current cornerstone of management focuses on prevention by social distancing. This includes decreased health care contact for patients. Read More

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September 2020

Magnetic resonance imaging of the prostate after focal therapy with high-intensity focused ultrasound.

Abdom Radiol (NY) 2020 11;45(11):3882-3895

Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, 10065, USA.

For clinically significant, locally confined prostate cancer, whole-gland radical prostatectomy and radiotherapy are established effective treatment strategies that, however, come at a cost of significant morbidity related to urinary and sexual side effects. The concept of risk stratification paired with a better understanding of prognostic factors has led to the development of alternative management options including active surveillance and focal therapy for appropriately selected patients with localized disease. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is one such minimally invasive, image-guided treatment option for prostate cancer. Read More

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November 2020

Chapitre 9. Oncofertilité et jeunes filles prépubères : Un « droit à un avenir ouvert » ?

J Int Bioethique Ethique Sci 2019 Nov;Vol. 30(3):159-177

Chemotherapy and radiotherapy have increased the life expectancy of cancer patients but may cause premature ovarian failure and irreversible loss of fertility. In the context of childhood cancers, it is now acknowledged that possible negative effects of treatment on future reproductive autonomy are a major concern. While a few options are open to patients post-puberty, the only option currently open to prepubescent girls is cryopreservation of ovarian tissue and subsequent transplantation. Read More

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November 2019

Care of immunocompromised patients with head and neck cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic: Two challenging and informative clinical cases.

Head Neck 2020 06 22;42(6):1131-1136. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology: Head and Neck Surgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Background And Methods: There is an added level of complexity in the management of head and neck cancer patients with underlying immunosuppressive disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic. Head and neck oncologists are tasked with balancing the dual risks of cancer progression in the setting of impaired tumor immunity and increased susceptibility to life-threatening complications from exposure to viral infection for patients and providers. Through two cases of immunocompromised patients with newly diagnosed head and neck malignancies, we aim to provide guidance to clinicians struggling with how to best counsel and manage this unique subset of patients under these difficult circumstances. Read More

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[Pre-, Post- and Intraoperative Radiation Therapy in Adult Liposarcomas].

Authors:
Falk Roeder

Zentralbl Chir 2020 Apr 8;145(2):148-159. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Klinik für Radiotherapie und Radioonkologie, Paracelsus Medizinische Privatuniversität, Landeskrankenhaus, Salzburg, Österreich.

Radiation therapy is an integral part of the treatment of soft tissue sarcomas in adults. The indication for additional radiation therapy has usually been based on known general prognostic factors, such as tumour size, localisation, grading and (anticipated) resection margin. Increasing attention has recently been paid to the role of the histological subtype. Read More

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