2,183 results match your criteria Psychological Review [Journal]


When acute adversity improves psychological health: A social-contextual framework.

Psychol Rev 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Pace University.

Human beings are routinely exposed to varying forms of acute adversity. Our responses take varying forms too, ranging from chronic distress to resilience. Although this pronounced variability is widely recognized, one possible outcome of acute adversity has been invariably, though understandably, ignored: an in psychological and social functioning. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rev0000144DOI Listing
February 2019

The language of generalization.

Psychol Rev 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Stanford University.

Language provides simple ways of communicating generalizable knowledge to each other (e.g., "Birds fly," "John hikes," and "Fire makes smoke"). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rev0000142DOI Listing
February 2019

Thanking, apologizing, bragging, and blaming: Responsibility exchange theory and the currency of communication.

Psychol Rev 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Social and Decision Sciences, Carnegie Mellon University.

From the time we are children, we are taught to say "thank you" and "I'm sorry." These communications are central to many social interactions, and the failure to say them often leads to conflict in relationships. Research has documented that, alongside the impact they can have on relationships, apologies and thanks can also impact material outcomes as small as restaurant tips and as significant as settlements of medical malpractice lawsuits. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rev0000139DOI Listing
February 2019

A model of event knowledge.

Psychol Rev 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Department of Psychology and Brain and Mind Institute.

Our knowledge of events and situations in the world plays a critical role in our ability to understand what is happening around us, to predict what might happen next, and to comprehend language. What has not been so clear is the form and structure of this knowledge, how it is learned, and how it is deployed in real time. Despite many important theoretical proposals, often using different terminology such as schemas, scripts, frames, and event knowledge, developing a model that addresses these three questions (the form, learning, and use of such knowledge) has remained an elusive challenge for decades. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/rev0000133
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rev0000133DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

The stigma of perceived irrelevance: An affordance-management theory of interpersonal invisibility.

Psychol Rev 2019 Jan 28. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of Iowa.

A growing body of research shows that older adults, Black women, and other groups often encounter stigmatization that manifests not as negative prejudice, but as indifference and inattention-that is, interpersonal invisibility. We propose an affordance-management theory to explain who is interpersonally invisible, to whom, and with what consequences. A social affordance-management perspective suggests that people seek to detect and strategically engage with those who facilitate or obstruct achievement of important goals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rev0000143DOI Listing
January 2019

Retinal spatiotemporal dynamics on emergence of visual persistence and afterimages.

Psychol Rev 2019 Jan 28. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Department of Psychological Sciences, Purdue University.

Visual persistence (stimulus perception that prolongs for a few milliseconds after the physical disappearance of the stimulus) and afterimages (an illusory percept that lingers after the physical disappearance of the stimulus at the retinotopic location of the preceding stimulus) are classic perceptual phenomena reflecting temporal characteristics of the visual system. These phenomena are modulated by some common stimulus aspects: A longer stimulus generates shorter persistence and a longer afterimage and a lower spatial-frequency stimulus generates shorter persistence and a stronger afterimage. The current study proposes that these spatiotemporal characteristics of visual persistence and afterimages can be explained by a generic retinal processing architecture. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/rev0000141
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rev0000141DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

The rationality of illusory correlation.

Psychol Rev 2019 Jan 24. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Department of Theoretical Physics, National University of Ireland.

When presented with 2 samples (a smaller sample from a Minority population and a larger sample from a Majority population), where some rare or frequent features occur at exactly the same rate in both samples, people reliably associate the rare feature with the Minority population and the frequent feature with the Majority population. This pattern is referred to as "illusory correlation," reflecting the standard assumption that such associations are fundamentally irrational. In this article we show that this assumption is incorrect, and demonstrate that this pattern of association linking rare features with the Minority and frequent features with the Majority (given a sample where those features occurred at the same proportion in both categories, and no further information) is in fact correct and follows a result in epistemic probability theory known as the "Rule of Succession. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rev0000130DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Habits without values.

Psychol Rev 2019 Jan 24. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Department of Psychology, University of Warwick.

Habits form a crucial component of behavior. In recent years, key computational models have conceptualized habits as arising from model-free reinforcement learning mechanisms, which typically select between available actions based on the future value expected to result from each. Traditionally, however, habits have been understood as behaviors that can be triggered directly by a stimulus, without requiring the animal to evaluate expected outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rev0000120DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Toward a new theory of stereopsis: A critique of Vishwanath (2014).

Authors:
Brian Rogers

Psychol Rev 2019 Jan;126(1):162-169

University of Oxford.

The title of Dhanraj Vishwanath's (2014) Psychological Review article is, of course, adapted from the title of George Berkeley's (1709/1922) book, "Towards a New Theory of Vision," and, as a consequence, it promises to provide us with a radically new understanding of 3D vision. Does it succeed? Vishwanath certainly raised important questions about what we mean by stereopsis, and he does a good job in reviewing some of the more recent findings on how particular viewing conditions affect stereopsis; however, it disappoints with respect to the claim that it offers a "new theory of stereopsis." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rev0000131DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Effect-based action control with body-related effects: Implications for empirical approaches to ideomotor action control.

Authors:
Roland Pfister

Psychol Rev 2019 Jan;126(1):153-161

Julius Maximilians University of Würzburg.

Ideomotor accounts of human action control posit that human agents represent actions in terms of their perceivable consequences; selecting, planning, and initiating a voluntary action is thus assumed to be mediated by action-effect anticipations. Corresponding empirical investigations have often employed arbitrary effects in the agent's environment to study action-effect learning and effect-based action control. This strategy has provided accumulating evidence in support of ideomotor mechanisms, but the widespread focus on environment-related action effects has also created misperceptions of what ideomotor accounts aim to explain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rev0000140DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Alterations of agency in hypnosis: A new predictive coding model.

Psychol Rev 2019 Jan;126(1):133-152

Institut Jean Nicod, École Normale Supérieure (ENS), École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales (EHESS).

Hypnotic suggestions can lead to altered experiences of agency, reality, and memory. The present work is primarily concerned with alterations of the sense of agency (SoA) following motor suggestions. When people respond to the suggestion that their arm is rising up all by itself, they usually have a feeling of passivity for their action. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rev0000134DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

How similarity between choice options affects decisions from experience: The accentuation-of-differences model.

Psychol Rev 2019 Jan;126(1):52-88

Faculty of Psychology, University of Basel.

Traditional theories of decision making require that humans evaluate choice options independently of each other. The independence principle underlying this notion states that the relative choice probability of two options should be independent of the choice set. Previous research demonstrated systematic violations of this principle in decisions from description (context effects), leading to the development of various models explaining them. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rev0000122DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Language learning as language use: A cross-linguistic model of child language development.

Psychol Rev 2019 Jan;126(1):1-51

Department of Psychology, Cornell University.

While usage-based approaches to language development enjoy considerable support from computational studies, there have been few attempts to answer a key computational challenge posed by usage-based theory: the successful modeling of language learning as language use. We present a usage-based computational model of language acquisition which learns in a purely incremental fashion, through online processing based on chunking, and which offers broad, cross-linguistic coverage while uniting key aspects of comprehension and production within a single framework. The model's design reflects memory constraints imposed by the real-time nature of language processing, and is inspired by psycholinguistic evidence for children's sensitivity to the distributional properties of multiword sequences and for shallow language comprehension based on local information. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rev0000126DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Catastrophic individuation failures in infancy: A new model and predictions.

Psychol Rev 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Psychology.

Comparison of infant findings from the physical-reasoning and object-individuation literatures reveals a contradictory picture. On the one hand, physical-reasoning results indicate that young infants can use featural information to guide their actions on objects and to detect interaction violations (when objects interact in ways that are not physically possible) as well as change violations (when objects spontaneously undergo featural changes that are not physically possible). On the other hand, object-individuation results indicate that young infants typically cannot use featural information to detect individuation violations (when the number of objects revealed at the end of an event is less than the number of objects introduced during the event). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rev0000136DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read
7.972 Impact Factor

Decision by sampling implements efficient coding of psychoeconomic functions.

Psychol Rev 2018 Nov;125(6):985-1001

Department of Psychology and Center for Brain Science, Harvard University.

The theory of decision by sampling (DbS) proposes that an attribute's subjective value is its rank within a sample of attribute values retrieved from memory. This can account for instances of context dependence beyond the reach of classic theories that assume stable preferences. In this paper, we provide a normative justification for DbS that is based on the principle of efficient coding. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/rev0000123
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November 2018
11 Reads

Decision making on spatially continuous scales.

Authors:
Roger Ratcliff

Psychol Rev 2018 Nov;125(6):888-935

The Ohio State University.

A new diffusion model of decision making in continuous space is presented and tested. The model is a sequential sampling model in which both spatially continuously distributed evidence and noise are accumulated up to a decision criterion (a 1 dimensional [1D] line or a 2 dimensional [2D] plane). There are two major advances represented in this research. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/rev0000117
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rev0000117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6242349PMC
November 2018
8 Reads

Variable precision in visual perception.

Authors:
Shan Shen Wei Ji Ma

Psychol Rev 2019 Jan 18;126(1):89-132. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Center for Neural Science.

Given the same sensory stimuli in the same task, human observers do not always make the same response. Well-known sources of behavioral variability are sensory noise and guessing. Visual short-term memory (STM) studies have suggested that the precision of the sensory noise is itself variable. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/rev0000128
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rev0000128DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6318066PMC
January 2019
4 Reads

Prejudices and discrimination as goal activated and threat driven: The affordance management approach applied to sexual prejudice.

Psychol Rev 2018 Nov 15;125(6):1002-1027. Epub 2018 Oct 15.

Department of Psychology, Pacific Lutheran University.

Stereotypes, prejudices, and discriminatory behaviors directed toward people based on their sexual orientation vary broadly. Existing perspectives on sexual prejudice argue for different underlying causes, sometimes provide disparate or conflicting evidence for its roots, and typically fail to account for variances observed across studies. We propose an affordance management approach to understanding sexual prejudice, which weds the fundamental motives theory with the sociofunctional threat-based approach to prejudice to provide a broader explanation for the causes and outcomes of sexual prejudice and to explain inter- and intragroup prejudices more broadly. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rev0000125DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

The construct-behavior gap and the description-experience gap: Comment on Regenwetter and Robinson (2017).

Psychol Rev 2018 Oct;125(5):844-849

Max Planck Institute for Human Development.

Regenwetter and Robinson (2017) discuss a challenging construct-behavior gap in psychological research. It can emerge when testing hypotheses that pertain to a theoretical construct (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rev0000121DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

Modulation of attention and action in the medial prefrontal cortex of rats.

Psychol Rev 2018 Oct;125(5):822-843

School of Psychology, University of New South Wales.

Theories of functioning in the medial prefrontal cortex are distinct across appetitively and aversively motivated procedures. In the appetitive domain, it is argued that the medial prefrontal cortex is important for producing adaptive behavior when circumstances change. This view advocates a role for this region in using higher-order information to bias performance appropriate to that circumstance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rev0000118DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

Wise interventions: Psychological remedies for social and personal problems.

Psychol Rev 2018 Oct;125(5):617-655

Department of Psychology, University of Virginia.

Long-standing social problems such as poor achievement, personal and intergroup conflict, bad health, and unhappiness can seem like permanent features of the social landscape. We describe an approach to such problems rooted in basic theory and research in social psychology. This approach emphasizes subjective meaning-making-working hypotheses people draw about themselves, other people, and social situations; how deleterious meanings can arise from social and cultural contexts; how interventions to change meanings can help people flourish; and how initial change can become embedded to alter the course of people's lives. Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/rev0000115
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rev0000115DOI Listing
October 2018
2 Reads

Paradox resolved: Stop signal race model with negative dependence.

Psychol Rev 2018 Nov 1;125(6):1051-1058. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Focus Health: Life Sciences & Chemistry, Jacobs University Bremen.

The ability to inhibit our responses voluntarily is an important case of cognitive control. The stop-signal paradigm is a popular tool to study response inhibition. Participants perform a response time task (go task), and occasionally, the go stimulus is followed by a stop signal after a variable delay, indicating subjects to withhold their response (stop task). Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/rev0000127
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November 2018
2 Reads

Complementary surrounds explain diverse contextual phenomena across visual modalities.

Psychol Rev 2018 Oct 20;125(5):769-784. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

Department of Cognitive, Linguistic and Psychological Sciences, Carney Institute for Brain Science, Brown University.

Context is known to affect how a stimulus is perceived. A variety of illusions have been attributed to contextual processing-from orientation tilt effects to chromatic induction phenomena, but their neural underpinnings remain poorly understood. Here, we present a recurrent network model of classical and extraclassical receptive fields that is constrained by the anatomy and physiology of the visual cortex. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rev0000109DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

Efficiency of mitochondrial functioning as the fundamental biological mechanism of general intelligence (g).

Authors:
David C Geary

Psychol Rev 2018 Nov 13;125(6):1028-1050. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

Department of Psychological Sciences.

General intelligence or g is one of the most thoroughly studied concepts in the behavioral sciences. Measures of intelligence are predictive of a wide range of educational, occupational, and life outcomes, including creative productivity and are systematically related to physical health and successful aging. The nexus of relations suggests 1 or several fundamental biological mechanisms underlie g, health, and aging, among other outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rev0000124DOI Listing
November 2018
10 Reads

The unfolding action model of initiation times, movement times, and movement paths.

Psychol Rev 2018 Oct 30;125(5):785-805. Epub 2018 Aug 30.

Department of Experimental Psychology, Ghent University.

Converging evidence has led to a consensus in favor of computational models of behavior implementing continuous information flow and parallel processing between cognitive processing stages. Yet, such models still typically implement a discrete step between the last cognitive stage and motor implementation. This discrete step is implemented as a fixed decision bound that activation in the last cognitive stage needs to cross before action can be initiated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rev0000110DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

Racing to remember: A theory of decision control in event-based prospective memory.

Psychol Rev 2018 Nov 6;125(6):851-887. Epub 2018 Aug 6.

School of Medicine.

Event-based prospective memory (PM) requires remembering to perform intended deferred actions when particular stimuli or events are encountered in the future. We propose a detailed process theory within Braver's (2012) proactive and reactive framework of the way control is maintained over the competing demands of prospective memory decisions and decisions associated with ongoing task activities. The theory is instantiated in a quantitative "Prospective Memory Decision Control" (PMDC) architecture, which uses linear ballistic evidence accumulation (Brown & Heathcote, 2008) to model both PM and ongoing decision processes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rev0000113DOI Listing
November 2018
11 Reads

The neglected contribution of memory encoding in spatial cueing: A new theory of costs and benefits.

Authors:
Hui Chen Brad Wyble

Psychol Rev 2018 Nov 6;125(6):936-968. Epub 2018 Aug 6.

Department of Psychology.

Spatial cueing is thought to indicate the resource limits of visual attention because invalidly cued items are reported more slowly and less accurately than validly cued items. However, limited resource accounts cannot explain certain findings, such as dividing attention without costs, or attentional benefits without invalidity costs. The current study presents a new account of exogenous cueing, namely the memory encoding cost (MEC) theory, which integrates attention and memory encoding to explain costs and benefits evoked by a spatial cue. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rev0000116DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

OB1-reader: A model of word recognition and eye movements in text reading.

Psychol Rev 2018 Nov 6;125(6):969-984. Epub 2018 Aug 6.

Department of Education.

Decades of reading research have led to sophisticated accounts of single-word recognition and, in parallel, accounts of eye-movement control in text reading. Although these two endeavors have strongly advanced the field, their relative independence has precluded an integrated account of the reading process. To bridge the gap, we here present a computational model of reading, OB1-reader, which integrates insights from both literatures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rev0000119DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Bayesian argumentation and the value of logical validity.

Psychol Rev 2018 Oct 19;125(5):806-821. Epub 2018 Jul 19.

Munich Center for Mathematical Philosophy.

According to the Bayesian paradigm in the psychology of reasoning, the norms by which everyday human cognition is best evaluated are probabilistic rather than logical in character. Recently, the Bayesian paradigm has been applied to the domain of argumentation, in which the fundamental norms are traditionally assumed to be logical. Here, we present a major generalization of extant Bayesian approaches to argumentation that (a) utilizes a new class of Bayesian learning methods that are better suited to modeling dynamic and conditional inferences than standard Bayesian conditionalization, (b) is able to characterize the special value of logically valid argument schemes in uncertain reasoning contexts, (c) greatly extends the range of inferences and argumentative phenomena that can be adequately described in a Bayesian framework, and (d) undermines some influential theoretical motivations for dual function models of human cognition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rev0000114DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

The dark core of personality.

Psychol Rev 2018 Oct 12;125(5):656-688. Epub 2018 Jul 12.

Department of Psychology.

Many negatively connoted personality traits (often termed "dark traits") have been introduced to account for ethically, morally, and socially questionable behavior. Herein, we provide a unifying, comprehensive theoretical framework for understanding dark personality in terms of a general dispositional tendency of which dark traits arise as specific manifestations. That is, we theoretically specify the common core of dark traits, which we call the (). Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/rev0000111
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rev0000111DOI Listing
October 2018
27 Reads

Boring thoughts and bored minds: The MAC model of boredom and cognitive engagement.

Psychol Rev 2018 Oct 2;125(5):689-713. Epub 2018 Jul 2.

Department of Psychology.

What is boredom? We review environmental, attentional, and functional theories and present a new model that describes boredom as an affective indicator of unsuccessful attentional engagement in valued goal-congruent activity. According to the Meaning and Attentional Components (MAC) model, boredom is the result of (a) an attentional component, namely mismatches between cognitive demands and available mental resources, and (b) a meaning component, namely mismatches between activities and valued goals (or the absence of valued goals altogether). We present empirical support for four novel predictions made by the model: (a) Deficits in attention and meaning each produce boredom independently of the other; (b) there are different profiles of boredom that result from specific deficits in attention and meaning; (c) boredom results from two types of attentional deficits, understimulation and overstimulation; and (d) the model explains not only when and why people become bored with external activities, but also when and why people become bored with their own thoughts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rev0000097DOI Listing
October 2018
7 Reads
1 Citation
7.972 Impact Factor

Don't blame the model: Reconsidering the network approach to psychopathology.

Psychol Rev 2018 07;125(4):606-615

Department of Theory and History of Psychology, University of Groningen.

The network approach to psychopathology is becoming increasingly popular. The motivation for this approach is to provide a replacement for the problematic common cause perspective and the associated latent variable model, where symptoms are taken to be mere effects of a common cause (the disorder itself). The idea is that the latent variable model is plausible for medical diseases, but unrealistic for mental disorders, which should rather be conceptualized as networks of directly interacting symptoms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rev0000108DOI Listing
July 2018
1 Read

Refining the law of practice.

Psychol Rev 2018 07;125(4):592-605

Division of Psychology, University of Tasmania.

The "law of practice"-a simple nonlinear function describing the relationship between mean response time (RT) and practice-has provided a practically and theoretically useful way of quantifying the speed-up that characterizes skill acquisition. Early work favored a power law, but this was shown to be an artifact of biases caused by averaging over participants who are individually better described by an exponential law. However, both power and exponential functions make the strong assumption that the speedup always proceeds at a steadily decreasing rate, even though there are sometimes clear exceptions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rev0000105DOI Listing
July 2018
2 Reads

Hilbert space multidimensional theory.

Psychol Rev 2018 07;125(4):572-591

School of Communication, The Ohio State University.

A general theory of measurement context effects, called Hilbert space multidimensional (HSM) theory, is presented. A measurement context refers to a subset of psychological variables that an individual evaluates on a particular occasion. Different contexts are formed by evaluating different but possibly overlapping subsets of variables. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rev0000106DOI Listing
July 2018
1 Read

Multialternative decision by sampling: A model of decision making constrained by process data.

Psychol Rev 2018 07;125(4):512-544

Warwick Business School, University of Warwick.

Sequential sampling of evidence, or evidence accumulation, has been implemented in a variety of models to explain a range of multialternative choice phenomena. But the existing models do not agree on what, exactly, the evidence is that is accumulated. They also do not agree on how this evidence is accumulated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rev0000102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6022729PMC
July 2018
1 Read

Chunking as a rational strategy for lossy data compression in visual working memory.

Psychol Rev 2018 07;125(4):486-511

Department of Cognitive, Linguistic, and Psychological Sciences, Brown Institute for Brain Science, Brown University.

The nature of capacity limits for visual working memory has been the subject of an intense debate that has relied on models that assume items are encoded independently. Here we propose that instead, similar features are jointly encoded through a "chunking" process to optimize performance on visual working memory tasks. We show that such chunking can: (a) facilitate performance improvements for abstract capacity-limited systems, (b) be optimized through reinforcement, (c) be implemented by center-surround dynamics, and (d) increase effective storage capacity at the expense of recall precision. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rev0000101DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6026019PMC
July 2018
3 Reads

Automatic control: How experts act without thinking.

Authors:
Gordon D Logan

Psychol Rev 2018 07;125(4):453-485

Vanderbilt University.

Experts act without thinking because their skill is hierarchical. A single conscious thought automatically produces a series of lower-level actions without top-down monitoring. This article presents a theory that explains how automatic control is possible in skilled typing, where thinking of a word automatically produces a rapid series of keystrokes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rev0000100DOI Listing
July 2018
1 Read

A new and unique prediction for cue-search in a parallel-constraint satisfaction network model: The attraction search effect.

Psychol Rev 2018 Oct 28;125(5):744-768. Epub 2018 Jun 28.

School of Social Sciences, University of Mannheim.

A common assumption of many established models for decision making is that information is searched according to some prespecified search rule. While the content of the information influences the termination of search, usually specified as a stopping rule, the direction of search is viewed as being independent of the valence of the retrieved information. We propose an extension to the parallel constraint satisfaction network model (iCodes: integrated coherence-based decision and search), which assumes-in contrast to prespecified search rules-that the valence of available information influences search of concealed information. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rev0000107DOI Listing
October 2018
25 Reads

The emergence of polychronization and feature binding in a spiking neural network model of the primate ventral visual system.

Psychol Rev 2018 07 4;125(4):545-571. Epub 2018 Jun 4.

Oxford Centre for Theoretical Neuroscience and Artificial Intelligence, Department of Experimental Psychology, Oxford University.

We present a hierarchical neural network model, in which subpopulations of neurons develop fixed and regularly repeating temporal chains of spikes (polychronization), which respond specifically to randomized Poisson spike trains representing the input training images. The performance is improved by including top-down and lateral synaptic connections, as well as introducing multiple synaptic contacts between each pair of pre- and postsynaptic neurons, with different synaptic contacts having different axonal delays. Spike-timing-dependent plasticity thus allows the model to select the most effective axonal transmission delay between neurons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rev0000103DOI Listing
July 2018
1 Read

The power law of visual working memory characterizes attention engagement.

Psychol Rev 2018 04;125(3):435-451

Department of Psychology, The University of Copenhagen.

The quality or precision of stimulus representations in visual working memory can be characterized by a power law, which states that precision decreases as a power of the number of items in memory, with an exponent whose magnitude typically varies in the range 0.5 to 0.75. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rev0000098DOI Listing
April 2018
5 Reads

Do infants and nonhuman animals attribute mental states?

Authors:
Tyler Burge

Psychol Rev 2018 04;125(3):409-434

University of California, Los Angeles.

Among psychologists, it is widely thought that infants well under age 3, monkeys, apes, birds, and dogs have been shown to have rudimentary capacities for representing and attributing mental states or relations. I believe this view to be mistaken. It rests on overinterpreting experiments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rev0000091DOI Listing
April 2018
3 Reads

The capacity of trans-saccadic memory in visual search.

Psychol Rev 2018 04;125(3):391-408

Department of Psychology, Rutgers University.

Maintaining a continuous, stable perception of the visual world relies on the ability to integrate information from previous fixations with the current one. An essential component of this integration is trans-saccadic memory (TSM), memory for information across saccades. TSM capacity may play a limiting role in tasks requiring efficient trans-saccadic integration, such as multiple-fixation visual search tasks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rev0000099DOI Listing
April 2018
10 Reads

A sampling model of social judgment.

Psychol Rev 2018 04;125(3):363-390

Department of Psychology, University of Basel.

Studies of social judgments have demonstrated a number of diverse phenomena that were so far difficult to explain within a single theoretical framework. Prominent examples are false consensus and false uniqueness, as well as self-enhancement and self-depreciation. Here we show that these seemingly complex phenomena can be a product of an interplay between basic cognitive processes and the structure of social and task environments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rev0000096DOI Listing
April 2018
6 Reads

Concepts, control, and context: A connectionist account of normal and disordered semantic cognition.

Psychol Rev 2018 04;125(3):293-328

Neuroscience and Aphasia Research Unit, University of Manchester.

Semantic cognition requires conceptual representations shaped by verbal and nonverbal experience and executive control processes that regulate activation of knowledge to meet current situational demands. A complete model must also account for the representation of concrete and abstract words, of taxonomic and associative relationships, and for the role of context in shaping meaning. We present the first major attempt to assimilate all of these elements within a unified, implemented computational framework. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rev0000094DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5937916PMC
April 2018
8 Reads

The behavioral ecology of cultural psychological variation.

Psychol Rev 2018 Oct 23;125(5):714-743. Epub 2018 Apr 23.

Department of Psychology, Arizona State University.

Recent work has documented a wide range of important psychological differences across societies. Multiple explanations have been offered for why such differences exist, including historical philosophies, subsistence methods, social mobility, social class, climactic stresses, and religion. With the growing body of theory and data, there is an emerging need for an organizing framework. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rev0000104DOI Listing
October 2018
6 Reads

A dynamic dual process model of risky decision making.

Psychol Rev 2018 03;125(2):270-292

Department of Psychology, Vanderbilt University.

Many phenomena in judgment and decision making are often attributed to the interaction of 2 systems of reasoning. Although these so-called dual process theories can explain many types of behavior, they are rarely formalized as mathematical or computational models. Rather, dual process models are typically verbal theories, which are difficult to conclusively evaluate or test. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rev0000087DOI Listing
March 2018
5 Reads

A structural model of intrinsic motivation: On the psychology of means-ends fusion.

Psychol Rev 2018 03;125(2):165-182

Department of Developmental and Social Psychology, University of Rome "La Sapienza".

The term intrinsic motivation refers to an activity being seen as its own end. Accordingly, we conceptualize intrinsic motivation (IM) as (perceived) means-ends fusion and define an intrinsicality continuum reflecting the degree to which such fusion is experienced. Our means-ends fusion (MEF) theory assumes four major antecedents of activity-goal fusion: (a) repeated pairing of the activity and the goal, (b) uniqueness of the activity-goal connection, (c) perceived similarity between the activity and its goal, and (d) temporal immediacy of goal attainment following the activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rev0000095DOI Listing
March 2018
7 Reads

"Beyond sacrificial harm: A two-dimensional model of utilitarian psychology": Correction.

Authors:

Psychol Rev 2018 03;125(2):164

Reports an error in "Beyond Sacrificial Harm: A Two-Dimensional Model of Utilitarian Psychology" by Guy Kahane, Jim A. C. Everett, Brian D. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rev0000112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5900578PMC
March 2018
5 Reads

Subjects adjust criterion on errors in perceptual decision tasks.

Psychol Rev 2018 01;125(1):117-130

Instituto de Neurociencias, Universidad de Guadalajara.

The optimal strategy in detection theory is to partition the decision axis at a criterion C, labeling all events that score above C "Signal", and all those that fall below "Noise." The optimal position of C, C*, depends on signal probability and payoffs. If observers place their criterion at some place other than C*, they suffer a loss in the Expected Value (EV) of payoffs over the course of many decisions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rev0000056DOI Listing
January 2018
4 Reads

Competing theories of multialternative, multiattribute preferential choice.

Psychol Rev 2018 04 21;125(3):329-362. Epub 2017 Dec 21.

Department of Neurophysiology and Pathophysiology, University Medical Center Hamburg.

In accounting for phenomena present in preferential choice experiments, modern models assume a wide array of different mechanisms such as lateral inhibition, leakage, loss aversion, and saliency. These mechanisms create interesting predictions for the dynamics of the deliberation process as well as the aggregate behavior of preferential choice in a variety of contexts. However, the models that embody these different mechanisms are rarely subjected to rigorous quantitative tests of suitability by way of model fitting and evaluation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rev0000089DOI Listing
April 2018
5 Reads