4,704 results match your criteria Pyelonephritis Acute


Diagnosis and management of community-acquired urinary tract infection in infants and children: Clinical guidelines endorsed by the Saudi Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society (SPIDS).

Int J Pediatr Adolesc Med 2021 Jun 11;8(2):57-67. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Children Specialized Hospital, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common bacterial disease in childhood worldwide and may have significant adverse consequences, particularly for young children. In this guideline, we provide the most up-to-date information for the diagnosis and management of community-acquired UTI in infants and children aged over 90 days up to 14 years. The current recommendations given by the American Academy of Pediatrics Practice guidelines, Canadian Pediatric Society guideline, and other international guidelines are considered as well as regional variations in susceptibility patterns and resources. Read More

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Serum Interleukin-6 and Interleukin-8 are Sensitive Markers for Early Detection of Pyelonephritis and Its Prevention to Progression to Chronic Kidney Disease.

Authors:
Mojgan Mazaheri

Int J Prev Med 2021 19;12. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Pediatrics, Section of Nephrology, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran.

Background: Pyelonephritis is the most common bacterial infection in children that can cause renal failure if not diagnosed or treated early. We used serum biomarker interleukins (IL-6 and IL-8) and then confirmed the results by the findings dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan to distinguish upper-tract infection from lower-tract infection.

Methods: Serum IL-6 and IL-8 were measured in 57 children with newly diagnosed untreated urinary tract infection (UTI) documented by a positive urine culture. Read More

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January 2021

Clinical Outcomes and Risk Factor Analysis of Patients Presenting with Emphysematous Cystitis: A 15-Year Retrospective Multicenter Study.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 May 26;57(6). Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Urology, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea.

To investigate the risk factors for emphysematous cystitis (EC) compared to those of acute cystitis (AC) to increase clinicians awareness of the possibility for the aggravation of patient status. We retrospectively reviewed a total of 54 patients who were hospitalized with a diagnosis of EC by abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan from 2006 to 2020. The control group included 92 patients who were hospitalized for the treatment of AC in the same period. Read More

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Diffusion-Weighted MRI in the Evaluation of Renal Parenchymal Involvement during Febrile Urinary Tract Infections in Children: Preliminary Data.

J Clin Med 2021 May 21;10(11). Epub 2021 May 21.

Radiology Department, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS) Giannina Gaslini, 16147 Genova, Italy.

: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infection in pediatric-age patients. Acute pyelonephritis (PNA) represents a worrying situation in pediatric patients due to the risk of sepsis and long-term cicatricial consequences. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the diagnostic role of DW-MRI in relation to clinical data, to understand if there are any clinical parameters useful in identifying which patients should undergo it. Read More

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Association between acute graft pyelonephritis and kidney graft survival: A single-center observational study.

Am J Transplant 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

CHU Lille, Department of Nephrology, F-59000, Lille, France.

The association between acute graft pyelonephritis (AGPN) and graft failure in kidney transplant recipients (KTR) remains controversial. In this single-center observational study, we aimed to assess the incidence of AGPN as a time-dependent post-transplantation event. We also examined the association between the diagnosis of AGPN and graft outcomes. Read More

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Children with acute pyelonephritis need medical re-evaluation when home-treated with oral antibiotics.

Acta Paediatr 2021 May 29. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Paediatrics and Adolescence Medicine, Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Aim: To investigate the efficacy and safety of home-treatment with oral piv-mecillinam or amoxicillin-clavulanate in children with acute pyelonephritis.

Methods: Children aged over 6 months diagnosed with culture confirmed pyelonephritis at Danish Paediatric Departments were home-treated with piv-mecillinam (tablets) or amoxicillin-clavulanate (liquid or tablets). Follow-up was performed by phone (second treatment day) and clinical review of the patients in the hospital (day three). Read More

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Acute obstructive pyelonephritis due to pelvic organ prolapse: a case-based review of the literature.

Future Sci OA 2021 Mar 11;7(6):FSO696. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Urology, Hotel-Dieu de France, University of Saint Joseph, Beirut, Lebanon.

Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) can lead to acute bilateral obstructive pyelonephritis (ABOP) due to bilateral ureteral compression. When this occurs, conservative treatment through POP reduction, intravenous antibiotics and supportive care seems to provide an interesting option in the wait of definitive management of POP. The cornerstone of ABOP management, which is the emergent urinary drainage, seems to have many drawbacks in this context due to both technical and patient-related criteria, making it invasive and compromising patient safety and comfort in many settings. Read More

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Spontaneous subcapsular renal haematoma in a diabetic patient with acute pyelonephritis.

Trop Doct 2021 May 27:494755211017019. Epub 2021 May 27.

Junior Resident, Department of radio-diagnosis, Dr RPGMC, Tanda, India.

Spontaneous renal subcapsular haematoma is not a common clinical condition. It is mainly caused by renal tumours, vascular diseases, trauma, anticoagulation, and urological interventions. Patients present with sudden onset abdominal pain mainly in the flank region, haematuria, and abdominal tenderness. Read More

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Regulation and function of CX3CR1 and its ligand CX3CL1 in kidney disease.

Cell Tissue Res 2021 May 19. Epub 2021 May 19.

Institute for Molecular Medicine and Experimental Immunology, University Clinic of the Rheinische Friedrich Wilhelms University Bonn, Biomedical Center II, Venusberg Campus 1, 53127, Bonn, Germany.

Attraction, retention, and differentiation of leukocytes to and within the kidney are governed by chemokines. The chemokine CX3CL1 (fractalkine) and its receptor CX3CR1 are exemplary in this regard as they are highly expressed and further upregulated in a range of kidney diseases. CX3CL1 is chiefly produced by renal endothelium and tubular epithelium, where it promotes leukocyte attraction. Read More

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New strategy of color and power doppler sonography combined with DMSA in the assessment of acute pyelonephritis in infants.

BMC Nephrol 2021 May 17;22(1):181. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Rheumatology, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 325027, Zhejiang Province, China.

Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical value of color and power doppler sonography (CPDS) when combined it with 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigraphy (DMSA) in assessment of acute pyelonephritis (APN) in infants.

Methods: A total of 79 children with APN admitted to our hospital from June 2016 to Jan 2019 were enrolled, including 52 boys and 27 girls, age range 1 month to 3 years old. All cases followed the diagnostic criteria for acute pyelonephritis and excluded anatomical abnormalities of urinary system. Read More

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Brugada Pattern: Unraveling Possible Cardiac Manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 Infection.

J Med Cases 2021 May 5;12(5):173-176. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Hospital Santa Maria Maior, Barcelos, Portugal.

We report the case of a 41-year-old patient with no family history of sudden cardiac death. The patient presented with high fever and vomiting and was diagnosed with acute pyelonephritis. Screening for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was positive. Read More

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Evolving case of emphysematous pyelonephritis in a second renal allograft.

Urol Case Rep 2021 Sep 31;38:101663. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Urology, New York Medical College/Westchester Medical Center, Valhalla, NY, USA.

Emphysematous pyelonephritis is an acute necrotizing infection with gas in the kidney that portends a poor prognosis. Patients present with sepsis, requiring fluid resuscitation, glucose control, and broad-spectrum antibiotics. Surgical intervention ranges from relief of urinary obstruction (nephrostomy tube or stent), percutaneous drainage or nephrectomy. Read More

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September 2021

Antibiotic resistance among major pathogens compared to hospital treatment guidelines and antibiotic use in Nordic hospitals 2010-2018.

Infect Dis (Lond) 2021 Aug 10;53(8):607-618. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.

Background: The Nordic countries have comparable nationwide antibiotic resistance surveillance systems and individual antibiotic stewardship programmes. The aim of this study was to assess antibiotic resistance among major pathogens in relation to practice guidelines for hospital antibiotic treatment and antibiotic use in Nordic countries 2010-2018.

Methods: Antibiotic resistance among invasive isolates from 2010-2018 and aggregated antibiotic use were obtained from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Read More

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Postmortem pathological changes in extrapulmonary organs in SARS-CoV-2 rt-PCR-positive cases: a single-center experience.

Ir J Med Sci 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Council of Forensic Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey.

Background: Although the lung is seen as the main target organ affected by SARS-CoV-2, other organs are also damaged.

Aim: We aimed to determine the extrapulmonary findings of autopsies performed on cases with positive results with postmortem polymerase chain reaction test.

Methods: Pathological changes in extrapulmonary organs were examined with light microscopy. Read More

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[Current issues of epidemiology, etiology, risk factors and predisposing conditions of acute pyelonephritis (review part I)].

Urologiia 2021 May(2):109-115

Dept. of Urology and Human Reproductive Health Rostov State Medical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russia.

A growing body of research indicates an upward trend in the incidence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) around the world. Acute pyelonephritis (AP), which is dangerous by the development of complex, life-threatening conditions, is no exception. Today the demographic portrait, as well as the characteristics of the causative agents and predisposing conditions of this disease are a global issue for the entire scientific community. Read More

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Unexpected cause and successful management of typical urinary tract ınfection symptoms: Answers.

Pediatr Nephrol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Nephrology and Rheumatology, Katip Celebi University, İzmir, Turkey.

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An Unusual Presentation of Pyelonephritis: Is It COVID-19 Related?

SN Compr Clin Med 2021 Apr 24:1-6. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Urology, HagaZiekenhuis, The Hague, The Netherlands.

In severe cases of COVID-19, late complications such as coagulopathy and organ injury are increasingly described. In milder cases of the disease, the exact time frame and causal path of late-onset complications have not yet been determined. Although direct and indirect renal injury by SARS-CoV-2 has been confirmed, hemorrhagic renal infection or coagulative problems in the urinary tract have not yet been described. Read More

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Severe infection including disseminated herpes zoster triggered by subclinical Cushing's disease: a case report.

BMC Endocr Disord 2021 Apr 27;21(1):84. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Rheumatology, Endocrinology and Nephrology, Faculty of Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

Background: Subclinical Cushing's disease (SCD) is defined by corticotroph adenoma-induced mild hypercortisolism without typical physical features of Cushing's disease. Infection is an important complication associated with mortality in Cushing's disease, while no reports on infection in SCD are available. To make clinicians aware of the risk of infection in SCD, we report a case of SCD with disseminated herpes zoster (DHZ) with the mortal outcome. Read More

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Left-to-right crossed fused renal ectopia with pyelonephritis mimicking appendix mass.

Urol Ann 2021 Jan-Mar;13(1):73-75. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Urology Division, Department of Surgery, Edo University, Iyamho, Edo State, Nigeria.

Crossed fused renal ectopia (CFRE) is an uncommon developmental anomaly of the genitourinary system whereby the two kidneys are located on the same side of the body and joined together, while the ureter of the ectopic kidney still enters the bladder in its normal side. CFRE has variable clinical presentations and usually discovered incidentally when patients are investigated for abdominal complaints. Treatment may be conservative when renal function is preserved with no associated symptomatic urological complications. Read More

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January 2021

Antireflux endoscopic injection therapy in post-pubertal patients via techniques adopted for the dilated ureteral orifice: a retrospective single-center study.

BMC Urol 2021 Apr 24;21(1):70. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Pediatric Urology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, 467-8601, Japan.

Background: To investigate the efficacy and safety of endoscopic injection therapy for vesicoureteral reflux in post-pubertal patients with dilated ureteral orifice via modified hydrodistension implantation techniques.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed medical records including operational procedure and clinical course of all consecutive patients over 12 years old with a history of injection therapy. Endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer was performed under hydrodistension implantation technique with some modifications in order to inject through dilated ureteral orifice align with the intramural ureter. Read More

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Emphysematous pyelonephritis: experience at a tertiary care hospital in Bangladesh.

J R Coll Physicians Edinb 2021 03;51(1):19-23

Department of Endocrinology, BIRDEM General Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Background: Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) is a necrotizing infection of the renal parenchyma, collecting system and/or perinephric tissues, characterized by gas accumulation. We describe clinical, laboratory and imaging characteristics and in-hospital outcomes of patients with EPN.

Methods: This retrospective observational study was carried out at BIRDEM General Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh between 2014 and 2020. Read More

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Urinary tract infections in culled sows from Greek herds: prevalence and associations between findings of histopathology, bacteriology and urinalysis.

Porcine Health Manag 2021 Apr 19;7(1):33. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Economics of Animal Production, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Thessaly, 43132, Karditsa, Greece.

Background: Urinary tract infections (UTI) of sows characterized by cystitis, which may progress to ureteritis and pyelonephritis, can affect their productivity, longevity and welfare. In this study, we determined the prevalence of UTI by histopathology and bacteriology. Furthermore, we investigated possible associations between histologically confirmed cystitis and the results of urinalysis and urine cultures in culled sows from three farrow-to-finish herds in Greece. Read More

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Appropriate Use of Short-Course Antibiotics in Common Infections: Best Practice Advice From the American College of Physicians.

Ann Intern Med 2021 Jun 6;174(6):822-827. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

American College of Physicians, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (A.Q.).

Description: Antimicrobial overuse is a major health care issue that contributes to antibiotic resistance. Such overuse includes unnecessarily long durations of antibiotic therapy in patients with common bacterial infections, such as acute bronchitis with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), urinary tract infections (UTIs), and cellulitis. This article describes best practices for prescribing appropriate and short-duration antibiotic therapy for patients presenting with these infections. Read More

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[Tract infections by the genus Raoultella. Literature review and contribution of 1 case of Raoultella ornithinolytica.]

Arch Esp Urol 2021 Apr;74(3):276-286

Facultativo Especialista de Urología. Doctor en Medicina y Cirugía. Dénia. Alicante. España.

Objectives:  Emerging urinary infections by rare germs are a public health problem. The objectives of this article are to review urinary tract infections caused by an emerging genus of bacteria called Raoultella and to report a case of asymptomatic urinary tract infection by Raoultella ornithinolytica.

Materials And Methods:  A review of publications on urinary tract infections caused by the genus Raoultella between 2009 and 2018 is carried out and a case of asymptomatic urinary tract infection by Raoultella ornithinolytica is reported. Read More

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Bilateral acute pyelonephritis with left renal artery aneurysm as a cause of bilateral spontaneous subcapsular haematoma: lessons learnt.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Mar 31;14(3). Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Urology, Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India.

Forniceal ruptures after acute pyelonephritis are relatively common. Bilateral spontaneous subcapsular haematoma (SSCH) is an uncommon sequela to pyelonephritis. We report a case of SSCH where the underlying cause of haematoma was a vascular anomaly. Read More

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Risk of antibiotic treatment failure in premenopausal women with uncomplicated urinary tract infection.

Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

Purpose: Acute uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common indications for antibiotic prescriptions in otherwise healthy women. We compared the risk of treatment failure of antibiotic regimens for outpatient treatment of UTI in real-world practice.

Methods: We identified non-pregnant, premenopausal women diagnosed with uncomplicated, lower tract UTI and prescribed an oral antibiotic with activity against common uropathogens. Read More

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Lactulose-induced pneumatosis intestinalis following colonoscopy: a case report.

Clin J Gastroenterol 2021 Mar 27. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, USA.

Pneumatosis intestinalis (PI) occurs when gas is discovered in the intestinal wall and is categorized into two types: primary PI which is idiopathic and mainly occurs in the colon, and secondary PI which occurs more often in the small bowel but has variable presentation and etiology. We report a case of a patient status post-orthotopic deceased liver transplantation complicated by a portal vein thrombus on chronic lactulose for portosystemic encephalopathy who presented due to pyelonephritis and persistent diarrhea. The patient underwent colonoscopy with random biopsies and subsequently developed acute sepsis with Escherichia coli bacteremia. Read More

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Emphysematous pyelonephritis caused by C. glabrata.

J Bras Nefrol 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná (Unioeste), Centro de Ciências Médicas e Farmacêuticas (CCMF), Hospital Universitário do Oeste do Paraná (HUOP), Cascavel, PR, Brasil.

Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) is a rare acute necrotizing infection of the kidney and surrounding tissues, with gas in the renal parenchyma, collecting system or perirenal tissue. The bacterial etiology predominates; mainly Gram-negative bacilli; Candida spp. and C. Read More

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Risk factors for kidney scarring and vesicoureteral reflux in 421 children after their first acute pyelonephritis, and appraisal of international guidelines.

Pediatr Nephrol 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

Background: Acute pyelonephritis (AP) is a common bacterial infection in childhood. Follow-up guidelines on these children are controversial. This study aimed to identify risk factors for kidney scarring and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Read More

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Heterogeneity of Recent Phase 3 Complicated Urinary Tract Infection Clinical Trials.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2021 Mar 2;8(3):ofab045. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

GST Micro LLC, Richmond, Virginia, USA.

Background: For new antibiotics developed to treat antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative infections, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulatory pathway includes complicated urinary tract infection (cUTI) clinical trials in which the clinical isolates are susceptible to the active control. This allows for inferential testing in a noninferiority study design. Although complying with regulatory guidelines, individual clinical trials may differ substantially in design and patient population. Read More

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