1,000,294 results match your criteria Public Health Ethics [Journal]
Fed Regist 2018 Dec;83(241):64443-58
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA, the Agency, or we) is issuing a final rule to amend its regulations governing classification and reclassification of medical devices to conform to the applicable provisions of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act) as amended by the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA). FDA is also making additional changes unrelated to the FDASIA requirements, to update its regulations governing the classification and reclassification of medical devices. FDA is taking this action to codify the procedures and criteria that apply to the classification and reclassification of medical devices and to provide for classification of devices in the lowest regulatory class consistent with the public health and the statutory scheme for device regulation. Read More
Am J Nephrol 2018 Dec 17;49(1):41-51. Epub 2018 Dec 17.
Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei,
Background: Extensive studies have demonstrated that sleep is an important modulator of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. However, its impact on renal function remains uncertain.
Methods: A total of 26,249 adults aged ≥20 years were recruited through voluntary health examinations in Taiwan. Read More
Am J Nephrol 2018 Dec 17;49(1):64-73. Epub 2018 Dec 17.
Department of Health Services Policy and Management, Columbia, South Carolina, USA.
Background: Medicare uses a quality incentive program (QIP) criteria to evaluate care in dialysis facilities and apply monetary penalties on underperforming facilities. Smaller dialysis facilities are likely to be rural and operate on lower profit margin; therefore, such facilities are likely to underperform and face Medicare penalties. The variation in QIP scores by facility size is not yet known. Read More
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2018 Dec 4;211:280-286. Epub 2018 Dec 4.
Key Lab of Process Analysis and Control of Sichuan Universities, Yibin University, Yibin, Sichuan 644000, China.
The authentication of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is critically important for public-health and economic terms. Notoginseng, a classical TCM of high economic and medical value, could be easily adulterated with Sophora flavescens powder (SFP), corn flour (CF) or other analogues of low-grade (ALG) because of their similar tastes, appearances and much lower cost. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of applying of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and multivariate calibration for identifying and quantifying several common adulterants in notoginseng powder. Read More
Biosens Bioelectron 2018 Dec 7;126:792-799. Epub 2018 Dec 7.
DBT-National Institute of Animal Biotechnology (DBT-NIAB), Hyderabad 500032, Telangana, India. Electronic address:
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which isa worldwide public health issue, is commonly associated with cardiovascular disorders (CVDs) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A smart nanosensor was developed for the detection of HIV and its related diseases (CVDs and RA) using graphene-based field-effect transistors (FETs). In this study, amine-functionalized graphene (afG) was conjugated with antibodies [anti-p24 for HIV, anti-cardiac troponin 1 (anti-cTn1) for CVDs, and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) for RA] to detect various biomarkers. Read More
Forensic Sci Int 2018 Dec 6;295:36-45. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Jagiellonian University, Faculty of Chemistry, Gronostajowa 2, 30-387 Kraków, Poland.
Introduction: Although there is an observed decline in the number of new psychoactive substances entering the drug market, this phenomenon is still a significant public health problem. Synthetic cathinones are the second largest group of new substances and currently belong to the most frequently confiscated. Their availability and prevalence cause that they are often abused. Read More
Cancer Epidemiol 2018 Dec 14;58:121-129. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Wits Reproductive Health and HIV Institute, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, 22 Esselen Street, Hillbrow, Johannesburg, 2001, South Africa.
Background: HPV infection causes several cancers which include cervical, vaginal, vulval, penile and oropharyngeal cancer (OPC). Understanding the burden of HPV-related cancers is important for guiding cancer prevention and treatment interventions.
Methods: To inform policy, we analysed trends of age-standardised incidence (ASIR) and mortality (ASMR) rates for HPV-related head and neck (HNC) and anogenital cancers (AGC) in South Africa between 1994 and 2013. Read More
Drug Alcohol Depend 2018 Dec 8;195:6-12. Epub 2018 Dec 8.
Recovery Research Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 151 Merrimac Street, Boston, MA, 02114, USA.
Background: Tobacco and alcohol and other drug (AOD) use remain prominent risk factors for morbidity, mortality, and health care utilization. Moreover, these often cluster together within persons, exponentiating health risks. Little is known regarding if and when people resolving AOD problems stop smoking, who stops, and whether recent general population trends toward smoking cessation are evident also among persons more recently entering recovery. Read More
Environ Int 2018 Dec 14;123:325-336. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Center for Global Health, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 211166, China; Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 211166, China. Electronic address:
Background: The evaluation of the chemical impact on human health is usually constrained to the analysis of the health effects of exposure to a single chemical or a group of similar chemicals at one time. The effects of chemical mixtures are seldom analyzed. In this study, we applied three statistical models to assess the association between the exposure to a mixture of seven xenobiotics (three phthalate metabolites, two phenols, and two pesticides) and obesity. Read More
Environ Int 2018 Dec 14;123:318-324. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Department of Growth and Reproduction and EDMaRC, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
Background: Biobank serum samples from longitudinal mother-child cohorts have been used to estimate prenatal exposures to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). However, the knowledge about variations in serum concentrations of non-persistent chemicals during pregnancy is limited.
Objective: To describe the within- and between-person variations in serum concentrations of non-persistent chemicals and changes over trimesters, including phthalate metabolites, parabens, phenols, and UV filters. Read More
Environ Int 2018 Dec 14;123:310-317. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health Risk Assessment, Guangdong Provincial Engineering Technology Research Center of Environmental and Health risk Assessment, Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China. Electronic address:
Backgrounds: Evidence on the association between long-term exposure to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is scarce in developing countries. Moreover, few studies assessed the role of the PM (≤1. Read More
Environ Pollut 2018 Dec 5;246:311-318. Epub 2018 Dec 5.
Area of Cardiometabolic and Renal Risk, Biomedical Research Institute Hospital Clinic of Valencia (INCLIVA), Valencia, Spain; Department of Environmental Health and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; Department of Chronic Diseases Epidemiology, National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Health Institutes, Madrid, Spain.
Introduction: While several mechanisms may explain metal-related health effects, the exact cellular processes are not fully understood. We evaluated the association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and urine arsenic (ΣAs), cadmium (Cd) and tungsten (W) exposure in the Strong Heart Study (SHS, N = 1702) and in the Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS, N = 1793).
Methods: Urine metal concentrations were measured using ICP-MS. Read More
Environ Pollut 2018 Dec 7;246:257-263. Epub 2018 Dec 7.
Institute of Environmental Pollution and Health, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, PR China; Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Environmental Catalysis and Pollution Control, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Institute of Environmental Health and Pollution Control, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong, PR China. Electronic address:
This work aimed to determine the concentrations of parabens and triclosan (TCS) in shellfish from coastal waters of Shenzhen, South China. A method of isotope dilution with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was used to determine TCS and five paraben analogues, including methyl paraben (MeP), ethyl paraben (EtP), propyl paraben (PrP), butyl paraben (BuP), and benzyl paraben (BeP), in 186 shellfish samples covering eight species. Concentrations of parabens and TCS were 0. Read More
Environ Pollut 2018 Dec 7;246:237-248. Epub 2018 Dec 7.
Behavioural Ecology and Ecophysiology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610, Wilrijk, Belgium. Electronic address:
Over the past decades, there has been growing scientific attention and public concern towards perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), due to their widespread presence in the environment and associations with adverse effects on various organisms. Bird eggs have often been used as less-invasive biomonitoring tools for toxicological risk assessments of persistent organic pollutants, including some PFAAs. Hereby, it is typically assumed that one random egg is representative for the PFAA concentrations of the whole clutch. Read More
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging 2018 Dec 8;283:83-91. Epub 2018 Dec 8.
Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI 53705, USA; Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin, School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI 53705, USA; Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, 53706 USA; Neuroscience Training Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, 53705 USA. Electronic address:
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex and genetically heterogeneous neuropsychiatric disease affecting as many as 1 in 68 children. Large scale genetic sequencing of individuals along the autism spectrum has uncovered several genetic risk factors for ASD; however, understanding how, and to what extent, individual genes contribute to the overall disease phenotype remains unclear. Neuroimaging studies of ASD have revealed a wide spectrum of structural and functional perturbations that are thought to reflect, in part, the complex genetic heterogeneity underpinning ASD. Read More
Soc Sci Med 2018 Dec 10;221:58-67. Epub 2018 Dec 10.
The University of Texas at San Antonio, United States.
Rationale: Food insecurity is a significant public health concern, with implications for community and individual health and well-being. Although a growing body of literature points to the role of neighborhoods in household food insecurity, studies using nationally representative samples to explore interactions between neighborhood risks - including violence and danger - are lacking.
Objective: The present study examines whether interactions between physical disorder, low social capital, and violence/danger in the neighborhood have significant implications for the risk of household food insufficiency using a large, nationally representative sample of U. Read More
Res Vet Sci 2018 Nov 13;122:200-209. Epub 2018 Nov 13.
Center for Biomedical Research, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:
Due to welfare concerns and legal restrictions in certain countries, alternatives to wire net floors must be developed in rabbit husbandries. Also, there is a difference in regulations in Europe for laboratory rabbits vs. rabbits bred and kept for meat production. Read More
Eat Behav 2018 Nov 30;32:37-43. Epub 2018 Nov 30.
CSIRO, Health and Biosecurity, Kintore Ave, Adelaide 5001, Australia.
Objective: To investigate the potential for an email-based, mindful eating exercise to improve unwanted snacking habits.
Method: Australian participants (N = 78, 86% female) with unwanted snacking habits engaged in a mindful eating email-based intervention, over a practice period of two weeks. All measures were completed using an online survey. Read More
Chemosphere 2018 Dec 12;219:724-729. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Department of Cardiology, Yancheng Hospital Affiliated to Xuzhou Medical University and the First Hospital of Yancheng, Yancheng, 224006, China. Electronic address:
Background: Abundant epidemiological studies have revealed that short-term exposure to ambient air pollution increased the incidence of ischemic heart diseases. However, few investigations have explored the association between air pollution and ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), one major subtype of such events.
Methods: We conducted a time-stratified case-crossover study in two major hospitals of Yancheng, a city in East China, from January 2015 to February 2018. Read More
Chemosphere 2018 Nov 28;219:655-661. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Ministry of Education & Ministry of Protection, and State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China. Electronic address:
Benzophenones (BPs) are widely used as ultraviolet absorbers and fragrance retention agents. Evidences from animal studies have suggested that exposure to BPs may affect fetal growth, but human data is limited and no study is concerning critical windows of BPs exposure throughout pregnancy in relation to fetal growth. We aimed to investigate the associations of prenatal exposure to BPs with birth size and examine the critical exposure windows of fetus development. Read More
Chemosphere 2018 Dec 10;219:645-654. Epub 2018 Dec 10.
Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100, China.
As an effective organochlorine pesticide, Dicofol has been extensively applied in more than 30 countries for protecting over 60 different crops. Considering its large consumption and potential adverse effect on human health (endocrine disrupting and carcinogenicity), the fate of Dicofol sprayed into the air is of public concern. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive study on the reaction mechanisms of p,p'-Dicofol with OH and NO radicals using DFT method. Read More
Environ Res 2018 Dec 5;170:65-72. Epub 2018 Dec 5.
Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Health Professions, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA. Electronic address:
Objectives: Lead exposure is associated with children's growth, but this relationship may depend on the presence of susceptibility factors, including genetic variation. Blood lead levels (BLL) differ by ALAD (aminolevulinic acid dehydratase) genotype. We investigated the association between BLL and growth in Mexican first-graders with different ALAD genotypes. Read More
Environ Res 2018 Dec 6;170:56-64. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Colorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO, USA.
Background: Oil and natural gas (O&G) extraction emits pollutants that are associated with cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of mortality in the United States.
Objective: We evaluated associations between intensity of O&G activity and cardiovascular disease indicators.
Methods: Between October 2015 and May 2016, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 97 adults living in Northeastern Colorado. Read More
Environ Res 2018 Dec 10;170:46-55. Epub 2018 Dec 10.
Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA. Electronic address:
Background: Household air pollution from cooking with solid fuels affects nearly 3 billion people worldwide and is responsible for an estimated 2.5 million premature deaths and 77 million disability-adjusted life years annually. Investigating the effect of household air pollution on indicators of cardiometabolic disease, such as metabolic syndrome, can help clarify the pathways between this widespread exposure and cardiovascular diseases, which are increasing in low- and middle-income countries. Read More
Environ Res 2018 Dec 7;170:33-45. Epub 2018 Dec 7.
School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Queensland, Herston, Australia; Centre for Air Pollution, Energy and Health Research, Glebe, NSW, Australia.
Ambient air pollution is the leading environmental risk factor for disease globally. Air pollutants can increase the risk of some respiratory infections, but their effects on tuberculosis (TB) are unclear. In this systematic literature review, we aimed to assess epidemiological studies on the association between outdoor air pollutants and TB incidence, hospital admissions and death (collectively referred to here as 'TB outcomes'). Read More
Environ Res 2018 Dec 3;170:26-32. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
University of Montreal Hospital Research Centre, 900 Saint Denis St, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H2X 0A9; Institut national de santé publique du Québec, 190 Cremazie Blvd E, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H2P 1E2; Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Occupational Health, McGill University, 1020 Pine Ave W, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 1A2; School of Public Health, University of Montreal, 7101 du Parc Ave, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3N 1X9. Electronic address:
Objective: Depression is a major public health concern, but the link with the built environment is unclear. We sought to determine the relationship between residential noise during pregnancy and later risk of severe depression in women.
Methods: We analyzed a population-based cohort of 140,456 women with no documented history of mental illness who were pregnant in Montreal between 2000 and 2016. Read More
J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Emerging Bacterial Pathogens Unit, Division of Immunology, Transplantation and Infectious Diseases, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.
Objectives: Carbapenemases represent a public health threat as they can spread through horizontal gene transfer and cause outbreaks. NDM-1 is a metallo-ß-lactamase that has spread rapidly in the last decade causing worldwide alarm. We aimed to describe the first isolate of NDM-1 producing and XDR Klebsiella pneumoniae in Albania, its clinical context and genetic characterization. Read More
J Clin Epidemiol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, Norfolk, U.K.
Objectives: To assess the appropriateness and rationales of subgroup analyses planned in protocols of randomised controlled trials and reported in subsequent corresponding trial publications.
Study Design And Setting: We searched PubMed to identify trial protocols published in journals during 2006-2017. From a total of 3774 initially identified records, we included a random sample of 479 protocols, and identified 280 trial publications corresponding to the included protocols. Read More
J Control Release 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Department of Oncology and Hemato-Oncology, Center of Excellence on Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of Milan, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), are naturally occurring cargo delivery tools with the potential to be used as drug vehicles of single agents or combination therapies. We previously demonstrated that human lung cancer cell-derived EVs could be used for the systemic delivery of oncolytic virus (OVs) and chemotherapy drugs such as paclitaxel (PTX), leading to enhanced anti-tumor effects in nude mice. In the current work, we evaluated the biodistribution of EVs by using bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging technologies, thus proving the ability of these EVs-formulations to specifically target the neoplasia, while leaving other body tissues unaffected. Read More
Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
College of Life Sciences, Yantai University, Shandong 264005, PR China.
Phycoerythrin-phycocyanin aggregates and phycoerythrin aggregates showing special spectral characteristics were prepared from the partly dissociated products of phycobilisomes from Polysiphonia urceolata. The absorption difference spectra between the aggregates and phycoerythrins showing normal spectral characteristics show peaks at 583 nm. The fluorescence emission difference spectra between the phycoerythrin aggregates and normal phycoerythrins show peaks at 602 nm. Read More
Bone 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Maine Medical Center, Portland, ME, USA; Center for Outcomes Research and Evaluation, Maine Medical Center Research Institute, Portland, ME, USA.
Background: Body mass compartments may have different directions of influence on bone accrual. Studies of children are limited by relatively small sample sizes and typically make strong assumptions of linear regression.
Objective: To evaluate associations of overall body mass, components of overall body mass (fat-free and total fat), and components of total fat mass (truncal and non-truncal fat), measured via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and anthropometry, with total body less head areal bone mineral density (aBMD) Z-score in mid-childhood. Read More
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Professor, Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago.
Fungal Genet Biol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 USA. Electronic address:
A survey of genomes reported here for 10 isolates of Monosporascus species and an additional 25 genomes from other members of the Xylariales (representing 15 genera) available in public databases indicated that genes typically associated with MAT1-1 (mat A) or MAT1-2 (mat a) mating types are absent or have diverged greatly relative to counterparts in other Pezizomycotina. This was particularly surprising for isolates known to be homothallic, given that homothallic members of the Pezizomycotina typically possess a MAT1-1-1 (mat A-1) gene and one or both of two other closely-linked mating-type genes, MAT1-1-2 (mat A-2) and MAT1-1-3 (mat A-3), in addition to MAT1-2-1 (mat a-1). We failed to detect candidate genes for either MAT1-1-1 or MAT1-1-2 in any member of the Xylariales. Read More
J Hosp Infect 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
MiHAR Lab (www.mihar.univ-nantes.fr), University of Nantes, Nantes, FR-44000; Bacteriology and Infection Control Department, Nantes University Hospital, Nantes, FR-44000. Electronic address:
Background: The spread of extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) in healthcare environments has become a major public health threat in recent years.
Aim: To assess how healthcare workers (HCWs) manage excreta and the possible association with ESBL-PE incidence.
Methods: 800 HCWs and 74 nurse-supervisors were questioned through 2 self-report questionnaires in order to assess their knowledge and practices, and to determine the equipment utilized for excreta management in 74 healthcare departments. Read More
Ann Thorac Surg 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Department of Medicine, University of Chicago.
Background: Physician gender differences exist for estimating surgical risk and recommending lung resection. We assessed gender differences in perceived importance of health characteristics portrayed by standardized patients posing as lung resection candidates.
Methods: Physicians read a clinical vignette categorized as low, average, or high surgical risk, then viewed a video of a standardized patient exhibiting vigorous, normal, or frail behavior. Read More
Anal Biochem 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Center for Translational Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai, 200233, China. Electronic address:
Different correlation detection methods have been specifically designed for the microbiome data analysis considering the compositional data structure and different sequencing depths. Along with the speedy development of omics studies, there is an increasing interest in discovering the biological associations between microbes and host metabolites. This raises the need of finding proper statistical methods that facilitate the correlation analysis across different omics studies. Read More
Ann Intern Med 2018 Dec 18. Epub 2018 Dec 18.
Boston University School of Public Health, Boston University School of Medicine, and Boston Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (R.S.).
Ann Intern Med 2018 Dec 18. Epub 2018 Dec 18.
National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia (A.C., J.T., R.J., J.S., L.Y.).
PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208652. Epub 2018 Dec 17.
Health Protection Research Unit in Evaluation of Interventions at University of Bristol in partnership with Public Health England, Bristol, United Kingdom.
Background: Seroprevalence surveys of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) antibodies are promising for estimating age-specific CT cumulative incidence, however accurate estimates require improved understanding of antibody response to CT infection.
Methods: We used GUMCAD, England's national sexually transmitted infection (STI) surveillance system, to select sera taken from female STI clinic attendees on the day of or after a chlamydia diagnosis. Serum specimens were collected from laboratories and tested anonymously on an indirect and a double-antigen ELISA, both of which are based on the CT-specific Pgp3 antigen. Read More
PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209152. Epub 2018 Dec 17.
Health Outcomes Unit, Department of Health Law, Policy and Management, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.
Elderly patients and those with comorbid conditions are at high risk for poor outcomes after Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) but outcomes in a healthier, nonelderly population are not well described. We sought to investigate gastrointestinal diagnoses and CDI during hospitalizations in the 24 to 36 months after an initial episode of CDI in nonelderly patients in a cohort with an overall low prevalence of comorbid conditions. We performed a retrospective analysis of hospital admissions from 2010-2013 using the Truven MarketScan database of employment-based private insurance claims. Read More
PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209120. Epub 2018 Dec 17.
Chemical and Biological Signature Science, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, United States of America.
The spore forming pathogen Bacillus anthracis is the etiologic agent of anthrax in humans and animals. It cycles through infected hosts as vegetative cells and is eventually introduced into the environment where it generates an endospore resistant to many harsh conditions. The endospores are subsequently taken up by another host to begin the next cycle. Read More
PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208875. Epub 2018 Dec 17.
Department of Statistical Sciences, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.
Introduction: Patients with complex health care needs (PCHCN) are individuals who require numerous, costly care services and have been shown to place a heavy burden on health care resources. It has been argued that an important issue in providing value-based primary care concerns how to identify groups of patients with similar needs (who pose similar challenges) so that care teams and care delivery processes can be tailored to each patient subgroup. Our study aims to describe the most common chronic conditions and their combinations in a cohort of elderly PCHCN. Read More
PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0203515. Epub 2018 Dec 17.
Vermont Department of Fish and Wildlife, Barre, Vermont, United States of America.
Increasing development such as roads and houses will alter future landscapes and result in biological, social, and economic trade-offs. Managing development requires information on the public's acceptability of development and understanding which factors shape acceptability. In this study, we examined three questions: 1) What is the public's acceptability of development? 2) Is acceptability of development influenced by wildlife information? and 3) Is the maximum amount of acceptable development influenced by views about wildlife, involvement in outdoor recreation, and demographic factors? We conducted a visual-preference survey of 9,000 households in Vermont, USA that asked about acceptable levels of development, acceptability of wildlife, involvement in recreation, and individual and town demographics. Read More
PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209096. Epub 2018 Dec 17.
Laboratory of Clinical Genome Sequencing, Department of Computational Biology and Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified greater than 30 variants associated with ovarian cancer, but most of these variants were investigated in European populations. Here, we integrated GWAS and subsequent functional analyses to identify the genetic variants with potential regulatory effects. We conducted GWAS for ovarian cancer using 681 Japanese cases and 17,492 controls and found that rs137672 on 22q13. Read More
PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0207838. Epub 2018 Dec 17.
Department of Epidemiology, College of Medicine and College of Public Health and Health Professions, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States of America.
Despite campaigns to increase safer sex practices, there are people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) who do not disclose their HIV status to sexual partners and engage in condomless sex. The purpose of this research was to: 1) describe factors associated with disclosure of HIV status to sexual partners; and 2) determine if disclosure and/or receipt of prevention counseling are independently associated with condomless sex. We used the Florida Medical Monitoring Project to analyze data from 376 HIV positive men with more than one sexual partner. Read More
PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208831. Epub 2018 Dec 17.
Economics of Tobacco Control Project, Southern African Labour and Development Research Unit, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
Aims: To apply methods for measuring the affordability of beer in a large cross section of countries, and to investigate trends in affordability of beer over time.
Methods: We use the Relative Income Price (RIP), which uses per capita GDP, to measure the affordability of beer in up to 92 countries from 1990 to 2016 (69 countries were included in 1990, however the survey has since grown to include 92 countries). In addition to affordability, we also investigate trends in the price of beer. Read More
PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208008. Epub 2018 Dec 17.
National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.
Objectives: One-third of people living with HIV in China are still unaware of their status, so we sought to better understand HIV testing in the general hospital setting in China.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using the electronic medical records of all patients who attended Xuanwu Hospital in Beijing, January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2016. HIV screening and detection rates and characteristics of patients diagnosed with HIV were assessed. Read More
PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0207909. Epub 2018 Dec 17.
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.
An urgent need exists to improve and maintain intrapartum skills of providers in sub-Saharan Africa. Peer-assisted learning may address this need, but few rigorous evaluations have been conducted in real-world settings. A pragmatic, cluster-randomized trial in 12 Ugandan districts provided facility-based, team training for prevention and management of postpartum hemorrhage and birth asphyxia at 125 facilities. Read More
PLoS Comput Biol 2018 Dec 17;14(12):e1006554. Epub 2018 Dec 17.
MRC Centre for Outbreak Analysis and Modelling, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.
Early assessment of infectious disease outbreaks is key to implementing timely and effective control measures. In particular, rapidly recognising whether infected individuals stem from a single outbreak sustained by local transmission, or from repeated introductions, is crucial to adopt effective interventions. In this study, we introduce a new framework for combining several data streams, e. Read More
PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209076. Epub 2018 Dec 17.
International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b); Mohakhali, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Background: Increasing the level of birth preparedness and complication readiness (BP/CR) is one of the key interventions to promote optimal utilization of skilled maternal health services. It is therefore essential to determine the women's ability to recognize the danger signs and the level of BP/CR. This information can be used to design more effective health interventions. Read More