472,694 results match your criteria Psychological Science[Journal]
Accid Anal Prev 2018 Dec 11;123:243-255. Epub 2018 Dec 11.
Department of Surgical, Medical and Molecular Pathology and Critical Care Medicine, University of Pisa, Via Paradisa 2, 56126, Pisa, Italy.
Road traffic injuries represent a serious public health problem and are one of leading cause of death, injury and disability around the world. Road accidents are often caused by an accumulation of factors; however, drivers appear to be by far the most decisive one. The driver's behaviour is complex and depends on reflex (or involuntary) and voluntary driving actions. Read More
J Forensic Leg Med 2018 Dec 5;61:102-107. Epub 2018 Dec 5.
Saint Mary's Sexual Assault Referral Centre, York Place, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9WL, UK. Electronic address:
Background: The Saint Mary's Sexual Assault Referral Centre has a unique service delivery model whereby it provides an integrated physical and psychological support services to clients, women men and children, living in Greater Manchester. The service is available to those who have reported rape or sexual assault, whether this is recent or historic. Clients living in surrounding areas of Cheshire are provided with forensic and medical services at Saint Mary's Centre, with follow-up care provided locally, as appropriate. Read More
J Pain Symptom Manage 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.
School of Nursing, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove, Q4059, Australia; Department of Physiological Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, 2 Koret Way - N631Y, San Francisco, CA 94143-0610.
Context: Financial toxicity (FT) is used to describe the financial distress/hardship associated with cancer and its treatment.
Objectives: The aim of this review was to explore the relationship between FT and symptom burden.
Method: A systematic review was performed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Read More
Biol Psychol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.
Department of Psychological Sciences, Birkbeck, University of London, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HX, UK. Electronic address:
The question whether the storage of spatial locations and other non-spatial features in visual working memory (WM) is based on shared or separate processes remains unresolved. We recorded contralateral delay activity (CDA) components as on-line electrophysiological markers of WM maintenance in two tasks where observers had to retain either the colors or locations of sample stimuli. CDA components were elicited both in the Color and in the Location task, and increasing WM load had identical effects on CDA amplitudes, suggesting shared underlying mechanisms. Read More
Psychol Rep 2018 Dec 14:33294118816945. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA.
In the past three decades, researchers have examined counterfactual thinking and causation in decision making. However, little work has applied these findings to trial settings. The present research examined two conflicting theories regarding counterfactual thinking and causation to elaborate on earlier work examining counterfactual thinking in negligence law cases. Read More
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 14;12:CD011710. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Division of Psychological Medicine and Clinical Neurosciences, Cardiff University School of Medicine, Hadyn Ellis Building, Maindy Road, Cardiff, UK, CF24 4HQ.
Background: Therapist-delivered trauma-focused psychological therapies are an effective treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These have become the accepted first-line treatments for the disorder. Despite the established evidence-base for these therapies, they are not always widely available or accessible. Read More
J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
Background: Asian populations have relatively lower prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease and tend to exhibit symptoms of prolonged gastric retention. However, it remains unknown if slower gastric empting influences its features in Asian countries.
Aim: We prospectively assessed the potential implications of slower gastric emptying in an Asian-Pacific cohort of gastroesophageal reflux disease by a hospital-based survey. Read More
Obes Rev 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
The Staffordshire Centre for Psychological Research and Centre for Health Psychology, Staffordshire University, Stoke-on-Trent, UK.
Childhood obesity is a global health concern, which has both short- and long-term health consequences for the individual, and is a potential burden on health care services and the wider economy. The school environment is a setting where changes can be applied to dietary behaviours, as schools have direct and intensive contact with children. This systematic review evaluated school-based interventions designed to improve dietary behaviours among adolescents (11- to 16-year-olds). Read More
J Clin Nurs 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Department of Psychology, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
Aim And Objectives: To develop and initially validate the Positive Sexuality Scale (PSS) to assess adult female positive sexuality.
Background: While traditional approaches focus on negative sexual experiences and sexual dysfunctions, within the positive psychology framework positive sexuality is a subjective experience of happiness and fulfillment with one's sexual expression, which contributes to well-being. No measure exists that specifically measures adult female positive sexuality and can be confidently used with women of any fertility/childlessness status. Read More
J Vis 2018 Dec;18(13)
School of Psychological and Cognitive Sciences, IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, and Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China.
We previously demonstrated that perceptual learning of Vernier discrimination, when paired with orientation learning at the same retinal location, can transfer completely to untrained locations (Wang, Zhang, Klein, Levi, & Yu, 2014; Zhang, Wang, Klein, Levi, & Yu, 2011). However, Hung and Seitz (2014) reported that the transfer is possible only when Vernier is trained with short staircases, but not with very long staircases. Here we ran two experiments to examine Hung and Seitz's conclusions. Read More
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018 Dec;59(15):5904-5911
The Gill Center for Biomolecular Science and the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, United States.
Purpose: It has been known for nearly 50 years that cannabis and the psychoactive constituent Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) reduce intraocular pressure (IOP). Elevated IOP remains the chief hallmark and therapeutic target for glaucoma, a major cause of blindness. THC likely acts via one of the known cannabinoid-related receptors (CB1, CB2, GPR18, GPR119, GPR55) but this has never been determined explicitly. Read More
PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0208082. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Department of Statistics, Columbia University, New York, NY, United States of America.
Predicting health outcomes from longitudinal health histories is of central importance to healthcare. Observational healthcare databases such as patient diary databases provide a rich resource for patient-level predictive modeling. In this paper, we propose a Bayesian hierarchical vector autoregressive (VAR) model to predict medical and psychological conditions using multivariate time series data. Read More
J Dev Behav Pediatr 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Pediatrics, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH.
Objective: Intimate partner violence (IPV) can adversely affect children's cognitive development, but links between IPV exposure and language development in the earliest years of life remain unknown. The present study examined the effects of IPV and the quality of the home environment on children's language development at age 3 years.
Methods: In a prospective, 5-panel, longitudinal study of 79 mother-child dyads assessed prenatally to age 3 years, we examined standardized measures of receptive and expressive language development at age 3 years. Read More
J Pers Soc Psychol 2018 Dec;115(6):944-973
Department of Psychology, Carnegie Mellon University.
Mindfulness meditation interventions-which train skills in monitoring present-moment experiences with a lens of acceptance-have shown promise for increasing positive emotions. Using a theory-based approach, we hypothesized that learning acceptance skills in mindfulness interventions helps people notice more positive experiences in daily life, and tested whether removing acceptance training from mindfulness interventions would eliminate intervention-related boosts in positive affect. In 2 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of stressed community adults, mindfulness skills were dismantled into 2 structurally equivalent interventions: (a) training in both monitoring and acceptance (Monitor + Accept) and (b) training in monitoring only (Monitor Only) without acceptance training. Read More
J Pers Soc Psychol 2018 Dec;115(6):929-943
Department of Psychology, University of Colorado.
In light of current concerns with replicability and reporting false-positive effects in psychology, we examine Type I errors and power associated with 2 distinct approaches for the assessment of mediation, namely the component approach (testing individual parameter estimates in the model) and the index approach (testing a single mediational index). We conduct simulations that examine both approaches and show that the most commonly used tests under the index approach risk inflated Type I errors compared with the joint-significance test inspired by the component approach. We argue that the tendency to report only a single mediational index is worrisome for this reason and also because it is often accompanied by a failure to critically examine the individual causal paths underlying the mediational model. Read More
Health Psychol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Warren Alpert Medical School.
Objective: Self-regulation interventions encouraging daily weighing prevent weight gain in young adults; however, concerns have been raised that such interventions may have undesirable effects on eating pathology, depression, and health-related quality of life (HRQL). The present study examined whether self-regulation interventions and self-weighing frequency were associated with these indices in normal weight individuals and those with overweight or obesity.
Methods: Young adults ( = 599), 18-35 years with a body mass index (BMI) 21. Read More
Hist Psychol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
A common view among ancient historians about Roman attentiveness to children's psychological development needs reconsideration. The view holds that Romans ignored children's cognitive ontogeny, perceiving early childhood as a largely undifferentiated life stage. A separate but related issue is the problematic claim that Roman childhood was entirely a matter of social construction. Read More
Psychol Aging 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Biobehavioral Health and Medicine.
Advancing age is often characterized by preserved or even enhanced emotion regulation, which is thought to manifest in terms of age-related reductions in the within-person association between stressors and negative affect. Existing research from ecological momentary assessment and end-of-day daily diary studies examining such age-related benefits have yielded mixed results, potentially due to differences in samples, design, and measurement of everyday stressors and negative affect. We conducted a coordinated analysis of 5 ecological momentary assessments and 2 end-of-day daily diary studies to examine adult age differences in the within-person association between everyday stressors and negative affect. Read More
Psychol Aging 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis.
Human activity is structured by goals and subgoals. To understand an everyday activity, a viewer must perceive its goal structure, and viewers may segment activity into units that correspond to perceived goals. In this study, we examined age differences in the ability to perceive hierarchical goal structure in ongoing activity. Read More
J Comp Psychol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Universite Grenoble Alpes.
Studies on facial attractiveness in human adults, infants, and newborns have consistently reported a visual preference for faces rated as attractive compared with faces rated as unattractive. Biological accounts of facial attractiveness have typically presented such preferences as arising from adaptations for mate choice or as by-products of general sensory bias. In this cross-species study, we examined whether explicit ratings of attractiveness made by human judges would predict implicit visual preferences in other humans and also in rhesus macaques and, if they do, whether such preferences would extend beyond conspecific faces. Read More
J Appl Psychol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Educational Psychology.
Growing evidence on the predictive validity of vocational interests for job performance calls for greater consideration of interest assessment in organizations. However, a consensus on the fundamental dimensions of interests that are aligned with the contemporary world of work is still lacking. In the current research, we developed an organizing framework of vocational interests and empirically validated an 8-dimension model (SETPOINT: Health Science, Creative xpression, echnology, eople, rganization, nfluence, ature, and hings). Read More
G Ital Med Lav Ergon 2018 Dec;40(4):217-223
U.O.C. Sistemi per la Salute e Sicurezza dei Lavoratori, AUSL Romagna - Rimini.
Objectives: The Occupational Physician in accordance with the Prevention and Protection of AUSL Romagna (Rimini) has enabled for some years, a Clinic for the psychological job environmental discomfort addressed to employment, with expressions of the psychophysical disorders, caused by work related stress. Health is defined by the current legislation as a state of psychophysical and social wellbeing.
Methods: The main purpose of Clinic for the psychological distress in working environment is to provide listening space and psychological support for employees. Read More
G Ital Nefrol 2018 Dec;35(6)
Psicologa Clinica, Psicoterapeuta Sistemico Relazionale IIPR, Psicologa Clinica Ismett, Istituto Mediterraneo per i Trapianti e Terapie ad Alta Specializzazione - IRCCS, Palermo.
The need for patients with a chronic kidney failure and on dialysis to embark on a kidney transplant process, poses the challenge to identify alternative and effective surgical strategies to overcome the insufficient number of deceased donors. The purpose is to allow the considerable number of patients on the kidney transplant waiting lists to receive appropriate treatment in time and under the most favorable clinical conditions. Living donation from a significant other is becoming increasingly widespread, on a national and international level. Read More
Int J Cancer 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Cancer Registry of Norway, Institute of Population-based Cancer Research, Oslo, Norway.
From 2015, Norway has implemented high-risk human papilloma virus (hrHPV) testing in primary screening for cervical cancer. Women 34-69 years, living in four counties, have been pseudo-randomly assigned (1:1 randomization) to either hrHPV testing every 5 years (followed by cytology if hrHPV positive), or cytology testing every 3 years (followed by hrHPV testing if low-grade cytology is detected). We compared anxiety and depression scores among participants by screening arm and results. Read More
Acta Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Purpose: The aim of the study was to report prevalence, ocular outcome, neurological characteristics, cognitive and behavioural problems in children with optic disc coloboma (ODC).
Methods: This was a population-based, cross-sectional study of 31 children between 2 and 18 years of age diagnosed with ODC. The children were part of a larger cohort of 184 children with congenital optic disc malformations. Read More
Int J Ment Health Nurs 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
School of Nursing, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
Delirium is a common neuropsychiatric disorder that causes fluctuations in consciousness and attention, impairments in cognitive functioning and information processing, and changes in how individuals perceive what is going on around them. Delirium is associated with increased mortality, ongoing impairment in cognitive functioning, and a high possibility of discharge to residential care. The experience of delirium may be distressing for the patient and their family. Read More
Br J Health Psychol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
School of Psychological Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Israel.
Objectives: Since behavioural risk factors are the foremost causes of disability and premature mortality, developing new perspectives for understanding them is of utmost importance. This paper describes an innovative approach that conceptualizes health-related behaviours as nodes in a weighted network.
Design & Methods: Using self-reported data from a representative sample (n = 374), a network of 37 health behaviours was analysed, with the aim of identifying 'central' nodes, that is, behaviours that are likely to co-occur with others and potentially influence them. Read More
Neurogastroenterol Motil 2018 Dec 13:e13509. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.
Background: Anxiety and depression are implicated as contributors to abdominal pain in pediatric irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) but is unclear if this pain is associated with other psychological factors. The study objective was to test if the impact of anxiety or depression on IBS symptom severity is mediated by somatization and/or pain catastrophizing.
Methods: We utilized baseline data from local pediatric IBS clinical studies. Read More
Eur Eat Disord Rev 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Usera Mental Health Center, 12 de Octubre University Hospital, Madrid, Spain.
The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a negative reaction to the illness would be reduced through the "Collaborative Care Skills Workshops" programme among Spanish caregivers of relatives with an eating disorder. Caregivers were randomly allocated to either the skill-based workshops (n = 32) or psycho-educational workshops (n = 31), and assessments were carried out over time (T vs. T vs. Read More
Int Wound J 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.
Many people in Italy undergo ostomy because of illness, and this can have negative psychological and physical effects. It is estimated that 15%-43% of ostomates suffer from skin complications in the peristomal area. During their life, many ostomates experience at least one peristomal lesion, and they turn to stomal therapy centres where trained nurses provide patient care and manage skin complications. Read More
Int Wound J 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
BioTherapeutics, Education & Research Foundation, Irvine, California, U.S.A.
The 21st century is seeing a resurgence in the use of maggot therapy-using the physical and biochemical benefits of fly larvae to debride and heal chronic, problematic wounds. Maggots are repulsive to many people, and this could interfere with the acceptance of this modality. Before instituting a maggot therapy programme at our institution, we sought to better understand the psychological barriers that may exist among patients in the Tver region of Russia. Read More
Headache 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Neurosciences, Mental Health and Sensory Organs, Suicide Prevention Center, S. Andrea Hospital, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy.
Background And Objectives: Migraine headache is the seventh leading cause of disability worldwide causing adverse outcomes in many aspects of an individual's life. Many psychological aspects affect chronic migraine (CM): illness perception, anxiety, depressive symptoms, and job satisfaction. This observational study aimed to examine the association among illness perception, anxiety, depressive symptoms, and job satisfaction, connected to migraine and its features. Read More
J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Neuroscience, Psychology and Behaviour, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK.
Background: Since 2010, the numbers of refugees have increased and around half are under 18 years of age. It is known that experience of organised violence, displacement and resettlement increases the risk for psychiatric disorders and psychosocial impairment. This review integrates recent research into the risk and protective factors for psychopathology with service and treatment issues. Read More
Dev Sci 2018 Dec 13:e12786. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
School of Psychology, University of Surrey, Guilford, Surrey, GU27XH, UK.
Spatial thinking is an important predictor of mathematics. However, existing data do not determine whether all spatial sub-domains are equally important for mathematics outcomes nor whether mathematics-spatial associations vary through development. This study addresses these questions by exploring the developmental relations between mathematics and spatial skills in children aged 6 -10 years (N = 155). Read More
Clin Transplant 2018 Dec 13:e13462. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Division of Cardiac Surgery, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA, 90095.
Employment status may capture elements of patients' physical strength, mental resilience, and socioeconomic status to better prognosticate transplant outcomes. This study characterized the effect of working status on thoracic transplant outcomes by evaluating the United Network for Organ Sharing registry for adult lung or heart transplants from 2005 to 2016. Kaplan-Meier estimates illustrated 5-year and 10-year survival by working status at transplant, while multivariable Cox proportional hazards regressions controlled for baseline differences, including functional and socioeconomic status. Read More
Br J Clin Psychol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Centre de recherche de l'Institut universitaire en santé mentale de Montréal, Quebec, Canada.
Objective: The potential causal and maintaining role of vulnerable self-themes and beliefs about the self in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have received increasing attention from cognitive-behavioural theorists. This interest was translated into the development of a self-report measurement of the feared self (the fear of who one might be or become), a construct theoretically and empirically pertinent to unwanted thoughts and impulses in OCD (i.e. Read More
Scand J Caring Sci 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Central Finland Health Care District, Jyväskylä, Finland.
Background: Family violence (FV) is a prevalent health issue around the world and health care services have an important role in both recognizing and treating the consequences of violence. However, FV experiences among health care professionals themselves have not been investigated much. We also lack specific knowledge on the associations between FV and mental health. Read More
Br J Educ Psychol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.
Laboratory for Cognitive Investigations and Behavioral Genetics, Department of Psychology, Institute of Genetic, Neurobiological, and Social Foundations of Child Development, Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Oblast, Russia.
Background: The number line task assesses the ability to estimate numerical magnitudes. People vary greatly in this ability, and this variability has been previously associated with mathematical skills. However, the sources of individual differences in number line estimation and its association with mathematics are not fully understood. Read More
Psychol Psychother 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.
University of Roehampton, London, UK.
Objectives: To determine the demographic profile of clients accessing voluntary and community sector (VCS) counselling services for young people and young adults, and to undertake the first systematic evaluation of outcomes.
Design: Naturalistic, non-experimental study design.
Methods: A total of 2,144 clients were recruited from nine services in England. Read More
P R Health Sci J 2018 Dec;37(4):200-207
Institute for Psychological Research, University of Puerto Rico Río Piedras Campus, San Juan, PR.
Objective: Family conflict is related to depression, difficulties with treatment adherence and glycemic control, in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D). We examined the psychometric properties of a parent-rated family conflict measure and the most frequent behaviors endorsed by caregivers of these youths.
Methods: Participants were 51 caregivers (86. Read More
Int Psychogeriatr 2018 Dec 14:1-11. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Experimental Clinical and Health Psychology,Ghent University,Ghent,Belgium.
ABSTRACTObjectives:Personality is known to be a reliable predictor of well-being. However, it is rather difficult to influence the personality of individuals in order to improve their well-being. Therefore, it is important to examine possible underlying mechanisms or indirect effects. Read More
BMC Psychol 2018 Dec 14;6(1):58. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Department of Psychology, University of Bielefeld, Bielefeld, Germany.
Background: Disorders-of-consciousness (DOC) are rare conditions leading to very severe physical and mental disabilities. Providing care for DOC patients has been described as a stressful experience, eroding the physical and psychological health of the caregiver. Different forms of care may have different impacts on the caregivers and institutionalized care has been suggested to have an unburdening effect, but this possibility has never been empirically studied. Read More
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J 2018 Dec 14;16(1):78. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Pediatric Rheumatology, Seattle Children's Hospital, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
Background: Chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis (CNO) is an autoinflammatory bone disorder that if left untreated can result in bone destruction and severe continuing pain due to persistent inflammation. The impact this chronic disease has on the daily lives of affected children and their families is not well known. The purpose of this study is to understand the disease burden and socioeconomic and psychological impact of CNO from the patients' and families' perspectives and identify areas of improvement for patient care and reduced disease burden based on patients' and families' responses. Read More
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2018 Dec 14;18(1):494. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, 57000, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a of the major public health issues in Asia. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of, and risk factors for GDM in Asia via a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, Ovid, Scopus and ScienceDirect for observational studies in Asia from inception to August 2017. Read More
BMC Geriatr 2018 Dec 14;18(1):314. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Fudan Health Communication Institute, School of Public Health, Fudan University, PO Box 248, 138 Yixueyuan Road, Shanghai, 200032, China.
Background: Frailty represents a public health priority and an increasingly prevalent condition in the ageing population. It is seen as reflecting an interaction among individual factors and a range of environmental elements. This study aims to examine the association between frailty and individual factors, physical and social environments among Chinese older people. Read More
BMC Geriatr 2018 Dec 14;18(1):313. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Department of Counseling and Clinical Intervention, Institute of Psychology, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Humboldtstrasse 11, 07743, Jena, Germany.
Background: People with dementia (PwD) experience a range of negative behavioral and psychological symptoms which can lower their quality of life. Because of the increasing prevalence of dementia, interventions that maintain and enhance the quality of life for PwD are needed. Listening to individualized music constitutes a promising non-pharmacological intervention for PwD. Read More
J Atten Disord 2018 Dec 14:1087054718816176. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
2 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.
Objective: To identify children with ADHD enrolled in New York State (NYS) Medicaid and characterize ADHD-associated costs by treatment category.
Method: In 2013, 1.4 million children aged 2 to 17 years were enrolled in NYS Medicaid. Read More