11,472 results match your criteria Radiation Research[Journal]


DNA Damage and Cytokine Production in Non-Target Irradiated Lymphocytes.

Radiat Res 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

a   Radiation and Environmental Science Centre, FOCAS Institute, Technological University Dublin, Dublin 8, Ireland.

In advanced radiotherapy, treatment of the tumor with high-intensity modulated fields is balanced with normal tissue sparing. However, the non-target dose delivered to surrounding healthy tissue within the irradiated volume is a potential cause for concern. Whether the effects observed are caused after exposure to out-of-field radiation or bystander effects through neighboring irradiated cells is not fully understood. Read More

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http://www.rrjournal.org/doi/10.1667/RR15165.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15165.1DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Peggy Louise Olive.

Radiat Res 2019 Apr;191(4):380-381

Department of Integrative Oncology, Radiation Biology Unit, British Columbia Cancer Agency Research Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

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April 2019
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Milton B. Yatvin November 12, 1930-December 13, 2018.

Radiat Res 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Centre for Radiation Protection Research Department of Molecular Biosciences Stockholm University.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR0MBY.1DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Low-Dose Radiation Promotes the Proliferation and Migration of AGE-Treated Endothelial Progenitor Cells Derived from Bone Marrow via Activating SDF-1/CXCR4/ERK Signaling Pathway.

Radiat Res 2019 Mar 29. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

c   Endocrinology and Metabolism, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130021, Jilin, P.R. China.

Low-dose radiation (LDR) has been confirmed to mobilize bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and promote diabetic wound healing. But it is unclear whether LDR acts directly on EPCs and promotes their proliferation and migration. Given the key role of advanced glycosylation end products (AGE) in the pathogenesis of diabetes, we used AGE to induce EPC damage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15200.1DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Medical Radiation Exposure among Atomic Bomb Survivors: Understanding its Impact on Risk Estimates of Atomic Bomb Radiation.

Radiat Res 2019 Mar 29. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

a   Department of Epidemiology, Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima, Japan.

There have been some concerns about the influence of medical X rays in dose-response analysis of atomic bomb radiation on health outcomes. Among atomic bomb survivors in the Life Span Study, the association between atomic bomb radiation dose and exposures to medical X rays was investigated using questionnaire data collected by a mail survey conducted between 2007-2011, soliciting information on the history of computed tomography (CT) scans, gastrointestinal fluoroscopy, angiography and radiotherapy. Among 12,670 participants, 76% received at least one CT scan; 77%, a fluoroscopic examination; 23%, an angiographic examination; and 8%, radiotherapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15054.1DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Successful Rescue of the Victim Exposed to a Super High Dose of Iridium-192 during the Nanjing Radiological Accident in 2014.

Radiat Res 2019 Mar 29. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

a   Departments of Nuclear and Radiation Incident Medical Emergency Office, Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215004, China.

Here we report on the interventions taken to treat a patient exposed to high-dose radiation and provide a protocol for treating such patients in the future. The patient, Mr. Wang, was a 58-year-old male janitor who was accidentally exposed to a Ir source with an activity of 966. Read More

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http://www.rrjournal.org/doi/10.1667/RR15274.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15274.1DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads
2.911 Impact Factor

Knee and Hip Joint Cartilage Damage from Combined Spaceflight Hazards of Low-Dose Radiation Less than 1 Gy and Prolonged Hindlimb Unloading.

Radiat Res 2019 Mar 29. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Departments of a   Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina.

Reduced weight bearing, and to a lesser extent radiation, during spaceflight have been shown as potential hazards to astronaut joint health. These hazards combined effect to the knee and hip joints are not well defined, particularly with low-dose exposure to radiation. In this study, we examined the individual and combined effects of varying low-dose radiation (≤1 Gy) and reduced weight bearing on the cartilage of the knee and hip joints. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15216.1DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Cardiac and Renal Delayed Expression of Acute Radiation Exposure: Organ Differences in Vasculopathy, Inflammation, Senescence and Oxidative Balance.

Radiat Res 2019 Mar 22. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Department of a   Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana.

We have previously shown significant pathology in the heart and kidney of murine hematopoietic-acute radiation syndrome (H-ARS) survivors of 8.7-9.0 Gy total-body irradiation (TBI). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15130.1DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

Dosimetry Assessment of Injected 89Zr-Labeled Monoclonal Antibodies in Humans.

Radiat Res 2019 Mar 21. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

b   Institute of Industrial Ecology UB RAS, Ekaterinburg, Russia.

In this study, the behavior dynamics of Zirconium-89 (Zr)-labeled monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) after injection into the human body were modeled. This modified biokinetic model can be used for dose assessment, not only for Zr-labeled MAb tumor visualization, but also for diagnostic and therapeutic radiation with MAb labeled with other radionuclides. A modified biokinetic model was created based on experimental data from previously published studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15321.1DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Radiation Chemical Yield of Hydroxyl Radicals for Accelerator-based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy: Dose Assessment of B(n,α)Li Reaction Using Coumarin-3-Carboxilic Solution.

Radiat Res 2019 Mar 21. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

National Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, 263-8555 Chiba, Japan.

Evaluation of the characteristics of accelerator-based thermal neutron fields is recognized as an important issue when discussing the effectiveness of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). In this study, we propose that the radiation chemical yield (G value) of hydroxyl radicals (G) can be considered a universal parameter for the description of the accelerator-based thermal neutron field. The G of the B(n,α)Li reaction was quantitatively evaluated using an aqueous coumarin-3-carboxylic acid (3CCA) solution, and was discriminated from that of contaminations (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15318.1DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

DNA Strand Breaks Induced by Fast and Thermal Neutrons from YAYOI Research Reactor in the Presence and Absence of Boric Acid.

Radiat Res 2019 Mar 21. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Department of Nuclear Engineering, School of Engineering, Tokai University, Hiratsuka-shi, Kanagawa 259-1292, Japan.

It is well known that neutrons have more damaging effects, with high relative biological effectiveness or a radiation weighting factor depending on neutron energy, compared to low-LET ionizing radiations. In the current work, we evaluated the contribution of the indirect effect induced by radicals for the purpose of studying the mechanisms of fast neutron effects or mechanisms of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using relatively lower energy neutrons. Plasmid pBR322 DNA with a supercoiled structure was irradiated with fast neutrons (1-10 MeV) in the reactor core of the YAYOI research reactor at the University of Tokyo, and with thermalized neutrons passing through a phantom made of acrylic resin to simulate a human body. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15249.1DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Hematological Effects of Non-Homogenous Ionizing Radiation Exposure in a Non-Human Primate Model.

Radiat Res 2019 Mar 14. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

a   Division of Translational Radiation Sciences, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201.

Detonation of a radiological or nuclear device in a major urban area will result in heterogenous radiation exposure, given to the significant shielding of the exposed population due to surrounding structures. Development of biodosimetry assays for triage and treatment requires knowledge of the radiation dose-volume effect for the bone marrow (BM). This proof-of-concept study was designed to quantify BM damage in the non-human primate (NHP) after exposure to one of four radiation patterns likely to occur in a radiological/nuclear attack with varying levels of BM sparing. Read More

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http://www.rrjournal.org/doi/10.1667/RR15280.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15280.1DOI Listing
March 2019
9 Reads

Maintenance of Near Normal Bone Mass and Architecture in Lethally Irradiated Female Mice following Adoptive Transfer with as few as 750 Purified Hematopoietic Stem Cells.

Radiat Res 2019 Mar 14. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

a   Skeletal Biology Laboratory, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331.

Total-body irradiation (TBI) followed by transfer of bone marrow cells from donors is routinely performed in immunology research and can be used to manipulate differentiation and/or function of bone cells. However, exposure to high-dose radiation can result in irreversible osteopenia, and transfer of heterogeneous cell populations can complicate interpretation of results. The goal of this research was to establish an approach for reconstituting bone marrow using small numbers of purified donor-derived hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) without negatively affecting bone metabolism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15164.1DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read
2.911 Impact Factor

Covalent Modification of Amino Acids and Peptides Induced by Ionizing Radiation from an Electron Beam Linear Accelerator Used in Radiotherapy.

Radiat Res 2019 Mar 8. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

a   Biotechnology Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706.

To identify modifications to amino acids that are directly induced by ionizing radiation, free amino acids and 3-residue peptides were irradiated using a linear accelerator (Linac) radiotherapy device. Mass spectrometry was performed to detail the relative sensitivity to radiation as well as identify covalent, radiation-dependent adducts. The order of reactivity of the 20 common amino acids was generally in agreement with published literature except for His (most reactive of the 20) and Cys (less reactive). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15288.1DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Sirt2 Regulates Radiation-Induced Injury.

Radiat Res 2019 Mar 5. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Radiation Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) plays a major role in aging, carcinogenesis and neurodegeneration. While it has been shown that SIRT2 is a mediator of stress-induced cell death, the mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we report the role of SIRT2 in mediating radiation-induced cell death and DNA damage using mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), progenitor cells and tissues from Sirt2 wild-type and genomic knockout mice, and human tumor and primary cell lines as models. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15282.1DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read
2.911 Impact Factor

A Theoretical Model for Predicting and Optimizing In Vitro Screening of Potential Targeted Alpha-Particle Therapy Drugs.

Radiat Res 2019 Mar 4. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

a   State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, P. R. China.

One highly promising approach to cancer treatment, especially for tumors that have undergone micrometastasis, is targeted alpha-particle therapy (TAT). However, the development of a TAT drug has not been possible due to numerous unsuccessful attempts to establish effective in vitro screening methods. The goal of this study was to construct a model to predict and optimize in vitro screening of potential TAT drugs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15297.1DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Use of a Humanized Mouse Model System in the Validation of Human Radiation Biodosimetry Standards.

Radiat Res 2019 Feb 25. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York.

After a planned or unplanned radiation exposure, determination of absorbed dose has great clinical importance, informing treatment and triage decisions in the exposed individuals. Biodosimetry approaches allow for determination of dose in the absence of physical measurement apparatus. The current state-of-the-art biodosimetry method is based on the frequency of induced dicentric chromosomes in peripheral blood T cells, which is proportional to the absorbed radiation dose. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15283.1DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Estimation of Radiation Doses to U.S. Military Test Participants from Nuclear Testing: A Comparison of Historical Film-Badge Measurements, Dose Reconstruction and Retrospective Biodosimetry.

Radiat Res 2019 Apr 21;191(4):297-310. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

a Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Retrospective radiation dose estimations, whether based on physical or biological measurements, or on theoretical dose reconstruction, are limited in their precision and reliability, particularly for exposures that occurred many decades ago. Here, we studied living U.S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15247.1DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Automated Triage Radiation Biodosimetry: Integrating Imaging Flow Cytometry with High-Throughput Robotics to Perform the Cytokinesis-Block Micronucleus Assay.

Radiat Res 2019 Apr 19;191(4):342-351. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

d Consumer and Clinical Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa K1A 1C1, Canada.

The cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay has become a fully-validated and standardized method for radiation biodosimetry. The assay is typically performed using microscopy, which is labor intensive, time consuming and impractical after a large-scale radiological/nuclear event. Imaging flow cytometry (IFC), which combines the statistical power of traditional flow cytometry with the sensitivity and specificity of microscopy, has been recently used to perform the CBMN assay. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15243.1DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Dosimetric Impact of a New Computational Voxel Phantom Series for the Japanese Atomic Bomb Survivors: Children and Adults.

Radiat Res 2019 Apr 19;191(4):369-379. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

a Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland.

One of the largest sources of data on radiation exposure in humans is the study of the atomic bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan performed by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF). As part of their retrospective dosimetry efforts for the atomic bomb survivors, RERF published two core systems: Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) and Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02). Due to computing limitations at the time, only three stylized phantoms (an infant, child and adult) were used in DS86 and DS02 to represent the entire Japanese population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15267.1DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Influence of Dose Uniformity when Replicating a Gamma Knife Mouse Model of Radiation Necrosis with a Preclinical Irradiator.

Radiat Res 2019 Apr 19;191(4):352-359. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

a Purdue University School of Health Sciences, West Lafayette, Indiana.

A common mouse model used for studying radiation necrosis is generated with the gamma knife, which has a non-uniform dose distribution. The goal of this study was to determine whether the lesion growth observed in this mouse model is a function of non-uniform dose distribution and/or lesion progression. Here, a model similar to the gamma knife mouse model was generated; using a preclinical irradiator, mice received single-fraction doses from 50 to 100 Gy to a sub-hemispheric portion of the brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15273.1DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads
2.911 Impact Factor

dTMP-GH Fusion Protein Therapy Improves Survival after Radiation Injury Combined with Skin-Burn Trauma in Mice.

Radiat Res 2019 Apr 13;191(4):360-368. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Institute of Combined Injury, State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burn and Combined Injury, Chongqing Engineering Research Center for Nanomedicine, College of Preventive Medicine, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038, China.

Exposure to ionizing radiation combined with traumatic tissue injury is an important life-threatening condition found in the civilian populations after nuclear and radiological events. The significance feature of radiation combined injury (RCI) is the severe combined effect, which makes the injury more complicated. At present, there are limited measures available to treat RCI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR5218.1DOI Listing
April 2019
6 Reads

The Aftermath of Surviving Acute Radiation Hematopoietic Syndrome and its Mitigation.

Radiat Res 2019 Apr 7;191(4):323-334. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

a Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California.

Intensive research is underway to find new agents that can successfully mitigate the acute effects of radiation exposure. This is primarily in response to potential counterthreats of radiological terrorism and nuclear accidents but there is some hope that they might also be of value for cancer patients treated with radiation therapy. Research into mitigation countermeasures typically employs classic animal models of acute radiation syndromes (ARS) that develop after whole-body irradiation (WBI). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15231.1DOI Listing
April 2019
9 Reads

Radiosensitivity: Gender and Order of Administration of G-CSF, An Experimental Study in Mice.

Radiat Res 2019 Apr 7;191(4):335-341. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

a Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

To elucidate the potential influence of stimulating bone marrow before cell-cycle-dependent irradiation, we sought to determine overall survival in mice receiving total-body irradiation (TBI) when administered granulocyte stimulating factor (G-CSF) at different time points. Gender differences were also studied. C57/BL/6J mice, aged 9-14 weeks, received 8 Gy TBI in a perspex cage using a linear accelerator. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15038.1DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Chromosome Translocations, Inversions and Telomere Length for Retrospective Biodosimetry on Exposed U.S. Atomic Veterans.

Radiat Res 2019 Apr 4;191(4):311-322. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

a Cell and Molecular Biology Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.

It has now been over 60 years since U.S. nuclear testing was conducted in the Pacific islands and Nevada, exposing military personnel to varying levels of ionizing radiation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15240.1DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Pest Arthropods with Holocentric Chromosomes are More Resistant to Sterilizing Ionizing Radiation.

Radiat Res 2019 Mar 31;191(3):255-261. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Department of Botany and Zoology, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 611 37 Brno, Czech Republic.

It has been hypothesized that species with holocentric chromosomes have a selective evolutionary advantage for developmental and reproductive success because holocentric chromosomes are less susceptible to chromosome breakage than monocentric chromosomes. We analyzed data on sterilizing doses of ionizing radiation for more than 250 species of arthropods to test whether the minimal dose for reproductive sterilization is higher for species with holocentric chromosomes than for species with monocentric chromosomes. Using linear mixed models that account for phylogeny, we show that holocentric arthropods are more tolerant of sterilizing radiation than monocentrics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15208.1DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Radiation-Induced Phosphorylation of Serine 360 of SMC1 in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells.

Radiat Res 2019 Mar 31;191(3):262-270. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

a Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

In the event of a mass casualty radiation scenario, biodosimetry has the potential to quantify individual exposures for triaging and providing dose-appropriate medical intervention. Structural maintenance of chromosomes 1 (SMC1) is phosphorylated in response to ionizing radiation. The goal of this study was to develop a new biodosimetry method using SMC1 phosphorylation as a measure of exposure to radiation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15179.1DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

White Matter is the Predilection Site of Late-Delayed Radiation-Induced Brain Injury in Non-Human Primates.

Radiat Res 2019 Mar 29;191(3):217-231. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

a Department of Pathology, Section on Comparative Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27157.

Fractionated whole-brain irradiation for the treatment of intracranial neoplasia causes progressive neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation. The long-term consequences of single-fraction high-dose irradiation to the brain are unknown. To assess the late effects of brain irradiation we compared transcriptomic gene expression profiles from nonhuman primates (NHP; rhesus macaques Macaca mulatta) receiving single-fraction total-body irradiation (TBI; n = 5, 6. Read More

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http://www.rrjournal.org/doi/10.1667/RR15263.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15263.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6422025PMC
March 2019
10 Reads

Ecdysterone Accelerates Healing of Radiation-Induced Oral Mucositis in Rats by Increasing Matrix Cell Proliferation.

Radiat Res 2019 Mar 29;191(3):237-244. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Hefei University of Technology, Anhui Hefei, China.

Development of oral mucositis represents a rate-limiting factor in radiation therapy for the treatment of head and neck, as well as other cancers. In this work, we investigated the treatment effect of ecdysterone (a steroid derived from the dry root of Achyranthes bidentate) on radiation-induced oral mucositis, and examined possible underlying mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 20 Gy X-ray irradiation (single dose, cranial localization) to induce oral mucositis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15171.1DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads
2.911 Impact Factor

Impact of Radiotherapy Concurrent with Anti-PD-1 Therapy on the Lung Tissue of Tumor-Bearing Mice.

Radiat Res 2019 Mar 29;191(3):271-277. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

a Department of Radiation and Medical Oncology, Hubei Cancer Clinical Study Center.

Pneumonitis is a common adverse effect found in non-small cell lung cancer patients after radiotherapy or immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment. We investigated the effects of these two therapies, combined, in the lung tissue of an orthotopic tumor-bearing mouse model. The mice received an 8 Gy dose three times with or without 200 µg anti-programmed death-1 (anti-PD-1) antibody intraperitoneal injection every three days. Read More

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http://www.rrjournal.org/doi/10.1667/RR15182.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15182.1DOI Listing
March 2019
20 Reads

Late Effects of O-Particle Radiation on Female Social and Cognitive Behavior and Hippocampal Physiology.

Radiat Res 2019 Mar 21;191(3):278-294. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

a Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas 72205.

The radiation environment in space remains a major concern for manned space exploration, as there is currently no shielding material capable of fully protecting flight crews. Additionally, there is growing concern for the social and cognitive welfare of astronauts, due to prolonged radiation exposure and confinement they will experience on a mission to Mars. In this artice, we report on the late effects of O-particle radiation on social and cognitive behavior and neuronal morphology in the hippocampus of adult female mice. Read More

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http://www.rrjournal.org/doi/10.1667/RR15092.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15092.1DOI Listing
March 2019
6 Reads

RABiT-II: A Fully-Automated Micronucleus Assay System with Shortened Time to Result.

Radiat Res 2019 Mar 18;191(3):232-236. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

a Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, New York.

In this work, we describe a fully automated cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay with a significantly shortened time to result, motivated by the need for rapid high-throughput biodosimetric estimation of radiation doses from small-volume human blood samples. The Rapid Automated Biodosimetry Tool (RABiT-II) currently consists of two commercial automated systems: a PerkinElmer cell::explorer Workstation and a GE Healthcare IN Cell Analyzer 2000 Imager. Blood samples (30 μl) from eight healthy volunteers were gamma-ray irradiated ex vivo with 0 (control), 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15215.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6446558PMC
March 2019
3 Reads

TOPAS-nBio: An Extension to the TOPAS Simulation Toolkit for Cellular and Sub-cellular Radiobiology.

Radiat Res 2019 02 4;191(2):125-138. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

b Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

The TOPAS Monte Carlo (MC) system is used in radiation therapy and medical imaging research, having played a significant role in making Monte Carlo simulations widely available for proton therapy related research. While TOPAS provides detailed simulations of patient scale properties, the fundamental unit of the biological response to radiation is a cell. Thus, our goal was to develop TOPAS-nBio, an extension of TOPAS dedicated to advance understanding of radiobiological effects at the (sub-)cellular, (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15226.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6377808PMC
February 2019
4 Reads

Dose-Dependent Increase of Nrf2 Target Gene Expression in Mice Exposed to Ionizing Radiation.

Radiat Res 2019 02 19;191(2):176-188. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

b Department of Radiation Science, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Aomori 036-8564, Japan.

Nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 transcription factor (Nrf2) is activated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and binds to antioxidant response elements in the promoter regions of its target genes involved in redox regulation and antioxidative functions. In this study, we elucidated the relationship between radiation dose and the expression response of Nrf2 target genes involved in oxidative stress, such as heme oxygenase 1, ferritin heavy polypeptide 1 ( Fth1), NADPH dehydrogenase quinone 1, glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit, glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit, glutathione reductase ( Gsr) and thioredoxin reductase 1 genes, in peripheral blood from X-ray irradiated mice. Whole-body radiation doses ranged from 0. Read More

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http://www.rrjournal.org/doi/10.1667/RR15203.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15203.1DOI Listing
February 2019
28 Reads

Improved Modeling of Plutonium-DTPA Decorporation.

Radiat Res 2019 02 19;191(2):201-210. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

U.S. Transuranium and Uranium Registries, Washington State University, Richland, Washington 99354-4959.

Individuals with significant intakes of plutonium (Pu) are typically treated with chelating agents, such as the trisodium salt form of calcium diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (CaNa-DTPA, referred to hereafter as Ca-DTPA). Currently, there is no recommended approach for simultaneously modeling plutonium biokinetics during and after chelation therapy. In this study, an improved modeling system for plutonium decorporation was developed. Read More

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http://www.rrjournal.org/doi/10.1667/RR15188.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15188.1DOI Listing
February 2019
14 Reads

Prominent Dose-Rate Effect and Its Age Dependence of Rat Mammary Carcinogenesis Induced by Continuous Gamma-Ray Exposure.

Radiat Res 2019 Mar 13;191(3):245-254. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

a Department of Radiation Effects Research, National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology (QST), Chiba, Japan.

Although the risk of breast cancer after high-dose-rate irradiation has been firmly established, however, the risk incurred for low-dose-rate irradiation is not well understood. Here we provide experimental evidence for dose rate and age dependencies induced by continuous γ-ray irradiation on mammary carcinogenesis. Female rats received continuous whole-body irradiation at one of the following time points: at 7 weeks of age (denoted adults) at a dose rate of 3-60 mGy/h (4 Gy total); or at either 3 weeks (denoted juveniles) or 7 weeks of age at a dose rate of 6 mGy/h (1-8 Gy total). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15094.1DOI Listing
March 2019
7 Reads

Emerging Role of Secondary Bystander Effects Induced by Fractionated Proton Microbeam Radiation.

Radiat Res 2019 02 11;191(2):211-216. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

c SPICE-BIO Research Core, National Institute of Radiological Sciences International Open Laboratory, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, Inage-ku, Chiba, 263-8555 Japan.

Increased understanding of radiation-induced secondary bystander effect (RISBE) is relevant to radiation therapy since it likely contributes to normal tissue injury and tumor recurrence, subsequently resulting in treatment failure. In this work, we developed a simple method based on proton microbeam radiation and a transwell insert co-culture system to elucidate the RISBE between irradiated human lung cancer cells and nonirradiated human normal cells. A549 lung cancer cells received a single dose or fractionated doses of proton microbeam radiation to generate the primary bystander cells. Read More

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http://www.rrjournal.org/doi/10.1667/RR15155.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15155.1DOI Listing
February 2019
13 Reads
2.911 Impact Factor

Effects of High- and Low-LET Radiation on Human Hematopoietic System Reconstituted in Immunodeficient Mice.

Radiat Res 2019 02 6;191(2):162-175. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

a Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York.

Over the last 50 years, a number of important physiological changes in humans who have traveled on spaceflights have been catalogued. Of major concern are the short- and long-term radiation-induced injuries to the hematopoietic system that may be induced by high-energy galactic cosmic rays encountered on interplanetary space missions. To collect data on the effects of space radiation on the human hematopoietic system in vivo, we used a humanized mouse model. Read More

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http://www.rrjournal.org/doi/10.1667/RR15148.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15148.1DOI Listing
February 2019
21 Reads

Regulation through MicroRNAs in Response to Low-Energy N Ion Irradiation in Oryza sativa.

Radiat Res 2019 02 30;191(2):189-200. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

a Henan Key Laboratory of Ion-beam Bioengineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450000, China.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a non-coding regulatory RNAs that play significant roles in plant growth and development, especially in the stress response. Low-energy ion radiation, a type of environmental stress, can cause multiple biological effects. To understand the roles of miRNAs in response to low-energy N ion radiation in Oryza sativa, high-throughput sequencing of small RNAs was carried out to detect the expression of miRNAs in the shoots of the rice after 2 × 10 N+/cm irradiation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15125.1DOI Listing
February 2019
5 Reads

Experimental Assessment of Lithium Hydride's Space Radiation Shielding Performance and Monte Carlo Benchmarking.

Radiat Res 2019 02 30;191(2):154-161. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

a GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt, Germany.

The harmful effects of space radiation pose a serious health risk to astronauts participating in future long-term missions. Such radiation effects must be considered in the design phase of space vessels as well as in mission planning. Crew radioprotection during long periods in deep space (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15123.1DOI Listing
February 2019
16 Reads

Continuous One Year Oral Administration of the Radiation Mitigator, MMS350, after Total-Body Irradiation, Restores Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Proliferative Capacity and Reduces Senescence in Fanconi Anemia (Fanca) Mice.

Radiat Res 2019 02 30;191(2):139-153. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

a Department of Radiation Oncology, UPMC Hillman Cancer Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213.

We quantitated age-related accumulation of senescent cells in irradiated Fanconi anemia (FA) (Fanca mouse cell lines in vitro, and monitored the effect of continuous administration (via drinking water) of the water-soluble radiation mitigator, MMS350, on tissues in vivo over one year after 7.5 Gy total-body irradiation (TBI). Irradiated Fanca mouse bone marrow stromal cell lines showed increased numbers of beta-galactosidase- and p21-positive senescent cells compared to Fanca cell lines, which was reduced by MMS350. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15199.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6388094PMC
February 2019
7 Reads

Specific Members of the Gut Microbiota are Reliable Biomarkers of Irradiation Intensity and Lethality in Large Animal Models of Human Health.

Radiat Res 2019 01 15;191(1):107-121. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

b   Department of Surgery, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.

The development of effective biomarkers for detecting the magnitude of radiation exposure and resiliency of host response is crucial to identifying appropriate treatment strategies after radiation exposure. We hypothesized that the gastrointestinal resident bacteria would demonstrate predictable, dose-dependent changes after radiation exposure across two large animal models of acute radiation syndrome. Here, Göttingen minipigs (GMP) (n = 50) and rhesus macaques (n = 48) were exposed to five dose levels (resulting in mortality rates of 33-100% and 25-68. Read More

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http://www.rrjournal.org/doi/10.1667/RR14975.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR14975.1DOI Listing
January 2019
14 Reads

Combined Effects of Low-Dose Proton Radiation and Simulated Microgravity on the Mouse Retina and the Hematopoietic System.

Radiat Res 2018 Nov 15. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

a   Department of Basic Sciences, Division of Radiation Research, Loma Linda University School of Medicine and Medical Center, Loma Linda, California.

The purpose of the current study was to characterize the effects of simulated microgravity and radiation-induced changes in retina and retinal vasculature, and to assess the accompanying early changes in immune cells and hematological parameters. To better understand the effects of spaceflight, we used a combination of treatments designed to simulate both the radiation and low-gravity aspects of space conditions. To simulate the broad energy spectrum of a large solar particle event (SPE) and galactic cosmic ray (GCR) radiation, male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to whole-body irradiation using fully modulated beams of 150-MeV protons containing particles of energy from 0 to 150 MeV and a uniform dose-vs. Read More

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http://www.rrjournal.org/doi/10.1667/RR15219.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15219.1DOI Listing
November 2018
17 Reads

A New Standard DNA Damage (SDD) Data Format.

Radiat Res 2019 01 8;191(1):76-92. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

ll   Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queens University Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom.

Our understanding of radiation-induced cellular damage has greatly improved over the past few decades. Despite this progress, there are still many obstacles to fully understand how radiation interacts with biologically relevant cellular components, such as DNA, to cause observable end points such as cell killing. Damage in DNA is identified as a major route of cell killing. Read More

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http://www.rrjournal.org/doi/10.1667/RR15209.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15209.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6407706PMC
January 2019
12 Reads

Exposure to ≤15 cGy of 600 MeV/n Fe Particles Impairs Rule Acquisition but not Long-Term Memory in the Attentional Set-Shifting Assay.

Radiat Res 2018 12 8;190(6):565-575. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of a Radiation Oncology, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, Virginia 23507.

On future missions into deep space, astronauts will be required to work more autonomously than on previous missions, and thus their ability to perform executive functions could be critical to mission success. In this study, we determined the effect that ≤15 cGy of 600 MeV/n Fe particles has on attentional set-shifting (ATSET) performance of ∼10 month-old (at the time of irradiation) male Wistar rats that had been prescreened for their ability to perform the task. Exposure to 1-15 cGy of Fe particles leads to a significant impairment in compound discrimination (CD) performance. Read More

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http://www.rrjournal.org/doi/10.1667/RR15085.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15085.1DOI Listing
December 2018
17 Reads

UV-Radiation Response Proteins Reveal Undifferentiated Cutaneous Interfollicular Melanocytes with Hyperradiosensitivity to Differentiation at 0.05 Gy Radiotherapy Dose Fractions.

Radiat Res 2019 01 8;191(1):93-106. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

b   Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Experimental and Clinical Oncology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

To date, the response activated in melanocytes by repeated genotoxic insults from radiotherapy has not been explored. We hypothesized that the molecular pathways involved in the response of melanocytes to ionizing radiation and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) are similar. Skin punch biopsies, not sun-exposed, were collected from prostate cancer patients before, as well as at 1 and 6. Read More

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http://www.rrjournal.org/doi/10.1667/RR15078.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15078.1DOI Listing
January 2019
18 Reads

A Cytogenetic Profile of Radiation Damage.

Radiat Res 2019 01 8;191(1):1-19. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Most of the important biological effects associated with the exposure to ionizing radiations are mirrored at the chromosomal level. In all cases, changes in the levels of cytogenetic effects are associated with changes in absorbed dose, dose rate and radiation quality. Some of the complexities associated with the quantitative description of such changes in response can be circumvented by appealing to concepts embodied in what has been called the "mean inactivation dose". Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15205.1DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Persistence of Gamma-H2AX Foci in Bronchial Cells Correlates with Susceptibility to Radiation Associated Lung Cancer in Mice.

Radiat Res 2019 01 6;191(1):67-75. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

a   Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.

The risk of developing radiation-induced lung cancer differs between different strains of mice, but the underlying cause of the strain differences is unknown. Strains of mice also differ in how quickly they repair radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). We assayed mouse strains from the CcS/Dem recombinant congenic strain set for their efficacy in repairing DNA DSBs during protracted irradiation. Read More

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http://www.rrjournal.org/doi/10.1667/RR14979.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR14979.1DOI Listing
January 2019
8 Reads

Construction, Validation and Sensitivity Analyses of a Job Exposure Matrix for Early Plutonium Workers at the Sellafield Nuclear Site, United Kingdom.

Radiat Res 2019 01 6;191(1):60-66. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

c   Centre for Occupational and Environmental Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL, United Kingdom.

Plutonium is a radiologically significant alpha-particle emitter. The potential for adverse health effects from internal exposures due to plutonium intakes has been recognized since the 1940s. The workforce of the Sellafield nuclear facility (Cumbria, UK), includes one of the world's most important groups of plutonium-exposed workers for studying the potential health risks of this internal exposure. Read More

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http://www.rrjournal.org/doi/10.1667/RR15177.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15177.1DOI Listing
January 2019
17 Reads

Enhanced Pharmacological Ascorbate Oxidation Radiosensitizes Pancreatic Cancer.

Radiat Res 2019 01 30;191(1):43-51. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

a   Department of Surgery, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa.

Pharmacologic ascorbate (P-AscH) is emerging as a promising adjuvant for advanced pancreatic cancer. P-AscH generates hydrogen peroxide (HO), leading to selective cancer cell cytotoxicity. Catalytic manganoporphyrins, such as MnT4MPyP, can increase the rate of oxidation of P-AscH, thereby increasing the flux of HO, resulting in increased cytotoxicity. Read More

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http://www.rrjournal.org/doi/10.1667/RR15189.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15189.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6441967PMC
January 2019
17 Reads