1,365,280 results match your criteria Psychology Health & Medicine [Journal]


Perceptual size discrimination requires awareness and late visual areas: A continuous flash suppression and interocular transfer study.

Conscious Cogn 2018 Dec 11;67:77-85. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Psychology and Counselling, School of Psychology and Public Health, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address:

We applied continuous flash suppression (CFS) during an interocular transfer paradigm to evaluate the importance of awareness and the contribution of early versus late visual structures in size recognition. Specifically, we tested if size judgements of a visible target could be influenced by a congruent or incongruent prime presented to the same or different eye. Without CFS, participants categorised a target as "small" or "large" more quickly when it was preceded by a congruent prime - regardless of whether the prime and target were presented to the same or different eye. Read More

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December 2018

Disrupted structural and functional brain networks in Alzheimer's disease.

Neurobiol Aging 2018 Nov 16;75:71-82. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Dementia Care & Research Center, Peking University Institute of Mental Health (Sixth Hospital), Beijing, China; Beijing Key Laboratory for Translational Research on Diagnosis and Treatment of Dementia, Beijing, China; National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders (Peking University Sixth Hospital), Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Studies have demonstrated that the clinical manifestations of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with abnormal connections in either functional connectivity networks (FCNs) or structural connectivity networks (SCNs). However, the FCN and SCN of AD have usually been examined separately, and the results were inconsistent. In this multimodal study, we collected resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging data from 46 patients with AD and 39 matched healthy controls (HCs). Read More

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November 2018
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Interaction of hormonal and social environments in understanding body image concerns in adolescent girls.

J Psychiatr Res 2018 Dec 7;109:178-184. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Psychology, Michigan State University, 316 Physics Rd #262, East Lansing, MI, 48824, USA.

During adolescence, peer approval becomes increasingly important and may be perceived as contingent upon appearance in girls. Concurrently, girls experience hormonal changes, including an increase in progesterone. Progesterone has been implicated in affiliative behavior but inconsistently associated with body image concerns. Read More

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December 2018

Predictors of self-harm emergency department visits in adolescents: A statewide longitudinal study.

Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2018 Dec 8;56:28-35. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Violence Prevention Research Program, University of California, Davis, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: This study investigated patient- and area-level characteristics associated with adolescent emergency department (ED) patients' risk of subsequent ED visits for self-harm.

Method: Retrospective analysis of adolescent patients presenting to a California ED in 2010 (n = 480,706) was conducted using statewide, all-payer, individually linkable administrative data. We examined associations between multiple predictors of interest (patient sociodemographic factors, prior ED utilization, and residential mobility; and area-level characteristics) and odds of a self-harm ED visit in 2010. Read More

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December 2018

An exploration of the psychometric properties of the SATAQ-4 among adolescent boys in Japan.

Eat Behav 2018 Dec 6;32:31-36. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Psychology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA.

Research among Western adult and adolescent males suggests that sociocultural influences are implicated in the drive for muscularity and weight-change behaviors. However, few studies have examined these relationships among adolescent boys from non-Western backgrounds. The current study sought to assess the psychometric properties of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-4 (SATAQ-4), a 22-item, 5-factor measure of sociocultural influence on appearance ideals, among Japanese (n = 984) adolescent boys. Read More

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December 2018
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PHQ-9: One factor or two?

Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 7;271:532-534. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Psychology, University of Durham, Durham, United Kingdom; Clinical Psychology, Teesside University, Middlesbrough, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

The PHQ-9 has been found to be reliable and valid, but with both a single and two-factor structure suggested in the literature. This measure has not yet been subject to psychometric investigation using Mokken scale analysis. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and Mokken analysis were performed on retrospective data from an NHS Trust. Read More

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December 2018

Telephone-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for veterans with chronic pain following traumatic brain injury: Rationale and study protocol for a randomized controlled trial study.

Contemp Clin Trials 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Box 356490, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-6490, USA; VA Puget Sound Healthcare System, 1660 S. Columbian Way, RCS-117, Seattle, WA 98108, USA. Electronic address:

Background And Objectives: Chronic pain is a highly prevalent and potentially disabling condition in Veterans who have had a traumatic brain injury (TBI) and access to non-pharmacological pain treatments such as cognitive behavioral therapy is limited and variable. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) is to evaluate the efficacy of a telephone-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (T-CBT) for pain in Veterans with a history of TBI.

Methods: Veterans with a history of TBI and chronic pain of at least six months duration (N = 160) will be randomized to either T-CBT or a telephone-delivered pain psychoeducational active control condition (T-Ed). Read More

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December 2018
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Maternal childhood emotional abuse predicts Chinese infant behavior problems: Examining mediating and moderating processes.

Child Abuse Negl 2018 Dec 12;88:307-316. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Learning and Cognition, Research Center for Child Development, School of Psychology, Capital Normal University, China.

The current study examined the mediating effect of maternal negative expressiveness as well as the moderating effects of infant inhibitory control (IC) in the association between maternal childhood emotional abuse (CEA) and infant behavior problems. Drawing from 207 families from mainland China, 2-wave data were reported in this study when the infants were 6 months (T1) and 14 (T2) months. Mothers (Mean age = 32. Read More

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December 2018

Parent discipline in Thailand: Corporal punishment use and associations with myths and psychological outcomes.

Child Abuse Negl 2018 Dec 12;88:298-306. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

School of Psychology, The University of Queensland, Queensland, 4072, Australia; Institute for Teaching and Learning Innovation, The University of Queensland, Queensland, 4072, Australia. Electronic address:

A basic human right of all children is protection from physical punishment in all settings. Yet, corporal punishment remains common place within families, at home, at school, and elsewhere. In Thailand, cultural beliefs and values might preserve its use. Read More

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December 2018

Cortisol stress reactivity moderates the effects of parental corporal punishment on Chinese preschoolers' executive function.

Child Abuse Negl 2018 Dec 12;88:288-297. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Research Center for Child Development, College of Elementary Education, Capital Normal University, No.105 Xisan Huan Beilu, Beijing, 100048, China. Electronic address:

Background: To date whether the effects of parental corporal punishment (CP) on executive function (EF) distinct components are different is less clear. Moreover, theory and empirical work suggest that physiological regulation system may help to explain the individual differences in the developmental outcomes associated with parental CP.

Objective: This study examined the effects of parental CP on Chinese preschoolers' EF and whether the cortisol stress reactivity would moderate such effects. Read More

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December 2018

Electrophysiological and behavioral measures of some speech contrasts in varied attention and noise.

Hear Res 2018 Dec 6;373:1-9. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Lund University Department of Psychology, Paradisgatan 5, Lund, 22100, Sweden. Electronic address:

This paper investigates the salience of speech contrasts in noise, in relation to how listening attention affects scalp-recorded cortical responses. The contrasts that were examined with consonant-vowel syllables, were place of articulation, vowel length and voice-onset time (VOT) and our analysis focuses on the correspondence between the effect of attention on the electrophysiology and the decrement in behavioral results when noise was added to the stimuli. Normal-hearing subjects (n = 20) performed closed-set syllable identification in no noise, 0, 4 and 8 dB signal-noise ratio (SNR). Read More

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December 2018

Sexual minority women and Cannabis use: The serial impact of PTSD symptom severity and coping motives.

Addict Behav 2018 Dec 10;92:1-5. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Psychology, Louisiana State University, 236 Audubon Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA. Electronic address:

Sexual minority women (SMW) report greater rates of cannabis use. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity is related to greater cannabis use among SMW, and it is theorized that this is due to SMW using cannabis in an attempt to manage negative affectivity associated with PTSD symptoms. However, this is the first known study to test this hypothesis. Read More

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December 2018

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over parietal cortex improves associative memory.

Neurobiol Learn Mem 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Neuroscience, Institute for Medical Research, University of Belgrade, Serbia.

Associative memory plays a key role in everyday functioning, but it declines with normal aging as well as due to various pathological states and conditions, thus impairing quality of life. Associative memory enhancement via neurostimulation over frontal areas resulted in limited success, while posterior stimulation sites seemed to be more promising. We hypothesized that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of parietal areas would lead to higher performance in associative memory due to high connectivity between posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and hippocampus. Read More

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December 2018

ADHD symptoms are associated with decreased activity of fast sleep spindles and poorer procedural overnight learning during adolescence.

Neurobiol Learn Mem 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Psychology and Logopedics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland.

ADHD and its subclinical symptoms have been associated with both disturbed sleep and weakened overnight memory consolidation. As sleep spindle activity during NREM sleep plays a key role in both sleep maintenance and memory consolidation, we examined the association between subclinical ADHD symptoms and sleep spindle activity. Furthermore, we hypothesized that sleep spindle activity mediates the effect of ADHD symptoms on overnight learning outcome in a procedural memory task. Read More

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December 2018

Higher sleep spindle activity is associated with fewer false memories in adolescent girls.

Neurobiol Learn Mem 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Psychology and Logopedics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Sleep facilitates the extraction of semantic regularities amongst newly encoded memories, which may also lead to increased false memories. We investigated sleep stage proportions and sleep spindles in the recollection of adolescents' false memories, and their potential sex-specific differences.

Methods: 196 adolescents (mean age 16. Read More

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December 2018

Comparison of fatigue, pain and depression in patients with advanced kidney disease and cancer - symptom burden and clusters.

J Pain Symptom Manage 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Surgery, Psychiatry and Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.

Context: While symptom clusters have been studied in the context of cancer, few data exist in chronic and end stage kidney disease (CKD/ESKD) patients.

Objectives: To (1) characterize and compare symptom cluster phenotypes in patients with advanced CKD, ESKD and cancer, and (2) explore predictors of symptom clusters.

Methods: We conducted secondary data analysis of three prospective studies in which pain, depression, and fatigue were assessed in patients with stage 4-5 CKD, ESKD and gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. Read More

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December 2018

Effects of sex and menstrual cycle phase on cardiac response and alpha- amylase levels in psychosocial stress.

Biol Psychol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Laboratory of Social Cognitive Neuroscience, IDOCAL, Department of Psychobiology, University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain.

The impact of sex and the menstrual cycle phase on the autonomic response to psychosocial stress remains controversial. This study explored autonomic nervous system activity through salivary alpha-amylase, heart rate, and heart rate variability responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in healthy young people. The sample was composed of 25 men, 26 women in the luteal phase, and 25 women in the follicular phase, from 18 to 25 years of age. Read More

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December 2018

A Potential Mechanistic Role for Neuroinflammation in Reward Processing Impairments in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Biol Psychol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27514, USA; Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27514, USA; Carolina Institute for Developmental Disabilities, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27514, USA. Electronic address:

Accumulating evidence suggests that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be conceptualized within a framework of reward processing impairments. The "Social Motivation Theory of Autism" posits that reduced motivation to interact with people and decreased pleasure derived from social interactions may derail typical social development and contribute to the emergence of core social communication deficits in ASD. Neuroinflammation may disrupt the development of mesolimbic dopaminergic systems that are critical for optimal functioning of social reward processing systems. Read More

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December 2018

Religious fundamentalism is associated with hyperactive performance monitoring: ERP evidence from correct and erroneous responses.

Biol Psychol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Institute of Psychology, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 6, 30-060 Kraków, Poland.

The aim of the current study was to examine whether action monitoring is associated with religious fundamentalism. Participants performed a stop-signal task that required response inhibition to a simple auditory tone. The level of their religious fundamentalism was measured on a scale. Read More

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December 2018

Localization of Contextual and Context Removed Auditory Fear Memory within the Basolateral Amygdala Complex.

Neuroscience 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

School of Psychology and Counselling, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia; Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology at Translational Research Institute, Brisbane, Australia; Center for the Study of Traumatic Stress, Department of Psychiatry, USU School of Medicine, Bethesda, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Debilitating and persistent fear memories can rapidly form in humans following exposure to traumatic events. Fear memories can also be generated and studied in animals via Pavlovian fear conditioning. The current study was designed to evaluate basolateral amygdala complex involvement following the formation of different fear memories (two contextual fear memories and one adjusted auditory fear memory). Read More

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December 2018

The influence of the OPRM1 (A118G) polymorphism on behavioral and neural correlates of aggression in healthy males.

Neuropharmacology 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, Faculty of Medicine, RWTH Aachen University, 52074, Aachen, Germany; JARA Institute Brain Structure Function Relationship Institute for Neuroscience and Medicine (INM 10), Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich, Germany.

Current models of aggression suggest that in addition to personality traits and environmental factors, biological vulnerability associated with genetics substantially impacts aggressive behavior. In a functional imaging study, we investigated the influence of the single nucleotide polymorphism of the mu 1 subtype opioid receptor gene (OPRM1), implicated in sociability, on correlates of trait and state aggression to delineate the function of these influences in aggression. A key aim was further to differentiate different aspects of aggressive reactions - namely, the reaction to provocation and the decision to punish an opponent. Read More

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December 2018

Astaxanthin ameliorates scopolamine-induced spatial memory via reduced cortical-striato-hippocampal oxidative stress.

Brain Res 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of General and Experimental Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Germany. Electronic address:

Alzheimer's disease is characterized by progressive disruption of cholinergic neurotransmission and impaired cognitive functions. In rodents, scopolamine has been used to induce cholinergic dysfunction resulting in cognitive impairments and an increment of oxidative stress in the brain. Here we tested whether oxidative stress can be attenuated via an antioxidant (astaxanthin) to rescue scopolamine-induced spatial memory. Read More

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December 2018

Pubertal development of estradiol-induced hypothalamic progesterone synthesis.

Horm Behav 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

UCLA DGSOM Dept of Neurobiology, 650 Charles E Young Dr. S, Los Angeles, CA 90095, Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology of the Brain Research Institute, United States of America.

In females, a hallmark of puberty is the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge that triggers ovulation. Puberty initiates estrogen positive feedback onto hypothalamic circuits, which underlie the stimulation of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. In reproductively mature female rodents, both estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) signaling are necessary to stimulate the surge release of GnRH and LH. Read More

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December 2018
4.632 Impact Factor

Association of allostatic load with health-related quality of life in patients with arterial hypertension: a cross-sectional analysis.

Swiss Med Wkly 2018 Dec 15;148:w14689. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Medical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Medical University of Graz, Austria / Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapeutic Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Austria.

Aims Of The Study: Allostatic load (AL), as a marker of cumulative stress, is associated with higher morbidity and mortality, and reduced health-related quality of life (HrQoL) in healthy adults. In patients with hypertension, AL and its association with HrQoL have not been investigated. Therefore, this study aimed to (1) explore AL in a cohort of hypertensive patients and to (2) determine its association with HrQoL, while controlling for other health-related variables. Read More

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December 2018

Effectiveness of a theory-based sun-safe randomised behavioural change trial among Australian adolescents.

Psychooncology 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Australian Institute for Suicide Research and Prevention, Griffith University, Mt Gravatt, Queensland.

Objective: Sun safety is crucial for preventing skin cancer. This study evaluated a school-based intervention based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) which aimed to encourage sun-protective behaviour among adolescents.

Methods: Secondary school students (N=382; 61. Read More

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December 2018
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Realizing Relational Preferences Through Transforming Interpersonal Patterns.

Fam Process 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

School of Psychology, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Santiago, Chile.

Family therapy has often been conceptualized as a conversational process whereby therapists and clients generate new meanings. Based on a 3-year study of conversational practices observable in successful family therapy processes of Chilean families with a child/adolescent who is engaged in disruptive behaviors, we looked for clinical examples of Transforming Interpersonal Patterns (TIPs). TIPs are a key aspect of the IPscope, a framework we used to explore the meaning-making processes in family therapy. Read More

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December 2018
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Depressive symptoms and cerebral microvascular disease in adults with Type 1 diabetes mellitus.

Diabet Med 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Aim: To assess the prevalence of and risk factors for depressive symptoms, comparing a sample of middle-aged adults with and without juvenile-onset Type 1 diabetes mellitus, and to determine if depressive symptoms were associated with white matter hyperintensity volume among those with Type 1 diabetes.

Methods: Depressive symptoms and white matter hyperintensities were compared between adults (age range 30-65 years) with juvenile-onset Type 1 diabetes (n=130) and adults without Type 1 diabetes (n=133). The association of Type 1 diabetes with depression was computed before and after adjustment for white matter hyperintensities. Read More

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December 2018

Efficacy of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction in Emerging Adults with Poorly Controlled, Type 1 Diabetes: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

Pediatr Diabetes 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Center for Mind-Body Research, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD.

Background And Objective: The negative effects of stress on persons with type 1 diabetes (T1D) are well-established, but effective interventions to reduce stress among emerging adults with T1D are limited. The study objective was to conduct a pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) to obtain preliminary data on the efficacy of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) to reduce stress and improve diabetes health outcomes in a population of high-risk, urban emerging adults with poorly controlled diabetes METHODS: 48 participants aged 16-20 years of age with T1D (mean duration= 8 years) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: MSBR, cognitive-behavioral stress management (CBSM), or a diabetes support group. Data were collected at baseline, end of treatment and three months after treatment completion. Read More

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December 2018

Engaging the Struggle for Decolonial Approaches to Teaching Community Psychology.

Am J Community Psychol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA, USA.

Community psychology's history has traditionally been described within the context of U.S. history, silencing contributions from people of color from the Americas, Asia, the Pacific Islands, and Africa. Read More

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December 2018
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Exploring the mediating role of self-blame and coping in the relationships between self-compassion and distress in females following the sexual assault.

J Clin Psychol 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Psychology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee.

Objective: The present study investigated the associations between self-compassion, self-blame, disengagement coping, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptom severity among females who had experienced sexual assault. We also examined whether the relationships between self-compassion and both PTSD and depression severity were mediated by self-blame and coping.

Method: A volunteer sample of female adults (N = 207) completed surveys online or on paper. Read More

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December 2018

Physician referral to a psychologist: Testing alternative behavioral healthcare seeking models.

J Clin Psychol 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Psychology Department, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia.

Objective: Primary care physicians (PCPs) often refer patients to psychological services, but help-seeking factors in the context of behavioral healthcare referral are understudied. This study examined perceptions of seeking psychological help for depression by comparing alternative structural equation models derived from the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA).

Method: Internet survey participants (N = 685 US adults, 77% female, M  = 45) imagined themselves in a vignette scenario in which they are experiencing depression symptoms and encouraged by a PCP to see a psychologist. Read More

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December 2018

From avatars to body swapping: The use of virtual reality for assessing and treating body-size distortion in individuals with anorexia.

J Clin Psychol 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Psychology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milan, Italy.

In the last 30 years, virtual reality (VR) has offered innovative solutions for assessing and treating body representation disturbances in anorexia nervosa (AN). The most recent and innovative trend is the exploitation of the so-called VR-based body swapping illusion. The aim of this case study was to report the use of this VR protocol within a multidisciplinary treatment of AN. Read More

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December 2018

Barriers and facilitators to understanding of ADHD in primary care: a mixed-method systematic review.

Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Division of Psychiatry & Applied Psychology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder affecting up to 5% of children and adults and is underdiagnosed in many European countries. The process of access to care for this disorder is complex and variable across countries. In general, those affected, or their caregiver, will seek help through their primary care practitioners who are then often responsible for referral to other professionals for diagnosis and provision of treatment. Read More

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December 2018

Correction to: The Neural Substrate of Reward Anticipation in Health: A Meta-Analysis of fMRI Findings in the Monetary Incentive Delay Task.

Neuropsychol Rev 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, De Crespigny Park, London, SE5 8AF, UK.

The members of MTAC were removed from the author group and full list are shown in the Acknowledgements section. Also, members "Roee, A" and "Van Amselvoort, T" should be "Admon, R" and "Van Amelsvoort, T", respectively. The original article has been corrected. Read More

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December 2018

Does gesture strengthen sensorimotor knowledge of objects? The case of the size-weight illusion.

Psychol Res 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Psychology, Education and Child Studies, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 3000 DR, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Co-speech gestures have been proposed to strengthen sensorimotor knowledge related to objects' weight and manipulability. This pre-registered study ( https://www.osf. Read More

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December 2018

A novel role for E2F3b in regulating cocaine action in the prefrontal cortex.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Neuroscience and Friedman Brain Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

Drug abuse is a multifaceted disorder that involves maladaptive decision making. Long-lasting changes in the addicted brain are mediated by a complex circuit of brain reward regions. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is one region in which chronic drug exposure changes expression and function of upstream transcriptional regulators to alter drug responses and aspects of the addicted phenotype. Read More

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December 2018

Evidence for a southward autumn migration of nocturnal noctuid moths in central Europe.

J Exp Biol 2018 Dec 14;221(Pt 24). Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Biology, Lund University, 22362 Lund, Sweden.

Insect migrations are spectacular natural events and resemble a remarkable relocation of biomass between two locations in space. Unlike the well-known migrations of daytime flying butterflies, such as the painted lady () or the monarch butterfly (), much less widely known are the migrations of nocturnal moths. These migrations - typically involving billions of moths from different taxa - have recently attracted considerable scientific attention. Read More

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December 2018

Behaviour change interventions for the management of Raynaud's phenomenon: a systematic literature review.

BMJ Open 2018 Dec 14;8(12):e024528. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Centre for Pain Research, University of Bath, Bath, UK.

Objectives: Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) is a significant cause of morbidity. Vasodilator medications cause unwanted adverse effects, with behavioural and lifestyle changes forming the mainstay of self-management; this is difficult to implement successfully. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of behaviour change interventions for RP and identify learning points for future treatment development. Read More

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December 2018

Vascular and cognitive effects of cocoa-rich chocolate in postmenopausal women: a study protocol for a randomised clinical trial.

BMJ Open 2018 Dec 14;8(12):e024095. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Primary Health Care Research Unit, La Alamedilla Health Center, Institute of Biomedical Research of Salamanca (IBSAL), Health Service of Castilla y León (SACyL), Salamanca, Spain.

Introduction: The intake of polyphenols has certain health benefits. This study will aim to assess the effect of adding a daily amount of chocolate high in cocoa content and polyphenols to the normal diet on blood pressure, vascular function, cognitive performance, quality of life and body composition in postmenopausal women.

Methods And Analysis: Here we plan a randomised clinical trial with two parallel groups involving a total of 140 women between 50 and 64 years in the postmenopausal period, defined by amenorrhoea of ​​at least 12 consecutive months. Read More

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December 2018

Informed shared decision-making programme for patients with type 2 diabetes in primary care: cluster randomised controlled trial.

BMJ Open 2018 Dec 14;8(12):e024004. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Health Sciences and Education, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.

Objective: To translate an informed shared decision-making programme (ISDM-P) for patients with type 2 diabetes from a specialised diabetes centre to the primary care setting.

Design: Patient-blinded, two-arm multicentre, cluster randomised controlled trial of 6 months follow-up; concealed randomisation of practices after patient recruitment and acquisition of baseline data.

Setting: 22 general practices providing care according to the German Disease Management Programme (DMP) for type 2 diabetes. Read More

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December 2018

Motor imagery ability assessments in four disciplines: protocol for a systematic review.

BMJ Open 2018 Dec 14;8(12):e023439. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Research Department, Reha Rheinfelden, Rheinfelden, Switzerland.

Introduction: Motor imagery (MI) is a very popular and well-accepted technique in different disciplines. Originating from sport and psychology, MI is now also used in the field of medicine and education. Several studies confirmed the benefits of MI to facilitate motor learning and skill acquisition. Read More

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December 2018

Development of a tool to assess beliefs about mythical causes of cancer: the Cancer Awareness Measure Mythical Causes Scale.

BMJ Open 2018 Dec 14;8(12):e022825. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Research Department of Behavioural Science and Health, University College London, London, UK.

Objectives: We aimed to develop a reliable and valid measure to assess public beliefs in mythical causes of cancer: the Cancer Awareness Measure-MYthical Causes Scale (CAM-MYCS).

Design And Setting: Cancer myth items were generated from a literature review, social media and interviews (n=16). The CAM-MYCS was prepared by reducing items using (a) an online sample (n=527) with exploratory factor analysis and (b) cancer experts with Delhpi methodology (n=13). Read More

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December 2018

Policy environment impacting the societal harm caused by alcohol in India: protocol for a scoping review.

BMJ Open 2018 Dec 14;8(12):e020854. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Addictions Research Group, Sangath, Porvorim, Goa, India.

Introduction: The aim of this review is to provide the first consolidation of the policy environment surrounding alcohol-related societal harm in India giving researchers and policy-makers a clearer base for future reforms. This review is also an important adaptation on the scoping review method for policy reviews in low-resource settings that may serve as an example for other policy reviews in similar settings.

Methods And Analysis: We will undertake a scoping review with policy relevant adaptations in order to map the alcohol-related policy environment in India. Read More

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December 2018

A placental mammal-specific microRNA cluster acts as a natural brake for sociability in mice.

EMBO Rep 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Institute of Physiological Chemistry, Philipps-University Marburg, Marburg, Germany

Aberrant synaptic function is thought to underlie social deficits in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. Although microRNAs have been shown to regulate synapse development and plasticity, their potential involvement in the control of social behaviour in mammals remains unexplored. Here, we show that deletion of the placental mammal-specific miR379-410 cluster in mice leads to hypersocial behaviour, which is accompanied by increased excitatory synaptic transmission, and exaggerated expression of ionotropic glutamate receptor complexes in the hippocampus. Read More

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December 2018

Youth With Type 1 Diabetes Taking Responsibility for Self-Management: The Importance of Executive Functioning in Achieving Glycemic Control: Results From the Longitudinal DINO Study.

Diabetes Care 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Medical Psychology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Objective: Successful self-management of type 1 diabetes requires cognitive skills such as executive functioning (EF). In the transition to adolescence, youth take over responsibility for diabetes management. We set out to test: ) the association between EF and glycemic control over time and ) whether this association was moderated: ) by youth, shared, or parent responsibility for diabetes management and ) youth's age. Read More

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December 2018

Psychiatrists' Attitudes Toward Disruptive New Technologies: Mixed-Methods Study.

JMIR Ment Health 2018 Dec 14;5(4):e10240. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Adult Psychiatry and Medical Psychology, Sorbonne Université, Saint-Antoine Hospital, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France.

Background: Recent discoveries in the fields of machine learning (ML), Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA), computerized adaptive testing (CAT), digital phenotype, imaging, and biomarkers have brought about a new paradigm shift in medicine.

Objective: The aim of this study was to explore psychiatrists' perspectives on this paradigm through the prism of new clinical decision support systems (CDSSs). Our primary objective was to assess the acceptability of these new technologies. Read More

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December 2018

Predicting Prediabetes Through Facebook Postings: Protocol for a Mixed-Methods Study.

JMIR Res Protoc 2018 Dec 14;7(12):e10720. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

David Eccles School of Business, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, United States.

Background: The field of infodemiology uses health care trends found in public networks, such as social media, to track and quantify the spread of disease. Type 2 diabetes is on the rise worldwide, and social media may be useful in identifying prediabetes through behavior exhibited through social media platforms such as Facebook and thus in designing and administering early interventions and containing further progression of the disease.

Objective: This pilot study is designed to investigate the social media behavior of individuals with prediabetes, before and after diagnosis. Read More

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December 2018

Predictors of Engagement, Response to Follow Up, and Extent of Alcohol Reduction in Users of a Smartphone App (Drink Less): Secondary Analysis of a Factorial Randomized Controlled Trial.

JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2018 Dec 14;6(12):e11175. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Behavioural Science and Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Digital interventions for alcohol can help achieve reductions in hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption. The Drink Less app was developed using evidence and theory, and a factorial randomized controlled trial (RCT) suggested that 4 of its intervention modules may assist with drinking reduction. However, low engagement is an important barrier to effectiveness, and low response to follow up is a challenge for intervention evaluation. Read More

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December 2018

Supported Internet-Delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Programs for Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in University Students: Open, Non-Randomised Trial of Acceptability, Effectiveness, and Satisfaction.

JMIR Ment Health 2018 Dec 14;5(4):e11467. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States.

Background: Many university campuses have limited mental health services that cannot cope with the high demand. One alternative is to use internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) as a way of tackling barriers such as lack of availability and scheduling issues.

Objective: This study aimed to assess feasibility, acceptability, effectiveness, and satisfaction of a supported iCBT intervention offering 3 programs on depression, anxiety, and stress to university students. Read More

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December 2018

White matter organization in developmental coordination disorder: A pilot study exploring the added value of constrained spherical deconvolution.

Neuroimage Clin 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Mary MacKillop Institute for Health Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Australia.

Previous studies of white matter organization in sensorimotor tracts in developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have adopted diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a method unable to reconcile pathways with 'crossing fibres'. In response to limitations of the commonly adopted DTI approach, the present study employed a framework that can reconcile the 'crossing fibre' problem (i.e. Read More

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December 2018
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