11,451 results match your criteria Radiation Research[Journal]


dTMP-GH Fusion Protein Therapy Improves Survival after Radiation Injury Combined with Skin-Burn Trauma in Mice.

Radiat Res 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Institute of Combined Injury, State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burn and Combined Injury, Chongqing Engineering Research Center for Nanomedicine, College of Preventive Medicine, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038, China.

Exposure to ionizing radiation combined with traumatic tissue injury is an important life-threatening condition found in the civilian populations after nuclear and radiological events. The significance feature of radiation combined injury (RCI) is the severe combined effect, which makes the injury more complicated. At present, there are limited measures available to treat RCI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR5218.1DOI Listing
February 2019

The Aftermath of Surviving Acute Radiation Hematopoietic Syndrome and its Mitigation.

Radiat Res 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of a   Radiation Oncology, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California.

Intensive research is underway to find new agents that can successfully mitigate the acute effects of radiation exposure. This is primarily in response to potential counterthreats of radiological terrorism and nuclear accidents but there is some hope that they might also be of value for cancer patients treated with radiation therapy. Research into mitigation countermeasures typically employs classic animal models of acute radiation syndromes (ARS) that develop after whole-body irradiation (WBI). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15231.1DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Radiosensitivity: Gender and Order of Administration of G-CSF, An Experimental Study in Mice.

Radiat Res 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of a   Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

To elucidate the potential influence of stimulating bone marrow before cell-cycle-dependent irradiation, we sought to determine overall survival in mice receiving total-body irradiation (TBI) when administered granulocyte stimulating factor (G-CSF) at different time points. Gender differences were also studied. C57/BL/6J mice, aged 9-14 weeks, received 8 Gy TBI in a perspex cage using a linear accelerator. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15038.1DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Chromosome Translocations, Inversions and Telomere Length for Retrospective Biodosimetry on Exposed U.S. Atomic Veterans.

Radiat Res 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

a   Cell and Molecular Biology Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.

It is now approaching six decades since U.S. nuclear testing was conducted in the Pacific islands, exposing military personnel to varying levels of ionizing radiation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15240.1DOI Listing
February 2019

Pest Arthropods with Holocentric Chromosomes are More Resistant to Sterilizing Ionizing Radiation.

Radiat Res 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Department of Botany and Zoology, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 611 37 Brno, Czech Republic.

It has been hypothesized that species with holocentric chromosomes have a selective evolutionary advantage for developmental and reproductive success because holocentric chromosomes are less susceptible to chromosome breakage than monocentric chromosomes. We analyzed data on sterilizing doses of ionizing radiation for more than 250 species of arthropods to test whether the minimal dose for reproductive sterilization is higher for species with holocentric chromosomes than for species with monocentric chromosomes. Using linear mixed models that account for phylogeny, we show that holocentric arthropods are more tolerant of sterilizing radiation than monocentrics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15208.1DOI Listing
January 2019

Radiation-Induced Phosphorylation of Serine 360 of SMC1 in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells.

Radiat Res 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

a   Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

In the event of a mass casualty radiation scenario, biodosimetry has the potential to quantify individual exposures for triaging and providing dose-appropriate medical intervention. Structural maintenance of chromosomes 1 (SMC1) is phosphorylated in response to ionizing radiation. The goal of this study was to develop a new biodosimetry method using SMC1 phosphorylation as a measure of exposure to radiation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15179.1DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

White Matter is the Predilection Site of Late-Delayed Radiation-Induced Brain Injury in Non-Human Primates.

Radiat Res 2019 Jan 29. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Department of a   Pathology, Section on Comparative Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27157.

Fractionated whole-brain irradiation for the treatment of intracranial neoplasia causes progressive neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation. The long-term consequences of single-fraction high-dose irradiation to the brain are unknown. To assess the late effects of brain irradiation we compared transcriptomic gene expression profiles from non-human primates (NHP; rhesus macaques Macaca mulatta) receiving single-fraction total-body irradiation (TBI; n = 5, 6. Read More

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http://www.rrjournal.org/doi/10.1667/RR15263.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15263.1DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Ecdysterone Accelerates Healing of Radiation-Induced Oral Mucositis in Rats by Increasing Matrix Cell Proliferation.

Radiat Res 2019 Jan 29. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Hefei University of Technology, Anhui Hefei, China.

Development of oral mucositis represents a rate-limiting factor in radiation therapy for the treatment of head and neck, as well as other cancers. In this work, we investigated the treatment effect of ecdysterone (a steroid derived from the dry root of Achyranthes bidentate) on radiation-induced oral mucositis, and examined possible underlying mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 20 Gy X-ray irradiation (single dose, cranial localization) to induce oral mucositis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15171.1DOI Listing
January 2019

Impact of Radiotherapy Concurrent with Anti-PD-1 Therapy on the Lung Tissue of Tumor-Bearing Mice.

Radiat Res 2019 Jan 29. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

a   Department of Radiation and Medical Oncology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Pneumonitis is a common adverse effect found in non-small cell lung cancer patients after radiotherapy or immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment. We investigated the effects of these two therapies, combined, in the lung tissue of an orthotopic tumor-bearing mouse model. The mice received an 8 Gy dose three times with or without 200 μg anti-programmed death-1 (anti-PD-1) antibody intraperitoneal injection every three days. Read More

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http://www.rrjournal.org/doi/10.1667/RR15182.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15182.1DOI Listing
January 2019
10 Reads

Late Effects of O-Particle Radiation on Female Social and Cognitive Behavior and Hippocampal Physiology.

Radiat Res 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

a   Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas 72205.

The radiation environment in space remains a major concern for manned space exploration, as there is currently no shielding material capable of fully protecting flight crews. Additionally, there is growing concern for the social and cognitive welfare of astronauts, due to prolonged radiation exposure and confinement they will experience on a mission to Mars. In this artice, we report on the late effects of O-particle radiation on social and cognitive behavior and neuronal morphology in the hippocampus of adult female mice. Read More

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http://www.rrjournal.org/doi/10.1667/RR15092.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15092.1DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

RABiT-II: A Fully-Automated Micronucleus Assay System with Shortened Time to Result.

Radiat Res 2019 Jan 18. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

a   Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, New York.

In this work, we describe a fully automated cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay with a significantly shortened time to result, motivated by the need for rapid high-throughput biodosimetric estimation of radiation doses from small-volume human blood samples. The Rapid Automated Biodosimetry Tool (RABiT-II) currently consists of two commercial automated systems: a PerkinElmer cell::explorer Workstation and a GE Healthcare IN Cell Analyzer 2000 Imager. Blood samples (30 μl) from eight healthy volunteers were gamma-ray irradiated ex vivo with 0 (control), 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15215.1DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

TOPAS-nBio: An Extension to the TOPAS Simulation Toolkit for Cellular and Sub-cellular Radiobiology.

Radiat Res 2019 Feb 4;191(2):125-138. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

b Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

The TOPAS Monte Carlo (MC) system is used in radiation therapy and medical imaging research, having played a significant role in making Monte Carlo simulations widely available for proton therapy related research. While TOPAS provides detailed simulations of patient scale properties, the fundamental unit of the biological response to radiation is a cell. Thus, our goal was to develop TOPAS-nBio, an extension of TOPAS dedicated to advance understanding of radiobiological effects at the (sub-)cellular, (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15226.1DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Dose-Dependent Increase of Nrf2 Target Gene Expression in Mice Exposed to Ionizing Radiation.

Radiat Res 2019 Feb 19;191(2):176-188. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

b Department of Radiation Science, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Aomori 036-8564, Japan.

Nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 transcription factor (Nrf2) is activated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and binds to antioxidant response elements in the promoter regions of its target genes involved in redox regulation and antioxidative functions. In this study, we elucidated the relationship between radiation dose and the expression response of Nrf2 target genes involved in oxidative stress, such as heme oxygenase 1, ferritin heavy polypeptide 1 ( Fth1), NADPH dehydrogenase quinone 1, glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit, glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit, glutathione reductase ( Gsr) and thioredoxin reductase 1 genes, in peripheral blood from X-ray irradiated mice. Whole-body radiation doses ranged from 0. Read More

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http://www.rrjournal.org/doi/10.1667/RR15203.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15203.1DOI Listing
February 2019
11 Reads

Improved Modeling of Plutonium-DTPA Decorporation.

Radiat Res 2019 Feb 19;191(2):201-210. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

U.S. Transuranium and Uranium Registries, Washington State University, Richland, Washington 99354-4959.

Individuals with significant intakes of plutonium (Pu) are typically treated with chelating agents, such as the trisodium salt form of calcium diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (CaNa-DTPA, referred to hereafter as Ca-DTPA). Currently, there is no recommended approach for simultaneously modeling plutonium biokinetics during and after chelation therapy. In this study, an improved modeling system for plutonium decorporation was developed. Read More

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http://www.rrjournal.org/doi/10.1667/RR15188.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15188.1DOI Listing
February 2019
8 Reads

Prominent Dose-Rate Effect and Its Age Dependence of Rat Mammary Carcinogenesis Induced by Continuous Gamma-Ray Exposure.

Radiat Res 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of a   Radiation Effects Research, National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology (QST), Chiba, Japan.

Although the risk of breast cancer after high-dose-rate irradiation has been firmly established, however, the risk incurred for low-dose-rate irradiation is not well understood. Here we provide experimental evidence for dose rate and age dependencies induced by continuous γ-ray irradiation on mammary carcinogenesis. Female rats received continuous whole-body irradiation at one of the following time points: at 7 weeks of age (denoted adults) at a dose rate of 3-60 mGy/h (4 Gy total); or at either 3 weeks (denoted juveniles) or 7 weeks of age at a dose rate of 6 mGy/h (1-8 Gy total). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15094.1DOI Listing
December 2018
4 Reads

Emerging Role of Secondary Bystander Effects Induced by Fractionated Proton Microbeam Radiation.

Radiat Res 2019 Feb 11;191(2):211-216. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

c SPICE-BIO Research Core, National Institute of Radiological Sciences International Open Laboratory, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, Inage-ku, Chiba, 263-8555 Japan.

Increased understanding of radiation-induced secondary bystander effect (RISBE) is relevant to radiation therapy since it likely contributes to normal tissue injury and tumor recurrence, subsequently resulting in treatment failure. In this work, we developed a simple method based on proton microbeam radiation and a transwell insert co-culture system to elucidate the RISBE between irradiated human lung cancer cells and nonirradiated human normal cells. A549 lung cancer cells received a single dose or fractionated doses of proton microbeam radiation to generate the primary bystander cells. Read More

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http://www.rrjournal.org/doi/10.1667/RR15155.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15155.1DOI Listing
February 2019
8 Reads
2.911 Impact Factor

Effects of High- and Low-LET Radiation on Human Hematopoietic System Reconstituted in Immunodeficient Mice.

Radiat Res 2019 Feb 6;191(2):162-175. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

a Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York.

Over the last 50 years, a number of important physiological changes in humans who have traveled on spaceflights have been catalogued. Of major concern are the short- and long-term radiation-induced injuries to the hematopoietic system that may be induced by high-energy galactic cosmic rays encountered on interplanetary space missions. To collect data on the effects of space radiation on the human hematopoietic system in vivo, we used a humanized mouse model. Read More

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http://www.rrjournal.org/doi/10.1667/RR15148.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15148.1DOI Listing
February 2019
11 Reads

Regulation through MicroRNAs in Response to Low-Energy N Ion Irradiation in Oryza sativa.

Radiat Res 2019 Feb 30;191(2):189-200. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

a Henan Key Laboratory of Ion-beam Bioengineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450000, China.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a non-coding regulatory RNAs that play significant roles in plant growth and development, especially in the stress response. Low-energy ion radiation, a type of environmental stress, can cause multiple biological effects. To understand the roles of miRNAs in response to low-energy N ion radiation in Oryza sativa, high-throughput sequencing of small RNAs was carried out to detect the expression of miRNAs in the shoots of the rice after 2 × 10 N+/cm irradiation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15125.1DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Experimental Assessment of Lithium Hydride's Space Radiation Shielding Performance and Monte Carlo Benchmarking.

Radiat Res 2019 Feb 30;191(2):154-161. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

a GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt, Germany.

The harmful effects of space radiation pose a serious health risk to astronauts participating in future long-term missions. Such radiation effects must be considered in the design phase of space vessels as well as in mission planning. Crew radioprotection during long periods in deep space (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15123.1DOI Listing
February 2019
11 Reads

Continuous One Year Oral Administration of the Radiation Mitigator, MMS350, after Total-Body Irradiation, Restores Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Proliferative Capacity and Reduces Senescence in Fanconi Anemia (Fanca) Mice.

Radiat Res 2019 Feb 30;191(2):139-153. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

a Department of Radiation Oncology, UPMC Hillman Cancer Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213.

We quantitated age-related accumulation of senescent cells in irradiated Fanconi anemia (FA) (Fanca mouse cell lines in vitro, and monitored the effect of continuous administration (via drinking water) of the water-soluble radiation mitigator, MMS350, on tissues in vivo over one year after 7.5 Gy total-body irradiation (TBI). Irradiated Fanca mouse bone marrow stromal cell lines showed increased numbers of beta-galactosidase- and p21-positive senescent cells compared to Fanca cell lines, which was reduced by MMS350. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15199.1DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Specific Members of the Gut Microbiota are Reliable Biomarkers of Irradiation Intensity and Lethality in Large Animal Models of Human Health.

Radiat Res 2019 Jan 15;191(1):107-121. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

b   Department of Surgery, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.

The development of effective biomarkers for detecting the magnitude of radiation exposure and resiliency of host response is crucial to identifying appropriate treatment strategies after radiation exposure. We hypothesized that the gastrointestinal resident bacteria would demonstrate predictable, dose-dependent changes after radiation exposure across two large animal models of acute radiation syndrome. Here, Göttingen minipigs (GMP) (n = 50) and rhesus macaques (n = 48) were exposed to five dose levels (resulting in mortality rates of 33-100% and 25-68. Read More

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http://www.rrjournal.org/doi/10.1667/RR14975.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR14975.1DOI Listing
January 2019
9 Reads

Combined Effects of Low-Dose Proton Radiation and Simulated Microgravity on the Mouse Retina and the Hematopoietic System.

Radiat Res 2018 Nov 15. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

a   Department of Basic Sciences, Division of Radiation Research, Loma Linda University School of Medicine and Medical Center, Loma Linda, California.

The purpose of the current study was to characterize the effects of simulated microgravity and radiation-induced changes in retina and retinal vasculature, and to assess the accompanying early changes in immune cells and hematological parameters. To better understand the effects of spaceflight, we used a combination of treatments designed to simulate both the radiation and low-gravity aspects of space conditions. To simulate the broad energy spectrum of a large solar particle event (SPE) and galactic cosmic ray (GCR) radiation, male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to whole-body irradiation using fully modulated beams of 150-MeV protons containing particles of energy from 0 to 150 MeV and a uniform dose-vs. Read More

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http://www.rrjournal.org/doi/10.1667/RR15219.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15219.1DOI Listing
November 2018
11 Reads

A New Standard DNA Damage (SDD) Data Format.

Radiat Res 2019 Jan 8;191(1):76-92. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

ll   Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queens University Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom.

Our understanding of radiation-induced cellular damage has greatly improved over the past few decades. Despite this progress, there are still many obstacles to fully understand how radiation interacts with biologically relevant cellular components, such as DNA, to cause observable end points such as cell killing. Damage in DNA is identified as a major route of cell killing. Read More

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http://www.rrjournal.org/doi/10.1667/RR15209.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15209.1DOI Listing
January 2019
8 Reads

Exposure to ≤15 cGy of 600 MeV/n Fe Particles Impairs Rule Acquisition but not Long-Term Memory in the Attentional Set-Shifting Assay.

Radiat Res 2018 Dec 8;190(6):565-575. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of a Radiation Oncology, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, Virginia 23507.

On future missions into deep space, astronauts will be required to work more autonomously than on previous missions, and thus their ability to perform executive functions could be critical to mission success. In this study, we determined the effect that ≤15 cGy of 600 MeV/n Fe particles has on attentional set-shifting (ATSET) performance of ∼10 month-old (at the time of irradiation) male Wistar rats that had been prescreened for their ability to perform the task. Exposure to 1-15 cGy of Fe particles leads to a significant impairment in compound discrimination (CD) performance. Read More

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http://www.rrjournal.org/doi/10.1667/RR15085.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15085.1DOI Listing
December 2018
8 Reads

UV-Radiation Response Proteins Reveal Undifferentiated Cutaneous Interfollicular Melanocytes with Hyperradiosensitivity to Differentiation at 0.05 Gy Radiotherapy Dose Fractions.

Radiat Res 2019 Jan 8;191(1):93-106. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

b   Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Experimental and Clinical Oncology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

To date, the response activated in melanocytes by repeated genotoxic insults from radiotherapy has not been explored. We hypothesized that the molecular pathways involved in the response of melanocytes to ionizing radiation and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) are similar. Skin punch biopsies, not sun-exposed, were collected from prostate cancer patients before, as well as at 1 and 6. Read More

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http://www.rrjournal.org/doi/10.1667/RR15078.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15078.1DOI Listing
January 2019
13 Reads

A Cytogenetic Profile of Radiation Damage.

Radiat Res 2019 Jan 8;191(1):1-19. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Most of the important biological effects associated with the exposure to ionizing radiations are mirrored at the chromosomal level. In all cases, changes in the levels of cytogenetic effects are associated with changes in absorbed dose, dose rate and radiation quality. Some of the complexities associated with the quantitative description of such changes in response can be circumvented by appealing to concepts embodied in what has been called the "mean inactivation dose". Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15205.1DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Persistence of Gamma-H2AX Foci in Bronchial Cells Correlates with Susceptibility to Radiation Associated Lung Cancer in Mice.

Radiat Res 2019 Jan 6;191(1):67-75. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

a   Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.

The risk of developing radiation-induced lung cancer differs between different strains of mice, but the underlying cause of the strain differences is unknown. Strains of mice also differ in how quickly they repair radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). We assayed mouse strains from the CcS/Dem recombinant congenic strain set for their efficacy in repairing DNA DSBs during protracted irradiation. Read More

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http://www.rrjournal.org/doi/10.1667/RR14979.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR14979.1DOI Listing
January 2019
6 Reads

Construction, Validation and Sensitivity Analyses of a Job Exposure Matrix for Early Plutonium Workers at the Sellafield Nuclear Site, United Kingdom.

Radiat Res 2019 Jan 6;191(1):60-66. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

c   Centre for Occupational and Environmental Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL, United Kingdom.

Plutonium is a radiologically significant alpha-particle emitter. The potential for adverse health effects from internal exposures due to plutonium intakes has been recognized since the 1940s. The workforce of the Sellafield nuclear facility (Cumbria, UK), includes one of the world's most important groups of plutonium-exposed workers for studying the potential health risks of this internal exposure. Read More

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http://www.rrjournal.org/doi/10.1667/RR15177.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15177.1DOI Listing
January 2019
12 Reads

Enhanced Pharmacological Ascorbate Oxidation Radiosensitizes Pancreatic Cancer.

Radiat Res 2019 Jan 30;191(1):43-51. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

a   Department of Surgery, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa.

Pharmacologic ascorbate (P-AscH) is emerging as a promising adjuvant for advanced pancreatic cancer. P-AscH generates hydrogen peroxide (HO), leading to selective cancer cell cytotoxicity. Catalytic manganoporphyrins, such as MnT4MPyP, can increase the rate of oxidation of P-AscH, thereby increasing the flux of HO, resulting in increased cytotoxicity. Read More

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http://www.rrjournal.org/doi/10.1667/RR15189.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15189.1DOI Listing
January 2019
9 Reads

Early Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Features of Liver Transplanted Tumors Treated with Radiation in Rabbits: Correlation with Histopathology.

Radiat Res 2019 Jan 30;191(1):52-59. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

e   Key Laboratory of Radiation Biology (Fujian Medical University), Fujian Province University, Department of Radiation Oncology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350005, China.

In this study, we sought to determine how diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-MRS) features are associated with histopathological results, and explored the cellular mechanisms of DWI and H-MRS in early radiosensitivity of transplanted liver tumors. VX2 tumors were implanted into the hind leg muscles of 60 New Zealand White Rabbits. All rabbits were randomly divided into ten subgroups according to treatment: irradiated or nonirradiated and according to different times postirradiation. Read More

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http://www.rrjournal.org/doi/10.1667/RR15140.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15140.1DOI Listing
January 2019
21 Reads

Letters To the Editor.

Authors:

Radiat Res 2018 Dec 19;190(6):650-653. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RRLTE6.1DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

Characterization and Etiology of Swollen Muzzles in Irradiated Mice.

Radiat Res 2019 Jan 19;191(1):31-42. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

a   Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana.

Several investigators performing bone marrow transplantation studies have previously reported sporadic increases in mortality that were associated with pronounced swelling in the face, head and neck of mice. Over the past few years, we and others have noted an increasing number of experiments in which mice that have received total-body irradiation (TBI) or partial-body irradiation (PBI) develop swollen muzzles, drastic thickening of the upper lip and redness, bruising and/or swelling around the nose and muzzle and sometimes over the top of the head. We refer to this rapid and extreme swelling after irradiation as swollen muzzle syndrome (SMS). Read More

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http://www.rrjournal.org/doi/10.1667/RR14724.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR14724.1DOI Listing
January 2019
14 Reads
2.911 Impact Factor

Comprehensive Review of Quality of Publications and Meta-analysis of Genetic Damage in Mammalian Cells Exposed to Non-Ionizing Radiofrequency Fields.

Radiat Res 2019 Jan 19;191(1):20-30. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

b   Department of Pathology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas 78229.

There have been numerous published studies reporting on the extent of genetic damage observed in animal and human cells exposed in vitro and in vivo to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields (RF, electromagnetic waves that carry energy as they propagate in air and dense media). Overall, the data are inconsistent; while some studies have suggested significantly increased damage in cells exposed to RF energy compared to unexposed and/or sham-exposed control cells, others have not. Several variables in exposure conditions used in the experiments might have contributed to the controversy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15117.1DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Performance of Fluorescent Cell-Labeling Dyes under Simulated Europa Mission Radiation Doses.

Radiat Res 2018 Oct 16. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

a   Department of Physics, Portland State University, Portland, Oregon 97201.

We investigated the performance of several commonly used fluorescent dyes after exposure to a simulated Europa mission total ionizing radiation dose of 300 krad (3 kGy) applied using a Co source. Dyes irradiated in aqueous solution or as lyophilized powders were evaluated for absorbance and emission spectra, quantum yield, and where appropriate, ability to label cells or nucleic acids. Although some dyes showed significant increase or decrease in quantum yield with the dose, their spectra and cell-labeling properties remained essentially unchanged after irradiation in powder form. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15187.1DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

Age Dependence of Radiation-Induced Genomic Instability in Mouse Hematopoietic Stem Cells.

Radiat Res 2018 Oct 12. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

a   Department of Radiation Biology, Institute of Radiation Emergency Medicine, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki 036-8564, Japan.

Age at exposure is a critical factor that influences the risk of radiation-induced leukemia. Accumulating evidence suggests that ionizing radiation can induce genomic instability and promote leukemogenesis in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs); however, the influence of age on this phenomenon has not been elucidated. In this study, infant (1-week-old) or adult (14-week-old) C3H/He mice received sham or 4 Gy whole-body irradiation, and bone marrow cells were transplanted to recipients at day 1 or 60 postirradiation. Read More

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http://www.rrjournal.org/doi/10.1667/RR15113.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15113.1DOI Listing
October 2018
3 Reads

Effects of Low-to-Moderate Doses of Gamma Radiation on Mouse Hematopoietic System.

Radiat Res 2018 Dec 12;190(6):612-622. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

a   Radiation Countermeasures Program, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland.

In this study, we investigated the effects of low-to-moderate doses of radiation in mice, given our limited understanding of the health risks associated with these exposures. Here, we demonstrate the different responses of the CD2F1 mouse hematopoietic system to low-to-moderate (0.5, 1, 3 or 5 Gy) doses of gamma radiation. Read More

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http://www.rrjournal.org/doi/10.1667/RR15087.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15087.1DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Challenges and Benefits of Repurposing Licensed/Approved/Cleared Products for a Radiation Indication.

Radiat Res 2018 Oct 3. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

b   Radiation and Nuclear Countermeasures Program (RNCP), Division of Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation (DAIT), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Rockville, Maryland.

Increasingly, the risk of a radiological or nuclear public health emergency is a major concern for the U.S. government. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15138.1DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

Radiation-Drug Combinations to Improve Clinical Outcomes and Reduce Normal Tissue Toxicities: Current Challenges and New Approaches: Report of the Symposium Held at the 63rd Annual Meeting of the Radiation Research Society, 15-18 October 2017; Cancun, Mexico.

Radiat Res 2018 Oct;190(4):350-360

f   National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis, Radiation Research Program, Bethesda, Maryland 20892.

The National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Radiation Research Program (RRP) is endeavoring to increase the relevance of preclinical research to improve outcomes of radiation therapy for cancer patients. These efforts include conducting symposia, workshops and educational sessions at annual meetings of professional societies, including the American Association of Physicists in Medicine, American Society of Radiation Oncology, Radiation Research Society (RRS), Radiosurgery Society, Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer and the American Association of Immunology. A symposium entitled "Radiation-Drug Combinations to Improve Clinical Outcomes and Reduce Normal Tissue Toxicities" was conducted by the NCI's RRP during the 63rd Annual Meeting of the RRS on October 16, 2017 in Cancun, Mexico. Read More

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http://www.bioone.org/doi/10.1667/RR15121.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15121.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6322391PMC
October 2018
8 Reads
2.911 Impact Factor

A Chromosome 6, not Natural Killer Cell, Contribution to Radiation- and Bleomycin-Induced Lung Disease in Mice.

Radiat Res 2018 Dec 2;190(6):605-611. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

Departments of Human Genetics and Medicine and the Meakins-Christie Laboratories, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

Inbred strains of mice differ in susceptibility to both radiation-induced and bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis and these traits have been mapped to a common locus on chromosome 6 which harbors genes of natural killer cell function. To investigate this putative locus of fibrosis susceptibility we assessed the fibrotic response of chromosome-6 consomic mice (B6.6A), and of mice deficient for natural killer cells, C57BL/6J Ly49A transgenic mice, after each of thoracic irradiation and bleomycin treatment via osmotic minipump. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15144.1DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

In Vitro Radiobiological Advantages of Hypofractionation Compared with Conventional Fractionation: Early-Passage NSCLC Cells are Less Aggressive after Hypofractionation.

Radiat Res 2018 Dec 20;190(6):584-595. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

a   Cancer Center, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, China.

Hypofractionated radiotherapy is a new and highly effective mode of radiation therapy. For this study we used biologically equivalent dose (BED), the dose required to give the same log cell kill as the schedule being studied. BED has been widely accepted to transform its dose to conventionally fractionated ones. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR14951.1DOI Listing
December 2018
16 Reads

Dicentric Dose Estimates for Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy in the RTGene Study to Assess Blood Dosimetric Models and the New Bayesian Method for Gradient Exposure.

Radiat Res 2018 Sep 20. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

d   Institute of Cancer Research (ICR), Sutton, London SM2 5NG, United Kingdom.

The RTGene study was focused on the development and validation of new transcriptional biomarkers for prediction of individual radiotherapy patient responses to ionizing radiation. In parallel, for validation purposes, this study incorporated conventional biomarkers of radiation exposure, including the dicentric assay. Peripheral blood samples were taken with ethical approval and informed consent from a total of 20 patients undergoing external beam radiotherapy for breast, lung, gastrointestinal or genitourinary tumors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15116.1DOI Listing
September 2018
2 Reads

Involvement of the Hypothalamic Glutamatergic System in the Development of Radiation-Induced Pica in Rats.

Radiat Res 2018 Dec 12;190(6):645-649. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

b   Professor Emeritus, Osaka University, 1-7 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.

Since the peripheral serotoninergic pathway is involved in the development of radiation-induced nausea and vomiting, referred to as radiation sickness, serotonin 5-HT receptor antagonists are used as a preventive measure, although patients still suffer from these symptoms. Glutamate is known as the excitatory neurotransmitter and is involved in various autonomic symptoms. We investigated the effect of radiation on glutamate release in rats, as measured by in vivo brain microdialysis, and the effects of glutamate receptor antagonists on radiation-induced pica, which can be used as a behavioral assessment of radiation sickness in rats. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15064.1DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Nonhuman Primates with Acute Radiation Syndrome: Results from a Global Serum Metabolomics Study after 7.2 Gy Total-Body Irradiation.

Radiat Res 2018 Sep 5. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

c   Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Therapeutics, F. Edward Hébert School of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland.

Threats of nuclear terrorism coupled with potential unintentional ionizing radiation exposures have necessitated the need for large-scale response efforts of such events, including high-throughput biodosimetry for medical triage. Global metabolomics utilizing mass spectrometry (MS) platforms has proven an ideal tool for generating large compound databases with relative quantification and structural information in a short amount of time. Determining metabolite panels for biodosimetry requires experimentation to evaluate the many factors associated with compound concentrations in biofluids after radiation exposures, including temporal changes, pre-existing conditions, dietary intake, partial- vs. Read More

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http://www.rrjournal.org/doi/10.1667/RR15167.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15167.1DOI Listing
September 2018
11 Reads
2.911 Impact Factor

Challenges and Benefits of Repurposing Products for Use during a Radiation Public Health Emergency: Lessons Learned from Biological Threats and other Disease Treatments.

Radiat Res 2018 Dec 30;190(6):659-676. Epub 2018 Aug 30.

d   Office of Regulatory Affairs (ORA), DAIT, NIAID, NIH, Rockville, Maryland.

The risk of a radiological or nuclear public health emergency is a major growing concern of the U.S. government. Read More

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http://www.rrjournal.org/doi/10.1667/RR15137.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15137.1DOI Listing
December 2018
10 Reads

Computational Modeling and Clonogenic Assay for Radioenhancement of Gold Nanoparticles Using 3D Live Cell Images.

Radiat Res 2018 Nov 24;190(5):558-564. Epub 2018 Aug 24.

Programs in a   Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Radioenhancement of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) has shown great potential for increasing the therapeutic efficiency of radiotherapy. Here we report on a computational model of radiation response, which was developed to predict the survival curves of breast cancer cells incubated with GNPs. The amount of GNP uptake was estimated using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy, and the three-dimensional (3D) intracellular distribution of GNPs was obtained using optical diffraction tomography. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15134.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6258025PMC
November 2018
2 Reads

Differential Radiation Sensitivity in p53 Wild-Type and p53-Deficient Tumor Cells Associated with Senescence but not Apoptosis or (Nonprotective) Autophagy.

Radiat Res 2018 Nov 22;190(5):538-557. Epub 2018 Aug 22.

b   Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology and Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia.

Studies of radiation interaction with tumor cells often focus on apoptosis as an end point; however, clinically relevant doses of radiation also promote autophagy and senescence. Moreover, functional p53 has frequently been implicated in contributing to radiation sensitivity through the facilitation of apoptosis. To address the involvement of apoptosis, autophagy, senescence and p53 status in the response to radiation, the current studies utilized isogenic H460 non-small cell lung cancer cells that were either p53-wild type (H460wt) or null (H460crp53). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15099.1DOI Listing
November 2018
6 Reads

Accelerator-Based Tests of Shielding Effectiveness of Different Materials and Multilayers using High-Energy Light and Heavy Ions.

Radiat Res 2018 Nov 20;190(5):526-537. Epub 2018 Aug 20.

d   Trento Institute for Fundamental Physics and Applications (TIFPA), National Institute for Nuclear Physics, (INFN), Povo, Italy.

The roadmap for space exploration foresees longer journeys and further excursions outside low-Earth orbit as well as the establishment of permanent outposts on other celestial bodies, such as the Moon or Mars. The design of spacecrafts and habitats depends heavily on the mission scenario and must consider the radiation protection properties of the structural components as well as dedicated shielding. In fact, short- and long-term effects caused by exposure to cosmic radiation are now considered among the main health risks of space travel. Read More

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http://www.rrjournal.org/doi/10.1667/RR15111.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15111.1DOI Listing
November 2018
15 Reads

A Potential Biomarker for Predicting the Risk of Radiation-Induced Fibrosis in the Lung.

Radiat Res 2018 Nov 17;190(5):513-525. Epub 2018 Aug 17.

Departments of a   Pediatrics and Neonatology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York.

Biomarkers could play an essential role during triage in the aftermath of a radiological event, where exposure to radiation will be heterogeneous and complicated by concurrent trauma. Used alongside biodosimetry, biomarkers can identify victims in need of treatment for acute radiation effects, and might also provide valuable information on later developing consequences that need to be addressed as part of a treatment strategy. Indeed, because the lung is particularly sensitive to radiation and resultant late effects not only affect quality of life, but can also lead to morbidity, the risk of developing downstream pulmonary complications in exposed individuals requires assessment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15122.1DOI Listing
November 2018
3 Reads

Target Size Variation in Microdosimetric Distributions and its Impact on the Linear-Quadratic Parameterization of Cell Survival.

Radiat Res 2018 Nov 14;190(5):504-512. Epub 2018 Aug 14.

a   Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, Akademiska Sjukhuset, Uppsala SE-75185, Sweden.

The linear-quadratic (LQ) parameterization of survival fraction [SF( D)] inherently assumes that all cells in a population receive the same dose ( D), albeit the distribution of specific energy z over the individual cells f( z, D) can be very wide. From these microdosimetric distributions, which are target size dependent, we estimate the size of the cellular sensitive volume by analyzing its influence on the LQ parameterization of cell survival. A Monte Carlo track structure code was used to simulate detailed tracks from a Co source as well as proton and carbon ions of various energies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15089.1DOI Listing
November 2018
12 Reads