2,472 results match your criteria Psychology and aging[Journal]


Evidence of preserved audience design with aging in interactive conversation.

Psychol Aging 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Educational Psychology.

Speakers tailor referential expressions to the listener's knowledge, a phenomenon called . Audience design requires access to partner-specific representations in memory, which could be compromised among older adults who experience memory declines. In fact, little is known about how the memory representation of shared knowledge with a conversational partner influences audience design in multiparty conversation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000341DOI Listing

"Flexible retrieval mechanisms supporting successful inference produce false memories in younger but not older adults": Correction to Carpenter and Schacter (2018).

Authors:

Psychol Aging 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Reports an error in "Flexible retrieval mechanisms supporting successful inference produce false memories in younger but not older adults" by Alexis C. Carpenter and Daniel L. Schacter (, 2018[Feb], Vol 33[1], 134-143). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000353DOI Listing

Relational thinking in later adulthood.

Psychol Aging 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

School of Applied Psychology.

The research addressed the role of relational processing capacity in cognitive aging focusing on (a) age-differences in complex relational processing, (b) the domain-generality of complex relational processing, and (c) associations of complex relational processing with other processes. Participants were 125 adults in three groups with mean ages of 30.55 (younger), 53. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000346DOI Listing

Perceived changes in life satisfaction from the past, present and to the future: A comparison of U.S. and Japan.

Psychol Aging 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Psychology.

The current study examined how perceptions of change in life satisfaction vary by age and culture. Perceptions of past, present, and future life satisfaction were examined in adults aged 33-79 from the Midlife in the United States Study ( = 4,803) and from the Survey of Midlife in Japan ( = 974). Both cultures exhibited the same age-related pattern of change in perceptions of life satisfaction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000345DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Engagement with six major life domains during the transition to retirement: Stability and change for better or worse.

Psychol Aging 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Psychology.

Active engagement with multiple life domains (cross-domain engagement) is associated with adaptation throughout the adult life span. However, less is known about the role of cross-domain engagement during significant life course transitions that can challenge motivational resources, such as the shift to retirement. Based on the motivational theory of life span development (Heckhausen, Wrosch, & Schulz, 2010, 2019), the present study used 9-year data from the national Midlife in the United States Study (MIDUS; = 1,301, age = 57, = 6. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000343DOI Listing

Effects of adult aging on letter position coding in reading: Evidence from eye movements.

Psychol Aging 2019 Mar 28. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department of Neuroscience, Psychology and Behaviour.

It is well-established that young adults encode letter position flexibly during natural reading. However, given the visual changes that occur with normal aging, it is important to establish whether letter position coding is equivalent across adulthood. In 2 experiments, young (18-25 years) and older (65+ years) adults' were recorded while reading sentences with words containing transposed adjacent letters. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000342DOI Listing

Equally flexible and optimal response bias in older compared to younger adults.

Psychol Aging 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Department of Psychology.

Base-rate neglect is a failure to sufficiently bias decisions toward a priori more likely options. Given cognitive and neurocognitive model-based evidence indicating that, in speeded choice tasks, (a) age-related slowing is associated with higher and less flexible overall evidence thresholds (response caution) and (b) gains in speed and accuracy in relation to base-rate bias require flexible control of choice-specific evidence thresholds (response bias), it was hypothesized that base-rate neglect might increase with age due to compromised flexibility, and so optimality, of response bias. We administered a computer-based perceptual discrimination task to 20 healthy older (63-78 years) and 20 younger (18-28 years) adults where base-rate direction was either variable or constant over trials and so required more or less flexible bias control. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000339DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

The impact of memory-strategy training interventions on participant-reported outcomes in healthy older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Psychol Aging 2019 Mar 21. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Neuropsychology and Cognitive Health Program.

A number of memory-strategy training interventions have been developed to target and reduce the impact of normal age-related memory decline. Most outcome studies to date have used objective memory measures to evaluate the efficacy of such interventions. Participant-reported outcomes, well-suited to capture the extent to which such interventions address the expressed concerns of aging persons, have been less closely examined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000340DOI Listing

Resting frontal EEG asymmetry and emotion regulation in older adults: The midlife in the United States (MIDUS) study.

Psychol Aging 2019 Mar 21. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Department of Psychology.

Lateralized asymmetrical activity in the alpha frequency band over the frontal cortex (i.e., frontal alpha asymmetry [FAA]) is robustly related to motivation and emotion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000344DOI Listing

Does cognitive dissonance occur in older age? A study of induced compliance in a healthy elderly population.

Psychol Aging 2019 Mar 14. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Psychology, Princeton University.

Does cognitive dissonance change as people age? Although cognitive dissonance has been one of the most widely studied theories in psychology, scant research has investigated the experience of dissonance over the life span and, to our knowledge, no prior research has investigated its effects in healthy older adults. The current study is the 1st empirical test of cognitive dissonance in an elderly population. We found that, consistent with dissonance theory, older adults showed effects of cognitive dissonance as measured by attitude differences in the direction of attitude-discrepant behavior in a classic induced compliance paradigm. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000338DOI Listing

The "why" of reaching: Second-order planning across the adult lifespan.

Psychol Aging 2019 Mar 7. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Oxford Brookes University.

Second-order planning, planning that takes into account imminent and subsequent task demands, has been shown to be essential during everyday movement. For example, the kinematics of a "reach to an object" action have been shown to be linked to the intended goal for the object (the prior intention). However, it is unclear whether this type of second-order planning for prior intention is preserved during aging or indeed how this differs across the adult lifespan. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000335DOI Listing

Associations between education and age-related cognitive changes from early adulthood to late midlife.

Psychol Aging 2019 Mar;34(2):177-186

Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen.

The aims of the study were to explore general trends and individual differences in cognitive changes from early adulthood to late midlife and to investigate associations between education and cognitive changes. We used data from the Lifestyle and Cognition Follow-Up Study 2015 on 1,543 Danish men born in 1950-1961. Test scores on the 78-item intelligence test used by the Danish conscription authorities, Børge Priens Prøve (BPP), completed at draft board examination (baseline, mean age = 20 years) and at follow-up (mean age = 61 years) were used to measure cognitive changes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000332DOI Listing

The influence of mood versus relevant self-perceptions in older adults' interest in negative health-related information.

Psychol Aging 2019 Mar 4. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Department of Psychology, North Carolina State University.

Past research suggests that, although older adults may tend to prefer positive over negative information, they may be more willing to consider relevant negative information when in a positive affective state (Growney & Hess, 2017). However, the underlying mechanism involved in this phenomenon is unclear. In the present study, we aimed to identify this mechanism and disentangle mood and self-perceptions as potential personal resources. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000333DOI Listing

Impact of combat exposure on mental health trajectories in later life: Longitudinal findings from the VA normative aging study.

Psychol Aging 2019 Feb 28. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Research Department.

Cross-sectional studies have shown contradictory results concerning the impact of combat exposure on mental health in later life. We examined whether combat exposure influences trajectories of mental health symptoms in older male veterans using longitudinal data collected from 1985 to 1991 in the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study ( = 1,105, age range = 40-86 years in 1985). Noncombat veterans showed little systematic change in depressive and anxiety symptoms with age, whereas combat veterans showed U-shaped nonlinear changes, with higher levels in midlife decreasing until the mid-60s and then increasing again in the 70s and 80s. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000334DOI Listing
February 2019

The attentional boost effect for words in young and older adults.

Authors:
Matthew W Prull

Psychol Aging 2019 Feb 25. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

Whitman College.

The attentional boost effect (ABE) refers to enhanced memory for information that is learned under conditions of divided attention in which participants encode stimuli while performing a second task involving target monitoring. The present investigation examined the ABE in young and young-old adults in forced-choice recognition (Experiment 1), and in young, young-old, and older-old adults in yes/no recognition that included manipulations of word frequency and study-to-test changes in modality (Experiments 2 and 3). Contrary to previous findings that showed an elimination of the ABE in young-old adults (Bechi Gabrelli, Spataro, Pezzuti, & Rossi-Arnaud, 2018), young-old adults exhibited an ABE whose magnitude did not differ from that of young adults. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000337DOI Listing
February 2019

Delayed reactive distractor suppression in aging populations.

Psychol Aging 2019 Feb 25. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

School of Psychology, University of Birmingham.

Previous studies have tended to infer that reactive control is intact in aging populations because of evidence that proactive control is impaired and that older participants appear to favor reactive control strategies. However, most of these studies did not compare reactive control in young and older participants directly. In our study, a young (18 to 21 years old) and older (60+ years old) cohort engaged in a task that assesses reactive distractor suppression where participants had to discriminate between an upright and inverted T-shape in the presence of a salient or nonsalient distractor. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000336DOI Listing
February 2019

Editorial.

Psychol Aging 2019 Feb;34(1):1-3

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

In this editorial, the author observes that the coming years promise a number of challenges, including the proliferation of open-source journals, increasingly interdisciplinary work that requires evaluation from multiple perspectives, and growing concerns about replication. Obviously the continuation of excellence will require effective management to keep submission and review processes efficient and publication lag at a minimum. At the same time, moving the journal forward in the face of accelerating science and new publication models demands thoughtful examination of values. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000327DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Modeling long-term changes in daily within-person associations: An application of multilevel SEM.

Psychol Aging 2019 Mar 7;34(2):163-176. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Psychology.

Short-term within-person associations are considered to reflect unique dynamic characteristics of an individual and are frequently used to predict distal outcomes. These effects are typically examined with a 2-step statistical process. The present research demonstrates how long-term changes in short-term within-person associations can be modeled simultaneously within a multilevel structural equation modeling framework. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000331DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6424492PMC

Idealization of youthfulness predicts worse recovery among older individuals.

Psychol Aging 2019 Mar 7;34(2):202-207. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, Yale University.

This study examined whether stereotypes about an out-group could influence physical health. It had been previously shown that positive stereotypes held by older individuals about their in-group benefited physical health. However, the potential impact on physical health from idealizing their out-group, the young, through positive stereotypes had not been studied. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000330DOI Listing

Openness declines in advance of death in late adulthood.

Psychol Aging 2019 Feb 21;34(1):124-138. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Center for Economic and Social Research, University of Southern California.

Openness to experience has been found to be a correlate of successful aging outcomes yet also has been found to decline from middle age onward. We hypothesized that decline in openness would be associated with death. Using longitudinal data from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging (SATSA), the analytic sample encompassed 1954 individuals, approximately two-thirds of whom were deceased. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000328DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6441733PMC
February 2019
3 Reads

Age differences in hindsight bias: A meta-analysis.

Psychol Aging 2019 Mar 17;34(2):294-310. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Center for Adaptive Rationality, Max Planck Institute for Human Development.

After people have learned a fact or the outcome of an event, they often overestimate their ability to have known the correct answer beforehand. This hindsight bias has two sources: an impairment in direct recall of the original (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000329DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

An age-related deficit in preserving the benefits of attention in working memory.

Psychol Aging 2019 Mar 14;34(2):282-293. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Department of Psychology.

Deficits in the use of attention to refresh representations are argued to underlie age-related decline in working memory (WM). Retro-cues guide attention to WM contents, enabling the direct assessment of refreshing in WM. This preregistered study investigated aging deficits in refreshing via retro-cues and the preservation of refreshing boosts after distraction incurred by a secondary task. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/pag0000326
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000326DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Exploring potential prejudice toward older adult mobility device users.

Psychol Aging 2019 Mar 27;34(2):208-214. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Department of Psychology, University of Calgary.

Many older adults require assistive technology to maintain mobility (e.g., canes, walkers, wheelchairs, or scooters), but concerns about experiencing prejudice because of mobility devices can deter use. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000325DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Theory of mind and psychosocial characteristics in older men.

Psychol Aging 2019 Feb 20;34(1):145-151. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Human Cognitive Neuroscience and Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh.

The extent to which early-life cognitive ability shapes individuals' social functioning throughout life, in the context of later-life factors, is unknown. We investigated performance on the Faux Pas test (FP) in relation to psychosocial characteristics and childhood intelligence scores in 90 healthy older men. FP performance was associated with close social network size but not social contact, social support, or loneliness when accounting for both childhood and later-life intelligence, affect, personality, and sociodemography. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000324DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6366441PMC
February 2019
2 Reads

Windows to functional decline: Naturalistic eye movements in older and younger adults.

Psychol Aging 2018 Dec;33(8):1215-1222

Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Temple University.

Subtle changes in everyday tasks precede and predict future disability in older adults. Eye tracking may provide a sensitive tool for detecting subtle disruption of everyday task performance and informing the mechanism(s) of breakdown. We tracked eye movements of healthy older adults (OA, n = 24) and younger adults (YA, n = 25) while they passively viewed a naturalistic scene (Passive Viewing condition) and then verbally reported the necessary steps for achieving a task goal (e. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/pag0000320
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000320DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6296824PMC
December 2018
14 Reads

Look at that-the positive effect of video observation on physical stair climbing performance.

Psychol Aging 2018 Dec;33(8):1195-1201

Institute of Training and Computer Science in Sport.

To examine the effect of short-term video presentation intervention (VPI) on stair self-efficacy and on stair-climbing ability, 90 participants age 65 and above were randomly assigned to 3 groups: The first intervention group watched role models descending the same staircase used for testing, the second intervention group watched role models descending an unfamiliar staircase, and the control group watched an irrelevant control video. This study found that stair-climbing duration was shortened compared with the pretest without affecting movement fluency as supported by the social-cognitive theory. We interpret this outcome as evidence for improved self-efficacy: the intervention strengthened our participants' belief that they can successfully complete the task. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000314DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Surprisal modulates dual-task performance in older adults: Pupillometry shows age-related trade-offs in task performance and time-course of language processing.

Psychol Aging 2018 Dec;33(8):1168-1180

Department of Psychology.

Even though older adults are known to have difficulty at language processing when a secondary task has to be performed simultaneously, few studies have addressed how older adults process language in dual-task demands when linguistic load is systematically varied. Here, we manipulated surprisal, an information theoretic measure that quantifies the amount of new information conveyed by a word, to investigate how linguistic load affects younger and older adults during early and late stages of sentence processing under conditions when attention is split between two tasks. In high-surprisal sentences, target words were implausible and mismatched with semantic expectancies based on context, thereby causing integration difficulty. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000316DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Is all metamemory monitoring spared from aging? A dual-process examination.

Psychol Aging 2018 Dec;33(8):1152-1167

Department of Psychology.

Although recollection-based memory declines with age, relative metamemory monitoring is reported to be spared from aging. Based on a dual-process perspective on memory, we tested whether it is specifically the monitoring of automatic influences of memory (familiarity), but not of recollection, that is spared. In Experiment 1, we used the process-dissociation procedure (PDP) task from Undorf, Böhm, and Cüpper (2016) requiring modality-based exclusions and found older (61-83 years) adults' judgments of learning (JOLs) to predict both recollection and familiarity estimates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000318DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Age differences in everyday stressor-related negative affect: A coordinated analysis.

Psychol Aging 2019 Feb 13;34(1):91-105. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Biobehavioral Health and Medicine.

Advancing age is often characterized by preserved or even enhanced emotion regulation, which is thought to manifest in terms of age-related reductions in the within-person association between stressors and negative affect. Existing research from ecological momentary assessment and end-of-day daily diary studies examining such age-related benefits have yielded mixed results, potentially due to differences in samples, design, and measurement of everyday stressors and negative affect. We conducted a coordinated analysis of 5 ecological momentary assessments and 2 end-of-day daily diary studies to examine adult age differences in the within-person association between everyday stressors and negative affect. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000309DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367015PMC
February 2019
15 Reads

Aging and forgetting: Forgotten information is perceived as less important than is remembered information.

Psychol Aging 2019 Mar 13;34(2):228-241. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Psychology.

Recently, researchers have evaluated the mechanisms that contribute to younger adults' metacognitive monitoring. According to analytic-processing theory, people's beliefs about their memory are central to their monitoring judgments. Although this theory has received ample support with younger adults, it has yet to be evaluated with older adults. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/pag0000322
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000322DOI Listing
March 2019
11 Reads

Age differences in the perception of goal structure in everyday activity.

Psychol Aging 2019 Mar 13;34(2):187-201. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis.

Human activity is structured by goals and subgoals. To understand an everyday activity, a viewer must perceive its goal structure, and viewers may segment activity into units that correspond to perceived goals. In this study, we examined age differences in the ability to perceive hierarchical goal structure in ongoing activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000321DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Individual differences in executive functions and retrieval efficacy in older adults.

Psychol Aging 2018 Dec 3;33(8):1105-1114. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Rotman Research Institute at Baycrest.

Two prominent aspects of memory problems in older adults are a difficulty in retrieving recent episodic events and an often transient inability to retrieve names and other well-known facts from semantic memory. The question addressed in the present studies was whether these age-related difficulties reflect a common cause-a retrieval problem related to inefficient executive functions (EF). In the first study, 50 older adults were given 4 tests of EF; a derived composite measure correlated strongly with a measure of retrieval efficacy in free recall, less strongly with paired-associate recall, and nonsignificantly with retrieval of general knowledge. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/pag0000315
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000315DOI Listing
December 2018
19 Reads

Greater empathic accuracy and emotional reactivity in old age: The sample case of death and dying.

Psychol Aging 2018 Dec 29;33(8):1202-1214. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Institute of Psychology.

With increasing age, proximity to one's own death increases and topics related to death and dying may become particularly relevant and familiar. Consequently, older, as compared to young, adults should experience stronger negative emotions in response to these topics and show higher empathy for other individuals dealing with them. To address these predictions, in a first study, we presented two types of death-related stimuli to 41 young and 41 older adults (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000313DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Can working memory capacity be expanded by boosting working memory updating efficiency in older adults?

Psychol Aging 2018 Dec 26;33(8):1134-1151. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Working memory updating (updating) and working memory capacity (WMC) have been assumed to share a common mechanism. However, it is unclear whether WMC can be expanded by boosting the efficiency of updating, particularly during late adulthood. In this randomized controlled study, 33 older adults (aged 60 years and above, M = 69. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/pag0000311
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000311DOI Listing
December 2018
29 Reads

Slow and steady: Training induced improvements to response time consistency are due to overall slowing and minimized extremely slow responses.

Psychol Aging 2018 Dec 26;33(8):1181-1194. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest Health Sciences.

Previous studies on response time intraindividual variability (RT IIV) have focused on differences between groups, ignoring the potential for modification. The current study provides a detailed analysis of RT IIV training effects across three age groups. Healthy adults (40 young [aged 18-30], 40 young-old [aged 65-74], and 41 old-old [aged 75-85]) were assigned to feedback or no feedback (standard) conditions during a touch-screen feature integration task. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000319DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Age-related decline in item but not spatiotemporal associative memory for a real-world event.

Psychol Aging 2018 Nov;33(7):1079-1092

Department of Psychology, University of Toronto.

Normal aging is typically associated with reduced ability to reconstruct the spatiotemporal context of past events, a core component of episodic memory. However, little is known about our ability to remember the order of events comprising extended real-world experiences and how this ability changes with age. We leveraged the richness and structure of a museum exhibit to address this question. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/pag0000303
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000303DOI Listing
November 2018
15 Reads

No evidence for strategic nature of age-related slowing in sentence processing.

Psychol Aging 2018 Nov;33(7):1045-1059

Center for Language and Brain, National Research University Higher School of Economics.

Older adults demonstrate a slower speed of linguistic processing, including sentence processing. In nonlinguistic cognitive domains such as memory, research suggests that age-related slowing of processing speed may be a strategy adopted in order to avoid potential error and/or to spare "cognitive resources." So far, very few studies have tested whether older adults' slower processing speed in the linguistic domain has a strategic nature as well. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/pag0000302
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November 2018
15 Reads

Age-related differences in prefrontal-hippocampal connectivity are associated with reduced spatial context memory.

Psychol Aging 2019 Mar 8;34(2):251-261. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Psychiatry, McGill University.

Altered functional connectivity between dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), posterior hippocampus (HC) and other brain regions with advanced age may contribute to age-related differences in episodic memory. In the current fMRI study of spatial context memory, we used seed connectivity analysis to test for age-related differences in the correlations between activity in DLPFC and HC seeds, and the rest of the brain, in an adult life span sample. In young adults, we found that connectivity between right DLPFC and other prefrontal cortex regions, parietal cortex, precuneus, and ventral visual cortices during encoding was positively related to performance. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/pag0000310
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000310DOI Listing
March 2019
8 Reads

Does limited working memory capacity underlie age differences in associative long-term memory?

Psychol Aging 2019 Mar 8;34(2):268-281. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Psychology, University of Zurich.

Past research has consistently shown that episodic memory (EM) declines with adult age and, according to the associative-deficit hypothesis, the locus of this decline is binding difficulties. We investigated the importance of establishing and maintaining bindings in working memory (WM) for age differences in associative EM. In Experiment 1 we adapted the presentation rate of word pairs for each participant to achieve 67% correct responses during a WM test of bindings in young and older adults. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000317DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Age-based stereotype threat and work outcomes: Stress appraisals and rumination as mediators.

Psychol Aging 2019 Feb 5;34(1):68-84. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Institute of Psychology, Leipzig University.

Both older and younger employees experience age-based stereotype threat in the workplace, but only older employees appear to be vulnerable to disengagement as a consequence. The present study examines 2 mechanisms that might explain this age difference: (a) stress appraisals of challenge and hindrance and (b) rumination. Using a weekly diary study design over 5 weeks, 280 employees across the life span (aged between 18 and 66 years), completed 1,288 weekly surveys. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/pag0000308
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February 2019
8 Reads

Influences of executive and memory functioning on memory for the sources of actions.

Psychol Aging 2018 Dec 5;33(8):1115-1133. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Wilkes Honors College, Florida Atlantic University.

This research provides evidence for similarities and differences between the results of traditional source memory paradigms and results from the Person-Action Conjunction (PAC) test. In the PAC test, participants view actions performed by different actors and are later tested on their memory for which actor performed each action. The PAC test can be construed as a source memory test, with actions serving as target information and actors representing the sources of those actions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000312DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Restricting future time perspective reduces failure to act after a missed opportunity.

Psychol Aging 2019 Mar 25;34(2):311-316. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Centre for Decision Research, University of Leeds.

Inaction inertia occurs when missing an attractive opportunity (vs. not having been offered it) decreases the likelihood of acting on another similar opportunity. We experimentally manipulated future time perspective to reduce inaction inertia. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6399028PMC
March 2019
4 Reads

Aging of speech production, from articulatory accuracy to motor timing.

Psychol Aging 2018 Nov 18;33(7):1022-1034. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Independent Practice.

Despite the huge importance of spoken language production in everyday life, little is known about the manner and extent to which the motor aspects of speech production evolve with advancing age, as well as the nature of the underlying senescence mechanisms. In this cross-sectional group study, we examined the relationship between age and speech production performance using a nonlexical speech production task in which spoken syllable frequency and phonological complexity were systematically varied to test hypotheses about underlying mechanisms. A nonprobabilistic sample of 60 cognitively healthy adults (18-83 years) produced meaningless nonwords aloud as quickly and accurately as possible. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/pag0000306
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November 2018
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Testing enhances subsequent learning in older adults.

Psychol Aging 2019 Mar 18;34(2):242-250. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Department of Experimental Psychology.

Interference susceptibility has been suggested to be a major factor for episodic memory impairment in healthy older adults. Previous work has shown that retrieval practice can reduce proactive interference and thus enhance learning and memory in younger adults, a finding referred to as the forward effect of testing in the literature. This study examined the late developmental trajectory of the forward effect in middle-aged and older adults (40 to 79 years of age). Read More

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March 2019
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The effects of work-family experiences on health among older workers.

Psychol Aging 2018 Nov 11;33(7):993-1006. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Ageing Research Institute for Society and Education, Nanyang Technological University.

With the rapidly aging workforce worldwide, the need to retain healthy older workers is greater than ever. To promote health among older workers, a better understanding of the factors that contribute to their health is crucial. With this in mind, we investigated the impact of work-family conflict and work-family enrichment on older workers' health. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/pag0000293
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November 2018
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The mapping between transformed reaction time costs and models of processing in aging and cognition.

Psychol Aging 2018 Nov 8;33(7):1093-1104. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

School of Psychology.

Older adults tend to have slower response times (RTs) than younger adults on cognitive tasks. This makes the examination of domain-specific deficits in aging difficult, as differences between conditions in raw RTs (RT costs) typically increase with slower average RTs. Here, we examine the mapping between 2 established approaches to dealing with this confound in the literature. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/pag0000298
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6233521PMC
November 2018
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Valuing excitement makes people look forward to old age less and dread it more.

Psychol Aging 2018 Nov 8;33(7):975-992. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Department of Psychology.

Previous research has shown that American culture places a premium on excitement, enthusiasm, and other high-arousal positive states (HAP) compared with various East Asian cultures. In two studies, we tested the prediction that valuing HAP would be associated with less positive personal views of old age (i.e. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/pag0000295
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November 2018
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Age-related differences in levels and dynamics of workplace affect.

Psychol Aging 2019 Feb 8;34(1):106-123. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Department of Psychology.

Affective experiences at work are a key contributing factor to long-term job-related well-being and effectiveness, yet may systematically change as workers get older. Given the central role of affect in work settings, it is important to obtain a thorough understanding of older workers' strengths and vulnerabilities in affective functioning. This paper's goal was to comprehensively study age differences in mean levels and dynamics of affect (affect stability, occurrence of positive and negative daily work events, and affective reactivity) and to link these with perceptions of global occupational well-being and effectiveness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000305DOI Listing
February 2019
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Aging and attention: Meaningfulness may be more important than valence.

Psychol Aging 2019 Feb 8;34(1):85-90. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Department of Psychology.

Studies on socioemotional selectivity theory have found that compared with younger adults, older adults are more likely to (a) prefer to interact with emotionally close social partners and (b) show preferential cognitive processing of positive relative to negative stimuli. To integrate these 2 lines of findings, this study examined attention toward emotional (positive and negative) facial expressions of experimentally manipulated emotionally close versus nonclose targets among younger and older adults. Compared with younger adults, older adults gazed more at facial expressions of emotionally close than nonclose targets, regardless of valence. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/pag0000304
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February 2019
2 Reads

Risk of progression to Alzheimer's disease for different neuropsychological Mild Cognitive Impairment subtypes: A hierarchical meta-analysis of longitudinal studies.

Psychol Aging 2018 Nov 4;33(7):1007-1021. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Department of Health Psychology.

Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is a heterogeneous condition between normal aging and dementia. Upon neuropsychological testing, MCI can be divided into 4 groups: single-domain amnestic MCI (sd-aMCI), multiple-domain amnestic MCI (md-aMCI), single- and multiple-domain nonamnestic MCI (sd-naMCI, md-naMCI). Some controversy exists about whether the risk of progression to Alzheimer's disease (risk-AD) is increased in all MCI subtypes. Read More

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November 2018
17 Reads