15,066 results match your criteria Rabies


Late effects of total body irradiation on hematopoietic recovery and immune function in rhesus macaques.

PLoS One 2019 13;14(2):e0210663. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Pathology and Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, United States of America.

While exposure to radiation can be lifesaving in certain settings, it can also potentially result in long-lasting adverse effects, particularly to hematopoietic and immune cells. This study investigated hematopoietic recovery and immune function in rhesus macaques Cross-sectionally (at a single time point) 2 to 5 years after exposure to a single large dose (6.5 to 8. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0210663PLOS
February 2019

A hypothalamus-habenula circuit controls aversion.

Mol Psychiatry 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Encoding and predicting aversive events are critical functions of circuits that support survival and emotional well-being. Maladaptive circuit changes in emotional valence processing can underlie the pathophysiology of affective disorders. The lateral habenula (LHb) has been linked to aversion and mood regulation through modulation of the dopamine and serotonin systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-019-0369-5DOI Listing
February 2019

Status of antiviral therapeutics against rabies virus and related emerging lyssaviruses.

Curr Opin Virol 2019 Feb 9;35:1-13. Epub 2019 Feb 9.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, United States. Electronic address:

Rabies virus (RABV) constitutes a major social and economic burden associated with 60 000 deaths annually worldwide. Although pre-exposure and post-exposure treatment options are available, they are efficacious only when initiated before the onset of clinical symptoms. Aggravating the problem, the current RABV vaccine does not cross-protect against the emerging zoonotic phylogroup II lyssaviruses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coviro.2018.12.009DOI Listing
February 2019
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Expression of human ficolin-2 in hepatocytes confers resistance to infection by diverse hepatotropic viruses.

J Med Microbiol 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

3 NIHR Nottingham Biomedical Research Centre, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust and the University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.

The liver-expressed pattern recognition receptors mannose-binding lectin (MBL), ficolin-2 and ficolin-3 contribute to the innate immune response by activating complement. Binding of soluble ficolin-2 to viral pathogens can directly neutralize virus entry. We observed that the human hepatoma cell line HuH7. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.000935DOI Listing
February 2019
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Evaluating human rabies control in Asia: using 'One Health' principles to assess control programmes for rabies.

Authors:
S Ghai T Hemachudha

Rev Sci Tech 2018 Aug;37(2):617-627

Rabies is a global issue, and kills tens of thousands of people every year, despite being a preventable disease. The goal of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) to eliminate dog-mediated rabies by 2030 requires serious collaborative efforts across Ministries and countries. This cross-sector cooperation includes, but is not limited to, physicians, veterinarians, local authorities, local communities and the media; in other words, a 'One Health' approach. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20506/rst.37.2.2828DOI Listing

Preface Rabies.

Authors:
M Eloit

Rev Sci Tech 2018 Aug;37(2):299-304

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20506/rst.37.2.2803DOI Listing

Introduction History of rabies control by vaccination.

Rev Sci Tech 2018 Aug;37(2):305-322

Since antiquity, rabies has remained one of the deadliest infectious diseases known to humankind, with a case fatality rate approaching 100% following the onset of clinical disease. It is present on all continents where terrestrial mammals exist, with the majority of animal and human cases being reported in the resourcelimited countries of Africa and Asia, with thousands of human rabies deaths being recorded annually. It is likely, however, that the global figure of approximately 59,000 annual human rabies fatalities is an underestimate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20506/rst.37.2.2804DOI Listing
August 2018
1 Read

Rabies pathogenesis and immunology.

Authors:
A C Banyard N Tordo

Rev Sci Tech 2018 Aug;37(2):323-330

Once clinical disease is manifest, the rabies virus is one of the few pathogens known to science with a near 100% fatality rate and, as such, this zoonotic pathogen has shaped both humanity and the history of science. However, today rabies is still considered to be a neglected tropical disease, despite the fact that it causes more than 59,000 human deaths each year. Although effective vaccines are available to combat the disease, the underlying mechanisms of its pathogenicity and immunology remain poorly defined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20506/rst.37.2.2805DOI Listing
August 2018
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Rabies in dogs, livestock and wildlife: a veterinary perspective.

Rev Sci Tech 2018 Aug;37(2):331-340

While major progress has been made in the control of rabies in the Western Hemisphere, large parts of Europe and some parts of Asia, the disease continues to kill tens of thousands of people every year. Its highest burden is in resourcelimited countries in Asia and Africa, disproportionately affecting children and poor rural communities. Today, domesticated dogs are responsible for the vast majority of human rabies cases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20506/rst.37.2.2806DOI Listing
August 2018
1 Read

Rabies as a threat to wildlife.

Rev Sci Tech 2018 Aug;37(2):341-357

The impact of infectious disease may become progressively more harmful to a species' survival as a wild population approaches an 'extinction vortex'. This risk is especially relevant for pathogens that spread rapidly and result in high mortality rates. Rabies, a virus that infects many mammalian species, can be efficiently transmitted through infected saliva, and is fatal without prior vaccination or rapid post-exposure prophylaxis (in humans). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20506/rst.37.2.2858DOI Listing
August 2018
5 Reads

Rabies diagnosis and surveillance in animals in the era of rabies elimination.

Authors:
R Franka R Wallace

Rev Sci Tech 2018 Aug;37(2):359-370

Effective real-time surveillance, combined with proficient, decentralised and validated laboratory diagnostics, is a prerequisite for successful rabies control and elimination. The selection and prioritisation of surveillance methodologies, in conjunction with appropriate diagnostic techniques, should reflect the goals of the disease control and elimination programme (Stage 1: proof of burden; Stage 2: human rabies prevention; Stage 3: monitoring and assessment of control measures; Stage 4: verification of rabies elimination; and Stage 5: post elimination). The development of minimum surveillance requirements, in accordance with Chapter 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20506/rst.37.2.2807DOI Listing

Rabies virus vectors and reservoir species.

Authors:
T Gilbert A

Rev Sci Tech 2018 Aug;37(2):371-384

Rabies is an ancient zoonotic disease caused by infection with the rabies virus (RABV). While the circulation of RABV in domestic dogs has been appreciated for centuries, the recognition of bat and wild carnivore reservoirs began in the early part of the 20th century. Bats are the ancestral reservoir of RABV and a remarkable diversity of species perpetuate distinct lineages of the virus, despite the fact that circulation in bats is geographically limited to the New World fauna. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20506/rst.37.2.2808DOI Listing

Bat lyssaviruses.

Rev Sci Tech 2018 Aug;37(2):385-400

Bats (order Chiroptera) are the principal reservoir host for 14 of the 16 officially recognised lyssavirus species. Rabies virus is the only lyssavirus that is well established in terrestrial carnivores (worldwide), as well as bats (but only in the Americas). The other bat lyssaviruses occur only outside the Americas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20506/rst.37.2.2809DOI Listing

Genomic sequencing, evolution and molecular epidemiology of rabies virus.

Rev Sci Tech 2018 Aug;37(2):401-408

Advances in sequencing techniques, improved computational methods of sequence interrogation and more accurate collection of epidemiological data through Global Positioning System (GPS) technology are improving our ability to monitor rabies outbreaks and better understand the processes that affect viral spread, evolution and host restriction. Whole-genome sequencing of rabies viruses (RABVs), using a range of different methodological approaches, is becoming more widespread and permits evolutionary and epidemiological studies at an unprecedented rate. Such studies are yielding insights into the fundamental processes of viral evolution, including molecular mechanisms of host adaptation and viral emergence in novel hosts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20506/rst.37.2.2810DOI Listing
August 2018
1 Read

Rabies control in Europe: an overview of past, current and future strategies.

Rev Sci Tech 2018 Aug;37(2):409-419

Europe's step-by-step approach to tackling canine and wildlife-mediated rabies has proven that the disease can be controlled and eliminated at the animal source. A decade of development work and support by the European Union has resulted in a successful oral rabies vaccination campaign for foxes and raccoon dogs, and provided the blueprint for eliminating wildlife-mediated rabies. In this paper, the authors examine the historical stages of animal rabies control and its eventual elimination in parts of Europe, particularly Western Europe. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20506/rst.37.2.2811DOI Listing
August 2018
1 Read

Rabies control in North America - past, present and future.

Rev Sci Tech 2018 Aug;37(2):421-437

In the first half of the 20th century, rabies in dogs affected Canada, Mexico and the United States of America (USA). However, the role of wildlife in the transmission of the rabies virus was also recognised and outbreaks affecting both wildlife and domestic animals were documented. Canine rabies has since been eliminated from Canada and the USA, and is now only found sporadically in a few southern states of Mexico. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20506/rst.37.2.2812DOI Listing
August 2018
3 Reads

Controlling dog rabies in Africa: successes, failures and prospects for the future.

Authors:
C Sabeta E C Ngoepe

Rev Sci Tech 2018 Aug;37(2):439-449

Rabies is an acute and progressive encephalitis caused by lyssaviruses (family Rhabdoviridae, order Mononegavirales). Approximately 99% of the estimated 59,000 annual human rabies deaths in Africa and Asia are attributed to dog bites and are preventable through parenteral dog vaccination. In addition to dog rabies, the rabies virus also circulates in wildlife carnivores in southern Africa and virus exchange occurs readily across species barriers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20506/rst.37.2.2813DOI Listing
August 2018
1 Read

The impact of paralytic bovine rabies transmitted by vampire bats in Latin America and the Caribbean.

Rev Sci Tech 2018 Aug;37(2):451-459

The effective control of dog rabies in Latin America is justifiably seen as a major success in the struggle to limit this devastating zoonosis. However, rabies remains a problem, due to the presence of the virus in bat populations throughout the region, including vampire bats. Vampire bats obtain nutrition exclusively through consuming blood by biting mammals and birds. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20506/rst.37.2.2814DOI Listing

Rabies prevention: the role of serology in parenteral vaccination of companion animals and livestock.

Authors:
S M Moore

Rev Sci Tech 2018 Aug;37(2):461-472

Rabies virus (RABV)-specific antibodies generated in response to rabies vaccination provide the basis for the establishment of rabies protection and hence rabies control and prevention. Rabies serology is the primary and most appropriate way to determine vaccination efficacy. Various immunological methods, such as serum neutralisation, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the indirect fluorescent antibody test and immunochromatographic (or lateral flow) assay can detect and measure these antibodies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20506/rst.37.2.2815DOI Listing

Strategies for controlling dog-mediated human rabies in Asia: using 'One Health' principles to assess control programmes for rabies.

Rev Sci Tech 2018 Aug;37(2):473-481

Over 99% of human rabies cases in endemic areas are transmitted by dogs. Without the elimination of dog rabies, it is not easy to reduce human rabies infection. Controlling dog rabies, especially in ownerless or free-roaming dogs, is critical if we are to decrease the rate of human rabies infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20506/rst.37.2.2816DOI Listing
August 2018
1 Read

Rabies surveillance in the Russian Federation.

Rev Sci Tech 2018 Aug;37(2):483-495

Rabies is endemic to the Russian Federation. The disease incidence ranges between 2,000 and 4,000 cases annually. Between two and six cases in humans are also reported each year. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20506/rst.37.2.2817DOI Listing
August 2018
1 Read

Rabies in North Africa and the Middle East: current situation, strategies and outlook.

Rev Sci Tech 2018 Aug;37(2):497-510

In the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, dogs are the main reservoir for rabies. In this region, rabies affects more domestic carnivores (50% of cases) than farm animals (40% of cases). Rabies in large livestock animals, which are infected mainly by dogs, results in economic losses, undermines food safety and poses a risk for humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20506/rst.37.2.2818DOI Listing

Vaccine banks for controlling dog-mediated rabies.

Rev Sci Tech 2018 Aug;37(2):511-518

The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) regional vaccine banks are established for priority diseases, following a business model that depends largely on financial support from donors (with vaccine also purchased directly by individual countries and international organisations that have been granted access by the OIE to the mechanism), and is based on the concept of starting small and scaling up. The OIE vaccine bank for rabies was established in 2012 with a first production order of just 50,000 doses, but as of 31 December 2016, after five years, the OIE had ordered almost 16 million doses of rabies vaccines for deliveries in 24 countries. It was set up on the basis of OIE internationally recognised procurement procedures and the outcome of an international call for tender. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20506/rst.37.2.2819DOI Listing
August 2018
1 Read

Animal rabies in the People's Republic of China.

Authors:
C Tu Y Feng Y Wang

Rev Sci Tech 2018 Aug;37(2):519-528

Since the late 1990s, the People's Republic of China (China) has consistently reported the second largest number of human rabies cases in the world; in this country, rabid dogs are the major source of rabies virus (RABV) transmission for both human and domestic animal rabies cases. In addition, other animal species have been reported to contract and transmit the virus. In this paper, an overview of the animal rabies situation in China is presented by referring to published articles (both English and Chinese) and governmental documents (guidelines, plans, notices and reports), which summarise the rabies situation in dogs, livestock, ferret badgers, bats, canids and rodents, and its threat to public health and animal husbandry in the country. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20506/rst.37.2.2820DOI Listing
August 2018
1 Read

Rabies on the Indian subcontinent.

Authors:
S A Rahman S Isloor

Rev Sci Tech 2018 Aug;37(2):529-542

The Indian subcontinent comprises Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, the Maldives, Myanmar, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. In all of these countries, except the Maldives, rabies is endemic. An estimated 59,000 people die from rabies each year; 45% of these deaths occur on the Indian subcontinent and approximately 33% take place in India. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20506/rst.37.2.2821DOI Listing
August 2018
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The problem of stray dogs.

Rev Sci Tech 2018 Aug;37(2):543-550

The effective management of stray dogs is critically important in any rabies vaccination programme. In many rabies-endemic countries, stray dogs represent a significant proportion of both the free-roaming and total dog populations, and to ensure that rabies elimination programmes are successful, it is essential that this portion of the dog population (stray dogs) is vaccinated at high coverage. However, there are a number of challenges to managing and delivering rabies vaccinations to stray dogs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20506/rst.37.2.2822DOI Listing

The role of modelling in predicting rabies and understanding the impact of control measures.

Authors:
G C Smith

Rev Sci Tech 2018 Aug;37(2):551-557

Rabies is probably the most commonly modelled disease as both its epidemiology and host dynamics are well understood. Models are simplifications of reality and there are different approaches to achieving these representations. Over time, modelling has moved from simple mathematical methods towards more realistic biological models that incorporate spatial and individual variation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20506/rst.37.2.2823DOI Listing
August 2018
1 Read

Proof of concept of mass dog vaccination for thecontrol and elimination of canine rabies.

Rev Sci Tech 2018 Aug;37(2):559-568

For more than 100 years, canine rabies vaccination has been available as a tool for rabies control and elimination. However, domestic dogs still remain a major reservoir for rabies, and although canine rabies has been eliminated through mass dog vaccination in some parts of the world, the disease continues to kill tens of thousands of people every year in Africa and Asia. This review focuses on the situation on those two continents, presenting evidence to show that canine rabies elimination is both epidemiologically and operationally feasible, and could be achieved across a wide range of settings in Africa and Asia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20506/rst.37.2.2824DOI Listing
August 2018
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Rabies: a medical perspective.

Authors:
A C Jackson

Rev Sci Tech 2018 Aug;37(2):569-580

Rabies is an acute neurological infection of humans and animals, caused by rabies virus and usually transmitted by animal bites. After an incubation period usually lasting weeks or longer, a variety of prodromal symptoms may occur. Encephalitic rabies (80% of cases) is associated with episodes of generalised arousal or hyperexcitability and hydrophobia, in which spasms involve the contraction of inspiratory muscles with swallowing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20506/rst.37.2.2825DOI Listing

Diagnostic tests for human rabies.

Authors:
L Dacheux H Bourhy

Rev Sci Tech 2018 Aug;37(2):581-593

The lack of reliable data concerning the number of human deaths from rabies presents one of the principal difficulties in a realistic assessment of the importance of this disease, and this lack of an accurate assessment has led to its underestimation and neglect. Priority should therefore be given to establishing a diagnostic test that can confirm human rabies on the basis of biological results. Indeed, only a laboratory diagnosis can properly identify infection, because clinical diagnosis remains difficult to interpret and is insufficiently specific. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20506/rst.37.2.2826DOI Listing
August 2018
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Elimination of dog-mediated human rabies: the burden of human rabies in Africa.

Rev Sci Tech 2018 Aug;37(2):607-615

Hope exists for the elimination of dog-mediated human rabies in Africa. Momentum is gathering towards this goal, with an increasing number of successful demonstration projects showing that elimination is feasible. The Pan African Rabies Control Network is bringing Africa together against rabies, supported by the World Health Organization, the World Organisation for Animal Health and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, which have a combined resolution to eliminate human deaths from dog-transmitted rabies by 2030. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20506/rst.37.2.2827DOI Listing
August 2018
2 Reads

Developments in human rabies prophylaxis.

Authors:
M J Warrell

Rev Sci Tech 2018 Aug;37(2):629-647

Rabies is entirely preventable. All deaths are the result of failed prophylaxis. Rabies encephalomyelitis has never been reported in anyone who received both pre-exposure vaccination and a post-exposure booster. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20506/rst.37.2.2829DOI Listing
August 2018
4 Reads

Human immune responses to traditional and novel rabies vaccines.

Authors:
H C J Ertl

Rev Sci Tech 2018 Aug;37(2):649-656

Traditional rabies vaccines given preventatively or after exposure to the virus induce cluster of differentiation 4+ (CD4+) T cell responses that promote the induction of long-lived memory B cells and neutralising antibody-secreting plasma cells. The high cost of rabies vaccines, combined with the complexity of immunisation protocols, is partially to blame for their under-use in exposed individuals and prevents the vaccines' widespread use in preventative childhood immunisation programmes in areas where rabies remains common. Novel vaccines or vaccine adjuvants that reduce the cost of rabies vaccination and afford protective immunity, as well as sustained immunological memory, after a single dose are being developed and may very well reduce the human death toll of rabies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20506/rst.37.2.2830DOI Listing

New developments in rabies vaccination.

Rev Sci Tech 2018 Aug;37(2):657-672

Current rabies vaccines are safe and, when administered properly, they are highly effective. In addition, they elicit long-lasting immunity, with virus-neutralising antibody titres persisting for years after vaccination. However, current regimens require multiple doses to achieve high neutralising titres and they are costly, which means that it is difficult for developing countries, where rabies deaths are highest, to implement widespread vaccination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20506/rst.37.2.2831DOI Listing

Antivirals for human use against rabies and prospects for their future application.

Authors:
P Koraka B Martina

Rev Sci Tech 2018 Aug;37(2):673-680

Rabies is probably the deadliest and most severe encephalitis known to humankind. Caused by any lyssavirus, it is recognised as a disease of the poor, the less fortunate and the young. No other known infectious disease can cause 100% mortality, and rabies and the clinical manifestations which precede a death from the disease are often described as excruciating. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20506/rst.37.2.2832DOI Listing
August 2018
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Cost-benefit analysis of controlling rabies: placing economics at the heart of rabies control to focus political will.

Rev Sci Tech 2018 Aug;37(2):681-689

Rabies is an economically important zoonosis. This paper describes the extent of the economic impacts of the disease and some of the types of economic analyses used to understand those impacts, as well as the trade-offs between efforts to manage rabies and efforts to eliminate it. In many cases, the elimination of rabies proves more cost-effective over time than the continual administration of postexposure prophylaxis, animal testing and animal vaccination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20506/rst.37.2.2833DOI Listing

Maintenance of rabies-free areas.

Rev Sci Tech 2018 Aug;37(2):691-702

Rabies is endemic in many parts of the world and is maintained in particular host species. Surveillance activities in areas that have remained rabies free or that have succeeded in eliminating the rabies virus (RABV) must continue, so as to effectively detect any infected animals in a timely manner. Rabies should be classified as a notifiable disease both in animals and in humans, irrespective of the rabies status of the country, and the establishment of a legal framework for biting animals is of the utmost importance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20506/rst.37.2.2834DOI Listing

Canine rabies elimination: governance principles.

Rev Sci Tech 2018 Aug;37(2):703-709

Rabies is still one of the deadliest diseases known to exist in the 21st century, and yet it remains irresponsibly neglected and underestimated. In light of this, this paper discusses the principles of governance as they relate to rabies control, using examples of global intersectoral coordination programmes for the control of canine rabies and for the elimination of human rabies transmitted by dogs. The first of these programmes was the Meeting of Rabies Program Directors of the Americas (REDIPRA), which has served as a model of intersectoral success for rabies elimination in other regions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20506/rst.37.2.2859DOI Listing

Global rabies management: perspectives on regional strategies for prevention and control.

Rev Sci Tech 2018 Aug;37(2):711-727

Rabies is a major neglected zoonotic disease, despite the availability of highly sensitive diagnostic tests and efficacious human and animal vaccines. Perpetuation of rabies among multiple species of bats and wild carnivores, together with the presence of diverse lyssaviruses, remains a challenge for the prevention and control of this disease. However, most of the global burden may be reduced by mass vaccination of dogs, the major reservoir. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20506/rst.37.2.2835DOI Listing
August 2018
2 Reads

Historical, current and expected future occurrence of rabies in enzootic regions.

Rev Sci Tech 2018 Aug;37(2):729-739

Rabies is one of the oldest recorded pathogens, with the broadest distribution of any known viral zoonosis. Antarctica is believed to be free of all lyssaviruses, but no laboratory-based surveillance has taken place to support this supposition. Re-introduction of the disease is possible in Pacific Oceania, as evidenced by a historical outbreak in Guam and the translocation of rabid bats to Hawaii. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20506/rst.37.2.2836DOI Listing
August 2018
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Global rabies control: the role of international organisations and the Global Strategic Plan to eliminate dog-mediated human rabies.

Rev Sci Tech 2018 Aug;37(2):741-749

International partners are united to reach the shared goal of zero dog-mediated human rabies deaths by 2030, worldwide. Under the Tripartite collaboration, the World Health Organization, the World Organisation for Animal Health and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations are prioritising rabies as a model for 'One Health' in action. In 2015, the Global Rabies Conference led to the development of the Global Framework for the Elimination of Dog-Mediated Human Rabies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20506/rst.37.2.2837DOI Listing

The role of non-governmental organisations in controlling rabies: the Global Alliance for Rabies Control, Partners for Rabies Prevention and the Blueprint for Rabies Prevention and Control.

Authors:
L H Nel

Rev Sci Tech 2018 Aug;37(2):751-759

Rabies control worldwide has been inadequate and neglected for many decades, and the disease continues to predominantly affect poor communities in Africa and Asia. As a zoonosis for which the main reservoir and vector, the domestic dog (Canis familiaris), is an economically non-viable species, the absence of cross-sectoral cooperation has been a major factor in the lack of effective control efforts. A shift in global focus is required to concentrate on the fact that rabies has the highest case fatality ratio of all infectious human diseases and that it still affects human health more significantly than many other infectious diseases that are perceived to pose more significant risks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20506/rst.37.2.2838DOI Listing
August 2018
1 Read

Conclusions Rabies.

Authors:
A R Fooks

Rev Sci Tech 2018 Aug;37(2):761-769

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20506/rst.37.2.2839DOI Listing

Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP) Advisory Committee on Vaccines and Immunization Practices (ACVIP) Recommended Immunization Schedule (2018-19) and Update on Immunization for Children Aged 0 Through 18 Years.

Indian Pediatr 2018 Dec;55(12):1066-1074

Advisory Committee on Vaccines and Immunization Practices (ACVIP), Indian Academy of Pediatrics, India.

Justification: There is a need to revise/review recommendations regarding existing vaccines in view of current developments in vaccinology.

Process: Advisory Committee on Vaccines and Immunization Practices (ACVIP) of Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP) reviewed the new evidence, had two meetings, and representatives of few vaccine manufacturers also presented their data. The recommendations were finalized unanimously. Read More

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December 2018
5 Reads

Whole-brain patterns of the presynaptic inputs and axonal projections of BDNF neurons in the paraventricular nucleus.

J Genet Genomics 2019 Jan 26. Epub 2019 Jan 26.

Department of Neurology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai, 200233, China; Department of Neurology, Shanghai Sixth People's Hospital East Affiliated to Shanghai University of Medicine & Health Science, Shanghai, 201306, China. Electronic address:

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a crucial role in human obesity. Yet, the neural circuitry supporting the BDNF-mediated control of energy homeostasis remains largely undefined. To map key regions that might provide inputs to or receive inputs from the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) BDNF neurons, a key type of cells in regulating feeding and thermogenesis, we used rabies virus-based transsynaptic labeling and adeno-associated virus based anterograde tracing techniques to reveal their whole-brain distributions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgg.2018.11.004DOI Listing
January 2019

[Influence of the knowledge of patients consulting at the Treichville antirabies Center on adherence to post-exposure prophylaxis].

Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

UFR Sciences médicales d'Abidjan, université Félix Houphouët Boigny de Cocody, Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire; Institut national d'hygiène publique (Inhp), Cote d'Ivoire.

Aim: Human rabies is a major public health problem in many African countries, including Ivory Coast. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of human rabies knowledge on compliance with post-exposure prophylaxis.

Materials And Methods: We conducted a descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study from September 2014 to May 2015 at the Abidjan Rabid Center, Treichville. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.respe.2019.01.118DOI Listing
February 2019
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Taking the bait: species taking oral rabies vaccine baits intended for raccoons.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Feb 8. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

USDA/APHIS/WS National Wildlife Research Center, 4101 LaPorte Ave, Fort Collins, CO, 80521-2154, USA.

Raccoon rabies in eastern USA is managed by strategically distributing oral rabies vaccine (ORV) baits. The attractiveness, palativity, density, and non-target species bait take affect ORV effectiveness. We examined raccoon and non-target species differences in investigating/removing fish-meal polymer and coated sachet baits applied to simulate two aerial bait distribution densities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-04200-7DOI Listing
February 2019

Rabies post-exposure prophylaxis: A systematic review on abridged vaccination schedules and the effect of changing administration routes during a single course.

Vaccine 2019 Feb 5. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Department of the Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Rabies is a fatal zoonotic disease preventable through timely and adequate post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) to potentially exposed persons i.e. wound washing and antisepsis, a series of intradermal (ID) or intramuscular (IM) rabies vaccinations, and rabies immunoglobulin in WHO category III exposures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.01.041DOI Listing
February 2019
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Differences in neurotropism and neurotoxicity among retrograde viral tracers.

Mol Neurodegener 2019 Feb 8;14(1). Epub 2019 Feb 8.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China.

Background: Neurotropic virus-based tracers have been extensively applied in mapping and manipulation of neural circuits. However, their neurotropic and neurotoxic properties remain to be fully characterized.

Methods: Through neural circuit tracing, we systematically compared the neurotropism discrepancy among different multi-trans-synaptic and mono-synaptic retrograde viral tracers including pseudorabies virus (PRV), rabies virus (RV), and the newly engineered retro adeno-associated virus (rAAV2-retro) tracers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13024-019-0308-6DOI Listing
February 2019
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Bats and Viruses: Emergence of Novel Lyssaviruses and Association of Bats with Viral Zoonoses in the EU.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2019 Feb 7;4(1). Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Wildlife Zoonoses and Vector-borne Diseases Research Group, Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA), KT15 3NB Weybridge-London, UK.

Bats in the EU have been associated with several zoonotic viral pathogens of significance to both human and animal health. Virus discovery continues to expand the existing understating of virus classification, and the increased interest in bats globally as reservoirs or carriers of zoonotic agents has fuelled the continued detection and characterisation of new lyssaviruses and other viral zoonoses. Although the transmission of lyssaviruses from bat species to humans or terrestrial species appears rare, interest in these viruses remains, through their ability to cause the invariably fatal encephalitis-rabies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed4010031DOI Listing
February 2019
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