Cytotherapy 2021 May 10;23(5):373-380. Epub 2021 Apr 10.
Institute of Medical Biology and Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore, Singapore; Department of Surgery, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore. Electronic address:
Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) have been widely tested against many diseases, with more than 1000 registered clinical trials worldwide. Despite many setbacks, MSCs have been approved for the treatment of graft-versus-host disease and Crohn disease. However, it is increasingly clear that MSCs exert their therapeutic functions in a paracrine manner through the secretion of small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) of 50-200 nm in diameter. Read More