J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.
Medway Fetal and Maternal Medicine Centre, Medway Maritime Hospital, Gillingham, Kent, United Kingdom; Institute of Medical Sciences, Canterbury Christ Church University, Rowan William's Court, Chatham, Kent ME4 4UF.
Objective: Doppler assessment ventricular filling and outflow tract velocities are an integral part of the fetal echocardiogram, to assess diastolic function, systolic function and outflow tract obstruction. There is a paucity of prospective data from a large sample of normal fetuses in the published literature. We report reference ranges for pulsed wave Doppler flow of the mitral valve, tricuspid valve, aortic valve and pulmonary valve as well as heart rate, in a large number of fetuses prospectively examined at a single tertiary fetal cardiology centre. Read More