620,507 results match your criteria Psychology Health & Medicine [Journal]


Impact of dual-layer duraplasty during hemicraniectomy on morbidity and operative metrics of cranioplasty; a retrospective case-control study comparing a single to dual-layer technique.

World Neurosurg 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, USA; Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2019.01.276DOI Listing
February 2019

Oral sazetidine-A, a selective α4β2* nicotinic receptor desensitizing agent, reduces nicotine self-administration in rats.

Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, USA. Electronic address:

Sazetidine-A selectively desensitizes α4β2 nicotinic receptors and also has partial agonist effects. We have shown that subcutaneous acute and repeated injections as well as chronic infusions of sazetidine-A significantly reduce intravenous (IV) nicotine self-administration in rats. To further investigate the promise of sazetidine-A as a smoking cessation aid, it is important to determine sazetidine-A effects with oral administration and the time-effect function for its action on nicotine self-administration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pbb.2019.02.007DOI Listing
February 2019

Protein and surface expression of HCN2 and HCN4 subunits in mesocorticolimbic areas after cocaine sensitization.

Neurochem Int 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Physiology Department, University of Puerto Rico, School of Medicine, Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, 00936-5067, Puerto Rico. Electronic address:

The I is a mixed depolarizing current present in neurons which, upon activation by hyperpolarization, modulates neuronal excitability in the mesocorticolimbic (MCL) system, an area which regulates emotions such as pleasure, reward, and motivation. Its biophysical properties are determined by HCN protein expression profiles, specifically HCN subunits 1-4. Previously, we reported that cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization increases HCN2 protein expression in all MCL areas with the Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA) showing the most significant increase. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2019.02.004DOI Listing
February 2019

Divergent Response to Cannabinoid Receptor Stimulation in High and Low Stress-Induced Analgesia Mouse Lines Is Associated with Differential G-Protein Activation.

Neuroscience 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Faculty of Pharmacy with the Laboratory Medicine Division, Department of Pharmacodynamics, Medical University of Warsaw, Centre for Preclinical Research and Technology, Warsaw, Poland; Laboratory of Neurogenomics, Institute of Genetics and Animal Breeding, Polish Academy of Sciences, Jastrzebiec, Poland; Department of Internal Medicine, Hypertension and Vascular Diseases, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Bidirectional selection of mice for high (HA) and low (LA) swim stress-induced analgesia (SSIA) is associated with a divergent response to opioids. In the current study, we investigated whether the genetic divergence in opioid system activity between HA and LA mice also affects cannabinoid sensitivity. Additionally, we also investigated whether the endocannabinoid system mediates SSIA in these lines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2019.02.015DOI Listing
February 2019

"There is no way to avoid the first bite": A qualitative investigation of addictive-like eating in treatment-seeking Brazilian women and men.

Appetite 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Department of Psychology, University of Calgary, 2500 University Dr. NW, Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4, Canada. Electronic address:

There has been polarizing debate on addictive-like eating in recent years. To move toward valid definition and measurement of this construct, qualitative research describing individuals' experiences is needed. The present study explored how Brazilian men and women define and experience addictive-like eating. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2019.02.008DOI Listing
February 2019

CCR5 Is a Therapeutic Target for Recovery after Stroke and Traumatic Brain Injury.

Cell 2019 Feb;176(5):1143-1157.e13

Department of Neurology, David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. Electronic address:

We tested a newly described molecular memory system, CCR5 signaling, for its role in recovery after stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI). CCR5 is uniquely expressed in cortical neurons after stroke. Post-stroke neuronal knockdown of CCR5 in pre-motor cortex leads to early recovery of motor control. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2019.01.044DOI Listing
February 2019

Inclusion in the clinical learning environment: Building the conditions for diverse human flourishing.

Med Teach 2019 Feb 22:1-5. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

b Department of Field Activities , Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education , Chicago , IL.

Aim: While diversity, equity, and inclusion are much proclaimed aspirational goals in education programs, the clinical learning environment (CLE) frequently falls short of meaningful incorporation of these concepts in processes, policies, and local culture. In this paper, we explore how inclusion, diversity, and equity can and should be defined and operationalized within medical education.

Methods: Three cases, organized around Hafferty's curricular framework (formal, informal, and hidden), we illustrate lapses and potential best practices in inclusion in the CLE. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0142159X.2019.1566600DOI Listing
February 2019

Understanding the processes that Federally Qualified Health Centers use to select and implement colorectal cancer screening interventions: a qualitative study.

Transl Behav Med 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Health, Behavior, & Society, College of Public Health, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is highly effective at reducing cancer-related morbidity and mortality, yet screening rates remain suboptimal. Evidence-based interventions can increase screening rates, particularly when they target multiple levels (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/tbm/ibz023DOI Listing
February 2019

Acute effect of low-dose thiacloprid exposure synergised by tebuconazole in a parasitoid wasp.

PLoS One 2019 22;14(2):e0212456. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Laboratory of Agrozoology, Department of Plants and Crops, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

Agricultural practices often involve tank-mixing and co-application of insecticides with fungicides to control crop pests. However, natural methods relying on biological control agents such as hymenopteran parasitoids have been shown to be highly effective in suppressing crop pest populations. The current body of insecticide risk assessment data accounting for fungicide co-application is very small, the present study being the first to examine this in a parasitoid wasp. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0212456PLOS
February 2019

Using natural language processing and machine learning to classify health literacy from secure messages: The ECLIPPSE study.

PLoS One 2019 22;14(2):e0212488. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

UCSF Center for Vulnerable Populations, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California, United States of America.

Limited health literacy is a barrier to optimal healthcare delivery and outcomes. Current measures requiring patients to self-report limitations are time-consuming and may be considered intrusive by some. This makes widespread classification of patient health literacy challenging. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0212488PLOS
February 2019

Is sexual autonomy a protective factor for neonatal, child, and infant mortality? A multi-country analysis.

PLoS One 2019 22;14(2):e0212413. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Tafiti Research Group, Nairobi, Kenya.

Background: Sexual autonomy empowers women to set boundaries, take control of their bodies, prevent sexually transmitted diseases and avoid unplanned pregnancy. A woman's ability to negotiate safer sex is crucial for her survival and that of her child. Sexual autonomy among East African women is vital to the elimination of the deaths of neonates, infants, and children. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0212413PLOS
February 2019

Feasibility of integrated, multilevel care for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and HIV in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs): A scoping review.

PLoS One 2019 22;14(2):e0212296. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Department of Epidemiology, New York University College of Global Public Health, New York, New York, United States of America.

Background: Integrated cardiovascular disease (CVD) and HIV (CVD-HIV) care interventions are being adopted to tackle the growing burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) but there is a paucity of studies on the feasibility of these interventions in LMICs. This scoping review aims to present evidence of the feasibility of integrated CVD-HIV care in LMICs, and the alignment of feasibility reporting in LMICs with the existing implementation science methodology.

Methods: A systematic search of published articles including systematic and narrative reviews that reported on integrated CVD-HIV care was conducted, using multiple search engines including PubMed/Medline, Global Health, and Web of Science. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0212296PLOS
February 2019

Do health beliefs, personality traits, and interpersonal concerns predict TB prevention behavior among Japanese adults?

PLoS One 2019 22;14(2):e0211728. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Department of Psychology, Ochanomizu University, Tokyo, Japan.

Despite public health measures and health-promotion efforts, the decline in tuberculosis (TB) morbidity in Japan has been slow, with a higher TB incidence rate relative to those observed in most developed countries. Because health behavior depends on multiple factors and is formulated within a social context, a theory-driven model would be necessary to increase TB prevention behavior. Based upon the Health Belief Model, this study examined the effects of health beliefs, personality traits, and social factors on TB prevention behavior among Japanese adults. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0211728PLOS
February 2019

Little cigars and cigarillos harbor diverse bacterial communities that differ between the tobacco and the wrapper.

PLoS One 2019 22;14(2):e0211705. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Maryland Institute for Applied Environmental Health, University of Maryland School of Public Health, College Park, Maryland, United States of America.

Despite their potential importance with regard to infectious and chronic diseases among tobacco users, microbial constituents of tobacco products lack characterization. Specifically, to our knowledge, there are no data describing the bacterial diversity of little cigars or cigarillos. To address this knowledge gap, we tested four brands of little cigars and cigarillos. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0211705PLOS
February 2019

Drug treatment strategies for insomnia in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder.

Expert Opin Pharmacother 2019 Feb 22:1-9. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

b Department of Medicine , VA Western New York Healthcare System , Buffalo , NY , USA.

Introduction: Insomnia is among the most reported sleep disturbances in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The pervasiveness of this disorder among trauma-inflicted civilians and military personnel has been associated with reduced quality of life, impaired psychosocial functioning including cognitive impairments, negative mood swings, cardiovascular complications, and increased utilization of medical services. Areas covered: This review describes the current state of science with respect to the impact of the most dispensed pharmacological interventions for posttraumatic insomnia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14656566.2019.1574745DOI Listing
February 2019

Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Longitudinal Alzheimer's disease biomarker changes.

Sleep 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Center for Brain Health, Department of Psychiatry, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY.

Study Objectives: To determine the effect of self-reported clinical diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) on longitudinal changes in brain amyloid-PET and CSF-biomarkers (Aβ42, T-tau and P-tau) in cognitively normal (NL), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's Disease (AD) elderly.

Methods: Longitudinal study with mean follow-up time of 2.52±0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sleep/zsz048DOI Listing
February 2019

Association of Prepubertal and Adolescent Androgen Concentrations With Timing of Breast Development and Family History of Breast Cancer.

JAMA Netw Open 2019 Feb 1;2(2):e190083. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, New York, New York.

Importance: Early breast development is a risk factor for breast cancer, and girls with a breast cancer family history (BCFH) experience breast development earlier than girls without a BCFH.

Objectives: To assess whether prepubertal androgen concentrations are associated with timing of breast development (analysis 1) and to compare serum androgen concentrations in girls with and without a BCFH (analysis 2).

Design, Setting, And Participants: Prospective cohort study of 104 girls aged 6 to 13 years at baseline using data collected between August 16, 2011, and March 24, 2016, from the Lessons in Epidemiology and Genetics of Adult Cancer From Youth (LEGACY) Girls Study, New York site. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.0083DOI Listing
February 2019

Assessment of Changes in the Geographical Distribution of Opioid-Related Mortality Across the United States by Opioid Type, 1999-2016.

JAMA Netw Open 2019 Feb 1;2(2):e190040. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Department of Statistical Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Importance: As the opioid epidemic evolves, it is vital to identify changes in the geographical distribution of opioid-related deaths, and the specific opioids to which those deaths are attributed, to ensure that federal and state public health interventions remain appropriately targeted.

Objective: To identify changes in the geographical distribution of opioid-related mortality across the United States by opioid type.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Cross-sectional study using joinpoint modeling and life table analysis of individual-level data from the National Center for Health Statistics on 351 630 US residents who died from opioid-related causes from January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2016, for all of the United States and the District of Columbia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.0040DOI Listing
February 2019

Should Watson Be Consulted for a Second Opinion?

Authors:
David D Luxton

AMA J Ethics 2019 Feb 1;21(2):E131-137. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

An affiliate associate professor in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at the University of Washington School of Medicine in Seattle.

This article discusses ethical responsibility and legal liability issues regarding use of IBM Watson for clinical decision making. In a case, a patient presents with symptoms of leukemia. Benefits and limitations of using Watson or other intelligent clinical decision-making tools are considered, along with precautions that should be taken before consulting artificially intelligent systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/amajethics.2019.131DOI Listing
February 2019

Cognitive neuropsychiatric analysis of an additional large Capgras delusion case series.

Cogn Neuropsychiatry 2019 Feb 22:1-12. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

a Division of Psychiatry , University College London (UCL) , London , UK.

: Although important to cognitive neuropsychiatry and theories of delusions, Capgras delusion has largely been reported in single case studies. Bell et al. [2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13546805.2019.1584098DOI Listing
February 2019

Temperament as Risk and Protective Factors in Obesogenic Eating: Relations Among Parent Temperament, Child Temperament, and Child Food Preference and Eating.

J Genet Psychol 2019 Feb 22:1-5. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

a Department of Educational Psychology , Texas A&M University , College Station , Texas , USA.

Children's food preferences and eating behaviors have implications for their health and weight status, serving as risk or protective factors for obesity. Although parent and child factors influence children's eating, few studies have examined parent and child temperament simultaneously in relation to child food preference and eating behaviors. The authors addressed this research gap. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00221325.2019.1575180DOI Listing
February 2019

Mental health training, attitudes toward support, and screening positive for mental disorders.

Cogn Behav Ther 2019 Feb 22:1-19. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

j Hill / Levene Schools of Business, Faculty of Business Administration , University of Regina , Regina , SK , Canada.

Public Safety Personnel (PSP; e.g. correctional workers, dispatchers, firefighters, paramedics, police) are frequently exposed to potentially traumatic events (PTEs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/16506073.2019.1575900DOI Listing
February 2019

Non-pharmacological pain control in outpatient hysteroscopies.

Minim Invasive Ther Allied Technol 2019 Feb 22:1-10. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

f Department of Medicine , Universidad Cardenal Herrera-CEU CEU Universities , Valencia , Spain.

Outpatient hysteroscopy has become the standard technique for gynaecological exploration of the uterine cavity. The most common reason for failure of the procedure is pain. During the last decade many studies were carried out to improve the equipment as well as the procedural technical aspects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13645706.2019.1576054DOI Listing
February 2019

Stan Maes: the founder of European Health Psychology.

Authors:
Marie Johnston

Psychol Health 2018 Nov;33(11):1317-1320

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08870446.2018.1546801DOI Listing
November 2018

Prior head injury but not sex or sports-participation affects expectations for post-injury rest and activity in simulated mild traumatic brain injury.

Appl Neuropsychol Adult 2019 Feb 22:1-9. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

a School of Psychology and Counselling , Queensland University of Technology (QUT) , Brisbane , Queensland , Australia.

Rest acutely followed by a gradual return to activity is commonly recommended for mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the general public's rest and activity expectations for this injury are unknown, as are the individual factors that might affect them. 165 individuals completed an online survey. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23279095.2018.1433180DOI Listing
February 2019

C3Logix assessment of neuropsychological performance in athletes and nonathletes.

Appl Neuropsychol Adult 2019 Feb 22:1-7. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

a Department of Psychology , Idaho State University , Pocatello , Idaho , USA.

Physical activity (PA) has been shown to enhance physical health, mental health, and cognitive functioning. Adult and older adult research shows that PA positively influences neuropsychological performance and protects against cognitive decline. This study investigated neuropsychological performance in uninjured athletes and nonathletes using an iPad-based neuropsychological battery called C3Logix. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23279095.2019.1570927DOI Listing
February 2019

Utility of the Sleep Disorders Inventory for Students in Clinically Referred Youth With Insomnia: Risk Identification and Relationship With Polysomnographic Measures.

Behav Sleep Med 2019 Feb 22:1-13. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

a Division of Behavioral Medicine and Clinical Psychology/Pulmonary Medicine , Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center , Cincinnati , Ohio.

Objective/background: This study evaluated the overall performance of the Sleep Disorders Inventory for Students (SDIS) in identifying sleep disorders risk and the sensitivity and specificity of specific SDIS subscales in a clinically referred sample of youth with insomnia.

Participants: Youth (N = 1,329, M = 2.5-18. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15402002.2019.1578770DOI Listing
February 2019

Super-cognition in aging: Cognitive profiles and associated lifestyle factors.

Appl Neuropsychol Adult 2019 Feb 22:1-7. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

b Department of Psychological Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine , National University of Singapore , Singapore , Singapore.

Previous research on older adults with superior cognitive abilities (super-cognition) has typically examined cognition using a single domain approach, which may not adequately capture the multidimensional nature of successful cognitive aging. Furthermore, the lifestyle factors associated with super-cognition have not been studied adequately. The current study examined the cognitive profiles and lifestyle factors associated with super-cognition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23279095.2019.1570928DOI Listing
February 2019

No pain, no gain: cross-lagged analyses of posttraumatic growth and anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress and prolonged grief symptoms after loss.

Anxiety Stress Coping 2019 Feb 22:1-13. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

b Department of Clinical Psychology , Utrecht University , Utrecht , the Netherlands.

Background And Objectives: Major negative life-events including bereavement can precipitate perceived positive life-changes, termed posttraumatic growth (PTG). While traditionally considered an adaptive phenomenon, it has been suggested that PTG represents a maladaptive coping response similar to cognitive avoidance. To clarify the function of PTG, it is crucial to establish concurrent and longitudinal associations of PTG with post-event mental health problems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10615806.2019.1584293DOI Listing
February 2019

Effectiveness of medication reviews in identifying and reducing medication-related problems among people with intellectual disabilities: A systematic review.

J Appl Res Intellect Disabil 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Intellectual Disability Medicine, Department of General Practice, Erasmus MC University Medical Centre Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Polypharmacy is common in people with intellectual disabilities. Using multiple medication may lead to unintended medication-related problems (MRPs). Medication review may serve as a tool to reduce MRPs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jar.12580DOI Listing
February 2019

Modelling PTSD diagnosis using sleep, memory, and adrenergic metabolites: An exploratory machine-learning study.

Hum Psychopharmacol 2019 Feb 22:e2691. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Department of Psychology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Objective: Features of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) typically include sleep disturbances, impaired declarative memory, and hyperarousal. This study evaluated whether these combined features may accurately delineate pathophysiological changes associated with PTSD.

Method: We recruited a cohort of PTSD-diagnosed individuals (N = 20), trauma survivors without PTSD (TE; N = 20), and healthy controls (HC; N = 20). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hup.2691DOI Listing
February 2019

Management of Self-Injurious Behaviors in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders-A Pharmacotherapy Overview.

Pharmacotherapy 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Department of Pharmacy, Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, CO.

Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), a group of disorders affecting approximately 1% to 2% of the general population, are caused by changes in brain development that result in behavioral and cognitive alterations, sensory and motor changes, and speech and language deficits. Neurodevelopmental disorders encompass a heterogeneous group of disorders including, but not limited to, Smith-Magenis Syndrome, Lesch-Nyhan Disease, Cri du Chat Syndrome, Prader-Willi Syndrome, Pervasive Developmental Disorders, Fragile X Syndrome, Rett Syndrome, Cornelia de Lange Syndrome, and Down Syndrome. Self-injurious behaviors are common in children with NDDs; depending on the specific NDDs, the incidence of self-injurious behaviors is nearly 100%. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2238DOI Listing
February 2019

Applying the disgust conditioning model of food avoidance: A case study of acceptance-based interoceptive exposure.

Int J Eat Disord 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Eating and Weight Disorders Program, Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York.

Objective: The current case report details the treatment of a 16-year-old adolescent with anorexia nervosa utilizing a novel adjunct, acceptance-based interoceptive exposure, prior to family-based treatment (FBT) for eating disorders.

Method: The exposure-based module focused particularly on the tolerance of disgust. For six sessions, the clinician taught the client skills that could be used to tolerate distress to visceral sensations associated with disgust. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eat.23045DOI Listing
February 2019

A common neural substrate for elevated PTSD symptoms and reduced pulse rate variability in combat-exposed veterans.

Psychophysiology 2019 Feb 22:e13352. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Center for Healthy Minds, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin.

Previous studies have identified reduced heart rate variability (HRV) in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which may temporally precede the onset of the disorder. A separate line of functional neuroimaging research in PTSD has consistently demonstrated hypoactivation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), a key aspect of a descending neuromodulatory system that exerts inhibitory control over heart rate. No research to date, however, has simultaneously investigated whether altered vmPFC activation is associated with reduced HRV and elevated PTSD symptoms in the same individuals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/psyp.13352DOI Listing
February 2019

Increased neural sensitivity to self-relevant stimuli in major depressive disorder.

Psychophysiology 2019 Feb 22:e13345. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Department of Psychological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana.

The current research examined how individuals with depression process emotional, self-relevant stimuli. Across two studies, individuals with depression and healthy controls read stimuli that varied in self-relevance while EEG data were recorded. We examined the late positive potential (LPP), an ERP component that captures the dynamic allocation of attention to motivationally salient stimuli. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/psyp.13345DOI Listing
February 2019

Objective assessment of compliance with a state-wide school food-service policy via menu audits.

Public Health Nutr 2019 Feb 22:1-8. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

1School of Psychology,Curtin University,GPO Box U1987,Perth,WA 6845,Australia.

Objective: The Healthy Food and Drink Policy was implemented in Western Australian government schools in 2007. The aim of the present study was to assess the compliance of Western Australian school canteen menus with the policy a decade after its introduction.

Design: The traffic-light system that underpins the Healthy Food and Drink Policy categorises foods and drinks into three groups: 'green' healthy items, 'amber' items that should be selected carefully and 'red' items that lack nutritional value. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980019000156DOI Listing
February 2019

Associations between an Educational Attainment Polygenic Score with Educational Attainment in an African American Sample.

Genes Brain Behav 2019 Feb 21:e12558. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Mental Health, Baltimore, Maryland.

Polygenic propensity for educational attainment has been associated with higher education attendance, academic achievement, and criminal offending in predominantly European samples; however, less is known about whether this polygenic propensity is associated with these outcomes among African Americans. Using an educational attainment polygenic score (EA PGS), the present study examined whether this score was associated with post-secondary education, academic achievement, and criminal offending in an urban, African American sample. Three cohorts of participants (N=1,050; 43. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gbb.12558DOI Listing
February 2019

Age-dependent DNA methylation patterns on the Y chromosome in elderly males.

Aging Cell 2019 Feb 21:e12907. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.

The Y chromosome, a sex chromosome that only exists in males, has been ignored in traditional epigenetic association studies for multiple reasons. However, sex differences in aging-related phenotypes and mortality could suggest a critical role of the sex chromosomes in the aging process. We obtained blood-based DNA methylation data on the Y chromosome for 624 men from four cohorts and performed a chromosome-wide epigenetic association analysis to detect Y-linked CpGs differentially methylated over age and cross-validated the significant CpGs in the four cohorts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acel.12907DOI Listing
February 2019

Examining the theory-effectiveness hypothesis: A systematic review of systematic reviews.

Br J Health Psychol 2019 Feb 21. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Faculty of Kinesiology, University of New Brunswick, Canada.

Purpose: Health interventions based on theory may be more effective than those that are not. This review of reviews synthesizes all published randomized controlled trial (RCT) meta-analytic evidence from the last decade to examine whether theory-based interventions were found to be associated with more effective adult health behaviour change interventions.

Methods: Systematic reviews including meta-analyses were identified by searching Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and CDSR. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjhp.12356DOI Listing
February 2019

Lumbar range of motion in chronic low back pain is predicted by task-specific, but not by general measures of pain-related fear.

Eur J Pain 2019 Feb 21. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Faculty of Rehabilitation Sciences, Hasselt University, Hasselt, Belgium.

Background: Most studies fail to show an association between higher levels of pain-related fear and protective movement behavior in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP). This may be explained by the fact that only general measures of pain-related fear have been used to examine the association with movement patterns. This study explored whether task-specific, instead of general measures of pain-related fear can predict movement behavior. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejp.1384DOI Listing
February 2019

Strengthening competence of therapists-in-training in the treatment of health anxiety (hypochondriasis): validation of the Assessment of Core CBT Skills (ACCS).

Clin Psychol Psychother 2019 Feb 21. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Psychology, Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany.

Although the observation and assessment of psychotherapeutic competences is central to training, supervision, patient care, quality control, and life-long practice, structured instruments are used only occasionally. In the current study, an observation-based tool for the Assessment of Core CBT Skills (ACCS) was translated into German and adapted, and its psychometric properties were pilot evaluated. Competence of therapists-in-training was assessed in a random sample of n = 30 videos on cognitive-behavioral therapy including patients diagnosed with hypochondriasis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpp.2353DOI Listing
February 2019

Network abnormalities among non-manifesting Parkinson disease related LRRK2 mutation carriers.

Hum Brain Mapp 2019 Feb 21. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Sagol Brain Institute Tel-Aviv Medical Center, Tel-Aviv, Israel.

Non-manifesting carriers (NMC) of the G2019S mutation in the LRRK2 gene represent an "at risk" group for future development of Parkinson's disease (PD) and have demonstrated task related fMRI changes. However, resting-state networks have received less research focus, thus this study aimed to assess the integrity of the motor, default mode (DMN), salience (SAL), and dorsal attention (DAN) networks among this unique population by using two different connectivity measures: interregional functional connectivity analysis and Dependency network analysis (D NA). Machine learning classification methods were used to distinguish connectivity between the two groups of participants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.24543DOI Listing
February 2019

Pre-surgical Caregiver Burden and Anxiety Are Associated with Post-Surgery Cortisol over the Day in Caregivers of Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Patients.

Int J Behav Med 2019 Feb 21. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Behavioural Science and Health, University College London, 1-19 Torrington Place, London, WC1E 6BT, UK.

Background: The relationship between pre-surgical distress and diurnal cortisol following surgery has not been investigated prospectively in caregivers of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) patients before. We aimed to examine the relationship between pre-surgical anxiety and caregiver burden and diurnal cortisol measured 2 months after the surgery in the caregivers of CABG patients.

Method: We used a sample of 103 caregivers of elective CABG patients that were assessed 28. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12529-019-09775-6DOI Listing
February 2019

The Relation between Specific Parenting Behaviors and Toddlers' Early Anxious Behaviors is Moderated by Toddler Cortisol Reactivity.

J Abnorm Child Psychol 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Psychology Department, Miami University, 90 N. Patterson Ave, Oxford, OH, 45056, USA.

Differential susceptibility theory posits that neurobiological reactivity (e.g., cortisol levels) should be considered as an individual index of susceptibility to both positive and negative environments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10802-019-00522-9DOI Listing
February 2019

Assessing Cognitive Appraisals Related to Sexual Function: A Scenario-Based Approach.

Arch Sex Behav 2019 Feb 21. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Mental Health Research and Treatment Center, Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Faculty of Psychology, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Massenbergstr. 9-13, 44787, Bochum, Germany.

Cognitive factors play an important role in the etiology and maintenance of sexual difficulties. To date, research has mostly relied on self-report measures to assess negative cognitions related to low sexual function. To overcome the limitations of self-report questionnaires, a series of open-ended, ambiguous sexual scenarios were developed and presented to participants (N = 600, M = 34. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10508-019-1398-5DOI Listing
February 2019

Health status, Health-Related Quality of Life and Socio-economic Outcome in Childhood Brain Tumor Survivors: a German Cohort Study.

Neuro Oncol 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, University Children's Hospital Bonn, Germany.

Background: With rising numbers of childhood cancer survivors, somatic and socio-economic outcome as well as the health-related quality of life (QoL) gain increasing relevance. Based on the first nationwide German Survey on Life Situation, State of Health and Quality of Life of Childhood Cancer Survivors, the VIVE-survey, we report the outcome of survivors of childhood brain tumors (BTS) localized in the posterior fossa.

Methods: 270 participants with a median follow-up period of 21. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/noz044DOI Listing
February 2019

Somatization and Coping in Ethnic Minority Recruits.

Mil Med 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

University of Basel, Psychiatric Clinics (UPK), Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders (ZASS), Wilhelm Klein-Strasse 27, Basel, Switzerland.

Introduction: Military service can have beneficial social effects on minorities. However, minority groups are also often at greater risk of somatizing psychological distress and coping maladaptively. In military training this would result in lower mental health of minorities and contribute to higher drop-out rates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/milmed/usz014DOI Listing
February 2019

Smartphone problem-solving therapy to reduce fear of cancer recurrence among breast cancer survivors: an open single-arm pilot study.

Jpn J Clin Oncol 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Division of Psycho-Oncology and Palliative Care, Nagoya City University Hospital, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, Japan.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate a newly developed smartphone problem-solving therapy (PST) application's feasibility and preliminary effectiveness for reducing fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) among breast cancer survivors.

Methods: Female disease-free breast cancer survivors aged 20-49 years who were more than 6 months post-breast surgery participated in the study. The patients received the smartphone PST using an iPhone or iPad for 8 weeks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jjco/hyz005DOI Listing
February 2019

Navigating Blind in the Green Rush: Clinical Considerations and Harm Reduction Practices for Cannabis.

Curr Drug Res Rev 2019 ;11(1):3-11

National Center for PTSD, Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Menlo Park, USA.

Background: The United States has recently experienced extensive changes in state policy regarding the use of cannabis for recreational and medicinal purposes. Despite its rapidly increasing accessibility and social acceptance, there is a striking dearth of research on cannabis as a treatment for medical and psychological conditions. Research on cannabis is difficult to conduct as it is classified as a schedule I drug with high potential for abuse and currently no accepted medical use in treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/2589977511666181109153958DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6380657PMC
January 2019
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