3,715 results match your criteria Psychological Science[Journal]


Differentiate to Regulate: Low Negative Emotion Differentiation Is Associated With Ineffective Use but Not Selection of Emotion-Regulation Strategies.

Psychol Sci 2019 Apr 16:956797619838763. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

2 Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, KU Leuven.

Emotion differentiation, which involves experiencing and labeling emotions in a granular way, has been linked with well-being. It has been theorized that differentiating between emotions facilitates effective emotion regulation, but this link has yet to be comprehensively tested. In two experience-sampling studies, we examined how negative emotion differentiation was related to (a) the selection of emotion-regulation strategies and (b) the effectiveness of these strategies in downregulating negative emotion ( Ns = 200 and 101 participants and 34,660 and 6,282 measurements, respectively). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797619838763DOI Listing

National Gross Domestic Product, Science Interest, and Science Achievement: A Direct Replication and Extension of the Tucker-Drob, Cheung, and Briley (2014) Study.

Psychol Sci 2019 Apr 16:956797619835768. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

1 Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

We replicated the study by Tucker-Drob, Cheung, and Briley (2014), who found that the association between science interest and science knowledge depended on economic resources at the family, school, and national levels, using data from the 2006 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). In more economically prosperous families, schools, and nations, student interest was more strongly correlated with actual knowledge. Here, we investigated whether these results still held despite substantial changes to educational and economic systems over roughly a decade. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797619835768DOI Listing

Corrigendum: Gaze Amplifies Value in Decision Making.

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Psychol Sci 2019 Apr 16:956797619844520. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797619844520DOI Listing

Where Does Time Go When You Blink?

Psychol Sci 2019 Apr 16:956797619842198. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

2 Department of Psychology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

Retinal input is frequently lost because of eye blinks, yet humans rarely notice these gaps in visual input. Although previous studies focused on the perceptual and neural correlates of diminished awareness to blinks, the impact of these correlates on the perceived time of concurrent events is unknown. Here, we investigated whether the subjective sense of time is altered by spontaneous blinks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797619842198DOI Listing
April 2019
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Yesterday's News: A Temporal Discontinuity in the Sting of Inferiority.

Psychol Sci 2019 Apr 8:956797619839689. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Booth School of Business, The University of Chicago.

Reactions to other people who get desirable outcomes should be a simple function of how much one desires those outcomes. Four studies ( N = 4,978) suggest that one's reactions depend on the temporal location of outcome acquisition: Observers care more (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797619839689DOI Listing

Loneliness and Neighborhood Characteristics: A Multi-Informant, Nationally Representative Study of Young Adults.

Psychol Sci 2019 Apr 7:956797619836102. Epub 2019 Apr 7.

1 Social, Genetic & Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London.

In this study, we investigated associations between the characteristics of the neighborhoods in which young adults live and their feelings of loneliness, using data from different sources. Participants were drawn from the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study. Loneliness was measured via self-reports at ages 12 and 18 years and also by interviewer ratings at age 18. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797619836102DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

How Replicable Are Links Between Personality Traits and Consequential Life Outcomes? The Life Outcomes of Personality Replication Project.

Psychol Sci 2019 Apr 5:956797619831612. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Psychology, Colby College.

The Big Five personality traits have been linked to dozens of life outcomes. However, metascientific research has raised questions about the replicability of behavioral science. The Life Outcomes of Personality Replication (LOOPR) Project was therefore conducted to estimate the replicability of the personality-outcome literature. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797619831612DOI Listing

Screens, Teens, and Psychological Well-Being: Evidence From Three Time-Use-Diary Studies.

Psychol Sci 2019 Apr 2:956797619830329. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

1 Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford.

The notion that digital-screen engagement decreases adolescent well-being has become a recurring feature in public, political, and scientific conversation. The current level of psychological evidence, however, is far removed from the certainty voiced by many commentators. There is little clear-cut evidence that screen time decreases adolescent well-being, and most psychological results are based on single-country, exploratory studies that rely on inaccurate but popular self-report measures of digital-screen engagement. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797619830329DOI Listing

Information Processing Under Reward Versus Under Punishment.

Psychol Sci 2019 Apr 2:956797619835462. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

School of Psychology, The University of Queensland.

Much is known about the effects of reward and punishment on behavior, yet little research has considered how these incentives influence the information-processing dynamics that underlie decision making. We fitted the linear ballistic accumulator to data from a perceptual-judgment task to examine the impacts of reward- and punishment-based incentives on three distinct components of information processing: the quality of the information processed, the quantity of that information, and the decision threshold. The threat of punishment lowered the average quality and quantity of information processed, compared with the prospect of reward or no performance incentive at all. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797619835462DOI Listing

Predicting Early-Childhood Gender Transitions.

Psychol Sci 2019 Mar 29:956797619830649. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

3 Department of Psychology, University of Washington.

Increasing numbers of gender-nonconforming children are socially transitioning-changing pronouns to live as their identified genders. We studied a cohort of gender-nonconforming children ( n = 85) and contacted them again approximately 2 years later. When recontacted, 36 of the children had socially transitioned. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797619830649DOI Listing

Aggression Toward Sexualized Women Is Mediated by Decreased Perceptions of Humanness.

Psychol Sci 2019 Mar 28:956797619836106. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

1 Department of Psychology, Nipissing University.

Researchers have argued that the regulation of female sexuality is a major catalyst for women's intrasexual aggression. The present research examined whether women behave more aggressively toward a sexualized woman and whether this is explained by lower ratings of the target's humanness. Results showed that women rated another woman lower on uniquely human personality traits when she was dressed in a sexualized (vs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797619836106DOI Listing
March 2019
5 Reads

When Does One Decide How Heavy an Object Feels While Picking It Up?

Psychol Sci 2019 Mar 27:956797619837981. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Department of Human Movement Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

When lifting an object, it takes time to decide how heavy it is. How does this weight judgment develop? To answer this question, we examined when visual size information has to be present to induce a size-weight illusion. We found that a short glimpse (200 ms) of size information is sufficient to induce a size-weight illusion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797619837981DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Sexual Selection, Agonistic Signaling, and the Effect of Beards on Recognition of Men's Anger Displays.

Psychol Sci 2019 Mar 25:956797619834876. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

3 School of Psychology, The University of Queensland.

The beard is arguably one of the most obvious signals of masculinity in humans. Almost 150 years ago, Darwin suggested that beards evolved to communicate formidability to other males, but no studies have investigated whether beards enhance recognition of threatening expressions, such as anger. We found that the presence of a beard increased the speed and accuracy with which participants recognized displays of anger but not happiness (Experiment 1, N = 219). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797619834876DOI Listing

Is There a Positive Association Between Working Memory Capacity and Mind Wandering in a Low-Demand Breathing Task? A Preregistered Replication of a Study by Levinson, Smallwood, and Davidson (2012).

Authors:
Matt E Meier

Psychol Sci 2019 Mar 22:956797619837942. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Department of Psychology, Western Carolina University.

Levinson, Smallwood, and Davidson (2012, Experiment 2) found that working memory capacity (WMC) correlated positively with mind-wandering rates measured by thought probes in a breath-awareness task but was unassociated with the tendency to self-catch mind wandering. Here, I sought to replicate the associations between mind wandering and WMC in Levinson et al.'s breath-awareness task. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797619837942DOI Listing

Memories Fade: The Relationship Between Memory Vividness and Remembered Visual Salience.

Psychol Sci 2019 Mar 21:956797619836093. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Department of Psychology, Boston College.

Past events, particularly emotional experiences, are often vividly recollected. However, it remains unclear how qualitative information, such as low-level visual salience, is reconstructed and how the precision and bias of this information relate to subjective memory vividness. Here, we tested whether remembered visual salience contributes to vivid recollection. Read More

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http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0956797619836093
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797619836093DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Having a Happy Spouse Is Associated With Lowered Risk of Mortality.

Authors:
Olga Stavrova

Psychol Sci 2019 Mar 21:956797619835147. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Department of Social Psychology, Tilburg University.

Studies have shown that individuals' choice of a life partner predicts their life outcomes, from their relationship satisfaction to their career success. The present study examined whether the reach of one's spouse extends even further, to the ultimate life outcome: mortality. A dyadic survival analysis using a representative sample of elderly couples ( N = 4,374) followed for up to 8 years showed that a 1-standard-deviation-higher level of spousal life satisfaction was associated with a 13% lower mortality risk. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797619835147DOI Listing

Can a Good Life Be Unsatisfying? Within-Person Dynamics of Life Satisfaction and Psychological Well-Being in Late Midlife.

Authors:
Henry R Cowan

Psychol Sci 2019 Mar 21:956797619831981. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Department of Psychology, Northwestern University.

Psychological investigations into the structure of well-being have been largely cross-sectional. However, longitudinal models are needed as Western societies work to improve individual well-being. The current multilevel-modeling study examined within-person dynamics of well-being over 8 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797619831981DOI Listing

Group-Based Relative Deprivation Explains Endorsement of Extremism Among Western-Born Muslims.

Psychol Sci 2019 Apr 15;30(4):596-605. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

4 Department of Social Sciences and Liberal Arts, Institute of Business Administration.

Although jihadist threats are regarded as foreign, most Islamist terror attacks in Europe and the United States have been orchestrated by Muslims born and raised in Western societies. In the present research, we explored a link between perceived deprivation of Western Muslims and endorsement of extremism. We suggest that Western-born Muslims are particularly vulnerable to the impact of perceived relative deprivation because comparisons with majority groups' peers are more salient for them than for individuals born elsewhere. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797619834879DOI Listing

Collective Emotions and Social Resilience in the Digital Traces After a Terrorist Attack.

Psychol Sci 2019 Apr 13;30(4):617-628. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

3 Psychological Sciences Research Institute, University of Louvain.

After collective traumas such as natural disasters and terrorist attacks, members of concerned communities experience intense emotions and talk profusely about them. Although these exchanges resemble simple emotional venting, Durkheim's theory of collective effervescence postulates that these collective emotions lead to higher levels of solidarity in the affected community. We present the first large-scale test of this theory through the analysis of digital traces of 62,114 Twitter users after the Paris terrorist attacks of November 2015. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797619831964DOI Listing

The Dual Impact of Early and Concurrent Life Stress on Adults' Diurnal Cortisol Patterns: A Prospective Study.

Psychol Sci 2019 Mar 8:956797619833664. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

1 Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota.

Major life stress often produces a flat diurnal cortisol slope, an indicator of potential long-term health problems. Exposure to stress early in childhood or the accumulation of stress across the life span may be responsible for this pattern. However, the relative impact of life stress at different life stages on diurnal cortisol is unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797619833664DOI Listing

Null Effects of Game Violence, Game Difficulty, and 2D:4D Digit Ratio on Aggressive Behavior.

Psychol Sci 2019 Apr 7;30(4):606-616. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

5 Department of Psychological Sciences, University of Missouri-Columbia.

Researchers have suggested that acute exposure to violent video games is a cause of aggressive behavior. We tested this hypothesis by using violent and nonviolent games that were closely matched, collecting a large sample, and using a single outcome. We randomly assigned 275 male undergraduates to play a first-person-shooter game modified to be either violent or less violent and hard or easy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797619829688DOI Listing

Shared Plates, Shared Minds: Consuming From a Shared Plate Promotes Cooperation.

Psychol Sci 2019 Apr 4;30(4):541-552. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

2 Booth School of Business, The University of Chicago.

A meal naturally brings people together, but does the way a meal is served and consumed further matter for cooperation between people? This research ( N = 1,476) yielded evidence that it does. People eating from shared plates (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797619830633DOI Listing

Reactivation of Previous Experiences in a Working Memory Task.

Psychol Sci 2019 Apr 28;30(4):587-595. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Department of Psychology and Center for Mind and Brain, University of California, Davis.

Recent experiences influence the processing of new information even when those experiences are irrelevant to the current task. Does this reflect the indirect effects of a passively maintained representation of the previous experience, or is this representation reactivated when a new event occurs? To answer this question, we attempted to decode the orientation of the stimulus on the previous trial from the electroencephalogram on the current trial in a working memory task. Behavioral data confirmed that the previous-trial stimulus orientation influenced the reported orientation on the current trial, even though the previous-trial orientation was now task irrelevant. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797619830398DOI Listing

Dissecting the Neural Focus of Attention Reveals Distinct Processes for Spatial Attention and Object-Based Storage in Visual Working Memory.

Psychol Sci 2019 Apr 28;30(4):526-540. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

1 Department of Psychology, The University of Chicago.

Complex cognition relies on both on-line representations in working memory (WM), said to reside in the focus of attention, and passive off-line representations of related information. Here, we dissected the focus of attention by showing that distinct neural signals index the on-line storage of objects and sustained spatial attention. We recorded electroencephalogram (EEG) activity during two tasks that employed identical stimulus displays but varied the relative demands for object storage and spatial attention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797619830384DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

The Additive-Area Heuristic: An Efficient but Illusory Means of Visual Area Approximation.

Psychol Sci 2019 Apr 26;30(4):495-503. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

Department of Psychology, Yale University.

How do we determine how much of something is present? A large body of research has investigated the mechanisms and consequences of number estimation, yet surprisingly little work has investigated area estimation. Indeed, area is often treated as a pesky confound in the study of number. Here, we describe the additive-area heuristic, a means of rapidly estimating visual area that results in substantial distortions of perceived area in many contexts, visible even in simple demonstrations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797619831617DOI Listing

Corrigendum: Experiential or Material Purchases? Social Class Determines Purchase Happiness.

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Psychol Sci 2019 Jan 20;30(1):153. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618815623DOI Listing
January 2019

The Prevalence of Marginally Significant Results in Psychology Over Time.

Psychol Sci 2019 Apr 21;30(4):576-586. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

1 Department of Methodology and Statistics, Tilburg University.

We examined the percentage of p values (.05 < p ≤ .10) reported as marginally significant in 44,200 articles, across nine psychology disciplines, published in 70 journals belonging to the American Psychological Association between 1985 and 2016. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797619830326DOI Listing

Racial Bias in Perceptions of Size and Strength: The Impact of Stereotypes and Group Differences.

Psychol Sci 2019 Apr 21;30(4):553-562. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

3 Department of Psychology, Montclair State University.

Recent research has shown that race can influence perceptions of men's size and strength. Across two studies (Study 1: N = 1,032, Study 2: N = 303) examining men and women from multiple racial groups (Asian, Black, and White adults), we found that although race does impact judgments of size and strength, raters' judgments primarily track targets' objective physical features. In some cases, racial stereotypes actually improved group-level accuracy, as these stereotypes aligned with racial-group differences in size and strength according to nationally representative data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797619827529DOI Listing

Using a Psychopharmacogenetic Approach To Identify the Pathways Through Which-and the People for Whom-Testosterone Promotes Aggression.

Psychol Sci 2019 Apr 21;30(4):481-494. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

1 Department of Psychology, Nipissing University.

Little is known about the neurobiological pathways through which testosterone promotes aggression or about the people in whom this effect is observed. Using a psychopharmacogenetic approach, we found that testosterone increases aggression in men ( N = 308) with select personality profiles and that these effects are further enhanced among those with fewer cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) repeats in exon 1 of the androgen receptor (AR) gene, a polymorphism associated with increased AR efficiency. Testosterone's effects were rapid (~30 min after administration) and mediated, in part, by subjective reward associated with aggression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797619826970DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Unconscious Detection of One's Own Image.

Psychol Sci 2019 Apr 20;30(4):471-480. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

1 Laboratory of Language Neurobiology, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology of Polish Academy of Sciences.

A key mechanism behind preferential processing of self-related information might be an early and automatic capture of attention. Therefore, the present study tested a hypothesis that one's own face will attract bottom-up attention even without conscious identification. To test this, we used a dot-probe paradigm with electrophysiological recordings, in which participants ( N = 18) viewed masked and unmasked pairs of faces (other, self) presented laterally. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618822971DOI Listing

Property Damage and Exposure to Other People in Distress Differentially Predict Prosocial Behavior After a Natural Disaster.

Psychol Sci 2019 Apr 20;30(4):563-575. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

1 School of Psychology, University of Auckland.

The persistent threat of natural disasters and their attendant resource shocks has likely shaped our prosocial drives throughout human evolution. However, it remains unclear how specific experiences during these events might impact cooperative decision making. We conducted two waves of four modified dictator-game experiments with the same individuals in Vanuatu ( N = 164), before and after Cyclone Pam in 2015. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797619826972DOI Listing

Causal Inference About Good and Bad Outcomes.

Psychol Sci 2019 Apr 13;30(4):516-525. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

1 Department of Psychology, Harvard University.

People learn differently from good and bad outcomes. We argue that valence-dependent learning asymmetries are partly driven by beliefs about the causal structure of the environment. If hidden causes can intervene to generate bad (or good) outcomes, then a rational observer will assign blame (or credit) to these hidden causes, rather than to the stable outcome distribution. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797619828724DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Preschoolers Optimize the Timing of Their Conversational Turns Through Flexible Coordination of Language Comprehension and Production.

Psychol Sci 2019 Apr 12;30(4):504-515. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

1 Department of Psychology, School of Philosophy, Psychology and Language Sciences, The University of Edinburgh.

Conversation is the natural setting for language learning and use, and a key property of conversation is the smooth taking of turns. In adult conversations, delays between turns are minimal (typically 200 ms or less) because listeners display a striking ability to predict what their partner will say, and they formulate a response before their partner's turn ends. Here, we tested how this ability to coordinate comprehension and production develops in preschool children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618822802DOI Listing

Understanding Dyslexia Through Personalized Large-Scale Computational Models.

Psychol Sci 2019 Mar 7;30(3):386-395. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

5 Laboratoire de Psychologie Cognitive, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Aix-Marseille University.

Learning to read is foundational for literacy development, yet many children in primary school fail to become efficient readers despite normal intelligence and schooling. This condition, referred to as developmental dyslexia, has been hypothesized to occur because of deficits in vision, attention, auditory and temporal processes, and phonology and language. Here, we used a developmentally plausible computational model of reading acquisition to investigate how the core deficits of dyslexia determined individual learning outcomes for 622 children (388 with dyslexia). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618823540DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6419236PMC
March 2019
1 Read

As if by Magic: An Abrupt Change in Motion Direction Induces Change Blindness.

Psychol Sci 2019 Mar 7;30(3):436-443. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Magicians claim that an abrupt change in the direction of movement can attract attention, allowing them to hide their method for a trick in plain sight. In three experiments involving 43 total subjects, we tested this claim by examining whether a sudden directional change can induce change blindness. Subjects were asked to detect an instantaneous orientation change of a single item in an array of Gabor patches; this change occurred as the entire array moved across the display. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618822969DOI Listing

Subtle Linguistic Cues Increase Girls' Engagement in Science.

Psychol Sci 2019 Mar 5;30(3):455-466. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

1 Department of Psychology, New York University.

The roots of gender disparities in science achievement take hold in early childhood. The present studies aimed to identify a modifiable feature of young children's environments that could be targeted to reduce gender differences in science behavior among young children. Four experimental studies with children ( N = 501) revealed that describing science in terms of actions ("Let's do science! Doing science means exploring the world!") instead of identities ("Let's be scientists! Scientists explore the world!") increased girls' subsequent persistence in new science games designed to illustrate the scientific method. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618823670DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6419261PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Corrigendum: When Is Higher Neuroticism Protective Against Death? Findings From UK Biobank.

Authors:

Psychol Sci 2019 Mar 1;30(3):467. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797619829712DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Similarity Grouping as Feature-Based Selection.

Psychol Sci 2019 Mar 30;30(3):376-385. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

1 Department of Psychology, Northwestern University.

Across the natural world as well as the artificial worlds of maps, diagrams, and data visualizations, feature similarity (e.g., color and shape) links spatially separate areas into sets. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618822798DOI Listing

Psychological Constellations Assessed at Age 13 Predict Distinct Forms of Eminence 35 Years Later.

Psychol Sci 2019 Mar 29;30(3):444-454. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Department of Psychology & Human Development, Vanderbilt University.

This investigation examined whether math/scientific and verbal/humanistic ability and preference constellations, developed on intellectually talented 13-year-olds to predict their educational outcomes at age 23, continue to maintain their longitudinal potency by distinguishing distinct forms of eminence 35 years later. Eminent individuals were defined as those who, by age 50, had accomplished something rare: creative and highly impactful careers (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618822524DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6419263PMC

Perspective Taking and Self-Persuasion: Why "Putting Yourself in Their Shoes" Reduces Openness to Attitude Change.

Psychol Sci 2019 Mar 29;30(3):424-435. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

2 Northwestern University, Kellogg School of Management.

Counterattitudinal-argument generation is a powerful tool for opening people up to alternative views. On the basis of decades of research, it should be especially effective when people adopt the perspective of individuals who hold alternative views. In the current research, however, we found the opposite: In three preregistered experiments (total N = 2,734), we found that taking the perspective of someone who endorses a counterattitudinal view lowers receptiveness to that view and reduces attitude change following a counterattitudinal-argument-generation task. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618822697DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Object-Feature Binding Survives Dynamic Shifts of Spatial Attention.

Psychol Sci 2019 Mar 29;30(3):343-361. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University.

Visual object perception requires integration of multiple features; spatial attention is thought to be critical to this binding. But attention is rarely static-how does dynamic attention impact object integrity? Here, we manipulated covert spatial attention and had participants (total N = 48) reproduce multiple properties (color, orientation, location) of a target item. Object-feature binding was assessed by applying probabilistic models to the joint distribution of feature errors: Feature reports for the same object could be correlated (and thus bound together) or independent. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618818481DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6419262PMC
March 2019
1 Read

A Tight Spot: How Personality Moderates the Impact of Social Norms on Sojourner Adaptation.

Psychol Sci 2019 Mar 23;30(3):333-342. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

1 Department of Psychology, University of Essex.

How do you navigate the norms of your new culture when living abroad? Taking an interactionist perspective, we examined how contextual factors and personality traits jointly affect sojourners' adaptation to the host-country culture. We hypothesized that tightness (strong, rigidly imposed norms) of the host culture would be associated with lower levels of adaptation and that tightness of the home culture would be associated with higher levels of adaptation. Further, we proposed that the impact of tightness should be dependent on personality traits associated with navigating social norms (agreeableness, conscientiousness, and honesty-humility). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618815488DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6419235PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Prosody and Function Words Cue the Acquisition of Word Meanings in 18-Month-Old Infants.

Psychol Sci 2019 Mar 22;30(3):319-332. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

1 Département d'Études Cognitives, Laboratoire de Sciences Cognitives et Psycholinguistique, École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, École Normale Supérieure, PSL Université Paris, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.

Language acquisition presents a formidable task for infants, for whom word learning is a crucial yet challenging step. Syntax (the rules for combining words into sentences) has been robustly shown to be a cue to word meaning. But how can infants access syntactic information when they are still acquiring the meanings of words? We investigated the contribution of two cues that may help infants break into the syntax and give a boost to their lexical acquisition: phrasal prosody (speech melody) and function words, both of which are accessible early in life and correlate with syntactic structure in the world's languages. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618814131DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Conceptually Rich, Perceptually Sparse: Object Representations in 6-Month-Old Infants' Working Memory.

Psychol Sci 2019 Mar 22;30(3):362-375. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

2 Department of Psychology, Rutgers University.

Six-month-old infants can store representations of multiple objects in working memory but do not always remember the objects' features (e.g., shape). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618817754DOI Listing
March 2019
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Do People Know What They're Like in the Moment?

Psychol Sci 2019 Mar 17;30(3):405-414. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Department of Psychology, University of California, Davis.

Knowing yourself requires knowing not only what you are like in general (trait self-knowledge) but also how your personality fluctuates from moment to moment (state self-knowledge). We examined this latter form of self-knowledge. Participants (248 people; 2,938 observations) wore the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR), an unobtrusive audio recorder, and completed experience-sampling self-reports of their personality states four times each day for 1 week. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618818476DOI Listing
March 2019
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When the Muses Strike: Creative Ideas of Physicists and Writers Routinely Occur During Mind Wandering.

Psychol Sci 2019 Mar 17;30(3):396-404. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Department of Psychological & Brain Sciences, University of California, Santa Barbara.

How often are creative ideas generated during episodes of mind wandering, and do they differ from those generated while on task? In two studies ( N = 98, N = 87), professional writers and physicists reported on their most creative idea of the day, what they were thinking about and doing when it occurred, whether the idea felt like an "aha" moment, and the quality of the idea. Participants reported that one fifth of their most significant ideas of the day were formed during spontaneous task-independent mind wandering-operationalized here as (a) engaging in an activity other than working and (b) thinking about something unrelated to the generated idea. There were no differences between ratings of the creativity or importance of ideas that occurred during mind wandering and those that occurred on task. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618820626DOI Listing
March 2019
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Automatic Prioritization of Self-Referential Stimuli in Working Memory.

Psychol Sci 2019 Mar 17;30(3):415-423. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

3 Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Duke University.

People preferentially attend to external stimuli that are related to themselves compared with others. Whether a similar self-reference bias applies to internal representations, such as those maintained in working memory (WM), is presently unknown. We tested this possibility in four experiments, in which participants were first trained to associate social labels (self, friend, stranger) with arbitrary colors and then performed a delayed match-to-sample spatial WM task on color locations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618818483DOI Listing
March 2019
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Income Inequality and White-on-Black Racial Bias in the United States: Evidence From Project Implicit and Google Trends.

Psychol Sci 2019 Feb 11;30(2):205-222. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

1 Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley.

Several theories predict that income inequality may produce increased racial bias, but robust tests of this hypothesis are lacking. We examined this relationship at the U.S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618815441DOI Listing
February 2019
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