839,894 results match your criteria Radiation Cystitis


Synergistic Activity of Paclitaxel, Sorafenib, and Radiation Therapy in advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma and Breast Cancer.

Transl Oncol 2018 Dec 3;12(2):381-388. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752, South Korea; Department of Surgery, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50-1, Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 120-752, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Advanced cancer has been shown to be associated with a higher percentage of epigenetic changes than with genetic mutations. Preclinical models have shown that the combination of paclitaxel, sorafenib, and radiation therapy (RT) plays a crucial role in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and breast cancer. This study aimed to investigate the involvement of mitochondrial cytochrome c-dependent apoptosis in the mechanism of action of a combination of paclitaxel, sorafenib, and RT in RCC and breast cancer. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

On-line measurement of fluorescent aerosols near an industrial zone in the Yangtze River Delta region using a wideband integrated bioaerosol spectrometer.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Nov 26;656:447-457. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Collaborative Innovation Center of Atmospheric Environment and Equipment Technology, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044, China. Electronic address:

In this work, we present on-line fluorescent aerosol measurements by the wideband integrated bioaerosol spectrometer (WIBS-4A) near an industrial zone in Nanjing, a megacity in the Yangtze-River-Delta (YRD) region. The fieldwork was conducted from April 1 to May 8, 2014. A TSI. Read More

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November 2018
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Early impact of pulmonary stereotactic fractionated body radiotherapy (SBRT) on Quality of Life (QoL): Benefit for patients with low initial scores (STRIPE trial).

J Thorac Oncol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical Center, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Germany; German Cancer Consortium (DKTK) Partner Site Freiburg, Germany; German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

Introduction: Quality of life (QoL) of comorbid patients with pulmonary malignancies is a key issue in considering stereotactic fractionated body radiotherapy (SBRT) indication. This study investigates the early impact of SBRT on QoL.

Methods: 100 patients with pulmonary lesions were treated with SBRT from 02/2011 to 11/2014 within the prospective, monocenter, phase II STRIPE trial. Read More

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December 2018
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Radiation-mediated molecular weight reduction and structural modification in carrageenan potentiates improved photosynthesis and secondary metabolism in peppermint (Mentha piperita L.).

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, India.

In an attempt to gain insights into the possible relationship between the irradiation-mediated molecular weight reduction and structural modification and the growth-promotion activity, characterization of the polysaccharide before and after irradiation was carried out through Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopic studies. Moreover, graded concentrations of irradiated carrageenan (IC) were applied through foliage to assess the performance of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.). Read More

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December 2018
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Alpha-pinene attenuates UVA-induced photoaging through inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases expression in mouse skin.

Life Sci 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Center for Transdisciplinary Research and Innovation, Waikato Institute of Technology, Wintec Private Bag, Waikato Mail Centre, Hamilton, New Zealand.

Aim: The present study was designed to examine the role of alpha-pinene (AP) against skin photoaging in UVA-irradiated mice.

Materials And Methods: Swiss albino mice were subjected to UVA-irradiation at the rate of 10 J/cm per day for ten days, totally mouse received 100 J/cm. One hour prior to each UVA-exposure, the mouse skin was topically treated with AP (100 mg kg/b·wt). Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Selective proteolysis by matrix metalloproteinases of photo-oxidised dermal extracellular matrix proteins.

Cell Signal 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Division of Cell Matrix Biology & Regenerative Medicine, UK. Electronic address:

Photodamage in chronically sun-exposed skin manifests clinically as deep wrinkles and histologically as extensive remodelling of the dermal extracellular matrix (ECM) and in particular, the elastic fibre system. We have shown previously that loss of fibrillin microfibrils, a key elastic fibre component, is a hallmark of early photodamage and that these ECM assemblies are susceptible in vitro to physiologically attainable doses of ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Here, we test the hypotheses that UVR-mediated photo-oxidation is the primary driver of fibrillin microfibril and fibronectin degradation and that prior UVR exposure will enhance the subsequent proteolytic activity of UVR-upregulated matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Accuracy of Calcium Scoring calculated from contrast-enhanced Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography using a dual-layer spectral CT: A comparison of Calcium Scoring from real and virtual non-contrast data.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208588. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany.

Purpose: Modern non-invasive evaluation of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) requires non-contrast low dose Computed Tomography (CT) imaging for determination of Calcium Scoring (CACS) and contrast-enhanced imaging for evaluation of vascular stenosis. Several methods for calculation of CACS from contrast-enhanced images have been proposed before. The main principle for that is generation of virtual non-contrast images by iodine subtraction from a contrast-enhanced spectral CT dataset. Read More

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December 2018
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Evaluating risk factors of radiation pneumonitis after stereotactic body radiation therapy in lung tumor: Meta-analysis of 9 observational studies.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208637. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Oncology, The Central Hospital of Wuhan, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, P.R. China.

Background: In this study, we assessed the association of SBRT (stereotactic body radiotherapy) dose and volume with radiation pneumonitis (RP) risk in lung tumor.

Methods: Relevant articles were identified up to April 2018, using following databases; Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). The pooled OR (odds ratio) with 95% CI (confidence interval) data [mean ± SD (standard deviation)] obtained from different studies was analyzed by statistical analysis using a fixed-effects model or a random-effects model when appropriate. Read More

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December 2018
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On the role of magnesium in a LiF:Mg,Ti thermoluminescent dosimeter.

J Phys Condens Matter 2019 Jan;31(2):025502

Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 04510 Coyoacan Mexico City, Mexico.

LiF doped with Mg and Ti is the most widely used thermoluminescent (TL) dosimeter for a large variety of applications. It has been argued that the Mg dopant is the most important defect in the TL process. Besides the common F-centre defects in LiF, optical absorption measurements have suggested the presence of Mg-related absorption bands at 380 nm (3. Read More

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January 2019

Dramatic polarization in genitourinary expert opinions regarding the clinical utility of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in prostate cancer.

Int Braz J Urol 2018 Oct 30;44. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Department of Radiation Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USA.

Objectives: To ascertain the opinions of North American genitourinary (GU) experts regarding inclusion of technologies such as prostate - specific membrane antigen (PSMA) and C - 11 choline positron emission tomography (PET) into routine practice.

Materials And Methods: A survey was distributed to North American GU experts. Questions pertained to the role of PSMA and C - 11 PET in PCa management. Read More

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October 2018

Small cell bladder cancer: should we consider prophylactic cranial irradiation?

Int Braz J Urol 2018 Oct 30;44. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Department of Urology, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.

Purpose: To describe the clinical characteristics, treatment patterns, and outcomes in patients with small cell bladder cancer at our institution, including those who received prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) for the prevention of intracranial recurrence.

Materials And Methods: Patients with small cell bladder cancer treated at a single institution between January 1990 and August 2015 were identified and analyzed retrospectively for demographics, tumor stage, treatment, and overall survival.

Results: Of 44 patients diagnosed with small cell bladder cancer, 11 (25%) had metastatic disease at the time of presentation. Read More

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October 2018
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Chinese Expert Consensus Workshop Report: Guideline for permanent iodine-125 seed implantation of primary and metastatic lung tumors.

Thorac Cancer 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Interventional Medicine, The Second Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Surgery remains the first choice of cure for early stage lung cancer. However, many patients are diagnosed at advanced stage, and thus miss the opportunity to undergo surgery. As such patients derive limited benefits from chemotherapy or radiotherapy, alternatives focusing on local control have emerged, including iodine-125 seed implantation. Read More

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December 2018

The role of post-mastectomy radiotherapy in elderly patients with 1-3 positive lymph nodes breast cancer: An International Retrospective Double-Center Study.

Breast J 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Curie, Paris, France.

This study evaluated the role of post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) in 111 patients with 1-3 positive nodes, aged 65 years or above between 2007 and 2013. In total, 64 received PMRT. The PMRT group had more aggressive tumor. Read More

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December 2018

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of probiotics to reduce the severity of oral mucositis induced by chemoradiotherapy for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

Cancer 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Institute of Translational Medicine, Nanchang University, Nanchang, People's Republic of China.

Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a probiotic combination on the severity of oral mucositis (OM), which is a common, unpreventable complication induced by radiochemotherapy in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma who undergo concurrent radiochemotherapy (CCRT).

Methods: Eligible patients (n = 99) with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma who were undergoing CCRT were randomly assigned (2:1) to receive a probiotic combination or placebo during radiochemotherapy, and the incidence of severe OM (grade 3 or higher) was the primary endpoint.

Results: Patients taking the probiotic combination showed a significant reduction in the severity of OM. Read More

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December 2018

Second infield re-irradiation with a resulting cumulative equivalent dose (EQD2 ) of >180 Gy for patients with recurrent head and neck cancer.

Head Neck 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany.

Background: For locally recurrent head and neck cancer, re-irradiation with modern techniques like stereotactic body radiotherapy is a promising, possibly curative alternative to palliative systemic therapy.

Methods: We report on 1 patient with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and 1 patient with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Both patients received full dose primary treatment (>66 Gy, EQD2), full dose re-irradiation (>50 Gy, EQD2), and a second course of re-irradiation via robotic radiosurgery (CyberKnife) for a second local recurrence. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Self-management intervention for head and neck cancer couples: Results of a randomized pilot trial.

Cancer 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.

Background: Patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) experience significant physical and psychological morbidity during radiotherapy (RT) that contributes to treatment interruptions and a poor quality of life. Although spouses/partners can help by encouraging patient self-management (eg, self-care) during RT, they often experience high psychological distress rates, lack basic health care knowledge and skills, and report increased marital conflict regarding patient self-management. The current pilot study examined the feasibility and acceptability of a 6-session telephone-based intervention called Spouses coping with the Head And neck Radiation Experience (SHARE), which teaches self-management, communication, and coping skills to patients with HNC and their spouses. Read More

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December 2018

A novel method for the determination of field output factors and output correction factors for small static fields for six diodes and a microdiamond detector in megavoltage photon beams.

Med Phys 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and UPMC Hillman Cancer Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Purpose: The goal of this work is to provide a large and consistent set of data for detector specific output correction factors, , for small static fields for seven solid state detectors and to determine field output factors, , using EBT3 radiochromic films and W1 plastic scintillator as reference detectors on two different linear accelerators and four megavoltage photon beams. Consistent measurement conditions and recommendations given in the International Code of PracticeTRS-483 for small field dosimetry were followed throughout the study.

Methods: were determined on two linacs, Elekta Versa HD and Varian TrueBeam, for 6 and 10 MV beams with and without flattening filter and for nine fields ranging from 0. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Docosahexaenoic acid promotes cell cycle arrest and decreases proliferation through WNT/β-catenin modulation in colorectal cancer cells exposed to γ-radiation.

Biofactors 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Cellular and Molecular Oncobiology Program, Brazilian National Cancer Institute, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

The effects of radiation are known to be potentiated by N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which modulate several signaling pathways, but the molecular mechanisms through which these fatty acids enhance the anticancer effects of irradiation in colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment remain poorly elucidated. Here, we aimed to ascertain whether the fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) exerts a modulating effect on the response elicited by radiation treatment (RT). Two CRC cell lines, Caco-2 and HT-29, were exposed to RT, DHA, or both (DHA + RT) for various times, and then cell viability, proliferation, and clonogenicity were assessed. Read More

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December 2018

Oligometastatic prostate cancer: Reality or figment of imagination.

Cancer 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, The University of Chicago Medicine, Chicago, Illinois.

The term "oligometastatic prostate cancer" refers to a heterogeneous group of disease states currently defined solely on the basis of clinical features. Oligorecurrent disease, de novo oligometastases, and oligoprogressive disease likely have unique biologic underpinnings and natural histories. Evidence suggesting the existence of a subset of patients who harbor prostate cancer with limited metastatic potential currently includes disparate and overwhelmingly retrospective reports. Read More

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December 2018
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IMAGING URANIUM DISTRIBUTION ON RAT KIDNEY SECTIONS THROUGH DETECTION OF ALPHA TRACKS USING CR-39 PLASTIC NUCLEAR TRACK DETECTOR.

Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Basic Medical Sciences for Radiation Damages, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, Chiba, Japan.

Uranium is renowned as a global contaminant, and attracts major concern with regards to the health risks involved because its nephrotoxicity. This paper discusses the development of a simple method to identify accumulated regions or localized sites of uranium within kidneys using the CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector. To demonstrate the proposed method, renal cryo-sections (5 μm-t) from Wistar male rats, subcutaneously administered with uranyl acetate (2 mg/kg), were prepared on day one after administration. Read More

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December 2018

Analysis of a lectin microarray identifies altered sialylation of mouse serum glycoproteins induced by whole-body radiation exposure.

J Radiat Res 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Experimental Oncology, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3, Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima, Japan.

Microarrays containing 45 different lectins were analyzed to identify global changes in the glycosylation of serum glycoproteins from mice exposed to whole-body γ-radiation. The results showed that radiation exposure increased and decreased the relative amounts of α-2,3- and α-2,6-sialic acids, respectively. The expression of α-2,3- and α-2,6-sialyltransferase genes in the liver was analyzed to determine whether changes in their expression were responsible for the sialic acid changes. Read More

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December 2018
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INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS FOR PERSONAL RADIATION SHIELDING IN SPACE.

Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Physics Department, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Personal radiation shielding is likely to play an important role in the strategy for radiation protection of future manned interplanetary missions. There is potential for the successful adoption of wearable shielding devices, readily available in case of accidental exposures or used for emergency operations in low-shielded areas of the habitat, particularly in case of solar particle events (SPEs). Based on optimization of available resources, conceptual models for radiation protection spacesuits have been proposed, with elements made of different materials, and the first prototype of a water-fillable garment was designed and manufactured in the framework of the PERSEO project, funded by the Italian Space Agency, leading to the successful test of such prototype for ease of use and wearability on-board the International Space Station. Read More

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December 2018
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Resolving Deep Nodes in an Ancient Radiation of Neotropical Fishes in the Presence of Conflicting Signals from Incomplete Lineage Sorting.

Syst Biol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Museum of Natural Science, Department of Biological Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA.

Resolving patterns of ancient and rapid diversifications is one of the most challenging tasks in evolutionary biology. These difficulties arise from confusing phylogenetic signals that are associated with the interplay of incomplete lineage sorting and homoplasy. Phylogenomic analyses of hundreds, or even thousands, of loci offer the potential to resolve such contentious relationships. Read More

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December 2018

INFLUENCE OF NEW MASS ENERGY-ABSORPTION COEFFICIENTS FROM ICRU REPORT NO. 90 ON AIR KERMA TO DOSE EQUIVALENT CONVERSION COEFFICIENTS.

Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Bundesallee 100, Braunschweig, Germany.

In Report No. 90 of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), new mass energy-absorption coefficients are listed which are based on renormalized Scofield photoeffect cross-sections. The mass energy-absorption coefficients are the basis for the conversion coefficients from air kerma to the operational quantities listed in ISO 4037-3. Read More

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December 2018

Evolution of DNA methylation in Papio baboons.

Mol Biol Evol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Evolutionary Anthropology, Duke University, Durham, NC.

Changes in gene regulation have long been thought to play an important role in primate evolution. However, although a number of studies have compared genome-wide gene expression patterns across primate species, fewer have investigated the gene regulatory mechanisms that underlie such patterns, or the relative contribution of drift versus selection. Here, we profiled genome-scale DNA methylation levels in blood samples from five of the six extant species of the baboon genus Papio (4-14 individuals per species). Read More

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December 2018

BIOINFORMATIC ANALYSIS OF DOSE- AND TIME-DEPENDENT miRNome RESPONSES.

Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Laboratory of Biomedical Technologies, Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), Rome, Italy.

The advent of new 'omics' techniques determined a massive boost in the measurement of the whole spectra of molecules within cells, favoring promising new radiobiological studies at low doses. The main aim of this work was to assess the radiation-induced perturbations of miRNA profiles and their temporal dynamics. Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells were irradiated with low doses of γ-rays. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

MODELLING γ-H2AX FOCI INDUCTION TO MIMIC LIMITATIONS IN THE SCORING TECHNIQUE.

Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Physics Department, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

An approach based on track-structure calculations has been developed to take account of artefacts occurring during γ-H2AX foci detection in 2D images of samples analyzed through immunocytochemistry. The need of this works stems from the observed saturation in foci yields measured after X-ray doses higher than few grays, hindering an unambiguous quantification of DNA damage and of radiation effectiveness. The proposed modelling approach allows to simulate the observer's point of view for foci scoring, mimicking the selection of a slice Δz of the cell nucleus due to the microscope depth of field, and applying a clustering algorithm to group together damages within a resolution parameter r. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

LONG-TERM HEALTH RISK AFTER BREAST-CANCER RADIOTHERAPY: OVERVIEW OF PASSOS METHODOLOGY AND SOFTWARE.

Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Klinik für Strahlentherapie, Universität Leipzig, Stephanstr. 9a, Leipzig, Germany.

Breast-cancer radiotherapy reduces the recurrence rates and improves patient survival. However, it also increases the incidence of second cancers and of heart disease. These radiation-induced long-term health risks become increasingly important with improved cure rates and prolonged patient survival. Read More

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December 2018

Benzene Exposure Response and Risk of Myeloid Neoplasms in Chinese Workers: A Multicenter Case-Cohort Study.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Nanchang Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanchang, China.

Background: There is international consensus that benzene exposure is causally related to acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and more recent evidence of association with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). However, there are uncertainties about the exposure response, particularly risks by time since exposure and age at exposure.

Methods: In a case-cohort study in 110 631 Chinese workers followed up during 1972-1999 we evaluated combined MDS/AML (n = 44) and chronic myeloid leukemia (n = 18). Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Fluoroscopy Dose and Time Characteristics During Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).

Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Divisions of Gastroenterology.

Radiation exposure during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is known, however, data in relation to radiation usage is unclear. We evaluate radiation exposure using fluoroscopy dose (FD) and time (FT). A prospective analysis of 197 patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was completed. Read More

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December 2018

Effects of High- and Low-LET Radiation on Human Hematopoietic System Reconstituted in Immunodeficient Mice.

Radiat Res 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

a   Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York.

Over the last 50 years, a number of important physiological changes in humans who have traveled on spaceflights have been catalogued. Of major concern are the short- and long-term radiation-induced injuries to the hematopoietic system that may be induced by high-energy galactic cosmic rays encountered on interplanetary space missions. To collect data on the effects of space radiation on the human hematopoietic system in vivo, we used a humanized mouse model. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Enhanced intrinsic CYP3A4 activity in human hepatic C3A cells with optically controlled CRISPR/dCas9 activator complex.

Integr Biol (Camb) 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Cell Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Haidian District, Beijing, 100191, China.

Human hepatic C3A cells have been applied in bioartificial liver development, although these cells display low intrinsic cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) enzyme activity. We aimed to enhance CYP3A4 enzyme activity of C3A cells utilizing CRISPR gene editing technology. We designed two CYP3A4 expression enhanced systems applying clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) gene technology: a CRISPR-on activation system including dCas9-VP64-GFP and two U6-sgRNA-mCherry elements, and a light-controlled CRISPR-on activation system combining our CRISPR-on activation system with an optical control system to facilitate regulation of CYP3A4 expression for various applications. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Feasibility of closed-MLC tracking using high sensitivity and multi-layer electronic portal imagers.

Phys Med Biol 2018 Dec 6;63(23):235030. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Medical Physics and Biophysics, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, United States of America. Author to whom any correspondence should be addressed.

In radiation therapy, improvements in treatment conformality are often limited by movement of target tissue. To better treat the target, tumor tracking strategies involving beam's-eye-view (BEV) have been explored. However, localization surrogates like implanted fiducial markers may sometimes leave the field-of-view (FOV), as defined by the linear accelerator (LINAC) multi-leaf collimator (MLC). Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Dose response and stability of water equivalent PRESAGE dosimeters for synchrotron radiation therapy dosimetry.

Phys Med Biol 2018 Dec 6;63(23):235027. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Alfred Health Radiation Oncology, The Alfred, Melbourne, Victoria 3004, Australia. School of Health and Biomedical Sciences, RMIT University, Bundoora, Victoria 3083, Australia. Author to whom any correspondence should be addressed.

This research investigated the dose response and post-irradiation stability of water-equivalent PRESAGE dosimeters exposed to synchrotron radiation. Water-equivalent PRESAGE dosimeters were irradiated up to 1000 Gy in a synchrotron x-ray beam with a mean energy of 95.3 keV. Read More

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December 2018

Casticin inhibits growth and enhances ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis through the suppression of STAT3 signaling cascade.

J Cell Biochem 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Science in Korean Medicine, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Casticin (CTC), one of the major components of Vitex rotundifolia L., has been reported to exert significant beneficial pharmacological activities and can function as an antiprolactin, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, analgesic, and immunomodulatory agent. This study aimed at investigating whether the proapoptotic effects of CTC may be mediated through the abrogation of signal transducers and activators of transcription-3 (STAT3) signaling pathway in a variety of human tumor cells. Read More

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December 2018

Investigating skin age analysis to reduce tanning intentions among adolescents: A pilot study.

Pediatr Dermatol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Dermatology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah.

As skin cancer rates continue to rise, targeted efforts to reduce excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation are crucial. Adolescents are a high-risk population for intentional tanning; thus, we sought to determine whether the novel use of skin age analysis with ultraviolet (UV) photography would be an effective tool for reducing intentions to tan in adolescents with a calculated skin age (measured by complexion analysis software) that exceeds their actual age. Surveying 85 students in this study, skin age difference above zero was associated with reduced intentions to tan (P = 0. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Coupling of urban energy balance model with 3-D radiation model to derive human thermal (dis)comfort.

Int J Biometeorol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

While capabilities in urban climate modeling have substantially increased in recent decades, the interdependency of changes in environmental surface properties and human (dis)comfort have only recently received attention. The open-source solar long-wave environmental irradiance geometry (SOLWEIG) model is one of the state-of-the-art models frequently used for urban (micro-)climatic studies. Here, we present updated calculation schemes for SOLWEIG allowing the improved prediction of surface temperatures (wall and ground). Read More

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December 2018

Technical challenges of quantitative chest MRI data analysis in a large cohort pediatric study.

Eur Radiol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Erasmus Medical Center, Wytemaweg 80, 3015 CN, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Objectives: This study was conducted in order to evaluate the effect of geometric distortion (GD) on MRI lung volume quantification and evaluate available manual, semi-automated, and fully automated methods for lung segmentation.

Methods: A phantom was scanned with MRI and CT. GD was quantified as the difference in phantom's volume between MRI and CT, with CT as gold standard. Read More

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December 2018

Automatic detection of perforator vessels using infrared thermography in reconstructive surgery.

Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Innovation Center Computer Assisted Surgery, University Leipzig, Semmelweisstr. 14, 04103, Leipzig, Germany.

Purpose: Knowing the location of the blood vessels supplying the skin and subcutaneous tissue is a requirement during the planning of tissue transfer in reconstructive surgery. Commonly used imaging techniques such as computed tomography angiography and indocyanine green angiography expose the patient to radiation or a contrast agent, respectively. Infrared thermal imaging was evaluated with success as a non-invasive alternative. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

The Role of the Neo-Bioscore Staging System in Guiding the Optimal Strategies for Regional Nodal Irradiation Following Neoadjuvant Treatment in Breast Cancer Patients with cN1 and ypN0-1.

Ann Surg Oncol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: The role of regional nodal irradiation (RNI) in patients with cN1 breast cancer following neoadjuvant treatment (NAT) is still controversial. The Neo-Bioscore staging system has shown promising prospect in assessing individual prognosis after NAT, and we sought to evaluate the role of Neo-Bioscore in guiding RNI following NAT.

Methods: Medical records of 163 women with cN1 and ypN0-1 disease treated with NAT between 2009 and 2014 were retrospectively reviewed and a Neo-Bioscore was assigned to each patient. Read More

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December 2018

Institutional patient accrual volume and the treatment quality of I‑125 prostate seed implantation in a Japanese nationwide prospective cohort study.

Strahlenther Onkol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Japanese Foundation for Prostate Research, Tokyo, Japan.

Purpose: It is unclear whether experience at high-volume institute improves the treatment quality of prostate seed implantation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of institutional experience on postimplant dosimetric parameters in a nationwide prospective cohort study.

Methods: From July 2005 to June 2007, 2354 patients were registered in the Japanese Prostate Cancer Outcome Study of Permanent I‑125 Seed Implantation (J-POPS), and 1126 patients treated with seed implantation alone were evaluated. Read More

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December 2018

Tailoring Fano lineshapes using plasmonic nanobars for highly sensitive sensing and directional emission.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Nanophotonic Functional Materials and Devices, School of Information and Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006, China.

Plasmonic oligomers are one class of the most promising nanoclusters for generating Fano resonances. This study reveals that a nanobar-based heptamer concurrently sustains triple polarization-dependent Fano resonances, in sharp contrast to traditional nanodisk or nanosphere-based counterparts. Benefiting from the enhanced near field and reduced spectral linewidth, the gold heptamer exhibits a high refractive index sensitivity (940 nm per RIU) together with a figure of merit (FoM) value as large as 20. Read More

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December 2018

Observation of electrochemically active Fe/Fe in LiCoFeMnO by in situ Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Institute for Applied Materials (IAM), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany. and Helmholtz Institute Ulm for Electrochemical Energy Storage (HIU), Helmholtzstrasse 11, 89081 Ulm, Germany.

LiCo0.8Fe0.2MnO4 has been investigated as an active material for the positive electrode in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) with a discharge potential of around 5 V (vs. Read More

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December 2018
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Mild heat stress induces hormetic effects in protecting the primary culture of mouse prefrontal cerebrocortical neurons from neuropathological alterations.

IBRO Rep 2018 Dec 14;5:110-115. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Cellular Stress Response Laboratory, Cell Biology Division, Department of Zoology, Shivaji University, Kolhapur, Maharashtra, 416 004, India.

Hormesis is a dose response phenomenon of cells and organisms to various types of stressors. Mild stress stimulates prosurvival pathways and makes the cells adaptive to stressful conditions. It is a widely used fundamental dose-response phenomenon in many biomedical and toxicological sciences, radiation biology, health science etc. Read More

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December 2018

Gross tumour delineation on computed tomography and positron emission tomography-computed tomography in oesophageal cancer: A nationwide study.

Clin Transl Radiat Oncol 2019 Jan 26;14:33-39. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Background And Purpose: Accurate delineation of the primary tumour is vital to the success of radiotherapy and even more important for successful boost strategies, aiming for improved local control in oesophageal cancer patients. Therefore, the aim was to assess delineation variability of the gross tumour volume (GTV) between CT and combined PET-CT in oesophageal cancer patients in a multi-institutional study.

Materials And Methods: Twenty observers from 14 institutes delineated the primary tumour of 6 cases on CT and PET-CT fusion. Read More

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January 2019

Assessing the Prevalence of Incidental Findings Identified by CTPA in Women of Reproductive Age.

Emerg Med Int 2018 4;2018:4630945. Epub 2018 Nov 4.

Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, NL, Canada.

Background And Objective: Though multiple studies have evaluated the prevalence of incidental findings identified by CTPA, none have done so with a focus on reproductive-age females with normal chest X-ray (CXR). Due to a comparatively lower breast radiation dose, the oft-recommended alternative to CTPA in this patient group is a V/Q scan. However, these are limited in their assessment of these alternate findings; therefore, it is of particular importance to evaluate the likelihood of these findings on CT in this patient group, which is the goal of this study. Read More

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November 2018

Chondrosarcoma: biology, genetics, and epigenetics.

Authors:
Warren A Chow

F1000Res 2018 20;7. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Department of Medical Oncology & Therapeutics Research, City of Hope, 1500 E. Duarte Rd, Duarte, CA, 91010, USA.

Chondrosarcomas constitute a heterogeneous group of primary bone cancers characterized by hyaline cartilaginous neoplastic tissue. They are the second most common primary bone malignancy. The vast majority of chondrosarcomas are conventional chondrosarcomas, and most conventional chondrosarcomas are low- to intermediate-grade tumors (grade 1 or 2) which have indolent clinical behavior and low metastatic potential. Read More

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November 2018
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