1,365,203 results match your criteria Psychology and aging[Journal]


Cardiovascular and Metabolic Risk in Women in the First Year Postpartum: Allostatic Load as a Function of Race, Ethnicity, and Poverty Status.

Am J Perinatol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Internal Medicine, UCLA Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California.

Objective:  Allostatic load (AL) represents multisystem physiological "wear-and-tear" reflecting emerging chronic disease risk. We assessed AL during the first year postpartum in a diverse community sample with known health disparities.

Methods:  The Shriver National Institute for Child Health and Human Development Community Child Health Network enrolled 2,448 predominantly low-income African-American, Latina, and White women immediately after delivery of liveborn infants at ≥20 weeks' gestation, following them over time with interviews, clinical measures, and biomarkers. Read More

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December 2018

Anomalous Bodily Maps of Emotions in Schizophrenia.

Schizophr Bull 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Psychology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN.

Objective: Embodied emotions arise from interoceptive and somatosensory processes, and are essential to the development of a stable sense of self. Emotional embodiment is therefore inherently interwoven with our sense of bodily self-awareness, and allows us to navigate complex social situations. Given that the core feature of schizophrenia (SZ) is characterized by the presence of bodily self-disturbances and social-emotional deficits, we hypothesized that embodiment of emotion would be disrupted in SZ. Read More

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December 2018
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The Acute Impact of Hatha Yoga on Craving among Smokers Attempting to Reduce or Quit.

Nicotine Tob Res 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Psychology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.

Introduction: Despite negative effects of smoking, smokers have difficulty quitting, suggesting a need for additional strategies to help them quit. A single-session hatha yoga intervention acutely reduced craving among nicotine-deprived smokers not attempting to reduce or quit, yet it is unknown if it reduces craving among those attempting to change their smoking. Thus, the current study tested the efficacy of a single-session hatha yoga intervention for acutely reducing craving among smokers attempting to reduce or quit smoking. Read More

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December 2018

Measuring mental well-being in Denmark: Validation of the original and short version of the Warwick-Edinburgh mental well-being scale (WEMWBS and SWEMWBS) and cross-cultural comparison across four European settings.

Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 5;271:502-509. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

The Danish National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Studiestraede 6, 1455 Copenhagen, Denmark. Electronic address:

This study examined the psychometric properties of the Danish WEMWBS and its short version (SWEMWBS) in a Danish population sample, and compared scores in Denmark with scores representative of three other European settings. A total of 3,508 Danish men and women aged 16-95 filled out an electronic survey. Face validity was examined by cognitive interviews. Read More

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December 2018

Pre-treatment patient characteristics as predictors of drop-out and treatment outcome in individual and family therapy for adolescents and adults with anorexia nervosa: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 2;271:484-501. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

Department of Clinical, Educational, and Health Psychology, University College London, 1-19 Torrington Place, London WC1E 7HB, UK; North East London Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Understanding variables predicting drop-out or unfavourable outcome following treatment for anorexia nervosa (AN) may help to improve upon intervention efforts. However, the current literature has demonstrated sparse and inconsistent significant findings. The current systematic review and meta-analysis summarised the evidence base examining baseline predictors of drop-out and outcome in AN treatment. Read More

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December 2018

Repetitive negative thinking as a mediator in prospective cross-disorder associations between anxiety and depression disorders and their symptoms.

J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 2018 Nov 29;63:6-11. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

VU University Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background And Objectives: Comorbidity among anxiety and depression disorders and their symptoms is high. Rumination and worry have been found to mediate prospective cross-disorder relations between anxiety and depression disorders and their symptoms in adolescents and adults. We examined whether generic repetitive negative thinking (RNT), that is content- and disorder-independent, also mediates prospective cross-disorder associations between anxiety and depressions disorders and their symptoms. Read More

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November 2018
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The high prevalence of pre-existing mental health complaints in clients attending Saint Mary's Sexual Assault Referral Centre: Implications for initial management and engagement with the Independent Sexual Violence Advisor service at the centre.

J Forensic Leg Med 2018 Dec 5;61:102-107. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Saint Mary's Sexual Assault Referral Centre, York Place, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9WL, UK. Electronic address:

Background: The Saint Mary's Sexual Assault Referral Centre has a unique service delivery model whereby it provides an integrated physical and psychological support services to clients, women men and children, living in Greater Manchester. The service is available to those who have reported rape or sexual assault, whether this is recent or historic. Clients living in surrounding areas of Cheshire are provided with forensic and medical services at Saint Mary's Centre, with follow-up care provided locally, as appropriate. Read More

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December 2018

Fourteen-year trajectories of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in UK military personnel, and associated risk factors.

J Psychiatr Res 2018 Nov 30;109:156-163. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

King's Centre for Military Health Research, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK. Electronic address:

The aim of this study was to examine trajectories of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms over a 14-year period and the risk factors associated with each trajectory. 1885 UK military personnel provided information at four time points since 2002. The PTSD Check list-Civilian Version (PCL-C) was used at all time points. Read More

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November 2018

Attentional bias modification reduces clinical depression and enhances attention toward happiness.

J Psychiatr Res 2018 Dec 1;109:145-155. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Department of Psychology, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, 400038, China.

Difficulty in clinical antidepressant treatment leads to the pursuit of alternative treatments, such as cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT). CBT combined with regular antidepressants have indicated an optimal therapeutic effect in clinic. Attentional bias is important in the occurrence and remission of depression, however, few studies have explored the effect of attentional bias modification (ABM) on depression, and inconsistent results have been obtained due to the heterogeneity in the targeted populations, training tasks, strategies, and materials. Read More

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December 2018

Striking reduction in neurons and glial cells in anterior thalamic nuclei of older patients with Down syndrome.

Neurobiol Aging 2018 Nov 17;75:54-61. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK. Electronic address:

The anterior thalamic nuclei are important for spatial and episodic memory, however, surprisingly little is known about the status of these nuclei in neurological conditions that present with memory impairments, such as Down syndrome. We quantified neurons and glial cells in the anterior thalamic nuclei of four older patients with Down syndrome. There was a striking reduction in the volume of the anterior thalamic nuclei and this appeared to reflect the loss of approximately 70% of neurons. Read More

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November 2018

Function and pharmacology of glutamate-gated chloride channel exon 9 splice variants from the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella.

Insect Biochem Mol Biol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

College of Plant Protection, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China. Electronic address:

Glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls) are found only in invertebrates and mediate fast inhibitory neurotransmission. The structural and functional diversity of GluCls are produced through assembly of multiple subunits and via posttranscriptional alternations. Alternative splicing is the most common way to achieve this in insect GluCls and splicing occurs primarily at exons 3 and 9. Read More

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December 2018

Which patients initiate cognitive processing therapy and prolonged exposure in department of veterans affairs PTSD clinics?

J Anxiety Disord 2018 Nov 20;62:53-60. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Center for Chronic Disease Outcomes Research, Minneapolis VA Health Care System, One Veterans Drive, Minneapolis, MN 55417, USA; Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, 420 Delaware St SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA; Department of Psychiatry, University of Minnesota, 2450 Riverside Ave, Minneapolis, MN 55454, USA; Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, 75 E River Rd, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA. Electronic address:

The United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) provides Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) and Prolonged Exposure therapy (PE) for PTSD at all of its facilities, but little is known about systematic differences between patients who do and do not initiate these treatments. VA administrative data were analyzed for 6,251 veterans receiving psychotherapy over one year in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) specialty clinics at nine VA medical centers. CPT and PE were initiated by 2,173 (35%) patients. Read More

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November 2018

Lifting, tasting, and carrying: The interaction of magnitude and valence effects in time perception.

Acta Psychol (Amst) 2018 Dec 11;193:1-10. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Psychological Sciences, University of Connecticut, USA; Department of Psychology, Gordon College, USA.

Magnitude effects (e.g., heavier or faster is longer) and valence effects (e. Read More

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December 2018

Exploring the underpinning mechanisms of the proximity effect within a competitive food environment.

Appetite 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Psychology, School of Social Sciences, Birmingham City University, Curzon Building, 4 Cardigan Street, Birmingham, B4 7BD, United Kingdom.

Objective: One method of influencing an individual's food consumption involves placing unhealthy snacks further away from individuals, known as the "proximity effect". However, only one laboratory study has explored the effect while both an unhealthy and a healthy option are presented simultaneously. Further, little is known about the potential underpinning mechanisms of the effect. Read More

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December 2018

The uncertain brain: A co-ordinate based meta-analysis of the neural signatures supporting uncertainty during different contexts.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Centre for Integrative Neuroscience and Neurodynamics, School of Psychology and Clinical Language Sciences, University of Reading, Reading, UK.

Uncertainty is often inevitable in everyday life and can be both stressful and exciting. Given its relevance to psychopathology and wellbeing, recent research has begun to address the brain basis of uncertainty. In the current review we examined whether there are discrete and shared neural signatures for different uncertain contexts. Read More

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December 2018

Nicotine enhances responding for conditioned reinforcement via α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the ventral tegmental area, but not the nucleus accumbens or the prefrontal cortex.

Neuropharmacology 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Section of Biopsychology and Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 250 College St., M5T 1R8, Toronto, ON, Canada; Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, 100 St. George St., M5S 3G3, Toronto, ON, Canada; Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, 250 College St., M5T 1R8, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Nicotine enhances the conditioned reinforcing properties of reward-paired cues. We investigated the role of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), nucleus accumbens (NAcc), and prelimbic (PrL) and infralimbic (IL) cortices in mediating this enhancement. Male Long-Evans rats were implanted with a bilateral guide cannula aimed at either the VTA, NAcc, PrL or IL cortex. Read More

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December 2018

What Regulates Gratitude Response of Women and Men? The Role of the Received Good, Psychosocial Factors, and Repayment.

Psychol Rep 2018 Dec 14:33294118811620. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Psychiatry, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Poland.

This paper touches upon gender differences concerning psychosocial factors related to the emotional reaction of gratitude and forms of expressing gratitude in quasi-experimental conditions. It is based on findings from a study conducted on 576 participants of both sexes, aged 14 to 86 years. There were used three versions of the same questionnaire, depending on the type of the received good-material, intangible, or none. Read More

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December 2018

Counterfactual Thinking, Causation, and Covariation in Mock Juror Assessments of Negligence: Twenty-Five Years Later.

Authors:
Jason A Cantone

Psychol Rep 2018 Dec 14:33294118816945. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA.

In the past three decades, researchers have examined counterfactual thinking and causation in decision making. However, little work has applied these findings to trial settings. The present research examined two conflicting theories regarding counterfactual thinking and causation to elaborate on earlier work examining counterfactual thinking in negligence law cases. Read More

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December 2018

One-Session Treatment of Phobias in Children: Recent Developments and a Systematic Review.

Annu Rev Clin Psychol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden; email:

One-session treatment is a well-established evidence-based treatment for specific phobias in youths that incorporates reinforcement, cognitive challenges, participant modeling, psychoeducation, and skills training into a single, massed session of graduated exposure. This review begins by briefly examining the phenomenology, etiology, epidemiology, and assessment of specific phobias and then pivots to a description of One-Session Treatment. We examine the use of One-Session Treatment with children and adolescents, briefly discussing its components and application, and subsequently review almost two decades of research supporting its efficacy. Read More

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December 2018

The Role of Common Factors in Psychotherapy Outcomes.

Annu Rev Clin Psychol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Clinical, Neuro-, and Developmental Psychology, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands; email:

Psychotherapies may work through techniques that are specific to each therapy or through factors that all therapies have in common. Proponents of the common factors model often point to meta-analyses of comparative outcome studies that show all therapies have comparable effects. However, not all meta-analyses support the common factors model; the included studies often have several methodological problems; and there are alternative explanations for finding comparable outcomes. Read More

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December 2018
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Delivering in-school interventions to improve dietary behaviours amongst 11- to 16-year-olds: A systematic review.

Obes Rev 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

The Staffordshire Centre for Psychological Research and Centre for Health Psychology, Staffordshire University, Stoke-on-Trent, UK.

Childhood obesity is a global health concern, which has both short- and long-term health consequences for the individual, and is a potential burden on health care services and the wider economy. The school environment is a setting where changes can be applied to dietary behaviours, as schools have direct and intensive contact with children. This systematic review evaluated school-based interventions designed to improve dietary behaviours among adolescents (11- to 16-year-olds). Read More

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December 2018
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Development and initial validation of the Positive Sexuality Scale for female adults.

Authors:
Giulia Casu

J Clin Nurs 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Psychology, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

Aim And Objectives: To develop and initially validate the Positive Sexuality Scale (PSS) to assess adult female positive sexuality.

Background: While traditional approaches focus on negative sexual experiences and sexual dysfunctions, within the positive psychology framework positive sexuality is a subjective experience of happiness and fulfillment with one's sexual expression, which contributes to well-being. No measure exists that specifically measures adult female positive sexuality and can be confidently used with women of any fertility/childlessness status. Read More

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December 2018
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Insufficient compensation for self-motion during perception of object speed: The vestibular Aubert-Fleischl phenomenon.

J Vis 2018 Dec;18(13)

German Center for Vertigo and Balance Disorders (DSGZ), University Hospital of Munich, Ludwig Maximilian University, Munich, Germany.

To estimate object speed with respect to the self, retinal signals must be summed with extraretinal signals that encode the speed of eye and head movement. Prior work has shown that differences in perceptual estimates of object speed based on retinal and oculomotor signals lead to biased percepts such as the Aubert-Fleischl phenomenon (AF), in which moving targets appear slower when pursued. During whole-body movement, additional extraretinal signals, such as those from the vestibular system, may be used to transform object speed estimates from a head-centered to a world-centered reference frame. Read More

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December 2018
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The human visual system estimates angle features in an internal reference frame: A computational and psychophysical study.

J Vis 2018 Dec;18(13):10

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Brain Functional Genomics, Key Laboratory of Brain Functional Genomics, Ministry of Education, School of Psychology and Cognitive Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China.

Angle perception is an important middle-level visual process, combining line features to generate an integrated shape percept. Previous studies have proposed two theories of angle perception-a combination of lines and a holistic feature following Weber's law. However, both theories failed to explain the dual-peak fluctuations of the just-noticeable difference (JND) across angle sizes. Read More

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December 2018

In Vivo Photovoltaic Performance of a Silicon Nanowire Photodiode-Based Retinal Prosthesis.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018 Dec;59(15):5885-5892

Jacobs Retina Center at Shiley Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Diego, California, United States.

Purpose: For more than 20 years, there has been an international, multidisciplinary effort to develop retinal prostheses to restore functional vision to patients blinded by retinal degeneration. We developed a novel subretinal prosthesis with 1512 optically addressed silicon nanowire photodiodes, which transduce incident light into an electrical stimulation of the remaining retinal circuitry. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of optically driving the subretinal prosthesis to produce visual cortex activation via electrical stimulation of the retina. Read More

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December 2018
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Too soon to worry? Longitudinal examination of financial planning for retirement among Spanish aged workers.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0209434. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

National Distance Education University (UNED), Department of Social and Organizational Psychology, Madrid, Spain.

The present study analyzes the relationship between three distal antecedents-financial literacy, confidence in retirement, and economic well-being-and financial planning for retirement evaluated at two different times. We used longitudinal data with repeated measures of financial planning for retirement obtained from a sample (N = 269) of active Spanish workers aged 45-62 years. The results confirm that self-perceived financial knowledge, confidence in retirement, and economic well-being are associated with financial planning for retirement at three and six months. Read More

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December 2018

Interdependences between finger movement direction and haptic perception of oriented textures.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0208988. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of General Psychology, Justus-Liebig University, Giessen, Germany.

Although the natural haptic perception of textures includes active finger movements, it is unclear how closely perception and movements are linked. Here we investigated this question using oriented textures. Textures that are composed of periodically repeating grooves have a clear orientation defined by the grooves. Read More

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December 2018

Social identity mediates the positive effect of globalization on individual cooperation: Results from international experiments.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0206819. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

Globalization is defined for individuals as their connectivity in global networks. Social identity is conceptualized as attachment and identification with a group. We measure individual involvement with global networks and local, national, and global social identity through a questionnaire. Read More

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December 2018

Bayesian hierarchical vector autoregressive models for patient-level predictive modeling.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0208082. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Statistics, Columbia University, New York, NY, United States of America.

Predicting health outcomes from longitudinal health histories is of central importance to healthcare. Observational healthcare databases such as patient diary databases provide a rich resource for patient-level predictive modeling. In this paper, we propose a Bayesian hierarchical vector autoregressive (VAR) model to predict medical and psychological conditions using multivariate time series data. Read More

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December 2018

Validity and measurement invariance of the Unified Multidimensional Calling Scale (UMCS): A three-wave survey study.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0209348. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Political and Juridical Sciences and International Studies, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.

The accumulation of scientific knowledge on calling is limited by the absence of a common theoretical and measurement framework. Many different models of calling have been proposed, and we do not know how much research results that refer to a specific model are generalizable to different theoretical accounts of calling. In this article, we investigate whether two leading models of calling tackle the same construct. Read More

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December 2018

Effects of Intimate Partner Violence and Home Environment on Child Language Development in the First 3 Years of Life.

J Dev Behav Pediatr 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Pediatrics, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH.

Objective: Intimate partner violence (IPV) can adversely affect children's cognitive development, but links between IPV exposure and language development in the earliest years of life remain unknown. The present study examined the effects of IPV and the quality of the home environment on children's language development at age 3 years.

Methods: In a prospective, 5-panel, longitudinal study of 79 mother-child dyads assessed prenatally to age 3 years, we examined standardized measures of receptive and expressive language development at age 3 years. Read More

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December 2018
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The same with age: Evidence for age-related similarities in interpersonal accuracy.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Psychology.

Interpersonal accuracy refers to the ability to make accurate perceptions about others' social and emotional qualities. Despite this broad definition, the measurement of interpersonal accuracy remains narrow, as most studies focus on the accurate perception of others' emotional states. Moreover, previous research has relied primarily upon traditional tasks consisting of posed, prototypic expressions and behaviors as stimuli. Read More

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December 2018

False memory at short and long term.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Psychology.

False memories are well-established long-term memory (LTM) phenomena. Recent reports of false recognition at short term suggest that working memory (WM) could also give rise to false memories, supporting the unitary view of memory. Alternatively, we hypothesized that the emergence of false memories at short term results from the impairment of WM maintenance, memory performance relying then on LTM. Read More

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December 2018

The relationship between second language acquisition and nonverbal cognitive abilities.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Experimental Psychology.

We monitored the progress of 40 children when they first started to acquire a second language (L2) implicitly through immersion. Employing a longitudinal design, we tested them before they had any notions of an L2 (Time 0) and after 1 school year of L2 exposure (Time 1) to determine whether cognitive abilities can predict the success of L2 learning. Task administration included measures of intelligence, cognitive control, and language skills. Read More

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December 2018

Windows to functional decline: Naturalistic eye movements in older and younger adults.

Psychol Aging 2018 Dec;33(8):1215-1222

Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Temple University.

Subtle changes in everyday tasks precede and predict future disability in older adults. Eye tracking may provide a sensitive tool for detecting subtle disruption of everyday task performance and informing the mechanism(s) of breakdown. We tracked eye movements of healthy older adults (OA, n = 24) and younger adults (YA, n = 25) while they passively viewed a naturalistic scene (Passive Viewing condition) and then verbally reported the necessary steps for achieving a task goal (e. Read More

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December 2018
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Surprisal modulates dual-task performance in older adults: Pupillometry shows age-related trade-offs in task performance and time-course of language processing.

Psychol Aging 2018 Dec;33(8):1168-1180

Department of Psychology.

Even though older adults are known to have difficulty at language processing when a secondary task has to be performed simultaneously, few studies have addressed how older adults process language in dual-task demands when linguistic load is systematically varied. Here, we manipulated surprisal, an information theoretic measure that quantifies the amount of new information conveyed by a word, to investigate how linguistic load affects younger and older adults during early and late stages of sentence processing under conditions when attention is split between two tasks. In high-surprisal sentences, target words were implausible and mismatched with semantic expectancies based on context, thereby causing integration difficulty. Read More

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December 2018

Is all metamemory monitoring spared from aging? A dual-process examination.

Psychol Aging 2018 Dec;33(8):1152-1167

Department of Psychology.

Although recollection-based memory declines with age, relative metamemory monitoring is reported to be spared from aging. Based on a dual-process perspective on memory, we tested whether it is specifically the monitoring of automatic influences of memory (familiarity), but not of recollection, that is spared. In Experiment 1, we used the process-dissociation procedure (PDP) task from Undorf, Böhm, and Cüpper (2016) requiring modality-based exclusions and found older (61-83 years) adults' judgments of learning (JOLs) to predict both recollection and familiarity estimates. Read More

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December 2018

Self-control development in adolescence predicts love and work in adulthood.

J Pers Soc Psychol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Psychology.

This longitudinal study over a 23-year time span examined predictive associations between self-control development in adolescence and love and work outcomes in adulthood. Participants were 1,527 adults aged 35 years (48.3% female). Read More

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December 2018

"Same but different": Associations between multiple aspects of self-regulation, cognition, and academic abilities.

J Pers Soc Psychol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Psychology.

Self-regulation describes the ability to control both behaviors and internal states against a backdrop of conflicting or distracting situations, drives, or impulses. In the cognitive psychology tradition, individual differences in self-regulation are commonly measured with performance-based tests of executive functioning, whereas in the personality psychology tradition, individual differences in self-regulation are typically assessed with report-based measures of impulse control, sustained motivation, and perseverance. The goal of this project was (a) to comprehensively examine the structure of associations between multiple self-regulatory constructs stemming from the cognitive and personality psychology traditions; (b) to estimate how these constructs, individually and collectively, related to mathematics and reading ability beyond psychometric measures of processing speed and fluid intelligence; and (c) to estimate the extent to which genetic and environmental factors mediated the observed associations. Read More

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December 2018

Perceiver and target characteristics contribute to impression formation differently across race and gender.

J Pers Soc Psychol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Psychology.

Social impressions arise from characteristics of both perceivers and targets. However, empirical research in the domain of impression formation has yet to quantify the extent to which perceiver and target characteristics uniquely contribute to impressions across group boundaries (e.g. Read More

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December 2018

Relations between spatial skills and math performance in elementary school children: A longitudinal investigation.

Dev Psychol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Psychology, Florida State University.

Previous research has demonstrated a link between spatial and math skills. However, little research has examined this relation longitudinally. The present study examines the development of and reciprocal relations between spatial and math skills in elementary school students. Read More

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December 2018

Typologies of discrimination: Latinx youth's experiences in an emerging immigrant community.

Dev Psychol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

School of Education, University of North Carolina at Greensboro.

Few studies examine how racial-ethnic peer discrimination experiences of Latinx youth vary across the race-ethnicity of the perpetrator. In a sample of 170 Latinx early adolescents (M = 12.86 years, range = 10. Read More

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December 2018

How mindfulness training promotes positive emotions: Dismantling acceptance skills training in two randomized controlled trials.

J Pers Soc Psychol 2018 Dec;115(6):944-973

Department of Psychology, Carnegie Mellon University.

Mindfulness meditation interventions-which train skills in monitoring present-moment experiences with a lens of acceptance-have shown promise for increasing positive emotions. Using a theory-based approach, we hypothesized that learning acceptance skills in mindfulness interventions helps people notice more positive experiences in daily life, and tested whether removing acceptance training from mindfulness interventions would eliminate intervention-related boosts in positive affect. In 2 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of stressed community adults, mindfulness skills were dismantled into 2 structurally equivalent interventions: (a) training in both monitoring and acceptance (Monitor + Accept) and (b) training in monitoring only (Monitor Only) without acceptance training. Read More

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December 2018

"Wisdom, bias, and balance: Toward a process-sensitive measurement of wisdom-related cognition": Correction to Brienza et al. (2017).

Authors:

J Pers Soc Psychol 2018 Dec;115(6):943

Reports an error in "Wisdom, bias, and balance: Toward a process-sensitive measurement of wisdom-related cognition" by Justin P. Brienza, Franki Y. H. Read More

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December 2018
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New recommendations for testing indirect effects in mediational models: The need to report and test component paths.

J Pers Soc Psychol 2018 Dec;115(6):929-943

Department of Psychology, University of Colorado.

In light of current concerns with replicability and reporting false-positive effects in psychology, we examine Type I errors and power associated with 2 distinct approaches for the assessment of mediation, namely the component approach (testing individual parameter estimates in the model) and the index approach (testing a single mediational index). We conduct simulations that examine both approaches and show that the most commonly used tests under the index approach risk inflated Type I errors compared with the joint-significance test inspired by the component approach. We argue that the tendency to report only a single mediational index is worrisome for this reason and also because it is often accompanied by a failure to critically examine the individual causal paths underlying the mediational model. Read More

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December 2018

Training articulation sequences: A first systematic modulation of the articulatory in-out effect.

J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Psychology.

People prefer words with consonant articulation locations moving inward, from the front to the back of the mouth (e.g., ), over words with consonant articulation locations moving outward, from the back to the front of the mouth (e. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Motion fluency and object preference: Robust perceptual but fragile memory effects.

J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Psychology.

In 8 experiments, we investigated motion fluency effects on object preference. In each experiment, distinct objects were repeatedly seen moving either fluently (with a smooth and predictable motion) or disfluently (with sudden and unpredictable direction changes) in a task where participants were required to respond to occasional brief changes in object appearance. Results show that (a) fluent objects are preferred over disfluent objects when ratings follow a moving presentation, (b) there is some evidence that object-motion associations can be learned with repeated exposures, (c) sufficiently potent motions can yield preference for fluent objects after a single viewing, and (d) learned associations do not transfer to situations where ratings follow a stationary presentation, even after deep levels of encoding. Read More

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December 2018

Statewide implementation of child trauma-focused practices using the community-based learning collaborative model.

Psychol Serv 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Institute of Behavioral Science.

A significant number of youth in the United States experience traumatic events that substantially increase the risk of physical and behavioral health problems across the life span. This public health concern warrants concerted efforts to promote trauma-informed, evidence-based practices that facilitate recovery. Although youth-focused trauma-specific treatments exist, determining effective ways to disseminate and implement these services-so that they are available, accessible, and sustainable-poses an ongoing challenge. Read More

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December 2018

Catastrophic individuation failures in infancy: A new model and predictions.

Psychol Rev 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Psychology.

Comparison of infant findings from the physical-reasoning and object-individuation literatures reveals a contradictory picture. On the one hand, physical-reasoning results indicate that young infants can use featural information to guide their actions on objects and to detect interaction violations (when objects interact in ways that are not physically possible) as well as change violations (when objects spontaneously undergo featural changes that are not physically possible). On the other hand, object-individuation results indicate that young infants typically cannot use featural information to detect individuation violations (when the number of objects revealed at the end of an event is less than the number of objects introduced during the event). Read More

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December 2018
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