472,608 results match your criteria Psychological Bulletin [Journal]


Projet Bien-être : vers un meilleur repérage et accompagnement des femmes présentant des vulnérabilités psychologiques ou sociales.

Sante Publique 2018 Sep;S2(HS2):89-97

The perinatal period is one of the most critical periods in the life cycle. The health of the mother and child are strongly and permanently influenced by events occurring during pregnancy, delivery or early infancy. In psychological terms, nearly 10% of women reported poor self-rated mental health during pregnancy. Read More

View Article
September 2018
1 Read

Depression, ART Adherence, and Receipt of Case Management Services by Adults with HIV in North Carolina, Medical Monitoring Project, 2009-2013.

AIDS Behav 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services, Division of Public Health, Communicable Disease Branch, Raleigh, NC, 27603, USA.

Depression among persons with HIV is associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) interruption and discontinuation, virological failure, and poor clinical and survival outcomes. Case management services can address needs for emotional counseling and other supportive services to facilitate HIV care engagement. Using 2009-2013 North Carolina Medical Monitoring Project data from 910 persons engaged in HIV care, we estimated associations of case management utilization with "probable current depression" and with 100% ART dose adherence. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Patient-derived xenograft model for uterine leiomyoma by sub-renal capsule grafting.

J Biol Methods 2018 16;5(2). Epub 2018 Apr 16.

Department of Cancer Biology and Genetics, The Comprehensive Cancer Center, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

Uterine leiomyoma (UL) or fibroid is a benign smooth muscle tumor of the myometrium with a lifetime incidence of approximately 70%. ULs often require medical intervention due to severe symptoms such as heavy menstrual bleeding and abdominal pain. Although the most common and effective management of ULs is surgical removal, the invasive surgical procedure imposes physical and psychological burdens on the patients. Read More

View Article

Latent Classes of Lifetime Sexual Victimization Characteristics in Women in Emerging Adulthood: Differential Relations with Emotion Dysregulation.

Psychol Violence 2018 Sep 19;8(5):570-579. Epub 2017 Oct 19.

Department of Psychology, University of Toledo, OH, U.S.A.

Objectives: The aims of the present study were to investigate latent classes of sexual victimization among young adult women based on characteristics of their victimization experiences (e.g., relationship with the perpetrator, nature of act, frequency), and examine differences in dimensions of emotion dysregulation across these classes and among non-victims. Read More

View Article
September 2018

Association between childhood invalidation and borderline personality symptoms: self-construal and conformity as moderating factors.

Borderline Personal Disord Emot Dysregul 2018 7;5:19. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

2Department of Psychological Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

Background: Linehan (1993)'s biosocial model posits that borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms develop as a result of a transactional relationship between pre-existing emotional vulnerability and an invalidating childhood environment. Little work, however, has investigated cultural factors that may influence the relationship between childhood invalidation and BPD symptoms. The present study investigated the association between parental invalidation and BPD symptoms, and the role of conformity and self-construal as potential moderators of this association. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Community Violence and Associated Psychological Problems Among Adolescents in the General Population.

J Child Adolesc Trauma 2018 2;11(4):411-420. Epub 2018 Jun 2.

4School of Social Work, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Canada.

Based on a populational survey conducted among 1400 adolescents aged between 12 and 17 years old, the aim of this study is to assess the relationships between their community violence experiences and their psychological health (anger, depressive symptoms, and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms). One MANOVA confirms that both boys and girls who report at least one incident of physical community violence present more psychological difficulties, especially anger. Subsequent MANOVAs show that anger intensity varies depending on whether the youth was a direct victim or a witness only, as well as on the diversity of the types of violent manifestations and on acquaintance with the perpetrator, whereas the presence of injuries has no significant effect. Read More

View Article

Optimizing medical care for geriatric patients in Austria: defining a top five list of "Choosing Wisely" recommendations using the Delphi technique.

Eur Geriatr Med 2018 27;9(6):783-793. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

14Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 15, 8036 Graz, Austria.

Purpose: Inappropriate use of diagnostic and therapeutic medical procedures is common and potentially harmful for older patients. The Austrian Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology defined a consensus of five recommendations to avoid overuse of medical interventions and to improve care of geriatric patients.

Methods: From an initial pool of 147 reliable recommendations, 20 were chosen by a structured selection process for inclusion in a Delphi process to define a list of five top recommendations for geriatric medicine. Read More

View Article
September 2018

Domestic Violence Between Childhood Incest and Re-victimization: A Study Among Anti-violence Centers in Italy.

Front Psychol 2018 28;9:2377. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

FISPPA Department, University of Padova, Padua, Italy.

The study focuses on a specific problem in the area of child sexual abuse (CSA), which is still under-researched: the relationship between incest and adult female re-victimization treatment within the ambit of domestic violence in Italian centers. About 112 anti-violence centers were contacted, but only 13 participated and only 16 psychologists were interviewed to reconstruct the biographies of 32 victims. The study aimed to examine if and how the service centers recognized and dealt with the problem of re-victimization among survivors based on psychologists' narrations. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Does Inside Equal Outside? Relations Between Older Adults' Implicit and Explicit Aging Attitudes and Self-Esteem.

Front Psychol 2018 22;9:2313. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

School of Teacher Education and Psychology, Sichuan Normal University, Chengdu, China.

Attitudes toward one's own aging and self-esteem are crucial variables in predicting older adults' physical and mental health and can significantly affect their will to live, cognitive judgement and acceptance of medical treatment. However, little is known about the relation between the implicit attitude toward one's own aging and implicit self-esteem. This research explored consistencies between implicit and explicit attitudes toward one's own aging and between implicit and explicit self-esteem and explored their relations in 70 older adults aged 60-91 years old using the word and picture versions of the Implicit Association Test and standardized scales. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Blood Markers in Healthy-Aged Nonagenarians: A Combination of High Telomere Length and Low Amyloidβ Are Strongly Associated With Healthy Aging in the Oldest Old.

Front Aging Neurosci 2018 28;10:380. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Neurology, Donostia Universitary Hospital, San Sebastián, Spain.

Many factors may converge in healthy aging in the oldest old, but their association and predictive power on healthy or functionally impaired aging has yet to be demonstrated. By detecting healthy aging and in turn, poor aging, we could take action to prevent chronic diseases associated with age. We conducted a pilot study comparing results of a set of markers (peripheral blood mononuclear cell or PBMC telomere length, circulating Aβ peptides, anti-Aβ antibodies, and ApoE status) previously associated with poor aging or cognitive deterioration, and their combinations, in a cohort of "neurologically healthy" (both motor and cognitive) nonagenarians ( = 20) and functionally impaired, institutionalized nonagenarians ( = 38) recruited between 2014 and 2015. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Psychometric Properties of a Modified Moral Injury Questionnaire in a Military Population.

Traumatology (Tallahass Fla) 2018 Dec 3;24(4):301-312. Epub 2018 May 3.

Center on Alcoholism, Substance Abuse, & Addictions, University of New Mexico.

Moral injury (MI) results from perpetration of or exposure to distressing events, known as morally injurious events (MIEs), that challenge moral beliefs and values. Due to the type of involvement in recent military conflicts, many veterans report MIEs that may cause dissonance and, in turn, MI. Although two existing measures assess MIEs, neither currently assesses the defining characteristics of MI (i. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Managing stake and accountability in Prime Ministers' accounts of the "refugee crisis": A longitudinal analysis.

J Community Appl Soc Psychol 2018 Nov-Dec;28(6):406-429. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Social Research University of Helsinki Helsinki Finland.

Taking a (critical) discursive psychological approach, the present study explores the identity management of the Finnish and Swedish Prime Ministers (PM) in relation to the "refugee crisis" and their countries' asylum policies. By taking a longitudinal approach and analysing the PMs' accounts of the "refugee crisis" from 1-year period, we focused on the ways rhetorical devices related to ethos, logos, and pathos were used to manage the issues of stake and accountability, as well as on the ways in which categories were worked up to serve particular functions. Our comparative analysis demonstrated significant similarities in the Finnish and Swedish PMs' talk, especially with regard to the transfer from a discourse of pathos and ethos, describing refugees in terms of individualism and humaneness, to a discourse of logos, emphasizing rationality, justifying sharpened immigration policies, and homogenizing refugees. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Retinal burns from laser pointers: a risk in children with behavioural problems.

Eye (Lond) 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Ophthalmology, Bolton Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Bolton, UK.

Objective: To explore self-inflicted retinal burns from laser pointers in children.

Methods: Literature review of laser pointer retinal injuries in childhood and online survey of UK Consultant Ophthalmologists. A cohort of local children with self-inflicted injury is described. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Low back pain.

Nat Rev Dis Primers 2018 Dec 13;4(1):52. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Center for Health and Medical Psychology, School of Law, Psychology, and Social Work, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.

Low back pain affects individuals of all ages and is a leading contributor to disease burden worldwide. Despite advancements in assessment and treatment methods, the management of low back pain remains a challenge for researchers and clinicians alike. One reason for the limited success in identifying effective treatments is the large variation in the manifestations, possible causes, precipitating and maintaining factors, course, prognosis and consequences in terms of activity interference and quality of life. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Reduced resting-state connectivity in areas involved in processing of face-related social cues in female adolescents with atypical anorexia nervosa.

Transl Psychiatry 2018 Dec 13;8(1):275. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Atypical anorexia nervosa (AN) has a high incidence in adolescents and can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Neuroimaging could improve our knowledge regarding the pathogenesis of eating disorders (EDs), however research on adolescents with EDs is limited. To date no neuroimaging studies have been conducted to investigate brain functional connectivity in atypical AN. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Using Psychological Artificial Intelligence (Tess) to Relieve Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety: Randomized Controlled Trial.

JMIR Ment Health 2018 Dec 13;5(4):e64. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

X2AI Inc, San Francisco, CA, United States.

Background: Students in need of mental health care face many barriers including cost, location, availability, and stigma. Studies show that computer-assisted therapy and 1 conversational chatbot delivering cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) offer a less-intensive and more cost-effective alternative for treating depression and anxiety. Although CBT is one of the most effective treatment methods, applying an integrative approach has been linked to equally effective posttreatment improvement. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Kamiuntanto increases prefrontal extracellular serotonin levels and ameliorates depression-like behaviors in mice.

J Pharmacol Sci 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Laboratory of Functional Biomolecules and Chemical Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Setsunan University, 45-1 Nagaotoge-cho, Hirakata, Osaka 573-0101, Japan. Electronic address:

Kamiuntanto (KUT; Jia Wei Wen Dan Tang in Pinyin) is a traditional Japanese Kampo medicine that is used to treat psychological dysfunction. However, the mechanisms of action of KUT are not understood. To investigate the mechanisms underlying the ameliorative properties of KUT, the effects of KUT on abnormal behaviors of isolation-reared mice and on the prefrontal monoaminergic system were examined. Read More

View Article
November 2018

The role of self-management in burns aftercare: a qualitative research study.

Burns 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK. Electronic address:

Introduction: For severe burns patient care presents a considerable challenge, necessitating an integrated multi-disciplinary approach that utilises a range of treatments. The period of care post-discharge can be lengthy and complex, and include scar management, occupational and physiotherapies, psychological support, and further surgery. How successfully the patient negotiates this complex care regimen is critical to their long-term recovery and in doing so they would appear to employ approaches recognised as "self-management" in other chronic conditions. Read More

View Article
December 2018

A randomized controlled trial assessing the efficacy of a self-administered psycho-educational intervention for patients with cancer.

Patient Educ Couns 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Louise Granofsky Psychosocial Oncology Program, Segal Cancer Center, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Canada; Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Canada; Departments of Psychology, Oncology and Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

Objective: Bibliotherapy refers to psychological self-help interventions that utilize treatment books to improve psychological well-being. Research supports bibliotherapy as an efficacious intervention for a variety of mental health problems. Yet, few studies have investigated bibliotherapy in psychosocial oncology. Read More

View Article
December 2018

The cortical face network of the prosopagnosic patient PS with fast periodic stimulation in fMRI.

Cortex 2018 Nov 17. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

Psychological Sciences Research Institute, Institute of Neuroscience, University of Louvain, Belgium; Université de Lorraine, CNRS, CRAN, Nancy, France; Université de Lorraine, CHRU-Nancy, Service de Neurologie, Nancy, France. Electronic address:

Following brain damage, the patient PS suffers from selective impairment in recognizing individuals by their faces, i.e., prosopagnosia. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Current state and future directions of technology-based ecological momentary assessments and interventions for major depressive disorder: protocol for a systematic review.

Syst Rev 2018 Dec 13;7(1):233. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Basic Psychology, Clinic and Psychobiology, Universitat Jaume I, Av. Sos Baynat, s/n, 12071, Castellón, Spain.

Background: Ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) and ecological momentary interventions (EMIs) represent a novel approach for the assessment and delivery of psychological support to depressed patients in daily life. Beyond the classical paper-and-pencil daily diaries, the more recent progresses in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) enabled researchers to bring all the needed processes together in only one device, i.e. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Gut microbiota dysbiosis in male patients with chronic traumatic complete spinal cord injury.

J Transl Med 2018 Dec 13;16(1):353. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

School of Rehabilitation Medicine, Capital Medical University, No. 10 Jiaomen North Road, Fengtai District, Beijing, 100068, China.

Background: Neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD) is a major physical and psychological problem in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI), and gut dysbiosis is commonly occurs in SCI. Here, we document neurogenic bowel management of male patients with chronic traumatic complete SCI in our centre and perform comparative analysis of the gut microbiota between our patients and healthy males.

Methods: A total of 43 male patients with chronic traumatic complete SCI (20 with quadriplegia and 23 with paraplegia) and 23 healthy male adults were enrolled. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

The impact of depression and anxiety on quality of life in Chinese cancer patient-family caregiver dyads, a cross-sectional study.

Health Qual Life Outcomes 2018 Dec 13;16(1):230. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Wuxi People's Hospital, Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, China.

Background: Cancer and its treatment can result in psychological distress in both adults with cancer and in their family caregivers. This psychological distress acts as a significant adverse factor in patient-caregiver dyads. The study purposes included: (i) to assess anxiety and depression in adults with cancer and their family caregivers, and examine the dyadic relationship of anxiety and depression in patient-caregiver dyads; (ii) to investigate factors that may modify these relationships; and (iii) to explore the impact of anxiety and depression on patient-caregiver dyad quality of life (QOL). Read More

View Article
December 2018

Development and validation of a screener based on interRAI assessments to measure informal caregiver wellbeing in the community.

BMC Geriatr 2018 Dec 13;18(1):310. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1, Canada.

Background: Informal caregivers are invaluable partners of the health care system. However, their caring responsibilities often affect their psychological wellbeing and ability to continue in their role. It is of paramount importance to easily identify caregivers that would benefit from immediate assistance. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Irish general practitioners' view of perinatal mental health in general practice: a qualitative study.

BMC Fam Pract 2018 Dec 13;19(1):196. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

School of Allied Health, Faculty of Education & Health Sciences, Health Sciences Building, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland.

Background: Identification of perinatal mental health problems and effective care for women who experience them are important considering the potentially serious impact that they may have on the wellbeing of the woman, her baby, family and wider society. General practitioners (GPs) play a central role in identifying and supporting women and this study aimed to explore GPs' experiences of caring for women with perinatal mental health problems in primary care. The results of this study may provide guidance to inform policy, practice, research and development of curriculum and continuous professional development resources. Read More

View Article
December 2018

The patient-psychologist relationship and informed consent in neuropsychological evaluations.

Clin Neuropsychol 2018 Dec 14:1-28. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

a Independent Practice , Beaverton , OR , USA.

Objective: To discuss specific issues regarding consent for neuropsychological evaluation and the patient-psychologist relationship within the context of the Ethics Code of the American Psychological Association and relevant literature.

Method: The author makes recommendations based on the Ethics Code and published sources. This article is advisory and does not prescribe ethical practice. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Therapist effects on early change in psychotherapy in a naturalistic setting.

Psychother Res 2018 Dec 14:1-11. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

a Counseling and Psychological Services , Brigham Young University , Provo , UT , USA.

Objective: Client trajectories of change in psychotherapy differ. Early change is a trajectory that has been shown to be associated with better outcomes over time. Little is known about the mechanisms of this type of change, however. Read More

View Article
December 2018

[Irritable bowel syndrome: comorbid psychiatric disorders and psychological treatment options].

Orv Hetil 2018 Dec;159(50):2115-2121

Pszichológiai Intézet, Eötvös Loránd Tudományegyetem Budapest, Izabella u. 46., 1064.

Irritable bowel syndrome is a chronic functional gastrointestinal disorder with a prevalence of 7-21%. It has a negative impact on health-related quality of life and work productivity and it is associated with increased psychological distress and mental comorbidity, like major depression disorder and generalised anxiety disorder. Due to biopsychosocial factors and the brain-gut axis playing a key role in the aetiology of the disease, the use of psychological treatments has great importance in the therapy of irritable bowel syndrome. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Guidelines for the Treatment of PTSD Using Clinical EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques).

Healthcare (Basel) 2018 Dec 12;6(4). Epub 2018 Dec 12.

School of Psychology, Faculty of Society and Design, Bond University, Robina, Gold Coast, QLD 4229, Australia.

Clinical EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques) is an evidence-based method that combines acupressure with elements drawn from cognitive and exposure therapies. The approach has been validated in more than 100 clinical trials. Its efficacy for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been investigated in a variety of demographic groups including war veterans, victims of sexual violence, the spouses of PTSD sufferers, motor accident survivors, prisoners, hospital patients, adolescents, and survivors of natural and human-caused disasters. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Perceived Facilitators and Barriers in Response to a Walking Intervention in Rural Cancer Survivors: A Qualitative Exploration.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 Dec 11;15(12). Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Alliance for Research in Exercise, Nutrition and Activity (ARENA), School of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia.

Physical activity has numerous associated benefits for cancer survivors. Compared to their urban counterparts, rural and remote Australians experience a health disadvantage, including poorer survival rate after the diagnosis of cancer. The purpose of this qualitative study was to (a) investigate factors that motivated or inhibited walking in rural participants during a 12-week intervention and (b) to investigate factors that motivated or inhibited physical activity behavior change three months post-intervention. Read More

View Article
December 2018

A Comparison of Stress Perception in International and Local First Semester Medical Students Using Psychometric, Psychophysiological, and Humoral Methods.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 Dec 11;15(12). Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of General Internal Medicine and Psychosomatics, University Hospital Heidelberg, Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg, 69115 Heidelberg, Germany.

(1) Medical doctors and medical students show increased psychological stress levels. International medical students seem to be particularly vulnerable. (2) We compared different methods of assessing stress levels in international and local first year medical students. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Neurological and Inflammatory Manifestations in Sjögren's Syndrome: The Role of the Kynurenine Metabolic Pathway.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Dec 8;19(12). Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Ribeirao Preto Medical School, Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP 14049-900 Brazil.

For decades, neurological, psychological, and cognitive alterations, as well as other glandular manifestations (EGM), have been described and are being considered to be part of Sjögren's syndrome (SS). Dry eye and dry mouth are major findings in SS. The lacrimal glands (LG), ocular surface (OS), and salivary glands (SG) are linked to the central nervous system (CNS) at the brainstem and hippocampus. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain, Self-Reported Health and Quality of Life among Older Populations in South Africa and Uganda.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 Dec 10;15(12). Epub 2018 Dec 10.

School of Medicine and Health Management, Tongji medical college, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China.

Chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP) is a serious health concern especially among the elderly population and has significant bearing on health and quality of life. Not much is known about the relationship between chronic pain with self-reported health and quality of life among older populations in low-resource settings. Based on sub-national data from South Africa and Uganda, the present study aimed to explore whether the older population living with CMP report health and quality of life differently compared to those with no CMP complaints. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Psychological Benefits of Walking through Forest Areas.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 Dec 10;15(12). Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Center for Environment, Health and Field Sciences, Chiba University, 6-2-1 Kashiwa-no-ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-0882, Japan.

This study aimed to clarify the psychological benefits of brief walks through forest areas. In addition, we aimed to examine the associations between psychological responses and trait anxiety levels. Five-hundred-and-eighty-five participants (mean age, 21. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Levels of Burnout and Risk Factors in Medical Area Nurses: A Meta-Analytic Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 Dec 10;15(12). Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Granada, Avenida de la Ilustración N. 60, 18016 Granada, Spain.

Research findings concerning burnout prevalence rate among nurses from the medical area are contradictory. The aim of this study was to analyse associated factors, to determine nurse burnout levels and to meta-analyse the prevalence rate of each burnout dimension. A systematic review, with meta-analysis, was conducted in February 2018, consulting the next scientific databases: PubMed, CUIDEN, CINAHL, Scopus, LILACS, PsycINFO and ProQuest Health & Medical Complete. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Emotional Exhaustion and Health Complaints as Indicators of Occupational Diseases Among Civil Servants in Spain.

J Clin Med 2018 Dec 7;7(12). Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Health Psychology Program, International School of Doctorate, National Distance Education University (UNED), 28015 Madrid, Spain.

Occupations focused on helping others, guaranteeing people's security, and defending societal values can be stressful and risky for the workers involved. Emotional exhaustion and health complaints usually emerge as indicators of the stress suffered by these workers in undertaking their roles. This research aims to explore the effects of psychological contract breach on both emotional exhaustion and health complaints among three kinds of Spanish workers, namely firefighters ( = 80), professional soldiers ( = 77), and prison officers ( = 107). Read More

View Article
December 2018

The Comorbidity of Gambling Disorder among Macao Adult Residents and the Moderating Role of Resilience and Life Purpose.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 Dec 7;15(12). Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Macau, Avenida da Universidade, Taipa, Macao, China.

Macao, China's only city with legalized casinos, has maintained a high prevalence of gambling participation and gambling disorder (GD) over the past decade. The mental health risks associated with such high levels have been overlooked. In order to estimate the comorbid prevalence of GD with depression, anxiety, and Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and to explore the potential buffering effect of psychological resilience and purpose in life, this study obtained a representative adult Chinese sample ( = 1000, 44% male, aged 18⁻97 years) from a telephone survey conducted between October and November of 2016. Read More

View Article
December 2018

In the Eyes of Those Who Were Randomized: Perceptions of Disadvantaged Older Adults in a Tai Chi Trial.

Gerontologist 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background And Objectives: Older adults living in subsidized housing have typically been excluded from exercise intervention studies. We conducted a qualitative study to explore the perceived physical, psychological, social, and economic factors that influenced participation in and adherence to a year-long Tai Chi intervention within an ongoing cluster-randomized controlled trial (RCT) for older adults living within subsidized housing facilities.

Research Design And Methods: Focus groups were held with participants of the RCT who were allocated to the trial's Tai Chi intervention. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Protecting the Rights of Children with Intersex Conditions from Nonconsensual Gender-Conforming Medical Interventions: The View from Europe.

Med Law Rev 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Faculty of Law, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Nonconsensual gender-conforming interventions on children with intersex conditions have recently come under sharp criticism from human rights authorities within the United Nations, the Council of Europe, and the European Union, which have identified these interventions as violating children's rights to bodily integrity, privacy, and protection from violence, torture, and degrading treatment. Responding largely to requests for intervention from nongovernmental organizations, these authorities have called upon nations to reform their legal frameworks, both to prevent these rights violations and to redress them. To date, however, few nations have endeavored to prohibit nonconsensual gender-conforming procedures on children with intersex conditions, and none have enacted significant reforms of their frameworks to redress rights violations. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Traumatic stress within disaster-exposed occupations: overview of the literature and suggestions for the management of traumatic stress in the workplace.

Br Med Bull 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

The National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Protection Research Unit in Emergency Preparedness and Response at King's College London, Weston Education Centre, 10 Cutcombe Road, London, UK.

Background: Many people who experience a disaster will do so as part of an occupational group, either by chance or due to the nature of their role.

Sources Of Data: This review is based on literature published in scientific journals.

Areas Of Agreement: There are many social and occupational factors, which affect post-disaster mental health. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Examining the link between reward and response inhibition in individuals with substance abuse tendencies.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2018 Dec 3;194:518-525. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Texas A and M University, 400 Bizzell St., College Station, TX, 77843, USA.

Background: Substance use problems are often characterized by dysregulation in reward sensitivity and inhibitory control. In line with this representation, the goal of this investigation was to determine how substance abuse tendencies among university students affect incentivized response inhibition. Additionally, this study examined whether striatal dopamine moderates the impact of substance use on response inhibition performance. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Rates of neglect in a national sample: Child and family characteristics and psychological impact.

Child Abuse Negl 2018 Dec 10;88:256-265. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, United States.

Background: Childhood neglect is an understudied form of childhood maltreatment despite being the most commonly reported to authorities.

Objective: This study provides national estimates of neglect subtypes, demographic variations in exposure to neglect subtypes, and examines the psychological impact.

Participants And Setting: Pooled data from two representative U. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Maternal high fat diet programs hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function in adult rat offspring.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2018 Dec 6;102:128-138. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000, China. Electronic address:

Maternal environmental factors such as diet have profound effects on offspring development and later health. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is an important stress neuroendocrine system that is subject to programming by early life challenges. The present study was further to investigate whether maternal high fat diet (HFD) exposure during rat pregnancy and lactation can alter the HPA axis activity in adult male offspring. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Distinguishing experts from novices by the Mind's Hand and Mind's Eye.

Cogn Psychol 2018 Dec 10;109:1-25. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Cognitive Science Department, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, United States.

Tetris is a complex task notable for the increasingly substantial demands it makes on perception, decision-making, and action as the game is played. To investigate these issues, we collected data on 39 features of Tetris play for each Tetris zoid (piece), for up to 16 levels of difficulty, as each of 240 players played an hour of Tetris under laboratory conditions. Using only early (level 1) data, we conducted a Principle Component Analysis which found intriguing differences among its three, statistically significant, principle components. Read More

View Article
December 2018

A systematic review on the therapeutic effectiveness of non-invasive brain stimulation for the treatment of anxiety disorders.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Dept. Psychology and Neurosciences, Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors, Dortmund, Germany; Dept. Neurology, University Medical Hospital Bergmannsheil, Bochum, Germany.

The interest in the use of non-invasive brain stimulation for enhancing neural functions and reducing symptoms in anxiety disorders is growing. Based on the DSM-V classification for anxiety disorders, we examined all available research using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for the treatment of specific phobias, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, and generalized anxiety disorder. A systematic literature search conducted in PubMed and Google Scholar databases provided 26 results: 12 sham-controlled studies and 15 not sham-controlled studies. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Dynamics of aesthetic experience are reflected in the default-mode network.

Neuroimage 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of English, Pomona College, Claremont, CA, USA.

Neuroaesthetics is a rapidly developing interdisciplinary field of research that aims to understand the neural substrates of aesthetic experience: While understanding aesthetic experience has been an objective of philosophers for centuries, it has only more recently been embraced by neuroscientists. Recent work in neuroaesthetics has revealed that aesthetic experience with static visual art engages visual, reward and default-mode networks. Very little is known about the temporal dynamics of these networks during aesthetic appreciation. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Does the interaction between partnership status and average progesterone level predict women's preferences for facial masculinity?

Horm Behav 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

University of Glasgow, Scotland, UK.

Many studies have attempted to identify biological factors that reliably predict individual differences in women's preferences for masculine male faces. Marcinkowska et al. (2018, Hormones & Behavior) recently reported that women's (N = 102) preferences for facial masculinity were predicted by the interaction between their relationship status (partnered versus unpartnered) and average progesterone level. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Skin-tone discrimination by Whites and Africans is associated with the acculturation of African immigrants in Norway.

PLoS One 2018 13;13(12):e0209084. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

It is well-established that experiences of discrimination influence immigrants' acculturation. Yet, whereas a large body of research has demonstrated the role of discrimination by members of the dominant societal group, surprisingly little is known about how being discriminated by members of one's own group relates to the way immigrants acculturate. With a sample of 162 African first- and second-generation immigrants living in Norway, the present research investigated the relationship between both types of discrimination, acculturation and psychological well-being. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Predicting return to work after acute myocardial infarction: Socio-occupational factors overcome clinical conditions.

PLoS One 2018 13;13(12):e0208842. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Medical Sciences, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.

Objectives: Return to work after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), a leading cause of death globally, is a multidimensional process influenced by clinical, psychological, social and occupational factors, the single impact of which, however, is still not well defined. The objective of this study was to investigate these 4 factors on return to work (RTW) within 365 days after AMI in a homogeneous cohort of patients who had undergone an urgent coronary angioplasty.

Participants: We studied 102 patients, in employment at the time of AMI (88. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Private-sector investor's intention and motivation to invest in Land Degradation Neutrality.

PLoS One 2018 13;13(12):e0208813. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Dialog N - Research and Communication for People, Environment and Nature, Uster, Switzerland.

Private-sector investors could be key players in combatting global land degradation and realising the emerging concept of Land Degradation Neutrality (LDN). To better understand how to incentivize private-sector investors for LDN, we conducted an online-survey of 68 private-sector investors. Structural equation modelling based on the theory of planned behavior was performed to investigate how cognitive, social, emotional, motivational and financial determinants influence their intention and motivation to invest in LDN. Read More

View Article
December 2018