3,682 results match your criteria Psychological Science[Journal]


Causal Inference About Good and Bad Outcomes.

Psychol Sci 2019 Feb 13:956797619828724. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

1 Department of Psychology, Harvard University.

People learn differently from good and bad outcomes. We argue that valence-dependent learning asymmetries are partly driven by beliefs about the causal structure of the environment. If hidden causes can intervene to generate bad (or good) outcomes, then a rational observer will assign blame (or credit) to these hidden causes, rather than to the stable outcome distribution. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797619828724DOI Listing
February 2019

Preschoolers Optimize the Timing of Their Conversational Turns Through Flexible Coordination of Language Comprehension and Production.

Psychol Sci 2019 Feb 12:956797618822802. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

1 Department of Psychology, School of Philosophy, Psychology and Language Sciences, The University of Edinburgh.

Conversation is the natural setting for language learning and use, and a key property of conversation is the smooth taking of turns. In adult conversations, delays between turns are minimal (typically 200 ms or less) because listeners display a striking ability to predict what their partner will say, and they formulate a response before their partner's turn ends. Here, we tested how this ability to coordinate comprehension and production develops in preschool children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618822802DOI Listing
February 2019

Understanding Dyslexia Through Personalized Large-Scale Computational Models.

Psychol Sci 2019 Feb 7:956797618823540. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

5 Laboratoire de Psychologie Cognitive, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Aix-Marseille University.

Learning to read is foundational for literacy development, yet many children in primary school fail to become efficient readers despite normal intelligence and schooling. This condition, referred to as developmental dyslexia, has been hypothesized to occur because of deficits in vision, attention, auditory and temporal processes, and phonology and language. Here, we used a developmentally plausible computational model of reading acquisition to investigate how the core deficits of dyslexia determined individual learning outcomes for 622 children (388 with dyslexia). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618823540DOI Listing
February 2019

As if by Magic: An Abrupt Change in Motion Direction Induces Change Blindness.

Psychol Sci 2019 Feb 7:956797618822969. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Magicians claim that an abrupt change in the direction of movement can attract attention, allowing them to hide their method for a trick in plain sight. In three experiments involving 43 total subjects, we tested this claim by examining whether a sudden directional change can induce change blindness. Subjects were asked to detect an instantaneous orientation change of a single item in an array of Gabor patches; this change occurred as the entire array moved across the display. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618822969DOI Listing
February 2019

Subtle Linguistic Cues Increase Girls' Engagement in Science.

Psychol Sci 2019 Feb 5:956797618823670. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

1 Department of Psychology, New York University.

The roots of gender disparities in science achievement take hold in early childhood. The present studies aimed to identify a modifiable feature of young children's environments that could be targeted to reduce gender differences in science behavior among young children. Four experimental studies with children ( N = 501) revealed that describing science in terms of actions ("Let's do science! Doing science means exploring the world!") instead of identities ("Let's be scientists! Scientists explore the world!") increased girls' subsequent persistence in new science games designed to illustrate the scientific method. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618823670DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Corrigendum: When Is Higher Neuroticism Protective Against Death? Findings From UK Biobank.

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Psychol Sci 2019 Feb 1:956797619829712. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797619829712DOI Listing
February 2019

Similarity Grouping as Feature-Based Selection.

Psychol Sci 2019 Jan 30:956797618822798. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

1 Department of Psychology, Northwestern University.

Across the natural world as well as the artificial worlds of maps, diagrams, and data visualizations, feature similarity (e.g., color and shape) links spatially separate areas into sets. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618822798DOI Listing
January 2019

Psychological Constellations Assessed at Age 13 Predict Distinct Forms of Eminence 35 Years Later.

Psychol Sci 2019 Jan 29:956797618822524. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Department of Psychology & Human Development, Vanderbilt University.

This investigation examined whether math/scientific and verbal/humanistic ability and preference constellations, developed on intellectually talented 13-year-olds to predict their educational outcomes at age 23, continue to maintain their longitudinal potency by distinguishing distinct forms of eminence 35 years later. Eminent individuals were defined as those who, by age 50, had accomplished something rare: creative and highly impactful careers (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618822524DOI Listing
January 2019

Perspective Taking and Self-Persuasion: Why "Putting Yourself in Their Shoes" Reduces Openness to Attitude Change.

Psychol Sci 2019 Jan 29:956797618822697. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

2 Northwestern University, Kellogg School of Management.

Counterattitudinal-argument generation is a powerful tool for opening people up to alternative views. On the basis of decades of research, it should be especially effective when people adopt the perspective of individuals who hold alternative views. In the current research, however, we found the opposite: In three preregistered experiments (total N = 2,734), we found that taking the perspective of someone who endorses a counterattitudinal view lowers receptiveness to that view and reduces attitude change following a counterattitudinal-argument-generation task. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618822697DOI Listing
January 2019

Object-Feature Binding Survives Dynamic Shifts of Spatial Attention.

Psychol Sci 2019 Jan 29:956797618818481. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University.

Visual object perception requires integration of multiple features; spatial attention is thought to be critical to this binding. But attention is rarely static-how does dynamic attention impact object integrity? Here, we manipulated covert spatial attention and had participants (total N = 48) reproduce multiple properties (color, orientation, location) of a target item. Object-feature binding was assessed by applying probabilistic models to the joint distribution of feature errors: Feature reports for the same object could be correlated (and thus bound together) or independent. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618818481DOI Listing
January 2019

A Tight Spot: How Personality Moderates the Impact of Social Norms on Sojourner Adaptation.

Psychol Sci 2019 Jan 23:956797618815488. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

1 Department of Psychology, University of Essex.

How do you navigate the norms of your new culture when living abroad? Taking an interactionist perspective, we examined how contextual factors and personality traits jointly affect sojourners' adaptation to the host-country culture. We hypothesized that tightness (strong, rigidly imposed norms) of the host culture would be associated with lower levels of adaptation and that tightness of the home culture would be associated with higher levels of adaptation. Further, we proposed that the impact of tightness should be dependent on personality traits associated with navigating social norms (agreeableness, conscientiousness, and honesty-humility). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618815488DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Prosody and Function Words Cue the Acquisition of Word Meanings in 18-Month-Old Infants.

Psychol Sci 2019 Jan 22:956797618814131. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

1 Département d'Études Cognitives, Laboratoire de Sciences Cognitives et Psycholinguistique, École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, École Normale Supérieure, PSL Université Paris, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.

Language acquisition presents a formidable task for infants, for whom word learning is a crucial yet challenging step. Syntax (the rules for combining words into sentences) has been robustly shown to be a cue to word meaning. But how can infants access syntactic information when they are still acquiring the meanings of words? We investigated the contribution of two cues that may help infants break into the syntax and give a boost to their lexical acquisition: phrasal prosody (speech melody) and function words, both of which are accessible early in life and correlate with syntactic structure in the world's languages. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618814131DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Conceptually Rich, Perceptually Sparse: Object Representations in 6-Month-Old Infants' Working Memory.

Psychol Sci 2019 Jan 22:956797618817754. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

2 Department of Psychology, Rutgers University.

Six-month-old infants can store representations of multiple objects in working memory but do not always remember the objects' features (e.g., shape). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618817754DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Do People Know What They're Like in the Moment?

Psychol Sci 2019 Jan 17:956797618818476. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Department of Psychology, University of California, Davis.

Knowing yourself requires knowing not only what you are like in general (trait self-knowledge) but also how your personality fluctuates from moment to moment (state self-knowledge). We examined this latter form of self-knowledge. Participants (248 people; 2,938 observations) wore the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR), an unobtrusive audio recorder, and completed experience-sampling self-reports of their personality states four times each day for 1 week. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618818476DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

When the Muses Strike: Creative Ideas of Physicists and Writers Routinely Occur During Mind Wandering.

Psychol Sci 2019 Jan 17:956797618820626. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Department of Psychological & Brain Sciences, University of California, Santa Barbara.

How often are creative ideas generated during episodes of mind wandering, and do they differ from those generated while on task? In two studies ( N = 98, N = 87), professional writers and physicists reported on their most creative idea of the day, what they were thinking about and doing when it occurred, whether the idea felt like an "aha" moment, and the quality of the idea. Participants reported that one fifth of their most significant ideas of the day were formed during spontaneous task-independent mind wandering-operationalized here as (a) engaging in an activity other than working and (b) thinking about something unrelated to the generated idea. There were no differences between ratings of the creativity or importance of ideas that occurred during mind wandering and those that occurred on task. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618820626DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

Automatic Prioritization of Self-Referential Stimuli in Working Memory.

Psychol Sci 2019 Jan 17:956797618818483. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

3 Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Duke University.

People preferentially attend to external stimuli that are related to themselves compared with others. Whether a similar self-reference bias applies to internal representations, such as those maintained in working memory (WM), is presently unknown. We tested this possibility in four experiments, in which participants were first trained to associate social labels (self, friend, stranger) with arbitrary colors and then performed a delayed match-to-sample spatial WM task on color locations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618818483DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Income Inequality and White-on-Black Racial Bias in the United States: Evidence From Project Implicit and Google Trends.

Psychol Sci 2019 Feb 11;30(2):205-222. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

1 Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley.

Several theories predict that income inequality may produce increased racial bias, but robust tests of this hypothesis are lacking. We examined this relationship at the U.S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618815441DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Support for Resettling Refugees: The Role of Fixed Versus Growth Mind-Sets.

Psychol Sci 2019 Feb 11;30(2):238-249. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

4 Nanyang Business School, Nanyang Technological University.

In six studies ( N = 2,340), we identified one source of people's differential support for resettling refugees in their country-their beliefs about whether the kind of person someone is can be changed (i.e., a growth mind-set) or is fixed (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618813561DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Corrigendum: Mind the Depth: Visual Perception of Shapes Is Better in Peripersonal Space.

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Psychol Sci 2019 Feb 10;30(2):316. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618822990DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Indulgent Foods Can Paradoxically Promote Disciplined Dietary Choices.

Psychol Sci 2019 Feb 9;30(2):273-287. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

1 Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Duke University.

As obesity rates continue to rise, interventions promoting healthful choices will become increasingly important. Here, participants ( N = 79) made binary choices between familiar foods; some trials contained a common consequence that had a constant probability of receipt regardless of the participant's choice. We theorized-on the basis of simulations using a value-normalization model-that indulgent common consequences potentiated disciplined choices by shaping other options' perceived healthfulness and tastiness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618817509DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Patterns of Implicit and Explicit Attitudes: I. Long-Term Change and Stability From 2007 to 2016.

Psychol Sci 2019 Feb 3;30(2):174-192. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Department of Psychology, Harvard University.

Using 4.4 million tests of implicit and explicit attitudes measured continuously from an Internet population of U.S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618813087DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

The Zero-Sum Fallacy in Evidence Evaluation.

Psychol Sci 2019 Feb 31;30(2):250-260. Epub 2018 Dec 31.

1 Department of Experimental Psychology, University College London.

There are many instances, both in professional domains such as law, forensics, and medicine and in everyday life, in which an effect (e.g., a piece of evidence or event) has multiple possible causes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618818484DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

People Are Slow to Adapt to the Warm Glow of Giving.

Psychol Sci 2019 Feb 27;30(2):193-204. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

2 Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University.

People adapt to repeated getting. The happiness we feel from eating the same food, from earning the same income, and from many other experiences quickly decreases as repeated exposure to an identical source of happiness increases. In two preregistered experiments ( N = 615), we examined whether people also adapt to repeated giving-the happiness we feel from helping other people rather than ourselves. Read More

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http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0956797618814145
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618814145DOI Listing
February 2019
9 Reads

Working Memory Has Better Fidelity Than Long-Term Memory: The Fidelity Constraint Is Not a General Property of Memory After All.

Psychol Sci 2019 Feb 27;30(2):223-237. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

1 School of Psychological Sciences, Tel Aviv University.

How detailed are long-term-memory representations compared with working memory representations? Recent research has found an equal fidelity bound for both memory systems, suggesting a novel general constraint on memory. Here, we assessed the replicability of this discovery. Participants (total N = 72) were presented with colored real-life objects and were asked to recall the colors using a continuous color wheel. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618813538DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Lexical Acquisition Through Category Matching: 12-Month-Old Infants Associate Words to Visual Categories.

Psychol Sci 2019 Feb 21;30(2):288-299. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

2 School of Psychology, University of East Anglia.

Although it is widely recognized that human infants build a sizeable conceptual repertoire before mastering language, it remains a matter of debate whether and to what extent early conceptual and category knowledge contributes to language development. We addressed this question by investigating whether 12-month-olds used preverbal categories to discover the meanings of new words. We showed that one group of infants ( n = 18) readily extended novel labels to previously unseen exemplars of preverbal visual categories after only a single labeling episode, but two other groups struggled to do so when taught labels for unfamiliar categories (those who had been previously exposed, n = 18, or not exposed, n = 18, to category tokens). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618817506DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Extremeness Aversion Is a Cause of Anchoring.

Psychol Sci 2019 Feb 18;30(2):159-173. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania.

When estimating unknown quantities, people insufficiently adjust from values they have previously considered, a phenomenon known as anchoring. We suggest that anchoring is at least partially caused by a desire to avoid making extreme adjustments. In seven studies ( N = 5,279), we found that transparently irrelevant cues of extremeness influenced people's adjustments from anchors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618799305DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

A Robust Neural Index of High Face Familiarity.

Psychol Sci 2019 Feb 17;30(2):261-272. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

2 Department of Psychology, University of York.

Humans are remarkably accurate at recognizing familiar faces, whereas their ability to recognize, or even match, unfamiliar faces is much poorer. However, previous research has failed to identify neural correlates of this striking behavioral difference. Here, we found a clear difference in brain potentials elicited by highly familiar faces versus unfamiliar faces. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618813572DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Volume Estimation Through Mental Simulation.

Psychol Sci 2018 Dec 7:956797618813319. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

2 Haas School of Business, University of California, Berkeley.

Although mental simulation underlies many day-to-day judgments, we identified a new domain influenced by simulation: volume estimation. Previous research has identified various ways in which volume estimates are biased but typically has not presented a psychological process by which such judgments are made. Our simulation-informs-perception account proposes that people often estimate a container's size by simulating filling it. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618813319DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Gaze Amplifies Value in Decision Making.

Psychol Sci 2018 Dec 7:956797618810521. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

1 Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University.

When making decisions, people tend to choose the option they have looked at more. An unanswered question is how attention influences the choice process: whether it amplifies the subjective value of the looked-at option or instead adds a constant, value-independent bias. To address this, we examined choice data from six eye-tracking studies ( Ns = 39, 44, 44, 36, 20, and 45, respectively) to characterize the interaction between value and gaze in the choice process. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618810521DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Revealing Hidden Gender Biases in Competence Impressions of Faces.

Psychol Sci 2018 Dec 7:956797618813092. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Psychology, Princeton University.

Competence impressions from faces affect important decisions, such as hiring and voting. Here, using data-driven computational models, we identified the components of the competence stereotype. Faces manipulated by a competence model varied in attractiveness (Experiment 1a). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618813092DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Corrigendum: The Decoy Effect as a Nudge: Boosting Hand Hygiene With a Worse Option.

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Psychol Sci 2018 Dec 5:956797618816067. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618816067DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Expression of Concern: The Decoy Effect as a Nudge: Boosting Hand Hygiene With a Worse Option.

Psychol Sci 2018 12 5:956797618816068. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618816068DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Retraction of "Visual Darkness Reduces Perceived Risk of Contagious-Disease Transmission From Interpersonal Interaction".

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Psychol Sci 2018 Dec 5:956797618818467. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618818467DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Temporal Proximity Links Unrelated News Events in Memory.

Psychol Sci 2018 Dec 4:956797618808474. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Psychology, Michigan State University.

Some memories are linked such that recalling one can trigger the retrieval of another. What determines which memories are linked? Some models predict that simply occurring close together in time is sufficient for links to form between memories. A competing theory suggests that temporal proximity is generally not sufficient, and existing evidence for such links is an artifact of using chainlike lists of items in artificial laboratory tasks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618808474DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes) Are More Averse to Social Than Nonsocial Risk.

Psychol Sci 2018 Dec 4:956797618811877. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

1 Living Links, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University.

Social risk is a domain of risk in which the costs, benefits, and uncertainty of an action depend on the behavior of another individual. Humans overvalue the costs of a socially risky decision when compared with that of purely economic risk. Here, we played a trust game with 8 female captive chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes) to determine whether this bias exists in one of our closest living relatives. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618811877DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Are Bigger Brains Smarter? Evidence From a Large-Scale Preregistered Study.

Psychol Sci 2018 Nov 30:956797618808470. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

4 Department of Economics, School of Business and Economics, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

A positive relationship between brain volume and intelligence has been suspected since the 19th century, and empirical studies seem to support this hypothesis. However, this claim is controversial because of concerns about publication bias and the lack of systematic control for critical confounding factors (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618808470DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Self-Other Agreement in Personality Reports: A Meta-Analytic Comparison of Self- and Informant-Report Means.

Psychol Sci 2018 Nov 27:956797618810000. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

3 Department of Management, University of Toronto.

Self-report questionnaires are the most commonly used personality assessment despite longstanding concerns that self-report responses may be distorted by self-protecting motives and response biases. In a large-scale meta-analysis ( N = 33,033; k = 152 samples), we compared the means of self- and informant reports of the same target's Big Five personality traits to examine the discrepancies in two rating sources and whether people see themselves more positively than they are seen by others. Inconsistent with a general self-enhancement effect, results showed that self-report means generally did not differ from informant-report means (average δ = -. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618810000DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Use of Face Information Varies Systematically From Developmental Prosopagnosics to Super-Recognizers.

Psychol Sci 2019 Feb 19;30(2):300-308. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

1 Département de Psychologie, Université de Montréal.

Face-recognition abilities differ largely in the neurologically typical population. We examined how the use of information varies with face-recognition ability from developmental prosopagnosics to super-recognizers. Specifically, we investigated the use of facial features at different spatial scales in 112 individuals, including 5 developmental prosopagnosics and 8 super-recognizers, during an online famous-face-identification task using the bubbles method. Read More

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http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0956797618811338
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618811338DOI Listing
February 2019
12 Reads

Tracking Colisteners' Knowledge States During Language Comprehension.

Psychol Sci 2018 Nov 16:956797618807674. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

1 Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

When we receive information in the presence of other people, are we sensitive to what they do or do not understand? In two event-related-potential experiments, participants read implausible sentences (e.g., "The girl had a little beak") in contexts that rendered them plausible (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618807674DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6344950PMC
November 2018
8 Reads

Pupillary Contagion in Autism.

Psychol Sci 2019 Feb 16;30(2):309-315. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

1 Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg.

Pupillary contagion is an involuntary change in the observer's pupil size in response to the pupil size of another person. This effect, presumed to be an important adaption for individuals living in groups, has been documented in both typical infants and adults. Here, for the first time, we report pupillary contagion in individuals with autism, a disorder of social communication. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618809382DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Sudden Events Change Old Visual Objects Into New Ones: A Possible Role for Phasic Activation of Locus Coeruleus.

Psychol Sci 2018 Nov 14:956797618807190. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

3 Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University.

We report a novel visual phenomenon called the rejuvenation effect. It causes an "old" object that has been on view for some time to acquire the properties of a suddenly appearing new object. In each experiment, a square outline was displayed continuously on one side of fixation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618807190DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

People Make the Same Bayesian Judgment They Criticize in Others.

Psychol Sci 2018 Nov 12:956797618805750. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

1 Department of Psychology, Harvard University.

When two individuals from different social groups exhibit identical behavior, egalitarian codes of conduct call for equal judgments of both individuals. However, this moral imperative is at odds with the statistical imperative to consider priors based on group membership. Insofar as these priors differ, Bayesian rationality calls for unequal judgments of both individuals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618805750DOI Listing
November 2018
20 Reads

School or Work? The Choice May Change Your Personality.

Psychol Sci 2018 Nov 8:956797618806298. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

1 Hector Research Institute of Education Sciences and Psychology, University of Tübingen.

According to the social-investment principle, entering new environments is associated with new social roles that influence people's behaviors. In this study, we examined whether young adults' personality development is differentially related to their choice of either an academic or a vocational pathway (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618806298DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Attentional Selection Mediates Framing and Risk-Bias Effects.

Psychol Sci 2018 Nov 7:956797618803643. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

1 The School of Psychological Sciences, Tel Aviv University.

Humans display a number of puzzling choice patterns that contradict basic principles of rationality. For example, they show preferences that change as a result of task framing or of adding irrelevant alternatives into the choice set. A recent theory has proposed that such choice and risk biases arise from an attentional mechanism that increases the relative weighting of goal-consistent information and protects the decision from noise after the sensory stage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618803643DOI Listing
November 2018
12 Reads

High Level of Trait Anxiety Leads to Salience-Driven Distraction and Compensation.

Psychol Sci 2018 Nov 2:956797618807166. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University.

Individuals with high levels of anxiety are hypothesized to have impaired executive control functions that would otherwise enable efficient filtering of irrelevant information. Pinpointing specific deficits is difficult, however, because anxious individuals may compensate for deficient control functions by allocating greater effort. Here, we used event-related-potential indices of attentional selection (the N2pc) and suppression (the P) to determine whether high trait anxiety is associated with a deficit in preventing the misallocation of attention to salient, but irrelevant, visual search distractors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618807166DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Long-Term Memory for Haptically Explored Objects: Fidelity, Durability, Incidental Encoding, and Cross-Modal Transfer.

Psychol Sci 2018 Oct 30:956797618803644. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Department of Psychology, University of Regensburg.

The question of how many of our perceptual experiences are stored in long-term memory has received considerable attention. The present study examined long-term memory for haptic experiences. Blindfolded participants haptically explored 168 everyday objects (e. Read More

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http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0956797618803644
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618803644DOI Listing
October 2018
25 Reads

Fluid Intelligence Predicts Change in Depressive Symptoms in Later Life: The Lothian Birth Cohort 1936.

Psychol Sci 2018 Oct 25:956797618804501. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

4 Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh.

We examined reciprocal, time-ordered associations between age-related changes in fluid intelligence and depressive symptoms. Participants were 1,091 community-dwelling older adults from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 study who were assessed repeatedly at 3-year intervals between the ages of 70 and 79 years. On average, fluid intelligence and depressive symptoms worsened with age. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618804501DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6291904PMC
October 2018
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If They Say "Yes," We Say "No": Partisan Cues Increase Polarization Over National Symbols.

Psychol Sci 2018 Oct 24:956797618805420. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

1 School of Psychology, University of Auckland.

Real-world tests of the impact of partisan cues on voters are scarce because they require assessing how citizens' attitudes changed toward an issue from before to after it became politically divisive. During the 2015-2016 New Zealand flag referendums, the leader of the (center-right) National Party and then-Prime Minister, John Key, championed changing the flag-a move strongly contested by the (center-left) Labour Party. Accordingly, we measured New Zealanders' attitudes toward changing the flag using national longitudinal panel data collected in 2013, before the change was proposed, and again in 2016 at the height of the debate ( Ns = 6,793-6,806). Read More

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October 2018
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The Illusion of Multitasking and Its Positive Effect on Performance.

Psychol Sci 2018 Oct 24:956797618801013. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

3 School of Management, Yale University.

With technological advancements, the desire, ability, and often necessity to multitask are pervasive. Although multitasking refers to the simultaneous execution of multiple tasks, most activities that require active attention cannot actually be done simultaneously. Therefore, whether a certain activity is considered multitasking is often a matter of perception. Read More

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October 2018
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You That Read Wrong Again! A Transposed-Word Effect in Grammaticality Judgments.

Psychol Sci 2018 Oct 24:956797618806296. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Laboratoire de Psychologie Cognitive, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Aix-Marseille University.

We report a novel transposed-word effect in speeded grammaticality judgments made about five-word sequences. The critical ungrammatical test sequences were formed by transposing two adjacent words from either a grammatical base sequence (e.g. Read More

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http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0956797618806296
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October 2018
9 Reads