2,456 results match your criteria Psychology and aging[Journal]


Editorial.

Psychol Aging 2019 Feb;34(1):1-3

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

In this editorial, the author observes that the coming years promise a number of challenges, including the proliferation of open-source journals, increasingly interdisciplinary work that requires evaluation from multiple perspectives, and growing concerns about replication. Obviously the continuation of excellence will require effective management to keep submission and review processes efficient and publication lag at a minimum. At the same time, moving the journal forward in the face of accelerating science and new publication models demands thoughtful examination of values. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000327DOI Listing
February 2019

Modeling long-term changes in daily within-person associations: An application of multilevel SEM.

Psychol Aging 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Psychology.

Short-term within-person associations are considered to reflect unique dynamic characteristics of an individual and are frequently used to predict distal outcomes. These effects are typically examined with a 2-step statistical process. The present research demonstrates how long-term changes in short-term within-person associations can be modeled simultaneously within a multilevel structural equation modeling framework. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000331DOI Listing
February 2019

Idealization of youthfulness predicts worse recovery among older individuals.

Psychol Aging 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, Yale University.

This study examined whether stereotypes about an out-group could influence physical health. It had been previously shown that positive stereotypes held by older individuals about their in-group benefited physical health. However, the potential impact on physical health from idealizing their out-group, the young, through positive stereotypes had not been studied. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000330DOI Listing
February 2019

Openness declines in advance of death in late adulthood.

Psychol Aging 2019 Feb 21;34(1):124-138. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Center for Economic and Social Research, University of Southern California.

Openness to experience has been found to be a correlate of successful aging outcomes yet also has been found to decline from middle age onward. We hypothesized that decline in openness would be associated with death. Using longitudinal data from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging (SATSA), the analytic sample encompassed 1954 individuals, approximately two-thirds of whom were deceased. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000328DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Age differences in hindsight bias: A meta-analysis.

Psychol Aging 2019 Jan 17. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Center for Adaptive Rationality, Max Planck Institute for Human Development.

After people have learned a fact or the outcome of an event, they often overestimate their ability to have known the correct answer beforehand. This hindsight bias has two sources: an impairment in direct recall of the original (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000329DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

An age-related deficit in preserving the benefits of attention in working memory.

Psychol Aging 2019 Jan 14. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Department of Psychology.

Deficits in the use of attention to refresh representations are argued to underlie age-related decline in working memory (WM). Retro-cues guide attention to WM contents, enabling the direct assessment of refreshing in WM. This preregistered study investigated aging deficits in refreshing via retro-cues and the preservation of refreshing boosts after distraction incurred by a secondary task. Read More

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January 2019
2 Reads

Exploring potential prejudice toward older adult mobility device users.

Psychol Aging 2018 Dec 27. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Department of Psychology, University of Calgary.

Many older adults require assistive technology to maintain mobility (e.g., canes, walkers, wheelchairs, or scooters), but concerns about experiencing prejudice because of mobility devices can deter use. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000325DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Theory of mind and psychosocial characteristics in older men.

Psychol Aging 2019 Feb 20;34(1):145-151. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Human Cognitive Neuroscience and Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh.

The extent to which early-life cognitive ability shapes individuals' social functioning throughout life, in the context of later-life factors, is unknown. We investigated performance on the Faux Pas test (FP) in relation to psychosocial characteristics and childhood intelligence scores in 90 healthy older men. FP performance was associated with close social network size but not social contact, social support, or loneliness when accounting for both childhood and later-life intelligence, affect, personality, and sociodemography. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000324DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6366441PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Windows to functional decline: Naturalistic eye movements in older and younger adults.

Psychol Aging 2018 Dec;33(8):1215-1222

Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Temple University.

Subtle changes in everyday tasks precede and predict future disability in older adults. Eye tracking may provide a sensitive tool for detecting subtle disruption of everyday task performance and informing the mechanism(s) of breakdown. We tracked eye movements of healthy older adults (OA, n = 24) and younger adults (YA, n = 25) while they passively viewed a naturalistic scene (Passive Viewing condition) and then verbally reported the necessary steps for achieving a task goal (e. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/pag0000320
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000320DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6296824PMC
December 2018
8 Reads

Look at that-the positive effect of video observation on physical stair climbing performance.

Psychol Aging 2018 Dec;33(8):1195-1201

Institute of Training and Computer Science in Sport.

To examine the effect of short-term video presentation intervention (VPI) on stair self-efficacy and on stair-climbing ability, 90 participants age 65 and above were randomly assigned to 3 groups: The first intervention group watched role models descending the same staircase used for testing, the second intervention group watched role models descending an unfamiliar staircase, and the control group watched an irrelevant control video. This study found that stair-climbing duration was shortened compared with the pretest without affecting movement fluency as supported by the social-cognitive theory. We interpret this outcome as evidence for improved self-efficacy: the intervention strengthened our participants' belief that they can successfully complete the task. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000314DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Surprisal modulates dual-task performance in older adults: Pupillometry shows age-related trade-offs in task performance and time-course of language processing.

Psychol Aging 2018 Dec;33(8):1168-1180

Department of Psychology.

Even though older adults are known to have difficulty at language processing when a secondary task has to be performed simultaneously, few studies have addressed how older adults process language in dual-task demands when linguistic load is systematically varied. Here, we manipulated surprisal, an information theoretic measure that quantifies the amount of new information conveyed by a word, to investigate how linguistic load affects younger and older adults during early and late stages of sentence processing under conditions when attention is split between two tasks. In high-surprisal sentences, target words were implausible and mismatched with semantic expectancies based on context, thereby causing integration difficulty. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000316DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Is all metamemory monitoring spared from aging? A dual-process examination.

Psychol Aging 2018 Dec;33(8):1152-1167

Department of Psychology.

Although recollection-based memory declines with age, relative metamemory monitoring is reported to be spared from aging. Based on a dual-process perspective on memory, we tested whether it is specifically the monitoring of automatic influences of memory (familiarity), but not of recollection, that is spared. In Experiment 1, we used the process-dissociation procedure (PDP) task from Undorf, Böhm, and Cüpper (2016) requiring modality-based exclusions and found older (61-83 years) adults' judgments of learning (JOLs) to predict both recollection and familiarity estimates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000318DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Age differences in everyday stressor-related negative affect: A coordinated analysis.

Psychol Aging 2019 Feb 13;34(1):91-105. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Biobehavioral Health and Medicine.

Advancing age is often characterized by preserved or even enhanced emotion regulation, which is thought to manifest in terms of age-related reductions in the within-person association between stressors and negative affect. Existing research from ecological momentary assessment and end-of-day daily diary studies examining such age-related benefits have yielded mixed results, potentially due to differences in samples, design, and measurement of everyday stressors and negative affect. We conducted a coordinated analysis of 5 ecological momentary assessments and 2 end-of-day daily diary studies to examine adult age differences in the within-person association between everyday stressors and negative affect. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000309DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367015PMC
February 2019
11 Reads

Aging and forgetting: Forgotten information is perceived as less important than is remembered information.

Psychol Aging 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Psychology.

Recently, researchers have evaluated the mechanisms that contribute to younger adults' metacognitive monitoring. According to analytic-processing theory, people's beliefs about their memory are central to their monitoring judgments. Although this theory has received ample support with younger adults, it has yet to be evaluated with older adults. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/pag0000322
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December 2018
6 Reads

Age differences in the perception of goal structure in everyday activity.

Psychol Aging 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis.

Human activity is structured by goals and subgoals. To understand an everyday activity, a viewer must perceive its goal structure, and viewers may segment activity into units that correspond to perceived goals. In this study, we examined age differences in the ability to perceive hierarchical goal structure in ongoing activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000321DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Individual differences in executive functions and retrieval efficacy in older adults.

Psychol Aging 2018 Dec 3;33(8):1105-1114. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Rotman Research Institute at Baycrest.

Two prominent aspects of memory problems in older adults are a difficulty in retrieving recent episodic events and an often transient inability to retrieve names and other well-known facts from semantic memory. The question addressed in the present studies was whether these age-related difficulties reflect a common cause-a retrieval problem related to inefficient executive functions (EF). In the first study, 50 older adults were given 4 tests of EF; a derived composite measure correlated strongly with a measure of retrieval efficacy in free recall, less strongly with paired-associate recall, and nonsignificantly with retrieval of general knowledge. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/pag0000315
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December 2018
10 Reads

Greater empathic accuracy and emotional reactivity in old age: The sample case of death and dying.

Psychol Aging 2018 Dec 29;33(8):1202-1214. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Institute of Psychology.

With increasing age, proximity to one's own death increases and topics related to death and dying may become particularly relevant and familiar. Consequently, older, as compared to young, adults should experience stronger negative emotions in response to these topics and show higher empathy for other individuals dealing with them. To address these predictions, in a first study, we presented two types of death-related stimuli to 41 young and 41 older adults (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000313DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Can working memory capacity be expanded by boosting working memory updating efficiency in older adults?

Psychol Aging 2018 Dec 26;33(8):1134-1151. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Working memory updating (updating) and working memory capacity (WMC) have been assumed to share a common mechanism. However, it is unclear whether WMC can be expanded by boosting the efficiency of updating, particularly during late adulthood. In this randomized controlled study, 33 older adults (aged 60 years and above, M = 69. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/pag0000311
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December 2018
21 Reads

Slow and steady: Training induced improvements to response time consistency are due to overall slowing and minimized extremely slow responses.

Psychol Aging 2018 Dec 26;33(8):1181-1194. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest Health Sciences.

Previous studies on response time intraindividual variability (RT IIV) have focused on differences between groups, ignoring the potential for modification. The current study provides a detailed analysis of RT IIV training effects across three age groups. Healthy adults (40 young [aged 18-30], 40 young-old [aged 65-74], and 41 old-old [aged 75-85]) were assigned to feedback or no feedback (standard) conditions during a touch-screen feature integration task. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000319DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Age-related decline in item but not spatiotemporal associative memory for a real-world event.

Psychol Aging 2018 Nov;33(7):1079-1092

Department of Psychology, University of Toronto.

Normal aging is typically associated with reduced ability to reconstruct the spatiotemporal context of past events, a core component of episodic memory. However, little is known about our ability to remember the order of events comprising extended real-world experiences and how this ability changes with age. We leveraged the richness and structure of a museum exhibit to address this question. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/pag0000303
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November 2018
11 Reads

No evidence for strategic nature of age-related slowing in sentence processing.

Psychol Aging 2018 Nov;33(7):1045-1059

Center for Language and Brain, National Research University Higher School of Economics.

Older adults demonstrate a slower speed of linguistic processing, including sentence processing. In nonlinguistic cognitive domains such as memory, research suggests that age-related slowing of processing speed may be a strategy adopted in order to avoid potential error and/or to spare "cognitive resources." So far, very few studies have tested whether older adults' slower processing speed in the linguistic domain has a strategic nature as well. Read More

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November 2018
10 Reads

Age-related differences in prefrontal-hippocampal connectivity are associated with reduced spatial context memory.

Psychol Aging 2018 Nov 8. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Psychiatry, McGill University.

Altered functional connectivity between dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), posterior hippocampus (HC) and other brain regions with advanced age may contribute to age-related differences in episodic memory. In the current fMRI study of spatial context memory, we used seed connectivity analysis to test for age-related differences in the correlations between activity in DLPFC and HC seeds, and the rest of the brain, in an adult life span sample. In young adults, we found that connectivity between right DLPFC and other prefrontal cortex regions, parietal cortex, precuneus, and ventral visual cortices during encoding was positively related to performance. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/pag0000310
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November 2018
6 Reads

Does limited working memory capacity underlie age differences in associative long-term memory?

Psychol Aging 2018 Nov 8. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Psychology, University of Zurich.

Past research has consistently shown that episodic memory (EM) declines with adult age and, according to the associative-deficit hypothesis, the locus of this decline is binding difficulties. We investigated the importance of establishing and maintaining bindings in working memory (WM) for age differences in associative EM. In Experiment 1 we adapted the presentation rate of word pairs for each participant to achieve 67% correct responses during a WM test of bindings in young and older adults. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000317DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Age-based stereotype threat and work outcomes: Stress appraisals and rumination as mediators.

Psychol Aging 2019 Feb 5;34(1):68-84. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Institute of Psychology, Leipzig University.

Both older and younger employees experience age-based stereotype threat in the workplace, but only older employees appear to be vulnerable to disengagement as a consequence. The present study examines 2 mechanisms that might explain this age difference: (a) stress appraisals of challenge and hindrance and (b) rumination. Using a weekly diary study design over 5 weeks, 280 employees across the life span (aged between 18 and 66 years), completed 1,288 weekly surveys. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/pag0000308
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February 2019
6 Reads

Influences of executive and memory functioning on memory for the sources of actions.

Psychol Aging 2018 Dec 5;33(8):1115-1133. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Wilkes Honors College, Florida Atlantic University.

This research provides evidence for similarities and differences between the results of traditional source memory paradigms and results from the Person-Action Conjunction (PAC) test. In the PAC test, participants view actions performed by different actors and are later tested on their memory for which actor performed each action. The PAC test can be construed as a source memory test, with actions serving as target information and actors representing the sources of those actions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000312DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Restricting future time perspective reduces failure to act after a missed opportunity.

Psychol Aging 2018 Oct 25. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Centre for Decision Research, University of Leeds.

Inaction inertia occurs when missing an attractive opportunity (vs. not having been offered it) decreases the likelihood of acting on another similar opportunity. We experimentally manipulated future time perspective to reduce inaction inertia. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/pag0000301
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October 2018
3 Reads

Aging of speech production, from articulatory accuracy to motor timing.

Psychol Aging 2018 Nov 18;33(7):1022-1034. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Independent Practice.

Despite the huge importance of spoken language production in everyday life, little is known about the manner and extent to which the motor aspects of speech production evolve with advancing age, as well as the nature of the underlying senescence mechanisms. In this cross-sectional group study, we examined the relationship between age and speech production performance using a nonlexical speech production task in which spoken syllable frequency and phonological complexity were systematically varied to test hypotheses about underlying mechanisms. A nonprobabilistic sample of 60 cognitively healthy adults (18-83 years) produced meaningless nonwords aloud as quickly and accurately as possible. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/pag0000306
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November 2018
11 Reads

Testing enhances subsequent learning in older adults.

Psychol Aging 2018 Oct 18. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Department of Experimental Psychology.

Interference susceptibility has been suggested to be a major factor for episodic memory impairment in healthy older adults. Previous work has shown that retrieval practice can reduce proactive interference and thus enhance learning and memory in younger adults, a finding referred to as the forward effect of testing in the literature. This study examined the late developmental trajectory of the forward effect in middle-aged and older adults (40 to 79 years of age). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000307DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

The effects of work-family experiences on health among older workers.

Psychol Aging 2018 Nov 11;33(7):993-1006. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Ageing Research Institute for Society and Education, Nanyang Technological University.

With the rapidly aging workforce worldwide, the need to retain healthy older workers is greater than ever. To promote health among older workers, a better understanding of the factors that contribute to their health is crucial. With this in mind, we investigated the impact of work-family conflict and work-family enrichment on older workers' health. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/pag0000293
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November 2018
7 Reads

The mapping between transformed reaction time costs and models of processing in aging and cognition.

Psychol Aging 2018 Nov 8;33(7):1093-1104. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

School of Psychology.

Older adults tend to have slower response times (RTs) than younger adults on cognitive tasks. This makes the examination of domain-specific deficits in aging difficult, as differences between conditions in raw RTs (RT costs) typically increase with slower average RTs. Here, we examine the mapping between 2 established approaches to dealing with this confound in the literature. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/pag0000298
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000298DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6233521PMC
November 2018
3 Reads

Valuing excitement makes people look forward to old age less and dread it more.

Psychol Aging 2018 Nov 8;33(7):975-992. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Department of Psychology.

Previous research has shown that American culture places a premium on excitement, enthusiasm, and other high-arousal positive states (HAP) compared with various East Asian cultures. In two studies, we tested the prediction that valuing HAP would be associated with less positive personal views of old age (i.e. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/pag0000295
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November 2018
13 Reads

Age-related differences in levels and dynamics of workplace affect.

Psychol Aging 2019 Feb 8;34(1):106-123. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Department of Psychology.

Affective experiences at work are a key contributing factor to long-term job-related well-being and effectiveness, yet may systematically change as workers get older. Given the central role of affect in work settings, it is important to obtain a thorough understanding of older workers' strengths and vulnerabilities in affective functioning. This paper's goal was to comprehensively study age differences in mean levels and dynamics of affect (affect stability, occurrence of positive and negative daily work events, and affective reactivity) and to link these with perceptions of global occupational well-being and effectiveness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000305DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Aging and attention: Meaningfulness may be more important than valence.

Psychol Aging 2019 Feb 8;34(1):85-90. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Department of Psychology.

Studies on socioemotional selectivity theory have found that compared with younger adults, older adults are more likely to (a) prefer to interact with emotionally close social partners and (b) show preferential cognitive processing of positive relative to negative stimuli. To integrate these 2 lines of findings, this study examined attention toward emotional (positive and negative) facial expressions of experimentally manipulated emotionally close versus nonclose targets among younger and older adults. Compared with younger adults, older adults gazed more at facial expressions of emotionally close than nonclose targets, regardless of valence. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/pag0000304
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February 2019
2 Reads

Risk of progression to Alzheimer's disease for different neuropsychological Mild Cognitive Impairment subtypes: A hierarchical meta-analysis of longitudinal studies.

Psychol Aging 2018 Nov 4;33(7):1007-1021. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Department of Health Psychology.

Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is a heterogeneous condition between normal aging and dementia. Upon neuropsychological testing, MCI can be divided into 4 groups: single-domain amnestic MCI (sd-aMCI), multiple-domain amnestic MCI (md-aMCI), single- and multiple-domain nonamnestic MCI (sd-naMCI, md-naMCI). Some controversy exists about whether the risk of progression to Alzheimer's disease (risk-AD) is increased in all MCI subtypes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000294DOI Listing
November 2018
14 Reads

Adult age differences in the benefit of syntactic and semantic constraints for sentence processing.

Psychol Aging 2019 Feb 4;34(1):43-55. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Department of Neuropsychology.

Verbal working memory-intensive sentence processing declines with age. This might reflect older adults' difficulties with reducing the memory load by grouping single words into multiword chunks. Here we used a serial order task emphasizing syntactic and semantic relations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000300DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Conjoint differences in inhibitory control and processing speed in childhood to older adult cohorts: Discriminant functions from a Go/No-Go task.

Psychol Aging 2018 Nov 4;33(7):1070-1078. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

School of Behavioral and Brain Sciences.

To investigate differences in inhibitory control and processing speed over the life span, participants in 7- to 8-, 10- to 11-, 12- to 15-, 18- to 25-, and 54- to 80-year-old age cohorts completed a Go/No-Go task requiring varying levels of semantic categorization. Discriminant function analysis of correct rejection rates (CRRs), hit rates (HRs), and reaction times (RTs) revealed a function on which CRR loaded positively and RT loaded negatively, across categorization levels. Scores increased from youngest to the younger adult cohort and decreased for the older adult cohort. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000299DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Aging deficits in naturalistic speech production and monitoring revealed through reading aloud.

Psychol Aging 2019 Feb 27;34(1):25-42. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Department of Linguistics.

The current study investigated how aging affects production and self-correction of errors in connected speech elicited via a read aloud task. Thirty-five cognitively healthy older and 56 younger participants read aloud 6 paragraphs in each of three conditions increasing in difficulty: (a) normal, (b) nouns-swapped (in which nouns were shuffled across pairs of sentences in each paragraph), and (c) exchange (in which adjacent words in every two sentences were reversed in order). Reading times and errors increased with task difficulty, but self-correction rates were lowest in the nouns-swapped condition. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/pag0000296
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367048PMC
February 2019
2 Reads

Statistical learning for speech segmentation: Age-related changes and underlying mechanisms.

Psychol Aging 2018 Nov 24;33(7):1035-1044. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Department of Psychology.

Statistical learning (SL) is a powerful learning mechanism that supports word segmentation and language acquisition in infants and young adults. However, little is known about how this ability changes over the life span and interacts with age-related cognitive decline. The aims of this study were to: (a) examine the effect of aging on speech segmentation by SL, and (b) explore core mechanisms underlying SL. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000292DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6233520PMC
November 2018
3 Reads

Motivation moderates the impact of aging stereotypes on effort expenditure.

Psychol Aging 2019 Feb 13;34(1):56-67. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

Department of Psychology, North Carolina State University.

The impact of aging stereotypes on task engagement was examined. Older adults (N = 144, ages 65 to 85) were exposed to primes designed to activate positive or negative stereotypes about aging, with half of the individuals in each stereotype group also assigned to a high-accountability condition to enhance motivation. Participants performed a memory-scan task comprising 2 levels of demands (memory sets of 4 or 7 items), with 2 blocks (5 min each) at each level. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000291DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367024PMC
February 2019
16 Reads

Trajectories of normal cognitive aging.

Psychol Aging 2019 Feb 13;34(1):17-24. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

University of Virginia.

Although sensitive detection of pathological cognitive aging requires accurate information about the trajectory of normal cognitive aging, prior research has revealed inconsistent patterns of age-cognition relations with cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons. Age trends in four cognitive domains were compared in over 5,000 adults with cross-sectional data, and in almost 1,600 adults with three-occasion longitudinal data. Quasi-longitudinal comparisons, which are similar to cross-sectional comparisons in that there is no prior test experience and are similar to longitudinal comparisons in that the participants are from the same birth cohorts, were also reported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000288DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367038PMC
February 2019
2 Reads

How taxonomic and thematic associations in semantic memory modulate recall in young through old-old adults.

Psychol Aging 2018 Nov 13;33(7):1060-1069. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

Department of Communication Sciences, Humanities and International Studies, Cultures, Languages, Literatures, Arts, Media (DISCUI), University of Urbino Carlo Bo.

The aim of the current study was to investigate how the taxonomic and thematic organization of semantic long-term memory affected the recall performance of adults and older participants on a complex semantic working memory (SWM) task. Taxonomic and thematic classification are the two main systems used to organize knowledge: taxonomic information is hierarchically structured and typically independent of space and time, whereas thematically grouped concepts are horizontal and strictly context-dependent. Generally, thematic connections (more intuitive and experience-based) are formed earlier in development, while taxonomic links (more abstract and logic-based) are acquired later. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/pag0000297
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000297DOI Listing
November 2018
8 Reads

Loneliness and social engagement in older adults: A bivariate dual change score analysis.

Psychol Aging 2019 Feb 13;34(1):152-162. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

Institute of Neuroscience, Trinity College Dublin.

Few longitudinal studies have explored the impact of loneliness on social engagement. We investigated whether loneliness would result in decreased social engagement over time among older adults and also whether the converse, that low levels of social engagement would predict increases in loneliness, held. Additionally, we explored potential mechanisms (specifically, memory and depressive symptomatology as mediators) in the bidirectional relationship(s) between loneliness and social engagement. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000287DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Long-term antecedents of constraints and mastery: Findings from the Health and Retirement Study.

Psychol Aging 2018 Sep;33(6):965-974

Department of Psychology, Arizona State University.

Whereas it is well established that having a sense of control over one's life circumstances facilitates positive aging-related outcomes across adulthood and old age, far less is known about what factors contribute to perceived control and whether these factors differ across the adult life span. We used longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study (N = 7,624, M age at 2006 = 67.50 years, range 50-104, 59% women) to examine whether level of, and time-related change in, episodic memory, depressive symptoms, and health (functional limitations, self-rated health) predict levels of 2 distinct components of perceived control: constraints and mastery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000281DOI Listing
September 2018
2 Reads

The role of cognitive costs, attitudes about aging, and intrinsic motivation in predicting engagement in everyday activities.

Psychol Aging 2018 Sep;33(6):953-964

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University.

Engagement in cognitively demanding everyday activities has been shown to benefit cognitive health in later life. We investigated the factors that influence engagement, with specific interest in determining the extent to which the costs of engaging cognitive resources are associated with intrinsic motivation and, ultimately, participation in everyday activities. Older adults (N = 153) aged from 65 to 81 years completed a challenging cognitive task, with the costs of cognitive engagement-operationalized as the effort required to maintain performance-assessed using systolic blood pressure responses (SBP-R). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000289DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6132265PMC
September 2018
1 Read

Age differences in implicit theories about willpower: Why older people endorse a nonlimited theory.

Psychol Aging 2018 Sep;33(6):940-952

Faculty of Psychology, University of Basel.

What people believe about their capacity to exert self-control (willpower), whether it is a limited or a nonlimited resource, affects their self-regulation and well-being. The present research investigated age-related differences in people's beliefs-called implicit theories-about willpower. Study 1 (n = 802, age range 18-83 years) showed that with higher age people are more likely to believe that willpower is a nonlimited resource. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000285DOI Listing
September 2018
1 Read

Memory for faces in old age: A meta-analysis.

Psychol Aging 2018 Sep;33(6):904-923

Department of Psychology, Justus-Liebig University of Giessen.

The present meta-analysis investigated the influence of age on face recognition. A total of 19 studies with 79 comparisons of younger and older participants were included. Analyses revealed small to moderate effects for hits, and large effects for false alarms and signal detection theory (SDT) measures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000282DOI Listing
September 2018
1 Read

"Adult age differences in decision making across domains: Increased discounting of social and health-related rewards": Correction to Seaman et al. (2016).

Authors:

Psychol Aging 2018 Sep;33(6):891

Reports an error in "Adult age differences in decision making across domains: Increased discounting of social and health-related rewards" by Kendra L. Seaman, Marissa A. Gorlick, Kruti M. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000290DOI Listing
September 2018
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Choosing for you: Diminished self-other discrepancies in financial decisions under risk in the elderly.

Psychol Aging 2018 Sep;33(6):871-891

Department of Psychology and Graduate School for Integrative Sciences & Engineering.

Many older adults hold powerful positions in governments and corporate boards throughout the world. Accordingly, older adults often have to make important financial decisions on behalf of others under risk. Although it is common to observe younger adults taking more risks when making financial decisions for others, it is unclear if older adults exhibit the same self-other discrepancies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000284DOI Listing
September 2018
2 Reads

Age differences in spatial memory for mediated environments.

Psychol Aging 2018 Sep 20;33(6):892-903. Epub 2018 Aug 20.

Department of Psychology and Brain Sciences.

Compared with younger adults, older adults have more difficulty with navigation and spatial memory in both familiar and unfamiliar domains. However, the cognitive mechanisms underlying these effects have been little explored. We examined three potential factors: (a) use of and coordination across spatial reference frames, (b) nonspatial cognitive abilities, and (c) the ability to segment a route into effective chunks. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/pag0000286
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000286DOI Listing
September 2018
13 Reads

SUAG/on across the adult lifespan.

Psychol Aging 2018 08;33(5):855-870

Department of Psychology, University of Virginia.

One of the central concepts within the literature on cognitive aging is the notion of dedifferentiation-the idea that increasing age is associated with an increase in the interrelatedness of different cognitive abilities. Despite the centrality of this dedifferentiation hypothesis, there is a great deal of evidence that both supports and does not support dedifferentiation. We hypothesized that these inconsistent findings were due to (a) the use of different cognitive abilities (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000274DOI Listing
August 2018
1 Read