16,994 results match your criteria Pulmonary Hypoplasia Imaging

Brief Report: New Pulmonary Infiltrates Observed on Computed Tomography Based Image Guidance for Radiotherapy Warrant Diagnostic Workup for COVID-19.

J Thorac Oncol 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Oncology and Pharmacology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Introduction: Screening for COVID-19 exposure, coupled with engaged decision making to prioritize cancer treatment in parallel with reducing risk of exposure and infection, is crucial in the management of COVID-19 during cancer treatment. Following two reported case studies of imaging findings during daily computed tomography (CT) -based image guided radiotherapy scans, a call for submission of anonymized case reports was published with the objective of rapidly determining if there was a correlation between the onset of new pulmonary infiltrates seen during radiotherapy and COVID-19. We hereby report the results of the aggregate analysis. Read More

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Young stroke due to pulmonary arteriovenous malformation.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Jun 21;14(6). Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Neurology, University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Southampton, UK.

Young patients presenting with cryptogenic stroke should be investigated for cardiac and extra-cardiac sources of emboli. We present a patient who was investigated for a cardiac source of emboli, following multiple ischaemic strokes and migraine with aura over a period of 17 years. The events were initially thought to be related to a patent foramen ovale (PFO) on bubble contrast echocardiography, however, due to an unusual flow pattern to the left heart, she underwent a CT angiogram to exclude intrapulmonary shunting. Read More

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Lung distribution of gas and blood volume in critically ill COVID-19 patients: a quantitative dual-energy computed tomography study.

Crit Care 2021 06 21;25(1):214. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Surgical Sciences and Integrated Diagnostics (DISC), University of Genoa, Viale Benedetto XV 16, Genoa, Italy.

Background: Critically ill COVID-19 patients have pathophysiological lung features characterized by perfusion abnormalities. However, to date no study has evaluated whether the changes in the distribution of pulmonary gas and blood volume are associated with the severity of gas-exchange impairment and the type of respiratory support (non-invasive versus invasive) in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia.

Methods: This was a single-center, retrospective cohort study conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Northern Italy during the first pandemic wave. Read More

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Ultra-short echo-time magnetic resonance imaging lung segmentation with under-Annotations and domain shift.

Med Image Anal 2021 Jun 2;72:102107. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Division of Respirology, Department of Medicine, Western University, London, ON, N6A 5B7, Canada; Robarts Research Institute, School of Biomedical Engineering, Western University, London, ON, N6A 5B7, Canada. Electronic address:

Ultra-short echo-time (UTE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides enhanced visualization of pulmonary structural and functional abnormalities and has shown promise in phenotyping lung disease. Here, we describe the development and evaluation of a lung segmentation approach to facilitate UTE MRI methods for patient-based imaging. The proposed approach employs a k-means algorithm in kernel space for pair-wise feature clustering and imposes image domain continuous regularization, coined as continuous kernel k-means (CKKM). Read More

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Abnormal pulmonary function and imaging studies in critical COVID-19 survivors at 100 days after the onset of symptoms.

Respir Investig 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Emergency and Critical Care Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Hiroo Hospital, 2-34-10, Ebisu, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo, 150-0013, Japan.

Background: The long-term repercussions of critical COVID-19 on pulmonary function and imaging studies remains unexplored. In this study, we investigated the pulmonary function and computed tomography (CT) findings of critical COVID-19 patients approximately 100 days after symptom onset.

Methods: We retrospectively extracted data on critical COVID-19 patients who received invasive mechanical ventilation during hospitalization from April to December 2020 and evaluated their pulmonary function, residual respiratory symptoms and radiographic abnormalities on CT. Read More

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Highlighting COVID-19: What the imaging exams show about the disease.

World J Radiol 2021 May;13(5):122-136

Department of Instituto Multidisciplinar em Saúde, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Vitória da Conquista 45029-094, Bahia, Brazil.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a global emergency, is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. The gold standard for its diagnosis is the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, but considering the high number of infected people, the low availability of this diagnostic tool in some contexts, and the limitations of the test, other tools that aid in the identification of the disease are necessary. In this scenario, imaging exams such as chest X-ray (CXR) and computed tomography (CT) have played important roles. Read More

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Speckle-Tracking Echocardiography for Detecting Subclinical Left Ventricular Dysfunction in Patients With Familial Hypercholesterolemia.

Tex Heart Inst J 2021 Jun;48(2)

Department of Echocardiography, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University and Beijing Institute of Heart Lung and Blood Vessel Diseases, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Myocardial ischemia and left ventricular dysfunction have been documented in young adults with familial hypercholesterolemia. We investigated whether speckle-tracking echocardiography can be used to detect subclinically impaired global and regional myocardial function in patients with this lipid disorder. This single-center study included 47 patients with familial hypercholesterolemia and 37 healthy control subjects who underwent transthoracic Doppler echocardiography and speckle-tracking echocardiography from January 2003 through December 2016. Read More

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A homological approach to a mathematical definition of pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema on computed tomography.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2021 06 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Three-dimensional imaging is essential to evaluate local abnormalities and understand structure-function relationships in an organ. However, quantifiable and interpretable methods to localize abnormalities remain unestablished. Visual assessments are prone to bias, machine learning methods depend on training images, and the underlying decision principle is usually difficult to interpret. Read More

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Early lung ultrasound assessment for the prognosis of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia. A pilot study.

Respir Med Res 2021 Jun 4;80:100832. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Respiratory Diseases, University Hospitals KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium.

Objective: SARS CoV-2 is an epidemic viral infection that can cause mild to severe lung involvement. Newly apprehended knowledge on thoracic imaging abnormalities and the growing clinical experience on the evolution of this disease make the radiographic follow-up of hospitalized patients relevant. The value of consecutive bedside lung ultrasonography in the follow-up of hospitalized patients with SARS CoV-2 pneumonia and its correlation with other clinical and laboratory markers needs to be evaluated. Read More

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Clinical triage of patients on kidney replacement therapy presenting with COVID-19: an ERACODA registry analysis.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Rationale & Objective: Patients on kidney replacement therapy (KRT) are at a very high risk of COVID-19. Triage pathway for KRT patients presenting with varying severity of COVID-19 illness remains ill-defined. We studied clinical characteristics of patients at initial and subsequent hospital presentations and its impact on patient outcomes. Read More

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Postpulmonary embolism syndrome.

Curr Opin Pulm Med 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Pulmonary/Sleep and Critical Care Medicine, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center (WRNMMC), Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Purpose Of Review: It is now recognized that more than half of patients with acute pulmonary embolism (APE) will have persistent symptoms beyond 3 months after their initial event. Persistent symptoms are referred to as post-PE syndrome, an umbrella term that covers a spectrum of patient complaints and underlying pathologies. Data published over the last 5 years have added significantly to our understanding of this syndrome and its management. Read More

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Diffuse cystic lung disease in sickle cell anaemia: a series of 22 cases and a case-control study.

Thorax 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Service de Pneumologie, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Tenon, Paris, France

Chronic interstitial lung abnormalities have been described in sickle cell disease (SCD) and attributed to repetitive episode of acute chest syndrome. We report a series of 22 cases of diffuse cystic lung disease in SCD with a case-control study to hunt for mechanism. On pathological analysis of a surgical lung biopsy of the index case, the bronchioles had the appearance of constrictive bronchiolitis. Read More

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Clinical, laboratory, and chest CT features of severe versus non-severe pediatric patients with COVID-19 infection among different age groups.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Jun 12;21(1):560. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Medical Imaging research center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: This study was performed with the intention of comparing the clinical, laboratory, and chest computed tomography (CT) findings between severe and non-severe patients as well as between different age groups composed of pediatric patients with confirmed COVID-19.

Method: This study was carried out on a total of 53 confirmed COVID-19 pediatric patients who were hospitalized in Namazi and Ali Asghar Hospitals, Shiraz, Iran. The patients were divided into two severe (n = 27) and non-severe (n = 28) groups as well as into other three groups in terms of their age: aged less than two years, aged 3-12 years and 13-17 years. Read More

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Fetal double outlet right ventricle without heterotaxy syndrome: diagnostic spectrum, associated extracardiac pathology and clinical outcomes.

Prenat Diagn 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Fetal & Neonatal Cardiology Program, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Objectives: To document the clinical spectrum and outcomes of fetal DORV without heterotaxy in a recent diagnostic era.

Methods: Prenatal cases of DORV consecutively diagnosed from 2007-2018 were retrospectively identified. Clinical records, including details regarding genetic testing and pre and postnatal imaging were reviewed. Read More

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3 Tesla MRI in diagnosis and follow up of children with pneumonia.

Clin Imaging 2021 Jun 1;79:213-218. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Ondokuz Mayis University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, Samsun, Turkey.

Purpose: To investigate the utilization of 3-Tesla (3 T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detection of pulmonary abnormalities in children with pneumonia.

Materials And Methods: Forty-seven children with pneumonia prospectively underwent 3 T thoracic MRI and posteroanterior (PA) chest radiography (CR). Of these, 15 patients also underwent contrast-enhanced thorax computed tomography (CT) or high-resolution CT (HRCT). Read More

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Role of Imaging in Obstetric Interventions: Criteria, Considerations, and Complications.

Radiographics 2021 Jun 11:200163. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

From the Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Ave, Box 0628, San Francisco, CA 94143-0628 (P.J., V.A.F.); Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Conn (M.V.R.); Department of Radiology, Winthrop University Hospital, Mineola, NY (D.S.K.); and Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash (M.M.).

US has an established role in the prenatal detection of congenital and developmental disorders. Many pregnant women undergo US at 18-20 weeks of gestation for assessment of fetal anatomy and detection of structural anomalies. With advances in fetoscopy and minimally invasive procedures, in utero fetal interventions can be offered to address some of the detected structural and physiologic fetal abnormalities. Read More

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Invasive Outbreak at a Pediatric Dental Clinic.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2021 Jun 15;8(6):ofab165. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Disease Control and Epidemiology, Orange County Health Care Agency, Santa Ana, California, USA.

Background: species, specifically and (MABs), are known to contaminate water systems and are uncommon causes of health care-associated infection, but morbidity can be significant and treatment complex.

Methods: Odontogenic MAB infections occurred in patients following pulpotomy procedures at dental clinic A from 1 January to 6 September 2016. We identified confirmed and probable cases using culture data, imaging, pathology results, and surgical findings. Read More

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Lung Ultrasound Score as a Predictor of Mortality in Patients With COVID-19.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 25;8:633539. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Ultrasound Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Lung injury is a common condition among hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, whether lung ultrasound (LUS) score predicts all-cause mortality in patients with COVID-19 is unknown. The aim of the present study was to explore the predictive value of lung ultrasound score for mortality in patients with COVID-19. Read More

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Primary high-grade myoepithelial carcinoma of the lung: A study of three cases illustrating frequent SMARCB1-deficiency and review of the literature.

Ann Diagn Pathol 2021 May 8;53:151759. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Pathology, Rambam Health Care Campus, 31096 Haifa, Israel.

Primary myoepithelial carcinoma of the lung is exceptionally rare and, hence, remained poorly characterized. We present 3 tumors affecting 2 males and 1 female aged 60 to 84 years. Tumor size ranged from 4 to 10 cm. Read More

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Prenatal evaluation of functional pulmonary hypoplasia via fetal magnetic resonance imaging.

J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Toho University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively examine the use of lung-to-liver signal intensity ratio (LLSIR) on T2-weighted images to predict functional pulmonary hypoplasia.

Methods: The subjects of this study were pregnant women who underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patients who required nitric oxide inhalation and those who died from respiratory disorders were classified as having functional pulmonary hypoplasia (FPH). Read More

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Current advances in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in systemic sclerosis.

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2021 May;25(10):3718-3736

Department of Internal Medicine, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a systemic autoimmune disorder characterized by inflammation, fibroproliferative vasculopathy, and progressive fibrosis. Cardiac involvement is common in SSc and may affect the myocardium, pericardium, heart valves, conduction system, as well as coronary arteries. However, it remains asymptomatic for a long time, which leads to delayed diagnosis and poor prognosis. Read More

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Automatic Detection of Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) in X-ray and CT Images: A Machine Learning Based Approach.

Biocybern Biomed Eng 2021 Jul-Sep;41(3):867-879. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Computer Science, University of Saskatchewan, Canada.

The newly identified Coronavirus pneumonia, subsequently termed COVID-19, is highly transmittable and pathogenic with no clinically approved antiviral drug or vaccine available for treatment. The most common symptoms of COVID-19 are dry cough, sore throat, and fever. Symptoms can progress to a severe form of pneumonia with critical complications, including septic shock, pulmonary edema, acute respiratory distress syndrome and multi-organ failure. Read More

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Imaging in traumatic injury to the inferior vena cava.

Clin Radiol 2021 Jun 6. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Radiology, The Royal London Hospital, Barts Health NHS Trust, Whitechapel Road London, E1 1FR, UK.

Inferior vena cava (IVC) injury is a rare but serious consequence of trauma. It presents with high scores on trauma assessment scales and is often life threatening. Factors that contribute to poor survival include delay and difficulty in diagnosis due to non-specific clinical features. Read More

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Optimizing the diagnosis and assessment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension with advancing imaging modalities.

Pulm Circ 2021 Apr-Jun;11(2):20458940211007375. Epub 2021 May 24.

Cardiothoracic Imaging, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Imaging is key to nearly all aspects of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension including management for screening, assessing eligibility for pulmonary endarterectomy, and post-operative follow-up. While ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy, the gold standard technique for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension screening, can have excellent sensitivity, it can be confounded by other etiologies of pulmonary malperfusion, and does not provide structural information to guide operability assessment. Conventional computed tomography pulmonary angiography has high specificity, though findings of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension can be visually subtle and unrecognized. Read More

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Respiratory samples to diagnose tuberculosis in the absence of chest x-ray abnormalities.

Respir Med 2021 May 29;185:106488. Epub 2021 May 29.

Imperial College London, London, UK, Tuberculosis Service.

Background: The World Health Organisation states that the chest x-ray (CXR) has a 'high sensitivity for pulmonary tuberculosis (TB)' [1] and as such, is relied on worldwide as the cornerstone of screening for active pulmonary TB (pTB).

Method: This is a retrospective analysis of plain chest radiographs and microbiological yield in all patients who were diagnosed with pTB or intra-thoracic nodal tuberculosis (ITLN) in two London NHS Trusts.

Results: Between 2011 and 2017 8% of those diagnosed with pTB and 32% with ITLN TB had normal CXR appearances in the 6 weeks preceding diagnosis. Read More

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Simultaneous presence of the "bullseye" and "reversed halo" sign at CT of COVID-19 pneumonia: A case report.

Radiol Case Rep 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany.

The "bullseye" sign has been exclusively reported in patients suffering from COVID-19 pneumonia. It is theorized that this newly recognised CT feature represents a sign of organizing pneumonia. Well established signs of organizing pneumonia also reported in COVID-19 patients include linear opacities, the "reversed halo" sign (or "atoll" sign), and a perilobular distribution of abnormalities. Read More

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COVID-19 pneumonia on chest X-rays: Performance of a deep learning-based computer-aided detection system.

PLoS One 2021 7;16(6):e0252440. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Chest X-rays (CXRs) can help triage for Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients in resource-constrained environments, and a computer-aided detection system (CAD) that can identify pneumonia on CXR may help the triage of patients in those environment where expert radiologists are not available. However, the performance of existing CAD for identifying COVID-19 and associated pneumonia on CXRs has been scarcely investigated. In this study, CXRs of patients with and without COVID-19 confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were retrospectively collected from four and one institution, respectively, and a commercialized, regulatory-approved CAD that can identify various abnormalities including pneumonia was used to analyze each CXR. Read More

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Characterization of hemodynamic patterns in human fetuses with cyanotic congenital heart disease using MRI.

Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Division of Paediatric Cardiology, Department of Paediatrics, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

Objectives: To characterize the distribution of blood flow and oxygen transport in human fetuses with congenital heart disease (CHD) subtypes that present with neonatal cyanosis using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Methods: Blood flow was measured in the major vessels of 152 late gestation human fetuses with CHD and 40 gestational age-matched normal fetuses using cine phase contrast MRI. Oxygen saturation (SaO2) was measured in the major vessels of 57 fetuses with CHD and 40 controls. Read More

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Modified lung ultrasound scoring system to evaluate the feasibility of pregnant women with COVID-19 pneumonia.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 Jun 6:1-6. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Ultrasound Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian, China.

Objective: To investigate whether physicians with short-term training can use a modified lung ultrasound scoring system for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia to assess lung damage in pregnant women.

Methods: Sixteen consecutively hospitalized third-trimester pregnant women with pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, rheumatoid arthritis or connective tissue disease were selected as the study subjects for the simulation of COVID-19 pneumonia. Two physicians (imaging and internal medicine) without ultrasonic experience performed lung examinations on pregnant women after six days of lung ultrasound training, and their consistency with examinations by the expert was assessed. Read More

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Wiad Lek 2021 ;74(5):1274-1276


Objective: The aim: To pay attention of clinicians to possible lesions of the central nervous system (encephalitis) in patients with COVID-19.

Patients And Methods: Case presentation: A 44-year-old woman was admitted to our clinic because of 2-month-history of mild fever, bilateral lower lobe pneumonia, respiratory failure, generalized weakness, and some neurologic symptoms. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in nasopharyngeal swab. Read More

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