1,018,155 results match your criteria RNA biology[Journal]


Detection of norovirus epidemic genotypes in raw sewage using next generation sequencing.

Environ Int 2018 Dec 12;123:282-291. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Laboratory of Comparative and Environmental Virology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Noroviruses are a leading cause of epidemic and pandemic acute gastroenteritis (AGE) worldwide, and contaminated food and water are important routes for its transmission. Raw sewage has been used for viral surveillance to monitor the emergence of new norovirus strains with the potential to cause epidemics. In this study, we investigated norovirus occurrence and norovirus RNA levels in 156 samples collected from May 2013 to May 2014, across three different stages (52 samples each) of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Delivery of miR-212 by chimeric peptide-condensed supramolecular nanoparticles enhances the sensitivity of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma to doxorubicin.

Biomaterials 2018 Nov 30;192:590-600. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a destructive cancer with poor prognosis. Both novel therapeutic targets and approaches are needed to improve the overall survival of PDAC patients. MicroRNA-212 (miR-212) has been reported as a tumor suppressor in multiple cancers, but its definitive role and exact mechanism in the progression of pancreatic cancer is unclear. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Binding of norharmane with RNA reveals two thermodynamically different binding modes with opposing heat capacity changes.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2018 Dec 4;538:587-596. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Bhopal, Bhopal Bypass Road, Bhauri, Bhopal 426066, Madhya Pradesh, India. Electronic address:

The binding interaction of a prospective anti-cancer photosensitizer, norharmane (NHM, 9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole) with double stranded RNA reveals a primarily intercalative mode of binding. Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopic results demonstrate the occurrence of drug-RNA binding interaction as manifested through environment-sensitive prototropic equilibrium of NHM. However, the key finding of the present study lies in unraveling the complexities in the NHM-RNA binding thermodynamics. Read More

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December 2018

The RNA helicase DHX33 is required for cancer cell proliferation in human glioblastoma and confers resistance to PI3K/mTOR inhibition.

Cell Signal 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Biology, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China. Electronic address:

Human Glioblastoma is one deadly disease; the median survival time is reported to be 13.9 months after treatment. In the present study, we discovered that DHX33 is highly expressed in 84% of all Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

A potential regulatory network among WDR86-AS1, miR-10b-3p, and LITAF is possibly involved in preeclampsia pathogenesis.

Cell Signal 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410013, PR China.

Preeclampsia (PE), a pregnancy-specific disorder, is a leading cause of perinatal maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. Impaired migration and invasion of trophoblastic cells and an imbalanced systemic maternal inflammatory response have been proposed as possible causes of pathogenesis of PE. Comparative analysis of PE-affected placentas and healthy placentas has uncovered differentially expressed long noncoding RNAs, microRNAs, and mRNAs. Read More

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December 2018

Characterization of HPV integration, viral gene expression and E6E7 alternative transcripts by RNA-Seq: A descriptive study in invasive cervical cancer.

Genomics 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Genetics Program, Instituto Nacional de Câncer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address:

Scarce data are available on the expression of Papillomavirus genome and the frequency of alternatively spliced E6/E7 mRNAs in invasive cervical cancer. We carried out a comprehensive characterization of HPV expression by RNA-Seq analysis in 22 invasive cervical cancer with HPV16 or HPV18, characterizing the presence of integrated/episomal viral DNA, the integration sites in human genome and the proportion of alternative splicing products of E6 and E7 genes. The expression patterns suggested the presence of episomal and/or integrated viral DNA, with integration detected in most tumors, frequently occurring within human genes in HPV18+ and in intergenic regions in HPV16+ tumors. Read More

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December 2018

Alternative splicing of the vitamin D receptor modulates target gene expression and promotes ligand-independent functions.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, 1007 Agriculture & Life Sciences Building, Corvallis, OR 97331; USA; LS Pharma, 884 Park St., Lebanon, OR 97355; USA.

Alternative splicing modulates gene function by creating splice variants with alternate functions or non-coding RNA activity. Naturally occurring variants of nuclear receptor (NR) genes with dominant negative or gain-of-function phenotypes have been documented, but their cellular roles, regulation, and responsiveness to environmental stress or disease remain unevaluated. Informed by observations that class I androgen and estrogen receptor variants display ligand-independent signaling in human cancer tissues, we questioned whether the function of class II NRs, like the vitamin D receptor (VDR), would also respond to alternative splicing regulation. Read More

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December 2018

Identification of a circulating miRNA signature in extracellular vesicles collected from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.

Brain Res 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Université de Moncton, 18 Antonine-Maillet Avenue, Moncton, New Brunswick, E1A 3E9, Canada. Electronic address:

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with the progressive death of motor neurons. Mean survival for a patient diagnosed with ALS is between 2 to 5 years. Early and efficient diagnosis of the various forms of ALS remains a significant challenge, resulting in a need to identify clinically-relevant biomarkers in readily accessible body fluids. Read More

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December 2018

Ki-67 labeling index in glioblastoma; does it really matter?

Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Objective/background: Glioblastoma (GB) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults. Ki-67 is a nonhistone nuclear protein that is expressed by cells entering the mitotic cycle and is associated with the transcription of ribosomal RNA (rRNA). In gliomas, the extent of expression of Ki-67 is roughly proportional to the histologic grade. Read More

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December 2018

NF-YB1-YC12-bHLH144 complex directly activates Wx to regulate grain quality in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

Plant Biotechnol J 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

State Key Lab of Rice Biology, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou, 311400, P.R. China.

Identification of seed development regulatory genes is the key for the genetic improvement of rice grain quality. NF-Ys are important transcription factors, but their roles in rice grain quality control and the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we report the functional characterization a rice NF-Y heterotrimer complex NF-YB1-YC12-bHLH144, which is formed by the binding of NF-YB1 to NF-YC12 and then bHLH144 in a sequential order. Read More

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December 2018

Thioamide-bridged nucleic acid (thioAmNA) bearing thymine or 2-thiothymine: Duplex forming ability, base discrimination, and enzymatic stability.

Chembiochem 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Osaka University, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 1-6 Yamadaoka, 565-0871, Suita, JAPAN.

Because oligonucleotides containing bridged nucleic acids (BNAs) show high duplex-forming ability toward target single-stranded RNA, many BNA analogs have been developed for antisense applications. Amide-bridged nucleic acid (AmNA), which is a BNA analog bearing an amide bond at the bridge, exhibits high duplex-forming ability, enzymatic stability, and antisense activity; thus, AmNA represents a promising BNA scaffold. The high enzymatic stability of AmNA is presumably attributable to the bulky amide structure because it inhibits the access of nucleases to the phosphodiester linkage. Read More

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December 2018

PAR2 promotes M1 macrophage polarization and inflammation via FOXO1 pathway.

J Cell Biochem 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Physiology & Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Macrophages polarization plays essential but different roles in most diseases such as atherosclerosis, adipose tissue inflammation, and insulin resistance. Our previous study revealed that protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2), a G-protein coupled receptor influenced macrophage function, but little is known regarding the regulation of macrophage polarization process and its potential mechanisms. In the present study, bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) isolated from C57/BL6 mice and cultured with L929-conditional medium and murine macrophage cell line RAW264. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Notoginsenoside R1 protects oxygen and glucose deprivation-induced injury by upregulation of miR-21 in cardiomyocytes.

J Cell Biochem 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Cardiology, Jining No. 1 People's Hospital, Jining, Shandong, China.

Notoginsenoside R1 (NG-R1) is a major component of Panax notoginseng, which has been used clinically for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy for centuries in China. This study aimed to reveal the functional impacts and the underlying mechanisms of NG-R1 on oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-injured cardiomyocytes. Rat cardiomyocyte line H9c2 and primary cardiomyocytes were subjected to OGD with or without NG-R1 treatment. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

MIP-1α induces inflammatory responses by upregulating chemokine receptor 1/chemokine receptor 5 and activating c-Jun N-terminal kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways in acute pancreatitis.

J Cell Biochem 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Intensive Care Unit, Shengjing Hospital, Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, China.

Objective: We aimed to investigate the association of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α (CCL3) expression with the severity of acute pancreatitis (AP).

Methods: The patients with AP were selected and divided into mild AP (MAP), moderately severe AP (MSAP), and severe AP (SAP) groups according to the severity of AP. The pancreatic acinar cell line Ar42 j was treated with cerulein to induce in vitro cell AP model. Read More

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December 2018

Genetic polymorphisms of miRNA let7a-2 and pri-mir-34b/c are associated with an increased risk of papillary thyroid carcinoma and clinical/pathological features.

J Cell Biochem 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.

microRNAs (miRNAs) as a group of short noncoding RNAs are crucial molecules in transcriptional and translational regulation of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Evidence showed there was an association between the miRNA polymorphisms and various cancers, including papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). The present study aims to evaluate the possible effects of let7a-2 rs1143770 and pri-mir-34b/c rs4938723 polymorphisms on PTC susceptibility. Read More

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December 2018

Identification of microRNAs related to myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury.

J Cell Physiol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Anesthesiology, Wuhan Children's Hospital (Wuhan Maternal and Child Healthcare Hospital), Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

Previous studies have suggested that microRNAs (miRNAs) are associated with the progression of myocardial ischemic reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, inconsistent results have been obtained due to the differences in sequencing platform, control selection, and filtering conditions. To explore the key miRNAs in the pathogenesis of myocardial I/R injury and develop miRNA diagnostic biomarkers for myocardial I/R injury prevention, we performed a systematic analysis of publicly available myocardial I/R injury miRNA expression data and investigated the function of the signature miRNA. Read More

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December 2018

CXCL2/CXCR2 axis induces cancer stem cell characteristics in CPT-11-resistant LoVo colon cancer cells via Gαi-2 and Gαq/11.

J Cell Physiol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan.

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) exist in colon cancer and exhibit characteristics of stem cells which are due to lineages of tissues where they arise. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)-undergoing cancer cells display CSC properties and therapeutic resistance. Cancer and stromal cells comprise of a tumor microenvironment. Read More

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December 2018

Downregulation of long noncoding RNA DGCR5 contributes to the proliferation, migration, and invasion of cervical cancer by activating Wnt signaling pathway.

J Cell Physiol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Pathology, Huai'an Maternal and Child Health Care Center of Jiangsu Province Affiliated Hospital of Yangzhou University, Huai'an, China.

Accumulating research works have reported that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in various cancers, including cervical cancer. LncRNA DGCR5 has been identified in many cancers. However, the biological role of DGCR5 in cervical cancer remains barely known. Read More

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December 2018

Alternative transcript imbalance underlying breast cancer susceptibility in a family carrying PALB2 c.3201+5G>T.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Oncogenetics Group, Vall d'Hebron Institute of Oncology, VHIO, 08035, Barcelona, Spain.

Purpose: Disruption of splicing motifs by genetic variants can affect the correct generation of mature mRNA molecules leading to aberrant transcripts. In some cases, variants may alter the physiological transcription profile composed of several transcripts, and an accurate in vitro evaluation is crucial to establish their pathogenicity. In this study, we have characterized a novel PALB2 variant c. Read More

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December 2018

Stochastic Modeling and Simulation of Viral Evolution.

Bull Math Biol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Departamento de Informática em Saúde, Laboratório de Biocomplexidade e Genômica Evolutiva, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

RNA viruses comprise vast populations of closely related, but highly genetically diverse, entities known as quasispecies. Understanding the mechanisms by which this extreme diversity is generated and maintained is fundamental when approaching viral persistence and pathobiology in infected hosts. In this paper, we access quasispecies theory through a mathematical model based on the theory of multitype branching processes, to better understand the roles of mechanisms resulting in viral diversity, persistence and extinction. Read More

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December 2018

Evaluation of the potential clinical prognostic value of lncRNA-BANCR gene in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

Mol Biol Rep 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Molecular Genetics, Ahar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahar, Iran.

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the seventh most common cause of cancer death in worldwide. LncRNA-BANCR is a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), which has made new windows in cancer investigations. The aim of this survey was to determine the lncRNA-BANCR gene expression changes in patients with ESCC. Read More

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December 2018

Identification of the gene encoding the TATA box-binding protein-associated factor 1 (TAF1) and its putative role in the heat shock response in the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica.

Parasitol Res 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Departamento de Biología Celular, Cinvestav-IPN, Av. IPN 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360, Ciudad de México, Mexico.

Transcription factor IID (TFIID) is a cornerstone in the transcription initiation in eukaryotes. It is composed of TBP and approximately 14 different subunits named TBP-associated factors (TAFs). TFIID has a key role in transcription of many genes involved in cell proliferation, cell growth, cell cycle, cell cycle checkpoint, and various other processes as well. Read More

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December 2018
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Full plastome sequence of the fern Vandenboschia speciosa (Hymenophyllales): structural singularities and evolutionary insights.

J Plant Res 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Departamento de Genética, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain.

We provide here the first full chloroplast genome sequence, i.e., the plastome, for a species belonging to the fern order Hymenophyllales. Read More

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December 2018

Skewed X-inactivation is common in the general female population.

Eur J Hum Genet 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Human Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

X-inactivation is a well-established dosage compensation mechanism ensuring that X-chromosomal genes are expressed at comparable levels in males and females. Skewed X-inactivation is often explained by negative selection of one of the alleles. We demonstrate that imbalanced expression of the paternal and maternal X-chromosomes is common in the general population and that the random nature of the X-inactivation mechanism can be sufficient to explain the imbalance. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

A novel role for E2F3b in regulating cocaine action in the prefrontal cortex.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Neuroscience and Friedman Brain Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

Drug abuse is a multifaceted disorder that involves maladaptive decision making. Long-lasting changes in the addicted brain are mediated by a complex circuit of brain reward regions. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is one region in which chronic drug exposure changes expression and function of upstream transcriptional regulators to alter drug responses and aspects of the addicted phenotype. Read More

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December 2018

Identification of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase genes and their expression in response to high temperature in the alligatorweed flea beetle Agasicles hygrophila (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 14;8(1):17847. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.

Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) are a large class of enzymes that play essential roles in metabolic processes such as hormone synthesis and the catabolism of toxins and other chemicals in insects. In the present study, we identified 82 P450 genes using comprehensive RNA sequencing in the flea beetle Agasicles hygrophila, and all of the sequences were validated by cloning and sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the P450 genes in A. Read More

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December 2018

Nanopore-based detection and characterization of yam viruses.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 14;8(1):17879. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

CIRAD, BGPI, Montpellier, France.

We here assessed the capability of the MinION sequencing approach to detect and characterize viruses infecting a water yam plant. This sequencing platform consistently revealed the presence of several plant virus species, including Dioscorea bacilliform virus, Yam mild mosaic virus and Yam chlorotic necrosis virus. A potentially novel ampelovirus was also detected by a complimentary Illumina sequencing approach. Read More

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December 2018

Implication for alphavirus host-cell entry and assembly indicated by a 3.5Å resolution cryo-EM structure.

Nat Commun 2018 Dec 14;9(1):5326. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, CAS Center for Excellence in Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100101, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Alphaviruses are enveloped RNA viruses that contain several human pathogens. Due to intrinsic heterogeneity of alphavirus particles, a high resolution structure of the virion is currently lacking. Here we provide a 3. Read More

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December 2018

Transcriptome 3'end organization by PCF11 links alternative polyadenylation to formation and neuronal differentiation of neuroblastoma.

Nat Commun 2018 Dec 14;9(1):5331. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Posttranscriptional Gene Regulation, Cancer Research and Experimental Haemostasis, University Medical Centre Mainz, Mainz, 55131, Germany.

Diversification at the transcriptome 3'end is an important and evolutionarily conserved layer of gene regulation associated with differentiation and dedifferentiation processes. Here, we identify extensive transcriptome 3'end-alterations in neuroblastoma, a tumour entity with a paucity of recurrent somatic mutations and an unusually high frequency of spontaneous regression. Utilising extensive RNAi-screening we reveal the landscape and drivers of transcriptome 3'end-diversification, discovering PCF11 as critical regulator, directing alternative polyadenylation (APA) of hundreds of transcripts including a differentiation RNA-operon. Read More

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December 2018

Proteins, transcripts, and genetic architecture of seminal fluid and sperm in the mosquito .

Mol Cell Proteomics 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Biology & Biochemistry, Syracuse University, United States of America

The yellow fever mosquito, , transmits several viruses causative of serious diseases, including dengue, Zika, and chikungunya. Some proposed efforts to control this vector involve manipulating reproduction to suppress wild populations or to replace them with disease-resistant mosquitoes. The design of such strategies requires an intimate knowledge of reproductive processes, yet our basic understanding of reproductive genetics in this vector remains largely incomplete. Read More

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December 2018
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The antitumor drugs trabectedin and lurbinectedin induce transcription-dependent replication stress and genome instability.

Mol Cancer Res 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Centro Andaluz de Biología Molecular y Medicina Regenerativa CABIMER, Universidad de Sevilla

R-loops are a major source of replication stress, DNA damage and genome instability, which are major hallmarks of cancer cells. Accordingly, growing evidence suggests that R-loops may also be related to cancer. Here we show that R-loops play an important role in the cellular response to trabectedin (ET743), an anticancer drug from marine origin and its derivative lurbinectedin (PM01183). Read More

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December 2018

The ferredoxin-like protein, FerR, regulates PrbP activity in .

Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Microbiology and Cell Science Department, Genetics Institute, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States

In , PrbP is an important transcriptional accessory protein that regulates gene expression through interactions with the RNA polymerase β-subunit and a specific sequence on the promoter region. The constitutive expression of observed upon chemical inactivation of PrbP/DNA interactions indicated that the expression of was not auto-regulated at the level of transcription. This observation suggested that a modulatory mechanism via protein-protein interactions maybe involved. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Structural Evidence for Product Stabilization by the Ribosomal mRNA Helicase.

RNA 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

University of California Santa Cruz

Protein synthesis in all organisms proceeds by stepwise translocation of the ribosome along messenger RNAs (mRNAs), during which the helicase activity of the ribosome unwinds encountered structures in the mRNA. This activity is known to occur near the mRNA tunnel entrance, which is lined by ribosomal proteins uS3, uS4, and uS5. However, the mechanism(s) of mRNA unwinding by the ribosome and the possible role of these proteins in the helicase activity are not well understood. Read More

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December 2018

The key protein of endosomal mRNP transport Rrm4 binds translational landmark sites of cargo mRNAs.

EMBO Rep 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Buchmann Institute for Molecular Life Sciences (BMLS), Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main, Germany

RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) determine spatiotemporal gene expression by mediating active transport and local translation of cargo mRNAs. Here, we cast a transcriptome-wide view on the transported mRNAs and cognate RBP binding sites during endosomal messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) transport in Using individual-nucleotide resolution UV crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (iCLIP), we compare the key transport RBP Rrm4 and the newly identified endosomal mRNP component Grp1 that is crucial to coordinate hyphal growth. Both RBPs bind predominantly in the 3' untranslated region of thousands of shared cargo mRNAs, often in close proximity. Read More

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December 2018

Clonal analysis by tunable CRISPR-mediated excision.

Development 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle de Lyon (IGFL), École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 32 avenue Tony Garnier, 69007 Lyon, France.

Clonal marking techniques based on the Cre/lox and Flp/FRT systems are widely used in multicellular model organisms to mark individual cells and their progeny, in order to study their morphology, growth properties and developmental fates. The same tools can be adapted to introduce specific genetic changes in a subset of cells within the body, i.e. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Transcriptional profiling of isogenic Friedreich ataxia neurons and effect of an HDAC inhibitor on disease signatures.

J Biol Chem 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

The Scripps Research Institute, United States.

Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by transcriptional silencing of the FXN gene, resulting in loss of the essential mitochondrial protein frataxin. Based on the knowledge that a GAA•TTC  repeat expansion in the first intron of FXN induces heterochromatin, we previously showed that 2-aminobenzamide-type histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) increase FXN mRNA levels in induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived FRDA neurons and in circulating lymphocytes from patients after HDACi oral administration. How the reduced expression of frataxin leads to neurological and other systemic symptoms in FRDA patients remains unclear. Read More

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December 2018

A versatile mouse model of epitope-tagged histone H3.3 to study epigenome dynamics.

J Biol Chem 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Nat'l Inst of Child Health & Human Developoment, Division of Developmental Biology, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, United States.

The variant histone H3.3 is incorporated into the genome in a transcription dependent manner. This histone is thus thought to play a role in epigenetic regulation. Read More

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December 2018

Circulating Exosomal miR-20b-5p is Elevated in Type 2 Diabetes and Could Impair Insulin Action in Human Skeletal Muscle.

Diabetes 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden,

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding RNAs representing an important class of gene expression modulators. Extracellular circulating miRNAs are both candidate biomarkers for disease pathogenesis and mediators of cell-to-cell communication. We examined the miRNA expression profile of total serum and serum derived exosome-enriched extracellular vesicles in people with normal glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes. Read More

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December 2018

A quantitative framework for characterizing the evolutionary history of mammalian gene expression.

Genome Res 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Science for Life Laboratory, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden.

The evolutionary history of a gene helps predict its function and relationship to phenotypic traits. Although sequence conservation is commonly used to decipher gene function and assess medical relevance, methods for functional inference from comparative expression data are lacking. Here, we use RNA-seq across seven tissues from 17 mammalian species to show that expression evolution across mammals is accurately modeled by the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, a commonly proposed model of continuous trait evolution. Read More

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December 2018

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Sci Immunol 2018 Dec;3(30)

Department of Hematopoiesis, Sanquin Research and Landsteiner Laboratory, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Tissue-resident memory T cells (T) are noncirculating immune cells that contribute to the first line of local defense against reinfections. Their location at hotspots of pathogen encounter frequently exposes T to tissue damage. This history of danger-signal exposure is an important aspect of T-mediated immunity that has been overlooked so far. Read More

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December 2018

Treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection in Rwanda with ledipasvir-sofosbuvir (SHARED): a single-arm trial.

Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA.

Background: Limited treatment data are available for hepatitis C virus (HCV) in sub-Saharan Africa, especially for genotype 4. Our objective was to establish the safety and efficacy of ledipasvir-sofosbuvir for chronic HCV genotype 1 or 4 infection in adults in Rwanda.

Methods: We did a single-arm trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of ledipasvir-sofosbuvir in Rwandan adults with chronic HCV infection at a single study site (Rwanda Military Hospital, Kigali, Rwanda). Read More

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December 2018

Successful Anti-PD-1 Cancer Immunotherapy Requires T Cell-Dendritic Cell Crosstalk Involving the Cytokines IFN-γ and IL-12.

Immunity 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Center for Systems Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, 185 Cambridge St, CPZN 5206, Boston, MA 02114, USA; Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, 185 Cambridge St, CPZN 5206, Boston, MA 02114, USA. Electronic address:

Anti-PD-1 immune checkpoint blockers can induce sustained clinical responses in cancer but how they function in vivo remains incompletely understood. Here, we combined intravital real-time imaging with single-cell RNA sequencing analysis and mouse models to uncover anti-PD-1 pharmacodynamics directly within tumors. We showed that effective antitumor responses required a subset of tumor-infiltrating dendritic cells (DCs), which produced interleukin 12 (IL-12). Read More

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November 2018

Elevated Carbohydrate Response Element-Binding Protein Beta (ChREBPβ) and Thioredoxin Interacting Protein (TXNIP) Levels in Human Adipocytes Differentiated in High Glucose Concentrations.

Can J Diabetes 2018 Oct 9. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Chronic Disease Program, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Objectives: Obesity and type 2 diabetes often coexist. The effect of hyperglycemia on adipose tissue is, therefore, of interest. Although studies have shown that high glucose (HG) concentrations do not inhibit adipocyte differentiation, the resulting adipocyte phenotype has not been investigated. Read More

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October 2018

Synthesis of 2'-O-(N-methylcarbamoylethyl) 5-methyl-2-thiouridine and its application to splice-switching oligonucleotides.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Life Science and Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 J2-16, Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8501, Japan. Electronic address:

The effect of 2'-O-(N-methylcarbamoyl)ethyl (MCE) modification on splice-switching oligonucleotides (SSO) was systematically evaluated. The incorporation of five MCE nucleotides at the 5'-termini of SSOs effectively improved the splice switching effect. In addition, the incorporation of 2'-O-(N-methylcarbamoylethyl)-5-methyl-2-thiouridine (sT), a duplex-stabilizing nucleotide with an MCE modification, into SSOs further improved splice switching. Read More

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December 2018

Circular RNA circ_0034642 elevates BATF3 expression and promotes cell proliferation and invasion through miR-1205 in glioma.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Neurology, Henan Provincial People's Hospital, Zhengzhou, 450000, China. Electronic address:

Growing evidence indicates that circular RNA (circRNA) plays an important role in the regulation of tumor biological behaviors. In this study, we aimed to explore the role of a novel circRNA, circ_0034642, in glioma. qRT-PCR was conducted to evaluate the levels of circ_0034642 in glioma tissues and cells. Read More

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December 2018

Long noncoding RNA H19 promotes vascular remodeling by sponging let-7a to upregulate the expression of cyclin D1.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Vascular Surgery, The First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, 110001, China. Electronic address:

Vascular remodeling is mainly caused by excessive proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) have emerged as important regulators in diverse pathological processes. Previous work has shown the functions and mechanisms of long noncoding RNA H19 (LncRNA H19) on VSMCs. Read More

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December 2018

Circular RNA circMTO1 suppresses bladder cancer metastasis by sponging miR-221 and inhibiting epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Urology, Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 410013, China. Electronic address:

Bladder cancer remains a leading cause of cancer-related death because of its distant metastasis and high recurrence rates. Deregulation of circular RNAs (circRNAs) can act either as tumor suppressors or oncogenes to control cell proliferation, migration, and metastasis. The role of circMTO1 in bladder cancer remain unknown. Read More

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December 2018

Self-Replicating RNA Viruses for RNA Therapeutics.

Molecules 2018 Dec 13;23(12). Epub 2018 Dec 13.

PanTherapeutics, Route de Lavaux 49, CH1095 Lutry, Switzerland.

Self-replicating single-stranded RNA viruses such as alphaviruses, flaviviruses, measles viruses, and rhabdoviruses provide efficient delivery and high-level expression of therapeutic genes due to their high capacity of RNA replication. This has contributed to novel approaches for therapeutic applications including vaccine development and gene therapy-based immunotherapy. Numerous studies in animal tumor models have demonstrated that self-replicating RNA viral vectors can generate antibody responses against infectious agents and tumor cells. Read More

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December 2018

A-to-I RNA Editing Affects lncRNAs Expression after Heat Shock.

Genes (Basel) 2018 Dec 13;9(12). Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Faculty of Biology, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Technion City, Haifa 32000, Israel.

Adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is a highly conserved regulatory process carried out by adenosine-deaminases (ADARs) on double-stranded RNA (dsRNAs). Although a considerable fraction of the transcriptome is edited, the function of most editing sites is unknown. Previous studies indicate changes in A-to-I RNA editing frequencies following exposure to several stress types. Read More

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December 2018

Non-Coding RNA in Pancreas and β-Cell Development.

Noncoding RNA 2018 Dec 13;4(4). Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Science and Environment, Roskilde University, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark.

In this review, we provide an overview of the current knowledge on the role of different classes of non-coding RNAs for islet and β-cell development, maturation and function. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a prominent class of small RNAs, have been investigated for more than two decades and patterns of the roles of different miRNAs in pancreatic fetal development, islet and β-cell maturation and function are now emerging. Specific miRNAs are dynamically regulated throughout the period of pancreas development, during islet and β-cell differentiation as well as in the perinatal period, where a burst of β-cell replication takes place. Read More

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December 2018
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