842,543 results match your criteria Radiation Research[Journal]


Transition of cancer in populations in India.

Cancer Epidemiol 2018 Dec 8;58:111-120. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Radiation Oncology, Regional Cancer Centre, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.

Background & Objectives: An assessment of transition of cancer in India during the past 30 years, according to changes in demographic and epidemiologic risk factors was undertaken.

Materials & Methods: Cancer registry data (http://www.ncdirindia. Read More

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December 2018

A review of methods used for hazard identification and risk assessment of environmental hazards.

Environ Int 2018 Dec 8;123:231-239. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Innovation, Evidence and Research, World Health Organization, Av. Appia 20 CH-1211, Geneva 27, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Background: Approximately one quarter of all deaths globally are attributed to living or working in an unhealthy environment, with household and ambient air pollution, along with exposures to ultraviolet radiation and chemicals amongst the leading causes. At present there are no international standards for assessing the risks of these environmental hazards. The use of heterogeneous methods to identify health risks from environmental hazards may reduce the level of confidence the public has in the conclusions that are made. Read More

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December 2018

Cre-miR914-regulated RPL18 is involved with UV-B adaptation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

J Plant Physiol 2018 Nov 22;232:151-159. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Key Laboratory of Algal Biology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430072, China. Electronic address:

UV radiation is a serious threat to life, and algae have developed highly efficient adaptations to UV radiation through the course of evolution. To date, studies investigating the mechanisms of UV adaptation in algae have focused on physiological regulation and associated protein coding genes, with only a few reports on associated protein non-coding genes. In a previous study, we found that Cre-miR914 was significantly down-regulated in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in response to heat shock. Read More

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November 2018

Lens dose-response prediction modeling and cataract incidence in retinoblastoma patients after lens-sparing or whole-eye radiotherapy.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Keck School of Medicine of USC and Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA. Electronic address:

Purpose: We retrospectively assessed the incidence of cataracts in retinoblastoma (Rb) patients treated with either lens-sparing (LSRT) or whole-eye radiotherapy (WERT). A secondary aim of this study was to model the dose-response risk of cataract.

Methods: We reviewed 65 retinoblastoma patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) at XXXX from 1997-2015. Read More

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December 2018

The Link between the Multiverse of Immune Microenvironments in Metastases and the Survival of Colorectal Cancer Patients.

Cancer Cell 2018 Dec;34(6):1012-1026.e3

INSERM, Laboratory of Integrative Cancer Immunology, Sorbonne Université, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Université Paris Descartes, Université Paris Diderot; Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, 75006 Paris, France. Electronic address:

Treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer is based upon the assumption that metastases are homogeneous within a patient. We quantified immune cell types of 603 whole-slide metastases and primary colorectal tumors from 222 patients. Primary lesions, and synchronous and metachronous metastases, had a heterogeneous immune infiltrate and mutational diversity. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Clinical utility and concordance of upper urinary tract cytology and biopsy in predicting Clinicopathologic features of upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma.

Hum Pathol 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Pathology, University of Michigan, 2800 Plymouth Road, Building 35, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA; Michigan Center for Translational Pathology, 5309 CCC 5940, 1500 E. Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA; Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Michigan Medical School, 1500 E Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA. Electronic address:

5% of urothelial carcinoma occurs in the upper urinary tract (UUT), a challenging location to biopsy. We aim to evaluate concordance between biopsy, cytology, and resection specimens in a large upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) cohort.117 UTUC resections with UUT biopsy and/or cytology specimens from 2000-2016 were retrieved; pathologic material was re-reviewed, evaluated for concordance, and correlated with clinical information. Read More

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December 2018

Impact of Closed Facebook Group Participation on Female Hematology/Oncology Physicians.

J Oncol Pract 2018 Dec;14(12):e758-e769

Sarah Cannon Cancer Institutes at HCA Midwest Health, Overland Park, KS; University of Florida College of Medicine; Malcom Randall Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Gainesville; Florida Cancer Specialists, Deland, FL; University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX; and Cleveland Clinic Akron General, Akron, OH.

Purpose:: Meaningful connections are an important aspect of career satisfaction. The Hematology Oncology Women Physician Group (HOWPG) is a private Facebook (FB) group of 936 women who practice within the hematology/oncology (H/O) field. We hypothesized that HOWPG adds value to education, emotional wellness, and practice of oncology for its membership. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Outcomes of Peer Review for Radiotherapy Treatment Plans With Palliative Intent.

J Oncol Pract 2018 Dec;14(12):e794-e800

Southlake Regional Health Centre, Newmarket; and University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Purpose:: Peer review of a proposed treatment plan is increasingly recognized as an important quality activity in radiation medicine. Although peer review has been emphasized in the curative setting, applying peer review for treatment plans that have palliative intent is receiving increased attention. This study reports peer review outcomes for a regional cancer center that applied routine interprofessional peer review as a standard practice for palliative radiotherapy. Read More

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December 2018

Prognostic value of metabolic tumor burden calculated using dual-time-point 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT in patients with oropharyngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer.

Head Neck 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Radiation Therapeutics and Oncology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: This study investigates the prognostic value of metabolic tumor burden calculated using dual-time-point 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/CT in patients with locally advanced cancer.

Methods: This study examines 42 patients (35 men and 7 women, 38-73 years old) with locally advanced oropharyngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer who had undergone FDG-PET/CT before receiving chemoradiotherapy. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUV ), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were measured for the early and delayed phases. Read More

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December 2018

Acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding: are STRATE and BLEED scores valid in clinical practice?

Colorectal Dis 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Hospital Senhora da Oliveira, Gastrenterology Department - Guimarães, Portugal.

Aim: Acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding (ALGIB) is a commongastroenterological emergency. Despite this outcomes are difficult to predict Onlyy STRATE and BLEED scores are readily available. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for severe ALGIB and access the validity of available scores. Read More

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December 2018

Long-Term Consequences of the Chernobyl Radioactive Fallout: An Exploration of the Aggregate Data.

Milbank Q 2018 Dec;96(4):814-857

University of Padua.

Policy Points Policymakers should invest more on researching the long-term health effects of low-ionizing radiation exposure, as we are far from reaching a consensus on a topic that is of enormous importance for public health and safety. Public policies such as those limiting the import of contaminated food from areas hit by a radioactive disaster or those regulating the resident population's access to such areas should follow a precautionary approach. Neoplasm diagnosis and medical care should be designed in order to take into account the possible role of long-term, low-dose radiation exposure. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Engineering Controlled Peritumoral Inflammation to Constrain Brain Tumor Growth.

Adv Healthc Mater 2018 Dec 11:e1801076. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Pratt School of Engineering, Duke University, 101 Science Drive, Durham, NC, 27705, USA.

Brain tumors remain a great clinical challenge, in part due to their capacity to invade into eloquent, inoperable regions of the brain. In contrast, inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) due to injuries activates microglia and astrocytes culminating in an astroglial scar that typically "walls-off" the injury site. Here, the hypothesis is tested that targeting peritumoral cells surrounding tumors to activate them via an inflammatory stimulus that recapitulates the sequelae of a traumatic CNS injury, could generate an environment that would wall-off and contain invasive tumors in the brain. Read More

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December 2018

Proton therapy for skull base tumors: A review of clinical outcomes for chordomas and chondrosarcomas.

Head Neck 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

University of Florida Health Proton Therapy Institute, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, Florida.

Background: Skull base chordomas and chondrosarcomas are rare tumors traditionally treated by surgical resection and adjuvant radiation therapy (RT). We will discuss data evaluating clinical outcomes of proton therapy in the treatment of skull base chordomas and chondrosarcomas.

Methods: A literature review was performed using a MEDLINE search from January 1990 to January 2017. Read More

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December 2018

Technical Note: A method for quality assurance of landmark sets for use in evaluation of deformable image registration accuracy of lung parenchyma.

Med Phys 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, 63110, USA.

Purpose: To develop a quality control method to improve the accuracy of corresponding landmark sets used for deformable image registration evaluation in the lung parenchyma.

Methods: An iterative workflow was developed as a method for quality assurance of landmark sets. Starting with the initial landmark set for a given image pair, a landmark-based deformation was applied to one of the images. Read More

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December 2018

Anti-oral cancer effects of triptolide by downregulation of DcR3 in vitro, in vivo, and in preclinical patient-derived tumor xenograft model.

Head Neck 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

School of Dentistry, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background: Aberrant expression of decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) is considered to be a diagnostic and therapeutic target for human cancers. The aim of this study was to assess DcR3 as a target of the anticancer effects of triptolide (TPL) in preclinical patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDTX) models of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).

Methods: The expression of DcR3 was evaluated through immunohistochemistry, and correlations were examined using clinical variables. Read More

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December 2018

Structural and mechanistic insights into polymyxin resistance mediated by EptC originating from Escherichia coli.

FEBS J 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Division of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and Collaborative Innovation Center of Biotherapy, Chengdu, 610041, China.

Gram-negative bacteria defend against the toxicity of polymyxins by modifying their outer membrane lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This modification mainly occurs through the addition of cationic molecules such as phosphoethanolamine (PEA). EcEptC is a PEA transferase from Escherichia coli (E. Read More

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December 2018
4.001 Impact Factor

Simultaneous Co-segmentation of Tumors in PET-CT Images Using Deep Fully Convolutional Networks.

Med Phys 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, the University of Iowa.

Purpose: To investigate the use and efficiency of 3-D deep learning, fully convolutional networks (DFCN) for simultaneous tumor co-segmentation on dual-modality non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) PET-CT images.

Methods: We used DFCN co-segmentation for NSCLC tumors in PET-CT images, considering both the CT and PET information. The proposed DFCN-based co-segmentation method consists of two coupled 3D-UNets with an encoder-decoder architecture, which can communicate with the other in order to share complementary information between PET and CT. Read More

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December 2018

Forensic Comparison of Automotive Aluminum Wheel Fragments Using Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Fluorescence with 18- and 116-keV Excitation X-rays.

J Forensic Sci 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Faculty of Education, Kochi University, 2-5-1 Akebono-cho, Kochi-shi, Kochi, 780-8520, Japan.

The performance of synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) spectrometry for nondestructive discrimination of small fragments of automotive aluminum wheels was studied. Fragments (< 500 × 500 μm ) of 45 kinds of wheels were first analyzed by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and then by SR-XRF. Despite the Mg/Al intensity ratio being a useful identification index, SEM-EDS was not efficient enough because of the absence of other meaningful indicators of comparison. Read More

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December 2018

Dynamic recognition and repair of DNA complex damage.

J Cell Physiol 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, China.

Irradiation (IR) can be used to treat cancer by inducing complex and irreparable DNA damage in the cancer cells, which may lead to their apoptotic death. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism of this DNA damage. Here, the non-small-cell lung cancer cell line A549 was treated with either X-ray or carbon ion combined with bleomycin (BLM). Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Cutaneous malignant melanoma of the oral cavity following skin graft reconstruction: Case report.

Head Neck 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa.

Background: Malignant melanomas on skin graft recipient sites are rare, with few cases reported in the literature.

Methods: We present a case report of a patient with recurrent cutaneous melanoma in the grafted anterolateral thigh flap of the tongue.

Results: A patient underwent hemiglossectomy with free flap reconstruction for squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

The risk of cancer attributable to diagnostic medical radiation: Estimation for France in 2015.

Int J Cancer 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Section of Cancer Surveillance, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France, 69372.

Although medical ionizing radiation (IR) has clear clinical benefits, it is an established carcinogen. This study estimates the number of new cancer cases in France in 2015 attributable to IR exposure from medical procedures. Exposures from external (X-rays, CT scans, interventional radiology) and internal (nuclear medicine) sources were considered. Read More

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December 2018

Synthesis and characterization of novel substituted thiophene derivatives and discovery of their carbonic anhydrase and acetylcholinesterase inhibition effects.

J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2018 Dec 10:e22261. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey.

Novel substituted thiophene derivatives (1, 2a-e, 3, and 4) were synthesized and their structures were characterized by infrared radiation, nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass analysis. These novel substituted thiophene derivatives were effective inhibitor compounds of the carbonic anhydrase I and II isozymes (hCA I and II), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme with K values in the range of 447.28 to 1004. Read More

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December 2018
1.925 Impact Factor

Regulation of melanocyte stem cells in the pigmentation of skin and its appendages: Biological patterning and therapeutic potentials.

Exp Dermatol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Integrative Stem Cell Center, China Medical University Hospital, China Medical University, Taichung, 40402, Taiwan.

Skin evolves essential appendages and indispensable types of cells that synergistically insulate the body from environmental insults. Residing in the specific regions in the skin such as epidermis, dermis and hair follicle, melanocytes perform an array of vital functions including defending the ultraviolet radiation and diversifying animal appearance. As one of the adult stem cells, melanocyte stem cells in the hair follicle bulge niche can proliferate, differentiate, and keep quiescence to control and coordinate tissue homeostasis, repair, and regeneration. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Structures and activities of widely conserved small prokaryotic Aminopeptidases P clarify classification of M24B peptidases.

Proteins 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

High Pressure and Synchrotron Radiation Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India.

The proline-specific M24B peptidases that cleave Xaa-Pro iminopeptide bond in dipeptides are called prolidases while those that preferentially cleave this bond at the N-termini of longer peptides are called aminopeptidases-P. Escherichia coli and other bacteria have small aminopeptidases-P (36-39 kDa) which are considerably diverged from the canonical aminopeptidase-P of E. coli (50 kDa). Read More

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December 2018

Reply to "Comments on the TRS-483 Protocol on Small field Dosimetry" [Med. Phys. 45(12), 5666-5668 (2018)].

Med Phys 2018 Dec;45(12):5669-5671

Dosimetry and Medical Radiation Physics Section, International Atomic Energy Agency, A-1400, Vienna, Austria.

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December 2018

Comments on the TRS-483 protocol on small field dosimetry.

Med Phys 2018 Dec;45(12):5666-5668

Department of Radiation Oncology, Ospedale Di Vicenza, Viale Rodolfi, Vicenza, 36100, Italy.

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December 2018

How mountains shape biodiversity: the role of the Andes in biogeography, diversification and reproductive biology in South America's most species rich lizard radiation (Squamata: Liolaemidae).

Evolution 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Division of Ecology and Evolution, Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, 0200, Canberra, ACT, Australia.

Testing hypotheses on the drivers of clade evolution and trait diversification provides insight into many aspects of evolutionary biology. Often, studies investigate only the intrinsic biological properties of organisms as the causes of diversity, however extrinsic properties of a clade's environment, particularly geological history, may also offer compelling explanations. The Andes are a young mountain chain known to have shaped many aspects of climate and diversity of South America. Read More

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December 2018

Prognostic significance of pretreatment 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography evaluation using metabolic tumor volume of the primary tumor and lymph nodes in advanced hypopharyngeal cancer.

Head Neck 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.

Background: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the usefulness of pretreatment positron emission tomography (PET) using metabolic tumor volume (MTV) of the primary tumor and lymph nodes in advanced hypopharyngeal cancer.

Methods: From June 2007 to December 2015, consecutive patients with advanced hypopharyngeal cancer who underwent PET and were treated with definitive radiation therapy were retrospectively reviewed.

Results: A total of 61 patients were eligible for this study. Read More

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December 2018

Predictive gamma passing rate by dose uncertainty potential accumulation model.

Med Phys 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, 734-8551, Japan.

Purpose: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) utilizes many small fields for producing a uniform dose distribution. Therefore, there are many field junctions in the target region, and resulting dose uncertainties are accumulated. However, such accumulation of the dose uncertainty has not been implemented in the current practice of IMRT dose verification. Read More

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December 2018

Otopathology in Angiosarcoma of the Temporal Bone.

Laryngoscope 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Otolaryngology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Objectives/hypothesis: Investigate the otopathology of angiosarcoma of the temporal bone, which has not been previously described in the literature.

Study Design: Postmortem evaluation and literature review.

Methods: Postmortem histological evaluation of the temporal bones and review of the literature for the treatment and prognosis of this rare disease were performed. Read More

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December 2018

Spectral analysis of the EBT3 radiochromic films for clinical photon and electron beams.

Med Phys 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, 63110.

Purpose: To investigate the spectral response of the EBT3 radiochromic films to different beam qualities for radiation therapy dosimetry. Dose, dose rate, and inter-batch dependencies on the spectral response of the films are investigated as well.

Methods: Pieces of EBT3 films placed between layers of solid water phantoms were irradiated with 6 and 15 MV photon beams, 6 and 10 MV-FFF photon beams, and 6 and 20 MeV electron beams at dose levels between 0. Read More

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December 2018

A clinical trial with protracted infusion 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C for localized squamous cell carcinoma of the anus.

Asia Pac J Clin Oncol 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Purpose: Mitomycin C (MMC) plus standard 5-fluorouracil (FU) infusion in weeks 1 and 5 often contributes to radiotherapy interruptions and possibly less-than-ideal outcomes in anal cancer. This study was to evaluate alternative strategies for chemotherapy delivery that might be less toxic or more efficacious, and outcomes of patient-initiated treatment interruption for severe acute toxicity.

Materials And Methods: This was a prospective, nonrandomized study for patients with T1-4N0-3M0 anal squamous carcinoma. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Two-year prevalence of dysphagia and related outcomes in head and neck cancer survivors: An updated SEER-Medicare analysis.

Head Neck 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Head and Neck Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.

Background: The aim of the study was to examine prevalence of dysphagia at the population level in head and neck cancer (HNC) survivors.

Methods: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare claims among 16 194 patients with HNC (2002-2011) were analyzed to estimate 2-year prevalence of dysphagia, stricture, and aspiration pneumonia, and derive treatment- and site-specific estimates.

Results: Prevalence of dysphagia, stricture, pneumonia, and aspiration pneumonia was 45. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Modeling and multi-scale characterization of the quantitative imaging based fibrosis index reveals pathophysiological, transcriptome and proteomic correlates of lung fibrosis induced by fractionated irradiation.

Int J Cancer 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Translational Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT), German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

Pulmonary fibrosis represents a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Therapy induced lung fibrosis constitutes a pivotal dose-limiting side effect of radiotherapy and other anticancer agents. We aimed to develop objective criteria for assessment of fibrosis and discover pathophysiological and molecular correlates of lung fibrosis as a function of fractionated whole thoracic irradiation. Read More

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December 2018

Outcomes of relapsed human papillomavirus-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma treated with curative intent.

Head Neck 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Washington University, Saint Louis, Missouri.

Background: With most centers reporting excellent disease control following transoral surgery for human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal cancer, data are still lacking regarding management and outcomes in patients who relapse. We describe the treatment outcomes after curative intent therapy for locoregional and distant relapse following transoral surgery for HPV-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC).

Methods: A single institution retrospective study in which patients were identified with curatively treated loco-regional or single site distant relapse of HPV-related OPSCC treated initially with transoral surgery (TOS) between 1996 and 2014. Read More

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December 2018

Voxel-wise correlation of PET/CT with multiparametric MRI and histology of the prostate using a sophisticated registration framework.

BJU Int 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Objectives: To develop a registration framework for correlating positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) images with multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) and histology of the prostate, thereby enabling voxel-wise analysis of imaging parameters.

Patients And Methods: In this prospective proof-of-concept study, nine patients scheduled for radical prostatectomy underwent mpMRI and PET/CT imaging prior to surgery. One had PET imaging using F-fluoromethylcholine (FCH), five using Ga-labelled prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-HBED-CC (PMSA-11) and three using a trial Ga-labelled THP-PSMA tracer. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Validation and investigation of reactive species yields of Geant4-DNA chemistry models.

Med Phys 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Physics, University of Adelaide, SA, Australia.

Purpose: Indirect biological damage due to reactive species produced in water radiolysis reactions is responsible for the majority of biological effect for low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. Modelling water radiolysis and the subsequent interactions of reactive species, as well as track structures, is essential to model radiobiology on the microscale. Recently, chemistry models have been developed for Geant4-DNA to be used in combination with the comprehensive existing physics models. Read More

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December 2018

Extension of lymphocyte viability for radiation biodosimetry: Potential implications for radiological/nuclear mass casualty incidents.

J Cell Biochem 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Cytogenetics Biodosimetry Laboratory, Radiation Emergency Assistance Center and Training Site, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

Dicentric chromosome assay (DCA) is routinely used for estimating the absorbed radiation dose in exposed humans. Optimal lymphocyte viability is crucial for reliable dose estimation and most cytogenetic laboratories prefer the receipt of blood samples within 24 to 36 hours after collection. Delays in the shipment/receipt of samples can occur sometimes under certain unforeseen circumstances: (1) Adverse weather conditions, (2) distant location of blood collection sites, and (3) shipping and handling of a large number of samples after radiological/nuclear mass casualty incident(s). Read More

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December 2018

microRNA-16-5p enhances radiosensitivity through modulating Cyclin D1/E1-pRb-E2F1 pathway in prostate cancer cells.

J Cell Physiol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, People's Republic of China.

Prostate cancer (CaP) is the second most common cancer in men worldwide in 2012, and radiation therapy is one of the most common definitive treatment options for localized CaP. However, radioresistance is a major challenge for the current radiotherapy, accumulating evidences suggest microRNAs (miRNAs), as an important regulator in cellular ionizing radiation (IR) responses, are closely correlated with radiosensitivity in many cancers. Here, we identified microRNA-16-5p(miR-16-5p) is significantly upregulated in CaP LNCaP cells following IR and can enhance radiosensitivity through modulating Cyclin D1/E1-pRb-E2F1 pathway. Read More

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December 2018

Functional microRNA binding site variants.

Mol Oncol 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Radiation Oncology, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Germline single nucleotide polymorphisms are one of the most common genetic variations. Polymorphisms that cause nonsynonymous mutations in gene coding regions are known to cause serious deleterious downstream effects. However, even polymorphisms in noncoding regions can have profound functional consequences by disrupting essential regulatory sites. Read More

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December 2018

Palbociclib plus endocrine therapy in HER2 negative, hormonal receptor-positive, advanced breast cancer: A real-world experience.

J Cell Physiol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Division of Medical Oncology 2, IRCCS Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome, Italy.

Data from 423 human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-), hormone receptor-positive (HR+) advanced breast cancer (aBC) patients treated with palbociclib and endocrine therapy (ET) were provided by 35 Italian cancer centers and analyzed for treatment outcomes. Overall, 158 patients were treated in first line and 265 in second/later lines. We observed 19 complete responses and 112 partial responses. Read More

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December 2018
5 Reads

Ototoxicity in locally advanced head and neck cancer patients treated with induction chemotherapy followed by intermediate or high-dose cisplatin-based chemoradiotherapy.

Head Neck 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Medical Oncology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Background: This study evaluated ototoxicity in locally advanced head and neck cancer patients treated in the CONDOR study with docetaxel/cisplatin/5-fluorouracil (TPF) followed by conventional radiotherapy with concomitant cisplatin 100 mg/m on days 1, 22, and 43 (cis100+RT) versus accelerated radiotherapy with concomitant cisplatin weekly 40 mg/m (cis40+ART).

Methods: Sixty-two patients were treated in this study. Audiometry was performed at baseline, during TPF, before start of chemoradiotherapy, and 1, 4, 8, and 12 months after treatment. Read More

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December 2018

Utility of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients receiving surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy for primary treatment of esthesioneuroblastoma.

Head Neck 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Division of Medical Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Background: Past research established that surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy (S + AR) improves overall survival (OS) in esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB). However, it is unknown if the addition of adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) further improves survival. The primary objective of this study was to compare survival among patients treated with S + AR alone to patients who underwent S + AR + AC. Read More

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December 2018

Dosimetric Features-Driven Machine Learning Model for DVHs Prediction in VMAT Treatment Planning.

Med Phys 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, 875 Blake Wilbur Drive, Stanford, CA, 94305-5847, USA.

Purpose: Few features characterizing the dosimetric properties of the patients are included in currently available dose-volume histogram (DVH) prediction models, making it intractable to build a correlative relationship between the input and output parameters. Here we use PTV-only treatment plans of the patients (i.e. Read More

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December 2018

In Response to Altered Molecular Profile in Thyroid Cancers From Patients Affected by Three Mile Island Nuclear Accident.

Laryngoscope 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Radiation and Public Health Project, Ocean City, New Jersey, U.S.A.

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December 2018

Global trends in colorectal cancer mortality: projections to the year 2035.

Int J Cancer 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Section of Cancer Surveillance, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 Cours Albert Thomas, Lyon, France.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide and the fourth most common cause of cancer death. Predictions of the future burden of the disease inform health planners and raise awareness of the need for cancer control action. Data from the World Health Organization (WHO) mortality database for 1989-2016 were used to project colon and rectal cancer mortality rates and number of deaths in 42 countries up to the year 2035, using age-period-cohort (APC) modelling. Read More

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December 2018

Brain structure and neurological and behavioural functioning in infants born preterm.

Dev Med Child Neurol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne, Vic., Australia.

Aim: To examine: (1) relationships between brain structure, and concurrently assessed neurological and behavioural functioning, in infants born preterm at term-equivalent age (TEA; approximately 38-44wks); and (2) whether brain structure-function relationships differ between infants born very (24-29wks) and moderate-late (32-36wks) preterm.

Method: A total of 257 infants (91 very preterm, 166 moderate-late preterm; 120 males, 137 females) had structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neurological and behavioural assessments (Prechtl's general movements assessment, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale [NNNS] and Hammersmith Neonatal Neurological Examination [HNNE]). Two hundred and sixty-three infants (90 very preterm, 173 moderate-late preterm; 131 males, 132 females) had diffusion MRI and assessments. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Novel therapeutic agents for relapsed classical Hodgkin lymphoma.

Br J Haematol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Lymphoma Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL) is a B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder with an excellent prognosis for the majority of patients who are treated with multi-agent chemotherapy, with or without radiation. A subset of patient, however, does not respond to therapy or relapses after accomplishing an initial response. Their outcome is poor and new treatment strategies are urgently needed for this patient population. Read More

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December 2018

MiR-520b inhibited metastasis and proliferation of non-small cell lung cancer by targeting CHAF1A.

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2018 Nov;22(22):7742-7749

Department of Radiation Oncology, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Objective: To investigate the potential effect of miR-520b on the development of non-small cell lung cancer and to explore the underlying mechanism.

Patients And Methods: The expression levels of miR-520b in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissues and cells (A549), as well as corresponding adjacent normal tissues and normal human lung epithelial cells (BEAS-2B), were detected by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), respectively. Luciferase reported gene assay was performed to evaluate the interaction between miR-520b and chromatin assembly factor 1 subunit A (CHAF1A). Read More

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November 2018
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