1,067,156 results match your criteria Quality and Outcome Measures for Rehabilitation Programs


[The Rezūm system in the treatment of male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTSs) due to benign prostatic obstruction (BPO)].

Aktuelle Urol 2018 Dec 6;49(6):519-524. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Spital Thurgau AG, Urologie, Frauenfeld.

The classical algorithm of the management of male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTSs) due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) includes a surgical approach in case pharmacological therapy has failed. Emerging minimally-invasive treatments (MITs) offer potential for rapid symptomatic relief, reducing the morbidity of invasive BPH surgery. Convective interstitial radiofrequency water vapour thermal ablation of the prostate with the Rezūm system is a novel MIT for the treatment of bothersome moderate-to-severe lower urinary tract symptoms associated with BPH. Read More

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December 2018
8 Reads

[The future of laparoscopy and robotics in urology].

Aktuelle Urol 2018 Dec 6;49(6):488-499. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Urologische Universitätsklinik Mannheim, Klinik für Urologie und Kinderurologie, Mannheim.

The introduction of robotics led to a decrease in the importance of classical laparoscopy. Nevertheless laparoscopy and retroperitoneoscopy underwent significant technological improvements during the last decade, including introduction of 4k Ultra HD video technology, 3D-HD-videosystems, minaturised instruments, advanced sealing devices, instruments with 7 degrees of freedom, and ergonomic platforms Ethos Chair. The monopoly of robotic surgical devices will end in 2019, because key patents of Intuitive Surgical will expire. Read More

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December 2018
8 Reads

Radicular Pain Syndromes: Cervical, Lumbar, and Spinal Stenosis.

Semin Neurol 2018 Dec 6;38(6):634-639. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts.

Back pain is a top primary and urgent care complaint; radicular pain can be caused by herniation of the nucleus pulposus (intervertebral disc), spinal stenosis, or degenerative changes to the vertebrae. The focus of this clinical review will be the clinical approach and treatment of lumbar radicular pain, cervical radicular pain, and spinal stenosis. Usually localized through neurological history, exam, and imaging, specific signs and symptoms for lumbar radicular, spinal stenosis, and cervical radicular pain can help determine etiology. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Tracking Arteriovenous Fistula Maturation: A Novel Approach.

Blood Purif 2018 Dec 6:1-6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Renal Research Institute, New York, New York, USA.

Background: The time between the creation of an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) and its successful use is significantly longer in hemodialysis (HD) patients in the United States compared to those in other countries, and there is an urgent need to reduce the residence time of central-venous catheters (CVC).

Methods: Successful AVF creation and maturation results in typical hemodynamic changes, such as an increase in cardiac output and upper body blood flow (UBBF). In patients with CVC as vascular access, we measured once per minute intradialytic central-venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) and hemoglobin levels simultaneously using the Crit-Line Monitor. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

Identifying Potentially Modifiable Factors Associated with Treatment Non-Adherence in Paediatric Growth Hormone Deficiency: A Systematic Review.

Horm Res Paediatr 2018 Dec 6;90(4):1-7. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Background: Despite the developments of recombinant growth hormone (rhGH) treatment and the benefits in long-term clinical health outcomes, evidence has shown that many children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) still fail to achieve their target adult height. Suboptimal outcomes have been largely attributed to treatment non-adherence.

Methods: A search of 11 electronic databases was undertaken to identify relevant articles, published in English, between 1985 and 2018. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Virtual Reality Simulation in Peritoneal Dialysis Training: The Beginning of a New Era.

Blood Purif 2018 Dec 6:1-5. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Weltenmacher GmbH, VR Training-Application, Düsseldorf, Germany.

Background/aim: Peritonitis rates in peritoneal dialysis (PD) vary considerably not only across countries but also between centers in the same country. Patient education has been shown to significantly reduce infection rates but up till now training lacks standardization with patients being trained using different methods and media (e.g. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Early-Stage Translational Research in Perinatal Medicine.

Neonatology 2018 Dec 6;115(2):182-188. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Liggins Institute, University of Auckland, Auckland, New

Background: Pre-clinical research, which encompasses studies in animals and in the laboratory, has made significant contributions to the improvement of neonatal outcomes.

Methods: Here, we describe examples of how pre-clinical research can be the starting point on the journey to the development of new interventions to improve neonatal care and outcomes and discuss recent progress in ensuring methodological and ethical rigour in pre-clinical research involving animal models.

Results: Studies in pregnant sheep led to the serendipitous discovery that preterm lambs born after exogenous corticosteroid exposure were able to aerate their lungs. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Clinical Drug Response Prediction by Using a Lq Penalized Network-Constrained Logistic Regression Method.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2018 Dec 6;51(5):2073-2084. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Faculty of Information Technology & State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicines, Macau University of Science and Technology, Macau, China.

Background/aims: One of the most important impacts of personalized medicine is the connection between patients' genotypes and their drug responses. Despite a series of studies exploring this relationship, the predictive ability of such analyses still needs to be strengthened.

Methods: Here we present the Lq penalized network-constrained logistic regression (Lq-NLR) method to meet this need, in which the predictors are integrated into the gene expression data and biological network knowledge and are combined with a more aggressive penalty function. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

The appropriateness of coronary investigation in myocardial injury and type 2 myocardial infarction (ACT-2): A randomized trial design.

Am Heart J 2018 Oct 25;208:11-20. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Department of Cardiology, Flinders Medical Centre, Adelaide, Australia; College of Medicine and Public Health, Flinders University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Elevated troponin level findings among patients presenting with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or another intercurrent illness undeniably identifies patients at increased risk of mortality. Whilst enhancing our capacity to discriminate risk, the use of high-sensitivity troponin assays frequently identifies patients with myocardial injury (i.e. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

Occurrence and levels of micropollutants across environmental and engineered compartments in Austria.

J Environ Manage 2018 Dec 3;232:636-653. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Institute for Water Quality and Resource Management, TU Wien, Karlsplatz 13/226, 1040, Vienna, Austria.

Occurrence and concentration of a broad spectrum of micropollutants are investigated in Austrian river catchments, namely polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organotin compounds, perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and metals. The parallel analysis across multiple environmental and engineered compartments sheds light on the ratio of dissolved and particulate transport and on differences in concentration levels between point and diffuse emission pathways. It is found that some PAHs and organotins are present in rivers, groundwater and bulk deposition at higher concentrations than in municipal wastewater effluents. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

A systematic review of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) in childhood.

Epilepsy Behav 2018 Dec 3;90:99-106. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Population, Policy and Practice Unit, UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP) is a significant cause of death in childhood epilepsy, and causes considerable concern to patients and their families. Despite this, the condition remains poorly understood. This systematic review investigates the risk factors, pathophysiology, and circumstances associated with childhood SUDEP. Read More

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December 2018
6 Reads

Patient readiness for hospital discharge and its relationship to discharge preparation and structural factors: A cross-sectional study.

Int J Nurs Stud 2018 Nov 19;90:13-20. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Institute of Nursing Science, University of Basel, Bernoullistrasse 28, 4056 Basel, Switzerland; Inselspital Bern University Hospital, Nursing Research Unit, 3010 Bern, Switzerland.

Background: Nursing discharge preparation is vital to successful hospital-to-home transitions. However, despite a wealth of evidence on its effectiveness, little is known of the structure- and process-related factors that facilitate or impede its use in clinical practice. Specifically, the associations between unit size and type, leadership support, skill mix, staffing, nurse and patient characteristics, discharge teaching and patient readiness for discharge have rarely been studied. Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads

Quality improvement: A practical nursing program's admission test.

Nurse Educ Today 2018 Nov 29;73:65-70. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Child Health, School of Medicine, University of Missouri, 430 Sinclair School of Nursing, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, United States of America. Electronic address:

Introduction: Academic institutions are under pressure to maintain a nearly flawless retention rate, while graduating successful students. The use of standardized admission tests to provide data driven decisions regarding applicant selection is common. The varying reliability and validity of current standardized tests inspired a large Canadian academic institution to use a faculty developed admission test for admission to its practical nursing (PN) program. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Effect of a cauliflower (Brassica oleraceae var. Botrytis) leaf powder-enriched diet on performance, carcass and meat characteristics of growing rabbit.

Meat Sci 2018 Nov 19;149:134-140. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

School of Agricultural, Forestry, Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Basilicata, Viale dell'Ateneo Lucano 10, 85100 Potenza, Italy.

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a cauliflower leaf powder (CLP)-enriched diet on the performance, quality and antioxidative potential of rabbit meat. No significant differences were found for live performance parameters between rabbits fed with standard (SD) and CLP diet. Dietary supplementation influenced the meat traits of rabbits: CLP meat showed significantly lower drip loss after 48 h, cooking loss, and a significantly higher lightness (L*) and redness (a*) values, vitamin A and vitamin E content, and oxidative stability, compared to SD meat. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

An environmental flow determination method for integrating multiple-scale ecohydrological and complex ecosystem processes in estuaries.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Nov 22;656:482-494. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Nelson Mandela University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031, South Africa. Electronic address:

This paper presents an environmental flow methodology that was developed to accommodate shallow, highly dynamic micro-tidal estuaries found along the wave-dominated coast of South Arica. This method differs to most other approaches that primarily focus on larger permanently open systems having unrestricted inlets. Following an adaptive, design science research approach, the 7-step method adopted both ecohydrological and ecosystem-based concepts, encapsulating key hydrologicalhydrodynamic-biogeochemical processes, as well as biotic responses. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Food up-take and reproduction performance of Daphnia magna under the exposure of Bisphenols.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 Dec 3;170:47-54. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Key laboratory of Drug Quality Control and Pharmacovigilance (Ministry of Education) & School of Engineering, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 211198, China. Electronic address:

Because the application of Bisphenol A (BPA) was restricted, many substitutes, such as Bisphenol F (BPF) and Bisphenol S (BPS), were developed as BPA substitutes. Therefore, environmental impacts of BPA and its substitutes on aquatic organisms should be concerned, especially their combined toxicity. In this study, the impacts of BPA, BPF, BPS and their mixture on the feeding behavior, reproduction and physiological function of daphnids were synthetically evaluated, involving the duration and mode of exposure. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Fast sensing of imidacloprid residue in tea using surface-enhanced Raman scattering by comparative multivariate calibration.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2018 Nov 16;211:86-93. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, PR China.

This study focused on the fabrication of a rapid, highly sensitive and inexpensive technique for the quantification of imidacloprid residue in green tea, based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) using highly roughned surface flower shaped silver nanostructure (as SERS substrate) coupled with the chemometrics algorithm. The basic principle of this method is imidacloprid yielded SERS signal after adsorption on Ag-NF under laser excitation by the electromagnetic enhancement and the intensity of the peak is proportional to the concentration ranging from 1.0 × 10 to 1. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Non-GVHD ocular complications after hematopoietic cell transplantation: expert review from the Late Effects and Quality of Life Working Committee of the CIBMTR and Transplant Complications Working Party of the EBMT.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro, Madrid, Spain.

Non-graft-versus-host disease (non-GVHD) ocular complications are generally uncommon after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), but can cause prolonged morbidity affecting activities of daily living and quality of life. Here we provide an expert review of non-GVHD ocular complications in a collaboration between transplant physicians and ophthalmologists through the Late Effects and Quality of Life Working Committee of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research and the Transplant Complications Working Party of the European Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Complications discussed in this review include cataracts, glaucoma, ocular infections, ocular involvement with malignancy, ischemic microvascular retinopathy, central retinal vein occlusion, retinal hemorrhage, retinal detachment and ocular toxicities associated with medications. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Early impact of pulmonary stereotactic fractionated body radiotherapy (SBRT) on Quality of Life (QoL): Benefit for patients with low initial scores (STRIPE trial).

J Thorac Oncol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical Center, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Germany; German Cancer Consortium (DKTK) Partner Site Freiburg, Germany; German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

Introduction: Quality of life (QoL) of comorbid patients with pulmonary malignancies is a key issue in considering stereotactic fractionated body radiotherapy (SBRT) indication. This study investigates the early impact of SBRT on QoL.

Methods: 100 patients with pulmonary lesions were treated with SBRT from 02/2011 to 11/2014 within the prospective, monocenter, phase II STRIPE trial. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Influence of arabic gum on in vitro starch digestibility and noodle-making quality of Segoami.

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Food and Nutrition, Hanyang University, Seoul, 04763, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The effects of arabic gum on the quality attributes of rice noodles were characterized in terms of physical properties as well as in vitro starch digestibility. Segoami (high amylose rice) was used to develop rice noodle with low predicted glycemic index (pGI). First, the processing condition for Segoami noodle was investigated at different levels of water content (100%-175%) and steaming time (1-5 min). Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Inhibitory effects of polysaccharide from Diaphragma juglandis fructus on α-amylase and α-d-glucosidase activity, streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia model, advanced glycation end-products formation, and HO-induced oxidative damage.

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, PR China; School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, PR China; Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, Beijing Technology and Business University, Beijing 100048, PR China; Collaborative Innovation Center of Food Safety and Quality Control in Jiangsu Province, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, PR China. Electronic address:

In present study, the in vitro and in vivo hemolysis inhibitory, protective effect against reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced oxidative damage in L02 cells, hypoglycemic, and antiglycation activities of DJP-2, a pure polysaccharide fraction from Diaphragma juglandis fructus, were investigated. Results demonstrated that DJP-2 showed remarkable hemolysis inhibitory activity. Pretreatment with DJP-2 markedly weakened the oxidative damage induced by HO in hepatic L02 cells via strengthening the cell viability. Read More

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December 2018

Physicochemical responses and microbiological changes of bream (Megalobrama ambycephala) to pectin based coatings enriched with clove essential oil during refrigeration.

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

College of Food Engineering and Nutritional Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710062, PR China. Electronic address:

The effectiveness of pectin coatings enriched with clove essential oil (CEO), as new edible coatings were investigated to preserve bream (Megalobrama ambycephala) fillets during refrigeration over a period of 15 days. All samples were analyzed for physicochemical (pH, PV, TBA and TVB-N), microbiological (Total viable count, Psychrophilic bacteria, Lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., HS producing bacteria) and organoleptic attributes. Read More

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December 2018

Body composition and sarcopenia: the next-generation of personalized oncology and pharmacology?

Pharmacol Ther 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Medical Oncology, CAncer Research for PErsonalized Medicine (CARPEM), Paris Centre Teaching Hospitals, Paris Descartes University, USPC, Paris, France.

Body composition has gained increasing attention in oncology in recent years due to fact that sarcopenia has been revealed to be a strong prognostic indicator for survival across multiple stages and cancer types and a predictive factor for toxicity and surgery complications. Accumulating evidence over the last decade has unraveled the "pharmacology" of sarcopenia. Lean body mass may be more relevant to define drug dosing than the "classical" body surface area or flat-fixed dosing in patients with cancer. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Neuroevolution as a Tool for Microarray Gene Expression Pattern Identification in Cancer Research.

J Biomed Inform 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Institute of Informatics, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:

Microarrays are still one of the major techniques employed to study cancer biology. However, the identification of expression patterns from microarray datasets is still a significant challenge to overcome. In this work, a new approach using Neuroevolution, a machine learning field that combines neural networks and evolutionary computation, provides aid in this challenge by simultaneously classifying microarray data and selecting the subset of more relevant genes. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Single layer colloid centrifugation technique improves motility, viability and chromatin integrity of ram spermatozoa after thawing.

Cryobiology 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Clinic for Reproduction and Large Animals, University of Ljubljana, Vet Faculty, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

The cell membrane of ram spermatozoa is more sensitive to the freezing process than in other species due to its composition. As a result, the quality and viability of frozen thawed ram spermatozoa are often poor, which together with the specific structure of the ewe's cervix are the main reasons for lower fertility in ewes after intracervical insemination. In the present study we investigated the effects of semen centrifugation through a single layer of a species-specific colloid (Androcoll-O) on post-thaw quality of ram spermatozoa. Read More

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December 2018

Does Maternal Age at Retrieval Influence the Implantation Potential of Euploid Blastocysts?

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

The Ronald O. Perelman and Claudia Cohen Center for Reproductive Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY 10021.

Background: Age-related decline in reproductive potential is mainly due to the increased incidence of aneuploidy. Furthermore, two recent studies have shown that euploid embryos of older women may have a lower implantation potential compared to those of younger women, suggesting that aging might compromise embryos beyond their ploidy status. However, the inherent limitations of these studies preclude solid conclusions. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Extent of Lymphadenectomy and Postoperative Major Complications Among Women with Endometrial Cancer Treated with Minimally Invasive Surgery.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Northwestern University, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chicago, IL, USA; Robert H Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL; Center for Healthcare Studies, Institute for Public Health in Medicine, Chicago, IL.

Background: In patients with endometrial cancer sentinel lymphadenectomy is used to accurately prognosticate extent of disease and has been proposed as a method to decrease the incidence of medical and surgical complications associated with more extensive lymphadenectomy. It is unknown if patients who undergo traditional lymphadenectomy experience major postoperative complications at the same rates as those who undergo sentinel lymphadenectomy or those who do not undergo lymphadenectomy.

Objective: To compare the incidence of major postoperative complications among endometrial cancer patients undergoing total laparoscopic hysterectomy with traditional lymphadenectomy versus sentinel or no lymphadenectomy. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Electronic "Sniffer" Systems to Identify the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Systematic Review.

Ann Am Thorac Soc 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

University of Michigan, Internal Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States ;

Background: The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) results in substantial mortality but remains underdiagnosed in clinical practice. Automated ARDS "sniffer" systems, tools that can automatically analyze electronic medical record data, have been developed to improve recognition of ARDS in clinical practice.

Objective: To perform a systematic review examining the evidence underlying automated sniffer systems for ARDS detection. Read More

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December 2018

Analysis of femurs from mice embarked on board BION-M1 biosatellite reveals a decrease in immune cell development, including B cells, after 1 wk of recovery on Earth.

FASEB J 2018 Dec 6:fj201801463R. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien (IPHC) Unité Mixte de Recherche (UMR) 7178, Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

Bone loss and immune dysregulation are among the main adverse outcomes of spaceflight challenging astronaut's health and safety. However, consequences on B-cell development and responses are still under-investigated. To fill this gap, we used advanced proteomics analysis of femur bone and marrow to compare mice flown for 1 mo on board the BION-M1 biosatellite, followed or not by 1 wk of recovery on Earth, to control mice kept on Earth. Read More

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December 2018

Pharmacological treatment of obesity

Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc 2018 11 30;56(4):395-409. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Hospital de Especialidades “Dr. Bernardo Sepúlveda Gutiérrez”, Unidad de Investigación Médica en Endocrinología Experimental. Ciudad de México, México

More than 70% of the population in Mexico is overweight or obese, affecting mainly people in productive age. Obesity is associated with the development of diseases that increase cardiovascular risk (diabetes mellitus, hypertension or atherogenic dyslipidemia), diseases that limit the quality of life of the patient (osteoarthrosis or sleep apnea) and even with the increase in the incidence of certain types of cancer (breast or colon). It is evident that the decrease of at least 5% of body weight induces improvement in all these factors; however, in some patients it is difficult to achieve this goal only with lifestyle modifications. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

[Continuous vs. intermitent intravenous analgesia for primary total knee replacement: analysis of the quality of the pain control, hospital stay and costs].

Acta Ortop Mex 2018 May-Jun;32(3):134-139

Instituto Allende de Cirugía Reconstructiva de los Miembros, Córdoba-Argentina.

Background: The International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) defines pain as an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage. Total knee arthroplasty is one of the orthopedic surgeries that manifests more pain in the first 24-48 hours, needing a multimodal analgesic therapy. The objective of this work is to compare two different intravenous analgesic modes applied to patients undergoing a primary total knee arthroplasty, analyzing the quality of pain control, hospital stay and costs. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

[Prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia in patients occupationally active].

Acta Ortop Mex 2018 May-Jun;32(3):131-133

Clínica de Detección y Diagnóstico Automatizado, Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado (ISSSTE), Ciudad de México.

Background: Osteoporosis is a public health problem worldwide, affecting more than 200 million people. It is estimated that 30 to 50% of postmenopausal women suffer from it. According to the International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF), osteoporosis is a disease characterized by a decrease in the density and quality of bones. Read More

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December 2018

Psychosocial interventions to reduce alcohol consumption in concurrent problem alcohol and illicit drug users.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 5;12:CD009269. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

BC Centre on Substance Use, BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, 611 Powell Street, Vancouver, BC, Canada, V6A 1H2.

Background: Problem alcohol use is common among people who use illicit drugs (PWID) and is associated with adverse health outcomes. It is also an important factor contributing to a poor prognosis among drug users with hepatitis C virus (HCV) as it impacts on progression to hepatic cirrhosis or opioid overdose in PWID.

Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions to reduce alcohol consumption in PWID (users of opioids and stimulants). Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Dual combination therapy versus long-acting bronchodilators alone for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): a systematic review and network meta-analysis.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 3;12:CD012620. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA.

Background: Long-acting bronchodilators such as long-acting β-agonist (LABA), long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA), and LABA/inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) combinations have been used in people with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to control symptoms such as dyspnoea and cough, and prevent exacerbations. A number of LABA/LAMA combinations are now available for clinical use in COPD. However, it is not clear which group of above mentioned inhalers is most effective or if any specific formulation works better than the others within the same group or class. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Pharmacological interventions for acute hepatitis C infection.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 3;12:CD011644. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Sheila Sherlock Liver Centre, Royal Free Hospital and the UCL Institute of Liver and Digestive Health, London, UK.

Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a single-stranded RNA (ribonucleic acid) virus that has the potential to cause inflammation of the liver. The traditional definition of acute HCV infection is the first six months following infection with the virus. Another commonly used definition of acute HCV infection is the absence of HCV antibody and subsequent seroconversion (presence of HCV antibody in a person who was previously negative for HCV antibody). Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Pre-emptive and preventive opioids for postoperative pain in adults undergoing all types of surgery.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 3;12:CD012624. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Surgery and Anaesthesia, Division of Medical Sciences and Graduate Entry Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Uttoxeter New Road, Derby, UK, DE22 3DT.

Background: Postoperative pain is a common consequence of surgery and can have deleterious effects. It has been suggested that the administration of opioid analgesia before a painful stimulus may improve pain control. This can be done in two ways. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Computer-assisted diagnosis techniques (dermoscopy and spectroscopy-based) for diagnosing skin cancer in adults.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 3;12:CD013186. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston Campus, Birmingham, UK, B15 2TT.

Background: Early accurate detection of all skin cancer types is essential to guide appropriate management and to improve morbidity and survival. Melanoma and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) are high-risk skin cancers which have the potential to metastasise and ultimately lead to death, whereas basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is usually localised with potential to infiltrate and damage surrounding tissue. Anxiety around missing early curable cases needs to be balanced against inappropriate referral and unnecessary excision of benign lesions. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

Optical coherence tomography for diagnosing skin cancer in adults.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 3;12:CD013189. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston Campus, Birmingham, UK, B15 2TT.

Background: Early accurate detection of all skin cancer types is essential to guide appropriate management and to improve morbidity and survival. Melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are high-risk skin cancers, which have the potential to metastasise and ultimately lead to death, whereas basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is usually localised, with potential to infiltrate and damage surrounding tissue. Anxiety around missing early cases needs to be balanced against inappropriate referral and unnecessary excision of benign lesions. Read More

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December 2018
7 Reads

Exfoliative cytology for diagnosing basal cell carcinoma and other skin cancers in adults.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 3;12:CD013187. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston Campus, Birmingham, UK, B15 2TT.

Background: Early accurate detection of all skin cancer types is essential to guide appropriate management, reduce morbidity and improve survival. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is usually localised to the skin but has potential to infiltrate and damage surrounding tissue, while cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) and melanoma have a much higher potential to metastasise and ultimately lead to death. Exfoliative cytology is a non-invasive test that uses the Tzanck smear technique to identify disease by examining the structure of cells obtained from scraped samples. Read More

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December 2018
5 Reads

Visual inspection and dermoscopy, alone or in combination, for diagnosing keratinocyte skin cancers in adults.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 3;12:CD011901. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK, B15 2TT.

Background: Early accurate detection of all skin cancer types is important to guide appropriate management, to reduce morbidity and to improve survival. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is almost always a localised skin cancer with potential to infiltrate and damage surrounding tissue, whereas a minority of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (cSCCs) and invasive melanomas are higher-risk skin cancers with the potential to metastasise and cause death. Dermoscopy has become an important tool to assist specialist clinicians in the diagnosis of melanoma, and is increasingly used in primary-care settings. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Reflectance confocal microscopy for diagnosing keratinocyte skin cancers in adults.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 3;12:CD013191. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK, B15 2TT.

Background: Early accurate detection of all skin cancer types is important to guide appropriate management and improve morbidity and survival. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is usually a localised skin cancer but with potential to infiltrate and damage surrounding tissue, whereas cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) and melanoma are higher risk skin cancers with the potential to metastasise and ultimately lead to death. When used in conjunction with clinical or dermoscopic suspicion of malignancy, or both, reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) may help to identify cancers eligible for non-surgical treatment without the need for a diagnostic biopsy, particularly in people with suspected BCC. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

Teledermatology for diagnosing skin cancer in adults.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 3;12:CD013193. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK, B15 2TT.

Background: Early accurate detection of all skin cancer types is essential to guide appropriate management and to improve morbidity and survival. Melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are high-risk skin cancers which have the potential to metastasise and ultimately lead to death, whereas basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is usually localised with potential to infiltrate and damage surrounding tissue. Anxiety around missing early curable cases needs to be balanced against inappropriate referral and unnecessary excision of benign lesions. Read More

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December 2018
5 Reads

Smartphone applications for triaging adults with skin lesions that are suspicious for melanoma.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 3;12:CD013192. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK, B15 2TT.

Background: Melanoma accounts for a small proportion of all skin cancer cases but is responsible for most skin cancer-related deaths. Early detection and treatment can improve survival. Smartphone applications are readily accessible and potentially offer an instant risk assessment of the likelihood of malignancy so that the right people seek further medical attention from a clinician for more detailed assessment of the lesion. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

Visual inspection for diagnosing cutaneous melanoma in adults.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 3;12:CD013194. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK, B15 2TT.

Background: Melanoma has one of the fastest rising incidence rates of any cancer. It accounts for a small percentage of skin cancer cases but is responsible for the majority of skin cancer deaths. History-taking and visual inspection of a suspicious lesion by a clinician is usually the first in a series of 'tests' to diagnose skin cancer. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

High-frequency ultrasound for diagnosing skin cancer in adults.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 3;12:CD013188. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK, B15 2TT.

Background: Early, accurate detection of all skin cancer types is essential to guide appropriate management and to improve morbidity and survival. Melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are high-risk skin cancers with the potential to metastasise and ultimately lead to death, whereas basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is usually localised, with potential to infiltrate and damage surrounding tissue. Anxiety around missing early curable cases needs to be balanced against inappropriate referral and unnecessary excision of benign lesions. Read More

View Article
December 2018
4 Reads

Dermoscopy, with and without visual inspection, for diagnosing melanoma in adults.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 3;12:CD011902. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK, B15 2TT.

Background: Melanoma has one of the fastest rising incidence rates of any cancer. It accounts for a small percentage of skin cancer cases but is responsible for the majority of skin cancer deaths. Although history-taking and visual inspection of a suspicious lesion by a clinician are usually the first in a series of 'tests' to diagnose skin cancer, dermoscopy has become an important tool to assist diagnosis by specialist clinicians and is increasingly used in primary care settings. Read More

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December 2018
5 Reads

Reflectance confocal microscopy for diagnosing cutaneous melanoma in adults.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 3;12:CD013190. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK, B15 2TT.

Background: Melanoma has one of the fastest rising incidence rates of any cancer. It accounts for a small percentage of skin cancer cases but is responsible for the majority of skin cancer deaths. Early detection and treatment is key to improving survival; however, anxiety around missing early cases needs to be balanced against appropriate levels of referral and excision of benign lesions. Read More

View Article
December 2018
4 Reads
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