16,383 results match your criteria Rabies

Investigation of protective level of rabies antibodies in vaccinated dogs in Chennai, India.

Vet Rec Open 2021 Dec 5;8(1):e8. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Division of Genetics and Genomics The Roslin Institute and The Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies The University of Edinburgh, Midlothian UK.

Background: Rabies is still endemic in India causing an estimated 20,000 human deaths a year. Free roaming dogs and unvaccinated owned dogs play a major role in the maintenance of the disease. Dog vaccination is the most crucial aspect of rabies prevention and control strategies; therefore vaccine immunogenicity and longevity are important determinants of the efficiency of rabies control efforts. Read More

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December 2021

Rabies surveillance in the United States during 2019.

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2021 Jun;258(11):1205-1220

Objective: To provide epidemiological information on animal and human cases of rabies occurring in the United States during 2019 and summaries of 2019 rabies surveillance for Canada and Mexico.

Animals: All animals submitted for laboratory diagnosis of rabies in the United States during 2019.

Procedures: State and territorial public health departments and USDA Wildlife Services provided data on animals submitted for rabies testing in the United States during 2019. Read More

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Cerebellar projections to the macaque midbrain tegmentum: Possible near response connections.

Vis Neurosci 2021 May 12;38:E007. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Neurobiology and Anatomical Sciences, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi.

Since most gaze shifts are to targets that lie at a different distance from the viewer than the current target, gaze changes commonly require a change in the angle between the eyes. As part of this response, lens curvature must also be adjusted with respect to target distance by the ciliary muscle. It has been suggested that projections by the cerebellar fastigial and posterior interposed nuclei to the supraoculomotor area (SOA), which lies immediately dorsal to the oculomotor nucleus and contains near response neurons, support this behavior. Read More

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A fatal rabies case and experiences of a mass post exposure prophylaxis among healthcare workers.

Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

3Emergency Medicine Department, Mehmet Akif Ersoy State Hospital, Canakkale, Turkey.

We aimed to monitor the adverse effects (AE) and efficacy of post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) in health care workers (HCWs) exposed to a rabies patient. In this study 109 HCWs and eight household contacts were PEP candidates. Contact persons without infection control precautions were in Group I (high risk-82 cases). Read More

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Phylogenetic analysis of nucleoprotein gene of Rabies virus in Malaysia from 2015 to 2018.

Trop Biomed 2021 Jun;38(2):72-78

Veterinary Research Institute, 59, Jalan Sultan Azlan Shah, 31400 Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia.

Rabies is a fatal zoonotic disease caused by rabies virus (RABV) and remains a public health problem in Malaysia. Malaysia was declared rabies-free in 2012, however rabies outbreaks occurred at few states in Peninsular Malaysia three years later; and for the first time, in Sarawak (East Malaysia) in 2017 which has caused more than 20 human deaths. This study describes the phylogenetic analysis of the complete nucleoprotein (N) gene of RABV from animal samples in Malaysia from year 2015 to 2018. Read More

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Rabies-infected dogs at slaughterhouses: A potential risk of rabies transmission via dog trading and butchering activities in Vietnam.

Zoonoses Public Health 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Hanoi Center for Disease Control, Hanoi, Vietnam.

The study aimed to determine the status of neutralizing antibodies and rabies virus infection in dogs at slaughterhouses in Hanoi city from 2015 to 2017. A total of 2,376 pairs of blood and brain samples were collected from dogs at 92 slaughterhouses (8 large slaughterhouses and 84 small slaughterhouses) in 6 districts in Hanoi. Of the 1,500 dog samples from the large slaughterhouses where imported dogs were slaughtered, no dog brain samples were infected with rabies virus and no blood samples were positive for rabies neutralizing antibodies. Read More

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Efficacy of a low-dose candidate malaria vaccine, R21 in adjuvant Matrix-M, with seasonal administration to children in Burkina Faso: a randomised controlled trial.

Lancet 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Novavax, Gaithersburg, MD, USA.

Background: Stalled progress in controlling Plasmodium falciparum malaria highlights the need for an effective and deployable vaccine. RTS,S/AS01, the most effective malaria vaccine candidate to date, demonstrated 56% efficacy over 12 months in African children. We therefore assessed a new candidate vaccine for safety and efficacy. Read More

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A rabies virus vectored severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) bivalent candidate vaccine confers protective immune responses in mice.

Vet Microbiol 2021 Apr 21;257:109076. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Virology, School of Public Health, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, 250012, China. Electronic address:

The Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging tick-borne hemorrhagic zoonotic disease, which is potentially fatal in human with mortality rates ranging from 16.2%-32%. The rabies virus (RABV) LBNSE vector expressing foreign antigens have shown considerable promise as vaccines against viral diseases, which is effective and safe. Read More

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The ecological niche of reported rabies cases in Canada is similar to Alaska.

Zoonoses Public Health 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK, USA.

The ecology of rabies in the circumpolar North is still not well understood. We use machine learning, a geographic information system and data explicit in time and space obtained for reported rabies cases and predictors in Canada to develop an ecological niche model for the distribution of reported rabies cases in the American north (Alaska and Canada). The ecological niche model based on reported rabies cases in Canada predicted reported rabies cases in Alaska, suggesting a rather robust inference and even similar drivers on a continental scale. Read More

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Epidemiological, humanistic and economic burden of dog-mediated rabies in India: a systematic review protocol.

F1000Res 2021 18;10:32. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Health & Family Welfare, State Institute of Health and Family Welfare, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, 171009, India.

Rabies is a neglected zoonotic disease. It is transmitted through the bite of a rabid animal and dog bites are responsible for around 95% of human cases. The disease is almost fatal after the onset of symptoms. Read More

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January 2021

Reactive oxygen species as potential antiviral targets.

Rev Med Virol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Microbiology and Biochemistry, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are by-products of cellular metabolism and can be either beneficial, at low levels, or deleterious, at high levels, to the cell. It is known that several viral infections can increase oxidative stress, which is mainly facilitated by viral-induced imbalances in the antioxidant defence mechanisms of the cell. While the exact role of ROS in certain viral infections (adenovirus and dengue virus) remains unknown, other viruses can use ROS for enhancement of pathogenesis (SARS coronavirus and rabies virus) or replication (rhinovirus, West Nile virus and vesicular stomatitis virus) or both (hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus and influenza virus). Read More

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Genetic identification of a rabies virus from an insectivorous bat in an urban area of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Braz J Microbiol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Centro de Ciências Rurais, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, 97105-900, Brazil.

In Latin America, hematophagous bats are the main reservoirs of rabies virus (RABV) to livestock, to other mammals and, occasionally, to human. Nonetheless, reports of exposure of human and pets to RABV upon aggression by non-hematophagous bats are increasing, possibly facilitated by the synanthropic habits of these bats. We, herein, report the detection and genetic identification of a RABV recovered from an insectivorous bat found sick in a student housing building at the Federal University of Santa Maria, Southern Brazil. Read More

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Anti-Rabies Vaccine Compliance and Knowledge of Community Health Worker Regarding Animal Bite Management in Rural Area of Eastern India.

Cureus 2021 Mar 31;13(3):e14229. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Community Medicine and Family Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhubaneswar, Bhubaneswar, IND.

Background Rabies is a public health problem in developing countries like India accounting for the second-highest number of rabies-related deaths worldwide. Anti-rabies vaccine (ARV) is the only proven and effective way of preventing death in this 100% fatal disease. However, compliance is a real concern. Read More

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Long-term immunity and the effect of one or two booster doses with a lyophilized human rabies vaccine (human diploid cells) at 10 years post primary vaccination in China.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 May 4:1-7. Epub 2021 May 4.

Chengdu Kanghua Biological Products Co., Ltd., Chengdu, China.

To evaluate the persistence of antibody for 10 years, and investigate the effect of one or two booster doses with Kanghua human diploid cells rabies vaccine (HDCV) in China. Participants were re-recruited at year 10 post the primary phase 3 clinical study. Some of them in Kanghua HDCV group who had been boosted one dose at year 8, received one more dose at this boosted study. Read More

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Research trends in rabies vaccine in the last three decades: a bibliometric analysis of global perspective.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 May 4:1-9. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing, China.

: Rabies is an infectious zoonotic viral disease which mainly occurs in Africa and Asia. Dogs are predominantly responsible for rabies transmission contributing up to 99% of all human rabies cases. Rabies is a vaccine preventable disease in both animals and humans. Read More

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Immunocontraceptive potential of a GnRH receptor-based fusion recombinant protein.

J Genet Eng Biotechnol 2021 May 4;19(1):63. Epub 2021 May 4.

Geniron Biolabs Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore, India.

Background: The management of stray dog population has been of utmost importance due to their overpopulation, increase in dog bites incidence, and rabies. Contraceptive vaccines, a non-surgical alternative to spaying and neutering are viewed as a valuable option for the management of dog population. In this study, the contraceptive potential of a recombinant fusion protein containing the three genes GnRH, GnRH receptor, and ZP3 was explored. Read More

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Editorial: mRNA Vaccines and Future Epidemic, Pandemic, and Endemic Zoonotic Virus Infections.

Dinah V Parums

Med Sci Monit 2021 May 4;27:e932915. Epub 2021 May 4.

Science Editor, Medical Science Monitor, International Scientific Information, Inc., Melville, NY, USA.

There have been rapid developments in safe and effective mRNA vaccines for zoonotic infections in the past year. Years of research have made these advances possible, leading to in vitro-transcribed (IVT) mRNA expressing therapeutic proteins. There are several advantages of mRNA vaccines that include their low-cost manufacturing process, large-scale and rapid production, and the ability to modify the vaccines in response to emerging infections and viral variants. Read More

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Whole-Brain Mapping the Direct Inputs of Dorsal and Ventral CA1 Projection Neurons.

Front Neural Circuits 2021 14;15:643230. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

The CA1, an important subregion of the hippocampus, is anatomically and functionally heterogeneous in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus. Here, to dissect the distinctions between the dorsal (dCA1) and ventral CA1 (vCA1) in anatomical connections, we systematically analyzed the direct inputs to dCA1 and vCA1 projection neurons (PNs) with the rabies virus-mediated retrograde trans-monosynaptic tracing system in Thy1-Cre mice. Our mapping results revealed that the input proportions and distributions of dCA1 and vCA1 PNs varied significantly. Read More

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The rabies distribution pattern on dogs using average nearest neighbor analysis approach in the Karangasem District, Bali, Indonesia, in 2019.

Vet World 2021 Mar 11;14(3):614-624. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Disease Investigation Centre of Maros, Maros, Indonesia.

Background And Aim: Rabies is a severe progressive encephalitis disease in dogs characterized as a zoonosis. The transmission of rabies between animals in Karangasem District, Bali is still high and continues until today; therefore, rabies in the district still actively circulating. The distribution pattern of rabies, especially in the district, is unknown. Read More

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Rabies in Europe: An epidemiological and clinical update.

Eur J Intern Med 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Infectious, Tropical Diseases & Microbiology (DITM), IRCCS Sacro Cuore Don Calabria Hospital, Negrar di Valpolicella, Verona, Italy. Electronic address:

Rabies is a vaccine preventable zoonotic disease with a significant mortality burden worldwide. Several years of vaccination campaigns in wildlife animals have now achieved the control of rabies in Western Europe through a vaccination belt in front of endemic Eastern European countries. Nevertheless, rabies could be imported both by travellers from areas without an active public control of the disease or by animals coming from areas where the virus circulates in wildlife fauna. Read More

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Serosurveillance of rabies antibodies in dogs in Mumbai region by using indirect ELISA.

Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2021 Jun 24;76:101655. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Animal Biotechnology, Mumbai Veterinary College, Parel, Mumbai, 400012, India.

Rabies is a highly fatal viral infection of the central nervous system affecting all warm-blooded animals including humans. To implement the preventive and control measures, it is important to decide the status of anti-rabies antibodies in dogs. Out of 120 serum samples, 47 (39. Read More

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siRNA Loaded-Exosomes.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2282:395-401

Laboratory of Molecular Neurobiology, Center for Biomedical Research of La Rioja (CIBIR), Logroño, Spain.

Exosomes are membrane-bound vesicles (40-100 nm) of endocytic origin released by numerous cell types that act as natural carriers of mRNA, microRNA, and proteins between cells. We developed a new system that uses intravenous injection of modified exosomes for siRNA delivery into the brain. Here we describe the generation of unmodified and modified exosomes, which specifically target the brain, and the method to load siRNA into the exosomes. Read More

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January 2021

A Remarkable Genetic Diversity of Rotavirus A Circulating in Red Fox Population in Croatia.

Pathogens 2021 Apr 16;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Virology Department, Croatian Veterinary Institute, Savska Cesta 143, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia.

Rotaviruses (RV), especially (RVA), are globally recognized as pathogens causing neonatal diarrhea, but they also affect intensive animal farming. However, the knowledge on their significance in wildlife is rather limited. The aim of the study was to unveil the prevalence, molecular epidemiology, and genetic diversity of RVA strains circulating in the red fox () population in Croatia. Read More

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Oral Rabies Vaccination of Small Indian Mongooses () with ONRAB via Ultralite Baits.

Viruses 2021 Apr 23;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center, 4101 LaPorte Ave., Fort Collins, CO 80521, USA.

The Ontario Rabies Vaccine (ONRAB) is a human adenovirus rabies glycoprotein recombinant oral vaccine immunogenic for small Indian mongooses when delivered by direct instillation into the oral cavity. We offered Ultralite baits containing ~1.8 mL 10 TCID ONRAB oral rabies vaccine to 18 mongooses, while 6 mongooses were offered identical baits in placebo form. Read More

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Educational Approach to Prevent the Burden of Vaccinia Virus Infections in a Bovine Vaccinia Endemic Area in Brazil.

Pathogens 2021 Apr 23;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Laboratório de Vírus, Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais 31270-901, Brazil.

Bovine vaccinia (BV), caused by Vaccinia virus (VACV), is a zoonotic disease characterized by exanthematous lesions on the teats of dairy cows and the hands of milkers, and is an important public health issue in Brazil and South America. BV also results in economic losses to the dairy industry, being a burden to the regions involved in milk production. In the past 20 years, much effort has been made to increase the knowledge regarding BV epidemiology, etiologic agents, and interactions with the hosts and the environment. Read More

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Lessons Learned and Paths Forward for Rabies Dog Vaccination in Madagascar: A Case Study of Pilot Vaccination Campaigns in Moramanga District.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2021 Apr 12;6(2). Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Anthropology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.

Canine rabies causes an estimated 60,000 human deaths per year, but these deaths are preventable through post-exposure prophylaxis of people and vaccination of domestic dogs. Dog vaccination campaigns targeting 70% of the population are effective at interrupting transmission. Here, we report on lessons learned during pilot dog vaccination campaigns in the Moramanga District of Madagascar. Read More

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Stool Serology: Development of a Non-Invasive Immunological Method for the Detection of Enterovirus-Specific Antibodies in Congo Gorilla Faeces.

Microorganisms 2021 Apr 12;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Institut Hospitalo-Universitaire Méditerranée-Infection, 19-21 Boulevard Jean Moulin, CEDEX 05, 13005 Marseille, France.

Background: The incidence of poliovirus has been significantly reduced by as much as 99.9% globally. Alongside this, however, vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis has emerged. Read More

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Full-Genome Sequences and Phylogenetic Analysis of Archived Danish European Bat Lyssavirus 1 (EBLV-1) Emphasize a Higher Genetic Resolution and Spatial Segregation for Sublineage 1a.

Viruses 2021 04 7;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Institute of Molecular Virology and Cell Biology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut (FLI), WHO Collaborating Centre for Rabies Surveillance and Research, OIE Reference Laboratory for Rabies, 17493 Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany.

European bat lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1) is the causative agent for almost all reported rabies cases found in European bats. In recent years, increasing numbers of available EBLV-1 full genomes and their phylogenetic analyses helped to further elucidate the distribution and genetic characteristics of EBLV-1 and its two subtypes, namely EBLV-1a and EBLV-1b. Nonetheless, the absence of full-genome sequences from regions with known detections of EBLV-1 still limit the understanding of the phylogeographic relations between viruses from different European regions. Read More

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Viral Antigen Detection in Blood (Serum) Has no Role in Laboratory Diagnosis of Rabies.

Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2021 Jan-Feb;24(1):94-95. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Neurovirology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

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February 2021

Domestic dog demographics and estimates of canine vaccination coverage in a rural area of Zambia for the elimination of rabies.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Apr 28;15(4):e0009222. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Unit of Risk Analysis and Management, Hokkaido University Research Center for Zoonosis Control, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan.

Background: An estimated 75% or more of the human rabies cases in Africa occur in rural settings, which underscores the importance of rabies control in these areas. Understanding dog demographics can help design strategies for rabies control and plan and conduct canine mass vaccination campaigns effectively in African countries.

Methodology/principal Findings: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate domestic dog demographics in Kalambabakali, in the rural Mazabuka District of Zambia. Read More

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