91,759 results match your criteria Psychosocial and Environmental Pregnancy Risks


Difficult Patient Behavior in Dialysis Facilities.

Blood Purif 2018 Dec 6:1-5. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Difficult behavior exhibited by dialysis patients is a spectrum that includes nonadherence, verbal or physical abuse, and threatening acts. Such behaviors may lead to harmful consequences to the patient, other patients, the facility, and staff and can culminate in involuntary discharge. It is important to recognize that these "difficult behaviors" may be due to underlying psychosocial or medical issues, which places an onus on care providers to explore further. Read More

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December 2018
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Disruption of function: Neurophysiological markers of cognitive deficits in retired football players.

Clin Neurophysiol 2018 Nov 26;130(1):111-121. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Linguistics and Languages, McMaster University, Togo Salmon Hall 513, 1280 Main Street, West Hamilton, ON L8S 4M2, Canada; ARiEAL Research Centre, McMaster University, L.R. Wilson Hall, 1280 Main Street, West Hamilton, ON L8S 4M2, Canada; School of Biomedical Engineering, McMaster University, ETB-406, 1280 Main St., West Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1, Canada; MaRS Centre, Vector Institute, Canada; McMaster University, Department of Psychology, Neuroscience and Behaviour, Canada. Electronic address:

Objective: Recent studies demonstrate that sports-related concussions can have negative consequences on long-term brain health. The goal of the present study was to determine whether retired Canadian Football League (CFL) athletes with a history of concussions exhibit alterations in neurocognitive functioning, along with changes in physical, social, and psychological health.

Methods: Our study compared nineteen retired CFL athletes' concussion histories to eighteen healthy age-matched controls with no history of concussion. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Psychosocial interventions to reduce alcohol consumption in concurrent problem alcohol and illicit drug users.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 5;12:CD009269. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

BC Centre on Substance Use, BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, 611 Powell Street, Vancouver, BC, Canada, V6A 1H2.

Background: Problem alcohol use is common among people who use illicit drugs (PWID) and is associated with adverse health outcomes. It is also an important factor contributing to a poor prognosis among drug users with hepatitis C virus (HCV) as it impacts on progression to hepatic cirrhosis or opioid overdose in PWID.

Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions to reduce alcohol consumption in PWID (users of opioids and stimulants). Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

The burden of stroke in China: Results from a nationwide population-based epidemiological survey.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208398. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Neuroepidemiology, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Stroke is a serious threat to human health that often leads to severe complications, and currently ranks first as leading cause of death in China. However, reliable data on stroke burden in China in the 21st century are lacking. We used the data from NESS-China (National Epidemiological Survey of Stroke in China) for assessing the adverse health effects of stroke in Chinese population. Read More

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December 2018
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An embodied neurocomputational framework for organically integrating biopsychosocial processes: An application to the role of social support in health and disease.

Psychosom Med 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

University of Arizona, Departments of Psychiatry, 1501 N. Campbell Ave, Tucson, AZ 85724-5002, United States.

Objective: Two distinct perspectives - typically referred to as the biopsychosocial and biomedical models - currently guide clinical practice. While the role of psychosocial factors in contributing to physical and mental health outcomes is widely recognized, the biomedical model remains dominant. This is due in part to 1) the largely non-mechanistic focus of biopsychosocial research, and 2) the lack of specificity it currently offers in guiding clinicians to focus on social, psychological, and/or biological factors in individual cases. Read More

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December 2018
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The impact of the implementation of the Dutch combined Meeting Centres Support Programme for family caregivers of people with dementia in Italy, Poland and UK.

Aging Ment Health 2018 Dec 6:1-11. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

j Department of Psychiatry , VU University Medical Centre , Amsterdam , The Netherlands.

Objectives: The MEETINGDEM research project aimed to implement the combined Dutch Meeting Centre Support Programme (MCSP) for community-dwelling people with dementia and caregivers within Italy, Poland and UK and to assess whether comparable benefits were found in these countries as in the Netherlands.

Method: Nine pilot Meeting Centres (MCs) participated (Italy-5, Poland-2, UK-2). Effectiveness of MCSP was compared to usual care (UC) on caregiver outcomes measuring competence (SSCQ), mental health (GHQ-12), emotional distress (NPI-Q) and loneliness (UCLA) analysed by ANCOVAs in a 6-month pre-test/post-test controlled trial. Read More

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December 2018

Testosterone therapy to prevent type 2 diabetes mellitus in at-risk men (T4DM): Design and implementation of a double-blind randomised controlled trial.

Diabetes Obes Metab 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Medical School, University of Western Australia, and Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Fiona Stanley Hospital, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Background: Low circulating testosterone is associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in overweight men with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT).

Aim: To determine in a multi-centre, double-blinded placebo-controlled randomised trial, whether testosterone treatment combined with lifestyle intervention (Weight Watchers®) relative to lifestyle intervention alone, reduces T2DM incidence and improves glucose tolerance at 2 years.

Study Population: Overweight or obese men aged 50-74 years with a serum testosterone of ≤14nmol/L and IGT or newly diagnosed T2DM established by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Read More

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December 2018

Migration and cognitive function: a conceptual framework for Global Health Research.

Glob Health Res Policy 2018 22;3:34. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

3New York University Rory Meyers College of Nursing, New York, NY USA.

Background: Migration is a fundamental demographic process that has been observed globally. It is suggested that migration is an issue of global health importance that can have an immediate and lasting impact on an individual's health and well-being. There is now an increasing body of evidence linking migration with cognitive function in older adults. Read More

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November 2018

Cortisol Impacted on Explicit Learning Encoding, but Not on Storage and Retrieval, and Was Not Associated With Sleep Patterns-Results From the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C) Among 9-Years Old Children.

Front Psychol 2018 21;9:2240. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Psychiatric Services Solothurn, Solothurn, Switzerland.

Learning is the relatively permanent change of behavior as a result of experience and tightly related to memory and cognition. Learning is particularly important for children. Further, restoring sleep is associated both with improved learning performance and lower cortisol levels as a proxy of the so-called hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical axis activity (HPA-AA). Read More

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November 2018
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A Cross-Lagged Study of Developmental Trajectories of Video Game Engagement, Addiction, and Mental Health.

Front Psychol 2018 21;9:2239. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Psychosocial Science, Faculty of Psychology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Video game addiction has been associated with an array of mental health variables. There is a paucity of longitudinal studies investigating such associations, and studies differentiating addicted gaming from problem and engaged (i.e. Read More

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November 2018

Among substance-abusing traffic offenders, poor sleep and poor general health predict lower driving skills but not slower reaction times.

Psychol Res Behav Manag 2018 9;11:557-566. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Substance Abuse Prevention Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran,

Background: Traffic accidents are a significant health issue in Iran. Explanations for such accidents have included single consideration of the role of poor sleep and negative psychological trait and state variables. In this study, we examined whether and to what extent sleep, general health, and aggression can concomitantly predict driving behavior. Read More

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November 2018

Therapists' techniques in the treatment of adolescent depression.

J Psychother Integr 2018 Dec;28(4):413-428

Research Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology, University College London, London, UK.

When comparing the relative effectiveness of different psychological treatment approaches using clinical trials, it is essential to establish fidelity to each manualized therapy, and differentiation between the treatment arms. Yet few psychological therapy trials include details about the assessment of treatment integrity and little is known about the specific techniques used by therapists, or to what degree these techniques are shared or distinct across different therapeutic approaches. The aims of this study were: to establish the fidelity of two established psychological therapies - cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) and short-term psychoanalytic psychotherapy (STPP) - in the treatment of adolescent depression; and to examine whether they were delivered with adherence to their respective treatment modalities, and if they could be differentiated from each other and from a reference treatment (a brief psychosocial intervention; BPI). Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Chair ICO/UVIC-UCC of palliative care at the University of Vic - Central University of Catalonia: an innovative multidisciplinary model of education, research and knowledge transfer.

BMJ Support Palliat Care 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Catalan Institute of Oncology, Barcelona, Spain.

Objectives: Generation and dissemination of knowledge is a relevant challenge of palliative care (PC). The Chair Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO)/University of Vic (UVIC) of Palliative Care (CPC) was founded in 2012, as a joint project of the ICO and the University of Vic/Central of Catalonia to promote the development of PC with public health and community-oriented vision and academic perspectives. The initiative brought together professionals from a wide range of disciplines (PC, geriatrics, oncology, primary care and policy) and became the first chair of PC in Spain. Read More

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December 2018
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Increased risk of chronic fatigue syndrome following burn injuries.

J Transl Med 2018 Dec 5;16(1):342. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Health Policy and Management, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, United States.

Background: The overlapping symptoms and pathophysiological similarities between burn injury and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) are noteworthy. Thus, this study explores the possible association between burn injury and the subsequent risk of CFS.

Method: We used data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance system to address the research topic. Read More

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December 2018

Discrimination and avoidance due to disability in Australia: evidence from a National Cross Sectional Survey.

BMC Public Health 2018 Dec 5;18(1):1347. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Centre for Health Policy, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: Across most high-income countries, populations are ageing. With this demographic change is an increase in the number of people living with disabilities. In this context, we sought to examine the prevalence of disability discrimination and disability avoidance in Australia, the demographic and health correlates of exclusion and the contexts in which disability discrimination and avoidance are experienced. Read More

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December 2018
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The experience of gestational diabetes for indigenous Māori women living in rural New Zealand: qualitative research informing the development of decolonising interventions.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2018 Dec 5;18(1):478. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

c/- Te Kupenga Hauora Māori, Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, 261 Morrin Rd, Glen Innes, Auckland, 1072, New Zealand.

Background: Although early detection and management of excess rates of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) among Indigenous women can substantially reduce maternal and offspring complications, current interventions seem ineffective for Indigenous women. While undertaking a qualitative study in a rural community in Northland, New Zealand about the complexities of living with diabetes, we observed a common emotional discourse about the burden of diabetic pregnancies. Given the significance of GDM and our commitment to give voice to Indigenous Māori women in ways that could potentially inform solutions, we aimed to explore the phenomenon of GDM among Māori women in a rural context marked by high area-deprivation. Read More

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December 2018

Sumter County on the Move! Evaluation of a Walking Group Intervention to Promote Physical Activity Within Existing Social Networks.

J Phys Act Health 2018 Dec 5:1-7. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Background: Social network-driven approaches have promise for promoting physical activity in community settings. Yet, there have been few direct investigations of such interventions. This study tested the effectiveness of a social network-driven, group-based walking intervention in a medically underserved community. Read More

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December 2018

Comparative Effectiveness of the Core Components of Cardiac Rehabilitation on Mortality and Morbidity: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis.

J Clin Med 2018 Dec 4;7(12). Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Toronto Health Economics and Technology Assessment (THETA) Collaborative, 200 Elizabeth Street, Toronto, ON M5G 2C4, Canada.

A systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA) of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the core components of cardiac rehabilitation (CR), nutritional counseling (NC), risk factor modification (RFM), psychosocial management (PM), patient education (PE), and exercise training (ET)) was undertaken. Published RCTs were identified from database inception dates to April 2017, and risk of bias assessed using Cochrane's tool. Endpoints included mortality (all-cause and cardiovascular (CV)) and morbidity (fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and hospitalization (all-cause and CV)). Read More

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December 2018

Remission from chronic opioid use-Studying environmental and socio-economic factors on recovery (RECOVER): Study design and participant characteristics.

Contemp Clin Trials 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Indivior Inc., 10710 Midlothian Turnpike, Suite 430, Richmond, VA 23235, United States. Electronic address:

Few opioid use disorder (OUD) treatment studies measure meaningful life changes during long-term recovery, focusing instead on retention and abstinence. Here, we report on the design and participant characteristics of the RECOVER Study, a study exploring life changes in persons with OUD for up to 24 months following participation in a Phase III trial evaluating buprenorphine extended-release monthly injection for subcutaneous use (known as RBP-6000 during development). This multisite, observational, cohort study tracks clinical, environmental, and socio-economic changes using self-administered assessments, urine drug screens (UDS), and public databases. Read More

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November 2018
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Mindfulness, Self-Efficacy, and Stress Among Final-Year Nursing Students.

Authors:
Ahmad Rayan

J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 2018 Dec 3:1-7. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Stress is an inevitable part of nursing students' lives. To implement appropriate interventions to manage stress in nursing students, the roles of various factors associated with stress among these individuals must be identified. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between stress, self-efficacy, and mindfulness among final-year nursing students, controlling for students' demographics. Read More

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December 2018

A Care Coordination Model Can Facilitate Interagency Collaboration When Designing Recovery-Oriented Services.

J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 2018 Dec 3:1-6. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

The purpose of the current article is to highlight the potential of a care coordination model in promoting interagency collaboration when designing recovery-oriented services. The authors argue the case using exemplars from the literature and lessons learned from Australia's Partners in Recovery initiative. Interagency collaboration is paramount when designing a recovery-oriented service system. Read More

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December 2018

Relationship Between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Compassion Satisfaction, Compassion Fatigue, and Burnout in Iranian Psychiatric Nurses.

J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 2018 Dec 3:1-9. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Research is limited regarding post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and professional quality of life (ProQOL) in Iranian nurses, especially nurses working in psychiatric units. The current study was conducted to determine the relationship between PTSD and ProQOL among psychiatric nurses in Kerman, Iran. This cross-sectional correlational study comprised 160 nurses working in three clinical settings supervised by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. Read More

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December 2018

Validation of the Spanish Version of the Work and Social Adjustment Scale in a Sample of Individuals With Bipolar Disorder.

J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 2018 Dec 3:1-8. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

The aim of the current study was to validate the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS), a measure of psychosocial functional impairment, in Spanish-speaking individuals with bipolar disorder. A sample of 120 patients with bipolar disorder and 97 healthy individuals completed the WSAS to analyze its factor structure and reliability. Patients also completed measures of personal recovery and quality of life (QOL). Read More

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December 2018

Association of Long-term Child Growth and Developmental Outcomes With Metformin vs Insulin Treatment for Gestational Diabetes.

JAMA Pediatr 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Importance: Metformin is an emerging option for treating gestational diabetes (GDM). However, because metformin crosses the placenta, patients and clinicians are concerned with its long-term effect on child health.

Objective: To estimate the association of treating GDM with metformin vs insulin with child growth and development. Read More

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December 2018

Self-Reported Instances of Major Discrimination, Race/Ethnicity, and Inflammation Among Older Adults: Evidence from the Health and Retirement Study.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Johns Hopkins Center for Health Disparities Solutions.

Background: This study examines the relationship between self-reported instances of major discrimination and inflammation among older adults, and explores whether this relationship varies in accordance with race/ethnicity. We hypothesized that self-reported instances of major discrimination would be associated with higher levels of high-risk inflammation, and that this relationship would be stronger for racial/ethnic minorities than Whites.

Methods: Data from the 2006/2008 Health and Retirement Study (HRS), an ongoing biennial nationally representative sample of older adults in the United States, was used to collect measures of self-reported instances of major discrimination and high-risk C-reactive protein (CRP), which was assayed from blood samples. Read More

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December 2018

The impact of approaches in improving male partner involvement in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV on the uptake of safe infant feeding practices by HIV positive women in sub-Saharan Africa. A systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2018 3;13(12):e0207060. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Maternal and Child Health, Ministry of Health, Harare, Zimbabwe.

Background: The low level of male partner involvement in Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV services such as safe infant feeding practices poses a serious challenge to the implementation of guidelines on safe infant feeding and may undermine efforts towards elimination of mother to child transmission of HIV in sub Saharan Africa(SSA). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify the approaches that have been utilized to improve male partner involvement in PMTCT services as well as their impact on the uptake of safe infant feeding practices by HIV positive mothers in SSA.

Methods: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, Ovid Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane library, ClinicalTrials. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

New age technology and social media: adolescent psychosocial implications and the need for protective measures.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Division of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, Steven and Alexandra Cohen Children's Medical Center of New York, Northwell Health System, Lake Success, New York, USA.

Purpose Of Review: In recent years, breakthroughs and advancements in new age technology have revolutionized the way children communicate and interact with the world around them. As social media platforms such as Facebook, Instagram, and Snapchat continue to grow in popularity, their usage has raised concerns about their role and impact on adolescent development and behavior. This review examines the psychosocial implications of social media usage on youth outcomes related to body image, socialization, and adolescent development. Read More

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November 2018

Factors Associated with the High Prevalence of Dementia in Older Aboriginal Australians.

J Alzheimers Dis 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Neuroscience Research Australia, Randwick, NSW, Australia.

Dementia prevalence in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians is three to five times higher than the general Australian population. A better understanding of the underlying biomedical and social risk factors is needed to guide dementia prevention in Aboriginal Australians. The current study is the first to examine potential risk factors for dementia in the majority urban and regional population, with a representative sample of 336 Aboriginal Australians aged 60 years and older. Read More

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November 2018

Giving less importance to pain and focusing on achieving objectives.

Pain Manag 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Faculty of Psychology & Education Sciences, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya.

Giving less importance to pain and focusing on achieving objectives in accordance with values can help people to live their lives in spite of the pain. We present a rationale for this orientation and several techniques that can help people achieve this. Specifically, we present the importance of starting the intervention by educating people about pain and setting objectives in line with each person's personal values. Read More

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December 2018
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Are Walking Treatment Beliefs and Illness Perceptions Associated With Walking Intention and 6-Minute Walk Distance in People With Intermittent Claudication? A Cross-Sectional Study.

J Aging Phys Act 2018 Dec 3:1-27. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

1 King's College London, School of Population Health & Environmental Sciences, London, UK.

Intermittent claudication (IC) is debilitating leg pain affecting older people with peripheral arterial disease, which is improved by regular walking. This study evaluated associations between psychosocial variables and 6-Minute Walk Distance (6MWD) to identify factors that motivate walking. 142 Individuals with IC (116 males, mean 66. Read More

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December 2018

Fatigue at enrollment predicts EDSS worsening in the New York State Multiple Sclerosis Consortium.

Mult Scler 2018 Dec 3:1352458518816619. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

New York State Multiple Sclerosis Consortium, Buffalo, NY, USA/Jacobs MS Center for Treatment and Research, Buffalo, NY, USA/ Department of Neurology, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA.

Background:: Fatigue is one of the most common and distressing symptoms among persons with multiple sclerosis (pwMS).

Objective:: The aim of this study is to evaluate fatigue as a predictor for disease worsening among pwMS.

Methods:: In this retrospective cohort study of New York State MS Consortium (NYSMSC) registry, MS patients reporting moderate-to-severe fatigue at study enrollment ( n = 2714) were frequency matched to less-fatigued subjects ( n = 2714) on age, baseline Kurtzke Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), disease duration, and MS phenotype. Read More

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December 2018

Maternal psychological distress after severe pregnancy hypertension was associated with increased child behavioural problems at the age of 12.

Acta Paediatr 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Department of Neonatology, Emma Children's Hospital, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Aim: We examined the association between early maternal psychological distress after severe hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) and behavioural issues in their 12-year-old offspring.

Methods: This secondary analyses of a prospective mother-child birth cohort focused on 95 women with severe HDP and their singleton offspring. The mothers were recruited during pregnancy from 2000 to 2003 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Read More

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December 2018

Comprehensive cancer control: promoting survivor health and wellness.

Cancer Causes Control 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, NE, MS F76, Chamblee, Atlanta, GA, 30341-3717, USA.

Purpose: As of 2016, an estimated 15.5 million cancer survivors were living in the United States and the number of cancer survivors is expected to increase to 20.3 million by 2026. Read More

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December 2018

A pilot randomised controlled trial of an online mindfulness-based program for people diagnosed with melanoma.

Support Care Cancer 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

School of Nursing and Midwifery, Faculty of Health, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia.

Purpose: This study assessed the feasibility and acceptability of an online mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) for people diagnosed with melanoma. The potential benefit of the MBI on fear of cancer recurrence (FCR), worry, rumination, perceived stress and trait mindfulness was also explored.

Methods: Participants who have completed treatment for stage 2c or 3 melanoma were recruited from an outpatient clinic and randomly allocated to either the online MBI (intervention) or usual care (control). Read More

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November 2018

Development of a clinical risk score for pain and function following total knee arthroplasty: results from the TRIO study.

Rheumatol Adv Pract 2018 29;2(2):rky021. Epub 2018 May 29.

Epidemiology Group, School of Medicine, Medical Sciences and Nutrition, University of Aberdeen.

Objectives: The aim was to develop and validate a simple clinical prediction model, based on easily collected preoperative information, to identify patients at high risk of pain and functional disability 6 months after total knee arthroplasty (TKA).

Methods: This was a multicentre cohort study of patients from nine centres across the UK, who were undergoing a primary TKA for OA. Information on sociodemographic, psychosocial, clinical and quality-of-life measures were collected at recruitment. Read More

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Treatment of an HIV-affected adolescent with heroin dependence in a low-income country: A clinical case study from Zambia.

Addict Behav Rep 2018 Dec 25;8:170-175. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

Department of Mental Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 624 North Broadway, Baltimore, MD, 21205, United States of America.

Introduction: Although the World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended guidelines for the treatment of opioid dependence, there are myriad challenges to successfully implementing such guidelines in resource constrained settings, such as in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). To highlight these challenges, this paper presents a clinical case study of an adolescent study participant in a randomized controlled trial comparing two counseling programs in Lusaka, Zambia.

Case Description: This 15 year-old male reported smoking marijuana and heroin daily, and injecting heroin monthly (while needle sharing). Read More

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December 2018

Using Cognitive Neuroscience to Improve Mental Health Treatment: A Comprehensive Review.

J Soc Social Work Res 2018 27;9(2):223-260. Epub 2018 Apr 27.

Professor in the Harvard Medical School Department of Psychiatry.

Mental health interventions do not yet offer complete, client-defined functional recovery, and novel directions in treatment research are needed to improve the efficacy of available interventions. One promising direction is the integration of social work and cognitive neuroscience methods, which provides new opportunities for clinical intervention research that will guide development of more effective mental health treatments that holistically attend to the biological, social, and environmental contributors to disability and recovery. This article reviews emerging trends in cognitive neuroscience and provides examples of how these advances can be used by social workers and allied professions to improve mental health treatment. Read More

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Partner Support and Grandparent Support as Predictors of Change in Coparenting Quality.

J Child Fam Stud 2018 Jul 12;27(7):2295-2304. Epub 2018 Mar 12.

The George Washington University, Washington, D.C. 20052.

Young ethnic minority parents may lack psychological and financial resources to handle parenthood, increasing the risk of negative psychosocial and parenting outcomes. Partner support has been associated with positive coparenting, although findings have been mixed. Support from young parents' own parents ("grandparents") has been linked to adaptive family outcomes and may be particularly protective for African American and Latino parents whose cultures espouse interdependence. Read More

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Quality of Life of Persons Affected by Leprosy in an Endemic District, West Bengal, India.

Indian J Dermatol 2018 Nov-Dec;63(6):459-464

The Leprosy Mission Trust India, New Delhi, India.

Introduction: Leprosy still remains a public health problem in India. Stigma and associated psychosocial problems are common in leprosy and may affect the quality of life (QoL). This study aimed to assess the QoL of the person affected by leprosy living in Purulia district, West Bengal. Read More

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December 2018

Long-term complications in adolescent and young adult leukemia survivors.

Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program 2018 Nov;2018(1):146-153

Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA.

Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer, defined by the National Cancer Institute as having been diagnosed between the ages of 15 and 39 years old, have not benefited from the same improvements in quality of outcomes and survival that have been seen for individuals diagnosed in childhood or as older adults. Although is leukemia composed of a diverse group of diagnoses, leukemia AYA survivors share unique vulnerabilities with other AYA diagnostic groups. They will spend the majority of their lives as survivors, with clear evidence of adverse medical conditions, health care requirements, and social and psychological needs that differ not only from their peers but also, from the needs of other cancer survivor populations. Read More

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November 2018

Acute psychosocial stress effects on memory performance: relevance of age and sex.

Neurobiol Learn Mem 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Laboratory of Cognitive Social Neuroscience, Department of Psychobiology and IDOCAL, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

In recent decades, there has been a growing interest in investigating the effects of chronic and acute stress on cognitive processes, especially memory performance. However, research focusing on acute stress effects has reported contradictory findings, probably due to the many factors that can moderate this relationship. In addition to factors related to the individual, such as sex and age, other factors, such as the type of memory assessed, can play a critical role in the direction of these effects. Read More

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November 2018

Impairments in Individual Autonomous Living Tasks and Time to Self-Care Disability in Middle-Aged and Older Adults.

J Am Med Dir Assoc 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Health, Nutrition, and Exercise Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND.

Objectives: Impairments in specific tasks that are necessary for independent living may identify future self-care limitations, and the use of time-varying covariates can better capture the fluidity in functional capacity trajectories over time. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between individual instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) impairments and time to activities of daily living (ADL) disability for middle-aged and older adults in the United States.

Design: Longitudinal panel. Read More

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November 2018

Exploring the Potential of a Pretend Play Intervention in Young Patients With Leukemia.

J Pediatr Nurs 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Center for Psychosocial Medicine, Department of Medical Psychology, Martinistraße 52-W26, 20246 Hamburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Purpose: The aims of the study are 1) to gain knowledge of parents' and professionals' perceptions about cancer stricken children's resources, burdens, and ability to pretend play, and 2) to prepare the initiation of a pretend play intervention based on children's needs and included parents' and professionals' feedback.

Design And Methods: Qualitative design using semi-structured interviews with 13 parents of children diagnosed with leukemia and 15 professionals in the field of pediatric oncology. Themes were derived with content analysis via deductive and inductive coding. Read More

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November 2018

Characterisation of information Hospitals Provide Parents on Tube Feeding, Including Tube Weaning.

J Pediatr Nurs 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Queensland Children's Hospital, 501 Stanley Street, South Brisbane, QLD 4101, Australia.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterise the content of hospital parent guides related to pediatric tube feeding.

Design And Methods: A naturalistic search strategy was used to retrieve parent guides produced by hospitals using Google. Guides were analysed and content identified as being associated with codes which were derived from previous research into the education of parents on tube feeding and the prevention and treatment of tube feeding dependency and tube weaning. Read More

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November 2018

Mater semper certa est: motherhood is always certain.

Fertil Steril 2018 Dec;110(7):1185-1186

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Boonshoft School of Medicine, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio.

The development of oocyte donation has led to a reexamination of the facets of motherhood: the genetic, gestational, and psychosocial contributions. In addition, the practice of oocyte donation has prompted a consideration of the unique psychosocial and legal aspects of this form of family building. In this section of Views and Reviews a summary and discussion of the long-term psychosocial adjustment of oocyte donor-conceived children and their parents is presented. Read More

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December 2018

Quality-of-life outcomes of a weight management program for adolescents based on motivational interviewing.

Patient Educ Couns 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Porto, Rua Alfredo Allen 535, Porto, Portugal. Electronic address:

Objective: To compare motivational interviewing (MI) with conventional care regarding the health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) of adolescents with overweight/obesity.

Methods: RCT with parallel design, involving two groups: intervention group (MI group [MIG]) and control group (conventional intervention group [CIG]). The intervention included three 30-minute interviews 3 months apart. Read More

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November 2018

What information is important for accredited exercise physiologists to facilitate change in clients living with type 2 diabetes mellitus?

Aust J Prim Health 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Accredited Exercise Physiologists (AEPs) prescribe exercise and physical activity interventions for people living with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). During initial consultations, AEPs face the challenge of collecting enough information to facilitate behaviour change and adherence to treatment recommendations. The objective of this research is to explore the initial consultation practices of AEPs with clients living with T2DM and resultant recommendations provided to clients to promote long-term adherence. Read More

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December 2018
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