843,124 results match your criteria Radiation Oncology [Journal]


An approach to identifying the relative importance of different radionuclides in ecological radiological risk assessment: Application to nuclear power plant releases.

J Environ Radioact 2018 Dec 12;197:116-126. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

IRSN, PSE-ENV, Fontenay aux Roses, France.

There is a need to prioritise the requirements for data to assess the radiological risk for fauna and flora, as inevitable large data gaps occur due to the large number of combinations of radionuclides and organisms for which doses need to be assessed. The potentially most important dose-forming radionuclide-pathways combinations need to be identified to optimize filling these gaps. Few attempts have been made to classify the importance of isotopes with regard to radiation protection of the environment. Read More

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December 2018

Primary cultured neuronal networks and type 2 diabetes model mouse fatty liver tissues in aqueous liquid observed by atmospheric SEM (ASEM): Staining preferences of metal solutions.

Micron 2018 Nov 23;118:9-21. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Higashi 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8566, Japan. Electronic address:

Neural networking, including axon targeting and synapse formation, is the basis of various brain functions, including memory and learning. Diabetes-mellitus affects peripheral nerves and is known to cause fatty liver disease. Electron microscopy (EM) provides the resolution required to observe changes in fine subcellular structures caused by such physiological and pathological processes, but samples are observed in vacuum. Read More

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November 2018

Molecular alterations in meningiomas: Literature review.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2018 Dec 7;176:89-96. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Departament of Neurology, Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Biology, LIM15, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Meningiomas, tumors that originate from meningothelial cells, account for approximately 30% of all new diagnoses of central nervous system neoplasms. According to the 2016 WHO classification of central nervous system tumors meningiomas are classified into three grades: I, II, and III. Past studies have shown that the risk of meningiomas recurrence is strongly correlated with the molecular profile of the tumor. Read More

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December 2018
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A Second course of stereotactic image-guided robotic radiosurgery for patients with cerebral metastasis.

World Neurosurg 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital; National Clinical Research Center for Cancer; Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin; Tianjin's Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: The purpose of this research was to study the outcome of brain metastases in a cohort of patients undergoing a second course of stereotactic image-guided robotic radiosurgery, and to identify predictors corelated with survival.

Methods: A total of 63 patients with primary malignancies underwent a second course of Cyberknife radiosurgery for intracranial progression, including recurrence and new metastases after initial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Overall survival (OS) and control rate were calculated by Kaplan-Meier. Read More

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December 2018

Ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging parameter mapping in the posterior horn of ex vivo human menisci.

Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Translational Medicine, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden; Medical Imaging and Physiology, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden. Electronic address:

Objective: To investigate the relationship between meniscus magnetic resonance (MR) relaxation parameters and meniscus degradation through quantitative imaging of ex vivo posterior horns of menisci from subjects with and without knee osteoarthritis (OA).

Design: We sampled medial and lateral menisci from ten medial compartment knee OA patients (mean age 63 years) undergoing total knee replacement and from ten deceased donors (references, mean age 51 years). MR relaxation parameters T2*, T2 and T1 of the posterior horn were measured at a 9. Read More

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December 2018

Preclinical Evaluation of Dose-Volume Effects and Lung Toxicity Occurring in- and out-of-field.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to define the dose and dose-volume relationship of radiation induced pulmonary toxicities occurring in and out-of-field in mouse models of early inflammatory and late fibrotic response.

Materials And Methods: Early radiation induced inflammation and fibrosis were investigated in C3H/NeJ and C57BL/6J mice respectively. Animals were irradiated with 20 Gy delivered to the upper region of the right lung as a single fraction or as three consecutive fractions using the Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP, Xstrahl Inc. Read More

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December 2018

Long-term outcomes for patients with desmoid fibromatosis treated with radiation therapy: a 10-year update and re-evaluation of the role of radiation therapy for younger patients.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Departments of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX; Health Services Research, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX.

Objective: To update our experience with long-term outcomes in patients with desmoid fibromatosis treated with radiation therapy (RT) and to characterize factors associated with increased risk of local recurrence.

Methods: We reviewed the records of 209 consecutive patients with desmoid fibromatosis treated with RT, either alone or as combined modality therapy (CMT) with surgery, at our institution from 1965 to 2015.

Results: Median follow-up time was 98 months (range, 1-509 months). Read More

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December 2018

Management of invasive squamous cell carcinomas of the conjunctiva Treatment of invasive conjunctival carcinoma.

Am J Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Ophthalmology, Pasteur 2 Teaching Hospital, Nice, France.

Purpose: Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia includes a spectrum of diseases from dysplasia to invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva. Whether the degree of invasion influences outcomes is debated. We evaluated the outcomes and management of conjunctival carcinomas defined as ≤0. Read More

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December 2018

Expression of CD44, EGFR, p16, and their mutual combinations in patients with head and neck cancer: Impact on outcomes of intensity-modulated radiation therapy.

Head Neck 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Comprehensive Cancer Care, Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, Brno, Czech Republic.

Background: Progress in radiation treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) deserves the studies focused on molecular predictors that would help to enhance individually tailored treatment.

Methods: p16/epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/cluster of differentiation-44 (CD44) was immunohistochemically analyzed in 165 HNSCC patients.

Results: In the entire group and the p16 negative cohort, better 3-year overall survival and locoregional control correlated with p16 positivity, CD44, and EGFR negativity were observed. Read More

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December 2018

Radiographic nodal prognostic factors in stage I HPV-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

Head Neck 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Southern California Permanente Medical Group, Los Angeles, California.

Background: The updated AJCC Cancer Staging Manual groups all p16-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) with unilateral nodal involvement within 6 cm into the new clinical N1 classification, consolidating a heterogeneous group of disease with varying radiographic findings.

Methods: A central radiological review was conducted identifying 233 patients with stage I node-positive (cT1-2N1) disease who underwent definitive concurrent chemoradiation. Factors evaluated included lymph node size, low-neck lymphadenopathy, retropharyngeal lymphadenopathy, overt radiographic extracapsular extension, and matted lymphadenopathy. Read More

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December 2018
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Receptor tyrosine kinase MET as potential target of multi-kinase inhibitor and radiosensitizer sorafenib in HNSCC.

Head Neck 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Laboratory of Radiobiology and Experimental Radiation Oncology, Hubertus Wald Tumorzentrum-University Cancer Center Hamburg, Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany.

Background: The multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib displays antitumoral effects in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC); however, the targeted kinases are unknown. Here we aimed to identify those kinases to determine the mechanism of sorafenib-mediated effects and establish candidate biomarkers for patient stratification.

Methods: The effects of sorafenib and MET inhibitors crizotinib and SU11274 were analyzed using a slide-based antibody array, Western blotting, proliferation, and survival assays. Read More

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December 2018

Influence of comorbidity on therapeutic decision making and impact on outcomes in patients with head and neck squamous cell cancers: Results from a prospective cohort study.

Head Neck 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, India.

Background: High prevalence of comorbidity in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) often lead to suboptimal treatment. The presence study aims to evaluate the presence of comorbidity, its impact on therapeutic decision making, treatment compliance, and overall survival in HNSCC.

Methods: Five hundred eighteen patients with nonmetastatic HNSCC, elder than 18 years of age, without any prior history of cancer or anticancer treatment in the last 5 years were evaluated using Adult Comorbidity Evaluation 27 (ACE 27) index. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

A molecular approach combined with American Thyroid Association classification better stratifies recurrence risk of classic histology papillary thyroid cancer.

Cancer Med 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri.

Background: Prognosis among patients with differentiated thyroid cancer is widely variable. Better understanding of biologic subtypes is necessary to stratify patients and improve outcomes.

Methods: In patients diagnosed with classic histology papillary thyroid cancer treated from 1973 to 2009, BRAF V600E mutation status was determined on surgical tumor specimens by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Read More

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December 2018

Diagnostic value of computed tomography combined with ultrasonography in detecting cervical recurrence in patients with thyroid cancer.

Head Neck 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: To determine the diagnostic role of CT added to ultrasound for the diagnosis of recurrent differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and to evaluate potential benefits for patients.

Methods: A total of 193 patients with recurrent DTC were retrospectively included. The diagnostic performances of ultrasound and combination of ultrasound and CT (ultrasound/CT) in detecting recurrence were compared. Read More

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December 2018

Cortical interlaminar astrocytes across the therian mammal radiation.

J Comp Neurol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, UC Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA.

Interlaminar astrocytes (ILA) in the cerebral cortex possess a soma in layer I and extend an interlaminar process that runs perpendicular to the pia into deeper cortical layers. We examined cerebral cortex from 46 species that encompassed most orders of therian mammalians, including 22 primate species. We described two distinct cell types with interlaminar processes that have been referred to as ILA, that we termed pial ILA and supial ILA. Read More

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December 2018
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Feasibility of transcatheter prosthetic paravalvular leakage closure: a single-center, exploratory safety evaluation study of transcatheter closure of prosthetic paravalvular regurgitation in Japan (STOP PARA study).

Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Japan.

Objective: The standard treatment of prosthetic paravalvular leakage (PVL) accompanied by heart failure or hemolytic anemia is repeat open surgery. Although favorable outcomes for transcatheter prosthetic PVL closure in patients with a high surgical risk for repeat open surgery have been reported, procedural feasibility has not been examined in Japan.

Methods: From March 2015 to November 2015, transcatheter PVL closure in mitral position was performed in four patients (age range 41-78, three females) with high surgical risk due to history of repeated surgeries, chest radiation and reconstruction of the mitral annulus after debridement of abscess owing to infective endocarditis. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Effective mucosal live attenuated Salmonella vaccine by deleting phosphotransferase system component genes ptsI and crr.

J Microbiol 2018 Oct 2. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

Radiation Biotechnology Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup, 56212, Republic of Korea.

Salmonella enterica is a major human pathogen that causes invasive non-typhoidal Salmonellosis (iNTS), resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Although a number of pre-clinical and clinical studies have reported on the feasibility of developing a safe and effective vaccine against iNTS, there have been no licensed Salmonella vaccines available to protect against NTS strains. Vaccine formulations of highest priority for NTS are live attenuated vaccines, which can elicit effective induction of intestinal mucosal and intracellular bacteria-specific cell mediated immune responses. Read More

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October 2018
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Characteristics and outcomes of patients ≤ 75 years who underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation: insights from the SOURCE 3 Registry.

Clin Res Cardiol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Division of Adult Congenital and Valvular Heart Disease, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, University Hospital Muenster, Muenster, Germany.

Background: Current trials and registries of transcatheter valve implantation (TAVI) mostly include patients older than 75 years. Little is known about younger patients who undergo this treatment. We investigated comorbidities among patients < 75 years old who underwent TAVI in the SAPIEN 3™ European post-approval SOURCE 3 Registry, and analysed outcomes at 30 days and 1 year. Read More

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December 2018

Determination of Pd in Pd purified by selective precipitation from spent nuclear fuel by laser ablation ICP-MS.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Nuclear Science and Engineering Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 2-4 Shirakata, Naka-gun, Ibaraki, 319-1195, Japan.

Determination of radiopalladium Pd is required to ensure radiation safety of the Pd extracted from spent nuclear fuel for recycling or disposal. We employed nanosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ns-LA-ICP-QMS) to simplify the analytical procedure of Pd. Pd was separated through a selective Pd precipitation reaction induced by pulsed laser irradiation that reduces Pd(II) ions to metal Pd(0). Read More

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December 2018

[Image-based screening].

Authors:
G Layer

Radiologe 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Zentralinstitut für Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Klinikum Ludwigshafen gGmbH, Bremserstraße 79, 67063, Ludwigshafen, Deutschland.

Screening is a special issue in medical questions concerning disease prevention. Preconditions for screening are clearly defined by the World Health Organization. High prevalence, effectiveness of therapy, availability of accepted test procedure and consensus concerning the economic concerns are necessary for successful implementation of a screening program. Read More

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December 2018

Time-series hyperpolarized xenon-129 MRI of lobar lung ventilation of COPD in comparison to V/Q-SPECT/CT and CT.

Eur Radiol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Oncology, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Roosevelt Drive, OX3 7DQ, Oxford, UK.

Purpose: To derive lobar ventilation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using a rapid time-series hyperpolarized xenon-129 (HPX) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique and compare this to ventilation/perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (V/Q-SPECT), correlating the results with high-resolution computed tomography (CT) and pulmonary function tests (PFTs).

Materials And Methods: Twelve COPD subjects (GOLD stages I-IV) participated in this study and underwent HPX-MRI, V/Q-SPECT/CT, high-resolution CT, and PFTs. HPX-MRI was performed using a novel time-series spiral k-space sampling approach. Read More

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December 2018

[Stereotactic body radiation therapy is superior to sorafenib in terms of survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma].

Strahlenther Onkol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Klinik für Strahlentherapie, Universitätsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Deutschland.

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December 2018

Multidisciplinary team meetings - challenges of implementation science.

Nat Rev Clin Oncol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Division of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Centre, Singapore, Singapore.

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December 2018

miR-608 and miR-4513 significantly contribute to the prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma treated with EGFR-TKIs.

Lab Invest 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Research Center, Shandong Cancer Hospital affiliated to Shandong University, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, Shandong Province, China.

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) targeting epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) significantly prolong the survival of lung adenocarcinoma patients with sensitizing EGFR mutations. Unfortunately, 10-30% patients do not show objective responses to EGFR-TKIs, and undergo rapid disease progression during the EGFR-TKIs therapy. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in mature microRNA (miRNA) sequences may influence target site interactions and modulate downstream pathways, such as the EGFR pathway. Read More

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December 2018

A novel Lab-on-Fiber Radiation Dosimeter for Ultra-high Dose Monitoring.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 14;8(1):17841. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Optoelectronics Group - Department of Engineering, University of Sannio, I-82100, Benevento, Italy.

In this work, we report on the first demonstration of Lab on Fiber (LOF) dosimeter for ionizing radiation monitoring at ultra-high doses. The new dosimeter consists in a metallo-dielectric resonator at sub-wavelength scale supporting localized surface plasmon resonances realized on the optical fiber (OF) tip. The resonating structure involves two gold gratings separated by a templated dielectric layer of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Read More

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December 2018

Drug and disease signature integration identifies synergistic combinations in glioblastoma.

Nat Commun 2018 Dec 14;9(1):5315. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Center for Therapeutic Innovation, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 1120 NW 14th St, Miami, FL, 33136, USA.

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary adult brain tumor. Despite extensive efforts, the median survival for GBM patients is approximately 14 months. GBM therapy could benefit greatly from patient-specific targeted therapies that maximize treatment efficacy. Read More

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December 2018

Impact of Ga-PSMA-PET/CT on the radiotherapeutic approach for prostate cancer in comparison to CT - a retrospective analysis.

J Nucl Med 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Ludwig-Maximilians-University (LMU), Germany.

Gallium-prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography/computed tomography (Ga-PSMA PET/CT) offers unprecedented accuracy for staging of primary, persistent or recurrent prostate cancer. Thus, we hypothesized that PSMA PET/CT prior to radiotherapy significantly impacts the radiotherapeutic approach in comparison to the current standard of CT based approach. Between February 2014 and December 2017, a total of 172 patients received PSMA PET/CT before radiotherapy and were included in this retrospective analysis. Read More

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December 2018

A recurrent novel MGA-NUTM1 fusion identifies a new subtype of high grade spindle cell sarcoma.

Cold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center.

NUTM1-rearranged tumors are defined by the presence of a gene fusion between NUTM1 and various gene partners, and typically follow a clinically aggressive disease course with poor outcomes despite conventional multi-modality therapy. NUTM1-rearranged tumors display histologic features of a poorly differentiated carcinoma with areas of focal squamous differentiation and typically express the NUTM1-BRD4 fusion gene defining a distinct clinico-pathologic entity - NUT carcinoma (NC). NC with mesenchymal differentiation have rarely been described in the literature. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Neonatal orbital swelling due to intracranial teratoma.

Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Paediatric Medicine, KK Women's and Children's Hospital, Singapore, Singapore.

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December 2018

Survival benefits associated with surgery for advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2018 Nov 14. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

UC Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, UC Davis Health, Sacramento, Calif.

Objective: Overall survival (OS) for advanced stage (IIIA-IV) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is highly variable, and retrospective data show a survival advantage for patients receiving therapeutic intent pulmonary resection. We hypothesized that this variability in OS can be modeled separately by stage to allow a personalized estimate of OS.

Methods: In a cohort of patients with advanced-stage NSCLC from the National Cancer Database, we assessed the accuracy of Surgical Selection Score (SSS) to predict OS using Cox proportional hazards models and determined by stage the effect of surgery on survival among people with similarly high levels of SSS. Read More

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November 2018

[Which photon energy for intensity-modulated radiotherapy and volumetric-modulated arctherapy in 2019?]

Cancer Radiother 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Campus Sciences, centre de recherche en automatique de Nancy (Cran), BP 70239, 54506 Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy cedex, France; Campus Sciences, université de Lorraine, UMR 7039, BP 70239, 54506 Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy cedex, France; CNRS, UMR7039, Campus Sciences, BP 70239, 54506 Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy cedex, France.

For more than a decade, the majority of radiation oncology centres have been delivering intensity-modulated radiotherapy (then volumetric-modulated arctherapy) with 6 MV photons as their standard of care. This « dogma » had been supported by the usual absence of dosimetric advantages with high-energy photons (15 to 18 MV or more), at least for the planning target volume and the dose received by the adjacent organs at risk, and by the neutron component as soon as the photon energy exceeds 10 MV. Recent data could question such a dogma. Read More

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December 2018

Upper Extremity Care for Children: Unique Medical and Psychosocial Aspects.

Authors:
Sonia Chaudhry

J Hand Surg Am 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Pediatric Orthopaedic and Hand Surgery, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Connecticut Children's Medical Center, Hartford, CT. Electronic address:

Hand surgeons encountering pediatric patients should be attuned to both technical and practical facets of caring for congenital and traumatic pathologies. Psychosocial aspects include engaging children in conversation and factoring in both self and external perception of deformity. Medical considerations are also unique, from including child abuse in the differential to having techniques to assess active motion and sensation in the nonverbal child. Read More

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December 2018

Functional Swallowing Units (FSUs) as organs-at-risk for radiotherapy. PART 2: Advanced delineation guidelines for FSUs.

Radiother Oncol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands.

Background And Purpose: In a separate article (PART 1), a rationale and explanation of the physiology-and-anatomy-based concept of Functional Swallowing Units (FSUs) was presented. FSUs are swallowing muscles not included in the set of commonly defined swallowing organs at risk (SWOARs). They are involved in three crucial swallowing components: hyolaryngeal elevation (HLE), tongue base retraction (TBR) and tongue motion. Read More

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December 2018

National patterns of care and cancer-specific outcomes of adjuvant treatment in patients with serous and clear cell endometrial carcinoma.

Gynecol Oncol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States of America. Electronic address:

Objectives: To investigate outcomes of adjuvant therapy for serous and clear cell endometrial carcinoma, as prior studies are limited by sample size and/or patient heterogeneity. National guidelines permit substantial variations in treatment, suggesting the need for additional data.

Methods: Patients with FIGO stages I-III serous or clear cell uterine carcinoma who underwent at least total hysterectomy were identified in SEER-Medicare. Read More

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December 2018

Quantitative analyses of amount and localization of radiosensitizer gold nanoparticles interacting with cancer cells to optimize radiation therapy.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Medical Physics, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8575, Japan. Electronic address:

Previous studies showed that gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are useful radiosensitizers which optimize radiation therapy under low-dose radiation. However, the mechanisms of AuNP radiosensitization, including the amount and localization of the AuNPs interacting with cancer cells, has not yet been quantified. To answer these questions, we prepared AuNPs conjugated with anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) antibody via polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains (AuNP-PEG-HER2ab). Read More

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December 2018

Palliation of dysphagia.

Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2018 Oct - Dec;36-37:97-103. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Erasmus MC University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Palliation of dysphagia is the cornerstone of palliative treatment in patients with incurable oesophageal cancer. Available palliative options for dysphagia are oesophageal stent placement and radiotherapy. In general, oesophageal stent placement is the preferred therapeutic option in patients with a relatively poor prognosis because of its rapid relief of dysphagia. Read More

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November 2018

The role of definitive chemoradiation in patients with non-metastatic oesophageal cancer.

Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2018 Oct - Dec;36-37:53-59. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Amsterdam University Medical Centers, Cancer Center Amsterdam, Location Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Meibergdreef 9; B0-107, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, Netherlands. Electronic address:

Definitive chemoradiation (dCRT) is a curative treatment option for patients with oesophageal cancer. It is effective in both adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. However, locoregional control is less after dCRT compared to preoperative CRT (pCRT) followed by surgery. Read More

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November 2018

Dosimetric comparison of vaginal vault brachytherapy vs applicator-guided stereotactic body radiotherapy with volumetric modulated arc therapy and helical tomotherapy for endometrium cancer patients.

Med Dosim 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, 01120 Adana, Turkey. Electronic address:

We performed this dosimetric study to compare a nonstandard volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and helical tomotherapy (HT) techniques with high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy (BRT) plan of vaginal vault in patients with postoperative endometrial cancer (EC). Twelve postoperative patients with early stage EC were included in this study. Three plans were performed for each patient; dosimetric and radiobiological comparisons were made using dose-volume histograms and equivalent dose for determining the planning target volume (PTV) coverages in brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy, and organs-at-risk (OARs) doses between three different delivery techniques. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Patients With Invasive Ductal Carcinoma Have Reduced Levels of Decorin Expression in Their Breast Tissue Compared to Patients With Fibroadenoma While Plasma Decorin Remains Unchanged.

Arch Iran Med 2018 Nov 1;21(11):509-517. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Department of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences (ZUMS), Zanjan, Iran.

Background: Reduction in the level of tissue decorin is a hallmark of many types of cancer including breast carcinoma. However, reduced decorin expression has also been reported in several types of benign tumors to the extent that it has been proposed as a tissue marker to differentiate malignant from benign tumors. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of plasma decorin to distinguish breast cancer from fibroadenoma, the second most common type of benign tumor, after fibrocystic disease. Read More

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November 2018

The STAT3/Slug Axis Enhances Radiation-Induced Tumor Invasion and Cancer Stem-like Properties in Radioresistant Glioblastoma.

Cancers (Basel) 2018 Dec 13;10(12). Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Neurological Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital and National Defense Medical Center, No. 325, Sec. 2, Cheng-Kung Road, Taipei 11490, Taiwan.

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) requires radiotherapy (RT) as a part of definitive management strategy. RT is highly effective, destroying cancer cells that may exist around the surgical tumor bed. However, GBM still has a poor prognosis and a high local recurrence rate after RT. Read More

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December 2018

Optimization of Quality Attributes and Atomic Force Microscopy Imaging of Reconstituted Nanodroplets in Baicalin Loaded Self-Nanoemulsifying Formulations.

Pharmaceutics 2018 Dec 13;10(4). Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Semmelweis University; Hőgyes E. Street 7-9, Budapest 1092, Hungary.

The objective of the study was to develop baicalin loaded liquid self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (BSNEDDS) and to characterize them by physicochemical methods in order to optimize the composition and quality attributes. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was utilized to evaluate the morphological characteristics and size distribution of reconstituted nanoemulsion droplets with a new sample preparation method for the elucidation of individual nanodroplets without any signs of coalescence. Response surface methodology and desirability approach was used to select the optimized composition related to droplet size, zeta-potential, polydispersity index (PDI), and turbidity characteristics. Read More

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December 2018

Chitosan/Poly(vinylpyrrolidone) Matrices Obtained by Gamma-Irradiation for Skin Scaffolds: Characterization and Preliminary Cell Response Studies.

Materials (Basel) 2018 Dec 13;11(12). Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares (C2TN), Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10, 2695-066 Bobadela, LRS, Portugal.

Several studies have shown that chitosan possesses characteristics favorable for promoting dermal regeneration and accelerated wound healing. In this work we have reported the work that has been done on the development and characterization of biocompatible and biodegradable chitosan based matrices to be used as skin scaffolds. Poly(vinylpyrrrolidone) (PVP) was used as copolymer and a two steps methodology of freeze-drying and gamma irradiation was used to obtain the porous matrices. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Applications of Noble Metal-Based Nanoparticles in Medicine.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Dec 13;19(12). Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Clinical Immunology, Institute of Paediatrics, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, 30-663 Krakow, Poland.

Nanoparticles have unique, size-dependent properties, which means they are widely used in various branches of industry. The ability to control the properties of nanoparticles makes these nanomaterials very interesting for medicine and pharmacology. The application of nanoparticles in medicine is associated with the design of specific nanostructures, which can be used as novel diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. Read More

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December 2018

Fibronectin promotes nasopharyngeal cancer cell motility and proliferation.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Jan 26;109:1772-1784. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Radiation Oncology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan; Institute of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) is an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated carcinoma. Fibronectin is regarded as a prognosticator in NPC and its involvement in cell motility has been reported in EBV infection and viral latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) overexpression NPC cell lines. However, its malignant potential in NPC cell lines without harbouring the EBV genome has not been investigated. Read More

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January 2019

Magnetofluorescent nanohybrid comprising polyglycerol grafted carbon dots and iron oxides: Colloidal synthesis and applications in cellular imaging and magnetically enhanced drug delivery.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2019 Jan 27;173:842-850. Epub 2018 Oct 27.

State Key Laboratory of Radiation Medicine and Protection, School of Radiation Medicine and Protection & School for Radiological and Interdisciplinary Sciences (RAD-X), Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123, China. Electronic address:

Multifunctional nanohybrids are attracting increasing attention for potential biomedical applications such as bioimaging and drug delivery due to their combined advantages of individual components. However, challenges in the improvement of their synthesis and colloidal stability to facilitate practical biomedical applications still remain. In this work, we report an efficient synthetic approach to fabricate magnetofluorescent nanohybrid (IO-PG-CD) comprising fluorescent carbon dots (CDs) and magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IOs) through polyglycerol (PG) mediated covalent linkage in aqueous media. Read More

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January 2019

Cost-Effectiveness of Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cell Therapy in Pediatric Relapsed/Refractory B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

University of California San Diego School of Medicine, UCSD School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA.

Background: Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy is a promising new class of cancer therapy but has a high up-front cost. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of CAR-T therapy among pediatric patients with relapsed/refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL).

Methods: We built a microsimulation model for pediatric patients with relapsed/refractory B-ALL receiving either CAR-T therapy or standard of care. Read More

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December 2018
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Two Extraordinary Sellar Neuronal Tumors: Literature Review and Comparison of Clinicopathologic Features.

Am J Clin Pathol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.

Objectives: The list of tumors involving the pituitary gland has been expanded to include a variety of neuronal and paraneuronal tumors in the 2017 World Health Organization tumor classification of endocrine organs. All the entities included in this category are distinctly rare, with limited case reports in the literature.

Methods: We illustrate two extraordinary sellar tumors with neuronal differentiation: a sellar paraganglioma and a sellar neurocytoma, with thorough literature review and comparison of the clinicopathologic features of these entities. Read More

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December 2018

A comparative study of thermal stability of TNT, RDX, CL20 and ANTA explosives using UV 266nm-time resolved photoacoustic pyrolysis technique.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2018 Dec 6;211:212-220. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Advanced Centre of Research in High Energy Materials (ACRHEM), University of Hyderabad, 500046, India. Electronic address:

The paper reports the potential use of UV based pulsed photoacoustic spectroscopy to study the thermal stability of some well-known premier explosives such as TNT, RDX, CL20, and ANTA between 30 and 350°C range. The thermal PA spectra of samples were recorded using fourth harmonic wavelength i.e. Read More

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December 2018

Stromal PTEN Regulates Extracellular Matrix Organization in the Mammary Gland.

Neoplasia 2018 Dec 11;21(1):132-145. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210; The James Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210. Electronic address:

The organization of the extracellular matrix has a profound impact on cancer development and progression. The matrix becomes aligned throughout tumor progression, providing "highways" for tumor cell invasion. Aligned matrix is associated with breast density and is a negative prognostic factor in several cancers; however, the underlying mechanisms regulating this reorganization remain poorly understood. Read More

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December 2018
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Oncogene addiction as a foundation of targeted cancer therapy: the paradigm of the MET receptor tyrosine kinase.

Cancer Lett 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, 3008, Bern, Switzerland; Department for BioMedical Research, Radiation Oncology, University of Bern, 3008, Bern, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Following nearly two decades of its conception, the phenomenon of oncogene addiction still represents a key concept of how progresses in basic research can translate to unprecedented translational breakthroughs. Coined by Bernard Weinstein, this term refers to the phenomenon by which cancer cells can exhibit dependence on a single oncogenic protein or signaling pathway for sustaining proliferation and survival, despite the wide burden of genetic lesions characterizing their genomic background, revealing thus a promising Achilles' heel of cancer. Importantly, this concept aided the design and clinical implementation of molecularly targeted anticancer therapies, further supporting the paradigm shift witnessed in clinical oncology towards an individual-based, personalized era. Read More

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December 2018
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