726,101 results match your criteria Psychiatric services Washington D.C.[Journal]
Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.
Klinik und Poliklinik für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Klinikum der Universität München.
More than 40 % of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) do not respond to established treatments despite advances in psychopharmacology and psychotherapy. Since a couple of years, non-invasive brain stimulation techniques gain importance in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) uses weak constant direct current to modulate neuronal activation and changes the function of neuronal networks. Read More
Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.
Klinik für Psychiatrie, Psychotherapie und Präventivmedizin, LWL-Universitätsklinikum der Ruhr-Universität Bochum.
Psychopathology 2018 Dec 11:1-8. Epub 2018 Dec 11.
Department of Philosophy, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
Background/aims: Disturbances in first person experience is a broadly noted feature of schizophrenia, which cannot be reduced to the expression of psychopathology. Yet, though categorically linked with profound suffering, these disturbances are often ignored by most contemporary treatment models.
Methods: In this paper, we present a model, which suggests that deficits in metacognition and their later resolution parsimoniously explain the development of self-disturbance and clarify how persons can later recover. Read More
Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 3;271:459-463. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Department of Genetics, Wroclaw Medical University, Marcinkowskiego 1 Street, 50-368 Wroclaw, Poland. Electronic address:
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERV) have been widely associated with schizophrenia etiology. Aberrant epigenetic processes may play a role in the etiology of schizophrenia. In this study, we tested whether schizophrenia patients at different stages of illness might present alterations in the levels of HERV-K methylation. Read More
Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 4;271:454-458. Epub 2018 Dec 4.
The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL USA.
Children with severe aggressive behavioral problems are one of the groups most frequently referred to mental health clinics, and they engage in behaviors that put them at risk for substance use problems and a host of other negative outcomes. The present study aimed to assess the long-term outcome (six-year follow up) of the Coping Power Program delivered in a mental health hospital for children with behavioral disorders. We recruited one hundred and twenty children (mean age = 9. Read More
Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 6;271:446-453. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Department of Clinical Neurosciences, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Stamira d'Ancona 20, 20127 Milan, Italy; School of Medicine, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy.
The relationship between neurocognition and functioning among patients with schizophrenia is well documented. However, integrating neuropsychological, clinical and psychopathological data to better investigate functional outcome still constitutes a challenge. Artificial neural network-based modeling might help to better capture clinical heterogeneity by analyzing the non-linear relationships among multiple variables. Read More
Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 6;271:438-445. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry/ School of Public Health, Zhejiang University College of Medicine, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:
Five-factor model of personality trait measures displays predictable associations with personality disorder features in both general and clinical populations. Facet-level measures such as the Zuckerman-Kuhlman-Aluja Personality Questionnaire offer more detailed associations in these aspects. Recently, a short form of this questionnaire (ZKA-PQ/SF), with five traits and four facets under each trait, has been developed for further application of personality measures in a reasonable short time. Read More
Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 4;271:428-437. Epub 2018 Dec 4.
Students' Research Committee, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran; Food Security Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran; Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Science, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran; Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Science, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Electronic address:
A number of studies have examined the association between diet and mood state, but the findings have been inconclusive. Herein, we conducted a systematic review to assess the association between different diet and mood state. PubMed, Cochrane's library, Science direct, Scopus, Google scholar and ISI web of science databases were searched for all available literature until December 2017 for studies assessing the association between diet and mood state. Read More
Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 3;271:421-427. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Maastricht, the Netherlands; KU Leuven, Department of Neuroscience, Research Group Psychiatry, Leuven, Belgium.
Research has found that Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms (OCS) in schizophrenia are associated with either more or less negative symptoms and either better or poorer cognitive functioning. In order to explain these contradictory results, (Lysaker et al., 2004), performed a cluster analysis resulting in 2 OCS positive (OCSpos) clusters, one with higher functioning (HF) and one with poorer functioning (PF) compared to 2 OCS negative (OCSneg) clusters. Read More
Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 3;271:412-420. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Department of Psychiatry, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
Studies of gender cognitive differences in schizophrenia have reported mixed results. This study examined cognitive correlates including demographics, symptoms and functioning in men and women in a large sample of first-episode adult-onset psychosis patients. Detailed demographic, clinical and functioning data were collected from 360 first-episode patients upon admission into an early intervention service for psychotic disorders. Read More
Child Abuse Negl 2018 Dec 8;88:225-234. Epub 2018 Dec 8.
Institute of Gender and Development Studies, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago.
Background: Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a multi-dimensional problem. The search for best practice must consider the complexities surrounding CSA and its management in any particular society.
Objective: Data previously gathered from service providers on CSA service provision in Trinidad and Tobago identified key deficient issues in policy and practice. Read More
Sleep Med Rev 2018 Nov 16;43:96-105. Epub 2018 Nov 16.
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine University of Freiburg, Germany.
Previous research has identified insomnia as a predictor for the onset of depression. The aim of this meta-analysis is to investigate whether insomnia also predicts the onset of other mental disorders. Longitudinal studies were eligible for inclusion if they investigated insomnia at baseline (including nighttime- and daytime-symptoms) as a predictor of the later onset of psychopathology within a follow-up time-frame of at least 12 mo. Read More
Neuroimage 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.
Center for Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
Background: Adaptive emotion processing is critical for nearly all aspects of social and emotional functioning. There are distinct developmental trajectories associated with improved emotion processing, with a protracted developmental course for negative or complex emotions. The specific changes in neural circuitry that underlie this development, however are still scarcely understood. Read More
Mol Cell Neurosci 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.
Clinical Neurochemistry Laboratory, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Molndal, Sweden; Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, University College, London, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; UK Dementia Research Institute at UCL, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by amyloid plaques and tau pathology (neurofibrillary tangles and neuropil threads). Amyloid plaques are primarily composed of aggregated and oligomeric β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides ending at position 42 (Aβ42). The development of fluid and PET biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD), has allowed for detection of Aβ pathology in vivo and marks a major advancement in understanding the role of Aβ in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Read More
Neuropharmacology 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.
Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada. Electronic address:
Impaired ventral hippocampal (VH)-prefrontal cortex (PFC) connectivity is implicated in many cognitive and behavioral disorders. Excitotoxic neonatal VH (nVH) lesion in rat pups has been shown to induce synaptic pruning in the PFC as well as behavioral changes of relevance to developmental neuropsychiatric disorders. In the current study, we hypothesized that microglia, immune cells required for proper brain development and plasticity, may play a role in the development of abnormal behaviors in the nVH-lesioned animals. Read More
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2018 Dec 10;315(6):R1272-R1280. Epub 2018 Oct 10.
Renal Division, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine , Atlanta, Georgia.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, blunted parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity, and impaired baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), which contribute to accelerated cardiovascular disease. Patients with PTSD also have chronic stress-related elevations in resting blood pressure (BP), often in the prehypertensive range; yet, it is unclear if elevated resting blood pressure (ERBP) augments these autonomic derangements in PTSD. We hypothesized that compared with normotensive PTSD (N-PTSD), those with ERBP (E-PTSD) have further increased SNS, decreased PNS activity, and impaired BRS at rest and exaggerated SNS reactivity, PNS withdrawal, and pressor responses during stress. Read More
Addiction 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.
School of Social Work, Virginia Commonwealth University.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.
LIM23, Instituto de Psiquiatria, Hospital das Clinicas HCFMUSP, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.
The male-biased prevalence of certain neurodevelopmental disorders and the sex-biased outcomes associated with stress exposure during gestation have been previously described. Here, we hypothesized that genes distinctively targeted by only one or both homologous proteins highly conserved across therian mammals, SOX3 and SRY, could induce sexual adaptive changes that result in a differential risk for neurodevelopmental disorders. ChIP-seq/chip data showed that SOX3/SRY gene targets were expressed in different brain cell types in mice. Read More
Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.
Department of Health Promotion of Human Behavior and Clinical Epidemiology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine / School of Public Health.
Most patients with bipolar disorder have depressive onset polarity. There is, however, very few studies investigating predictors of hypomanic and/or manic change for patients with major depression in Japan. We preliminary explored predictors of hypomanic and/or manic switch during acute phase antidepressants treatment by using the data of the SUND trial that is a multi-center randomized controlled clinical trial. Read More
Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences.
Background: Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ( H-MRS) studies have demonstrated abnormal levels of a variety of neurometabolites in inpatients/outpatients with Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) following acute alcohol withdrawal relative to healthy controls. In contrast, few studies have compared neurometabolite levels between less severe, treatment-naïve AUD individuals and light drinkers or related them to recent alcohol consumption. The present study compared neurometabolite levels between treatment-naïve AUD and LD individuals. Read More
Mov Disord 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.
Institute of Neurogenetics, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany.
Background: Although the genetic load is high in early-onset Parkinson's disease, thorough investigation of the genetic diagnostic yield has yet to be established. The objectives of this study were to assess variants in known genes for PD and other movement disorders and to find new candidates in 50 patients with early-onset PD.
Methods: We searched for variants either within genes listed by the International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society Task Force on Genetic Nomenclature or rare homozygous variants in novel candidate genes. Read More
Obes Rev 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.
Center of Mental Health, Department of Psychiatry, Psychosomatics, and Psychotherapy, University Hospital of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.
Obesity is a major problem in the modern world causing a higher risk for various cerebrovascular diseases causing a profound individual and societal burden. The neurobiological foundation bears potential to understand the complex interaction of individual differences in brain structure and function and ingestive behaviour. This systematic review was performed on the current evidence of structural abnormalities in grey matter volume (GMV) in patients with obesity based on studies published until December 2017, which were selected through search in PubMed, CENTER (Cochrane Library), PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Ovid MEDLINE. Read More
Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.
University of Pittsburgh, Medical Center Department of Psychiatry.
Background: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with greater heavy alcohol use and depressive symptoms in adulthood. Yet, few studies have investigated whether childhood ADHD predicts an increased association between heavy drinking and depression in adulthood when this co-occurrence becomes more common. We examined associations among heavy alcohol use and depression longitudinally from ages 21 to 29 and whether these associations differed for those with or without childhood ADHD, as well as for those with or without persistent ADHD in adulthood. Read More
Early Interv Psychiatry 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.
Orygen, The National Centre of Excellence in Youth Mental Health, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.
Aim: Despite recommendations from national guidelines, individuals with first episode psychosis (FEP) are currently unlikely to have the effects of their traumatic experiences assessed and treated within psychosis treatment. This may be due to the mismatch between the objectives of trauma-specific treatments (directly targeting post-traumatic stress symptoms by talking about the trauma) and trauma-informed care (limiting practices that may retraumatise clients). We aimed to gain an understanding of what it was like for young people to talk about trauma in FEP treatment, and how their experiences related to the broad conceptualisations of trauma-informed and trauma-specific treatment approaches. Read More
Am J Addict 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.
The Yale Stress Center, Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.
Background And Objectives: Neuroactive steroids (NAS) may play a role in addiction, with observed increases in response to acute stress and drug use, but decreases with chronic substance use, suggesting that NAS neuroadaptations may occur with chronic substance use. However, levels of NAS in addicted individuals have not been systematically examined. Here, we evaluated a panel of NAS in men and women with cocaine use disorder (CUD) who participated in a clinical laboratory study of progesterone. Read More
J Trauma Stress 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.
Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, USA.
There is a relative lack of research on distress tolerance (DT) in veteran samples. The aims of the study were to (a) evaluate convergent and discriminant validity of a behavioral measure of DT compared to theoretically similar (i.e. Read More
Mov Disord 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.
MIND Institute, UC Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, California, USA.
Background: Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a late-onset neurodegenerative disorder associated with premutation alleles of the FMR1 gene. Expansions of more than 200 CGG repeats give rise to fragile X syndrome, the most common inherited form of cognitive impairment. Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome is characterized by cerebellar tremor and ataxia, and the presence of ubiquitin-positive inclusions in neurons and astrocytes. Read More
Hum Brain Mapp 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.
Center for Complex Systems and Brain Sciences, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida.
Functional connectivity (FC) analysis of fMRI data typically rests on prior identification of network nodes from activation profiles. We compared Activation Likelihood Estimate (ALE) and the Experimentally Derived Estimate (EDE) approaches to network node identification and functional inference for both verbal and visual forms of working memory. ALE arrives at canonical activation maxima that are assumed to reliably represent peaks of brain activity underlying a psychological process (e. Read More
Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.
Indiana University School of Medicine, Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 635 Barnhill Drive, MS4063, Indianapolis, Indiana.
Ting-Kai (T-K) Li, MD died on November 18, 2018, just five days after his 84 birthday. T-K had a wonderful and distinguished academic and public service career, spanning almost five decades. Born in Nanjing, China, T-K fled with his family to South Africa during World War II, while a young boy. Read More
Diabetes Obes Metab 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Centre, Beijing, China.
Aim: To evaluate the comparative effects of incretin-based therapies, including glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4Is), on beta-cell function and insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Materials And Methods: Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library and www.clinicaltrials. Read More
Am J Hum Biol 2018 Dec 10:e23208. Epub 2018 Dec 10.
Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.
Objectives: The present study sought to expand upon prior investigations examining patterns of vagally mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV) and perceived exertion as a function of body mass index (BMI) in response to and recovery from exercise.
Methods: Participants underwent a resting (baseline) period, followed by a graded exercise protocol on an ergometer with ascending difficulty stages, and finally another resting (recovery) period. Individuals were stratified into three BMI groups: low, moderate, and high. Read More
Chemphyschem 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.
University of Florida, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, PO Box 100245, 32610-0245, Gainesville, UNITED STATES.
The noninvasive, quantitative ability of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) to characterize small molecule metabolites has long been recognized as a major strength of its application in biology. Numerous techniques exist for characterizing metabolism in living, excised, or extracted tissue, with a particular focus on ¹H-based methods due to the high sensitivity and natural abundance of protons. With the increasing use of high magnetic fields, the utility of in vivo ¹H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has markedly improved for measuring specific metabolite concentrations in biological tissues. Read More
Perspect Psychiatr Care 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.
Department of Psychiatric Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey.
Purpose: This study was conducted to evaluate a stress coping course for psychological resilience among a group of university nursing students.
Design And Methods: This was a quantitative study that had a pretest/posttest design without a control group. Data were collected from 78 first-year nursing students using a Stress Self-assessment Checklist and the Psychological Resilience Questionnaire (PRQ). Read More
Am J Addict 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.
School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts.
Background And Objectives: Pathological gambling often co-occurs with other psychiatric disorders. Gender differences in treatment-seeking behaviors among patients with pathological gambling diagnosis remain poorly understood. This study assessed gender differences in healthcare services utilization in patients seeking treatment for pathological gambling, substance use, and mental health co-occurring conditions. Read More
Neuropsychopharmacol Rep 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.
Section of Cellular Biochemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Cellular Biology, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Kodaira, Japan.
Background: AMPA receptors predominantly mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the mammalian brain. Post-translational protein S-palmitoylation of AMPA receptor GluA subunits at their C-termini reversibly controls the receptors trafficking to and from excitatory glutamatergic synapses. Excitatory inputs to neurons induce the expression of immediate early genes (IEGs), including Arc, with particular spatial patterns. Read More
Physiol Rep 2018 Dec;6(23):e13940
Department of Geriatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.
Age-related alterations in whole body composition, particularly, reduced fat free mass (FFM) and increased fat mass (FM), lead to a progressive decline in resting energy expenditure (REE). Similarly, regional body composition and fat distribution changes with age might also contribute to an overall lower REE. This study investigated the influence of age on REE, regional body composition and fat distribution, including subcutaneous fat (SF) and visceral fat (VF), in a Chinese Han population as well as their contributions to age-related changes in REE. Read More
Neuromodulation 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.
Center for Applied Neuroscience (CeNAp), University Hospital (HU), Federal University of Santa Catarina State (UFSC), Florianópolis, SC, Brazil.
Objectives: Previous studies demonstrated significant improvement in mean pain scores and quality of life (QOL) scales in patients with chronic pain who underwent spinal cord stimulation (SCS). However, the number of individuals who experience relevant improvements in QOL, termed the meaningful clinical improvement (MCI), is not known. The present study investigated changes in pain measurements based on MCI after SCS. Read More
Child Dev 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.
Norwegian Institute of Public Health and University of Oslo.
Do associations between maternal anxiety symptoms and offspring mental health remain after comparing differentially exposed siblings? Participants were 17,724 offspring siblings and 11,553 mothers from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study. Mothers reported anxiety and depressive symptoms at 30 weeks' gestation, and 0.5, 1. Read More
Addiction 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.
Department of Psychiatry and Addiction, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada.
Bipolar Disord 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.
Mood Disorders Research Program, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, Kentucky, USA.
Alcohol use disorders are quite common in bipolar patients with a prevalence of comorbidity that exceeds all other primary psychiatric diagnoses other than other substance use disorders; over 60% of people with BD I have comorbid alcohol dependence at some point in their lives. This intimate relationship has served as the basis of the proposed idea of 'self-medication.' However, biological confirmation of 'self-medication,' specifically, the correction of an abnormal biologic marker with alcohol, has never been demonstrated. Read More
Tijdschr Psychiatr 2018 ;60(12):834-837
A 12-year-old girl with no psychiatric history developed psychotic symptoms, including formal thought disorder and delusional ideas after omeprazole was initiated. Given the co-occurrence of omeprazole initiation and the start of these symptoms, omeprazole was discontinued and replaced by ranitidine which led to immediate symptom reduction followed by complete remission. Although the proton pump inhibitor (ppi) omeprazole is considered safe and is commonly prescribed, it can cause rare major psychiatric side-effects. Read More
Tijdschr Psychiatr 2018 ;60(12):804-806
J Autism Dev Disord 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.
Departments of Family Medicine & Community Health and Psychiatry, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Avenue North, Worcester, MA, 01655, USA.
A mixed-methods randomized controlled trial pilot study evaluated an educational curriculum focused on the medical needs of transition-age youth (TAY) with autism (ASD) for family nurse practitioner students. Fourteen out of a cohort of 16 (87.5%) nursing students consented to participate in the study and were randomly assigned to either a waitlist control group (WLC) (n = 8) or an intervention group (INT) (n = 6). Read More
Behav Genet 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.
Department of Mental Disorders, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
A statistical mediation model was developed within a twin design to investigate the etiology of alcohol use disorder (AUD). Unlike conventional statistical mediation models, this biometric mediation model can detect unobserved confounding. Using a sample of 1410 pairs of Norwegian twins, we investigated specific hypotheses that DSM-IV personality-disorder (PD) traits mediate effects of childhood stressful life events (SLEs) on AUD, and that adulthood SLEs mediate effects of PDs on AUD. Read More
Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.
Department of Clinical Biochemistry, North Denmark Regional Hospital, Bispensgade 37, Hjørring, DK-9800, Denmark.
The use of medicines to treat attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has increased worldwide, including the use of amphetamine-based medicines or prodrugs that metabolise to amphetamine in vivo. At the same time, drugs-of-abuse testing by non-specific, point-of-care immunoassay methods ('quick tests') has increased. This article discusses the risk of 'false positive' results or post-analytical misinterpretations of results when immunoassays are used to analyse biological samples from ADHD patients. Read More
Exp Suppl 2018 ;108:85-110
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medicine Mainz, Mainz, Germany.
Traumatic injury as one of the world's most relevant but neglected health concerns results in modulated inflammasome activity, which is closely linked to the development of post-injury complications. Cytokine-producing capacity of cells is important for the appropriate immune response to trauma and requires not only synthesis and transcription of inflammasome components but also their activation. Unfortunately, the precise role of inflammasome in trauma is still largely unknown. Read More
Exp Suppl 2018 ;108:1-8
Centro Andaluz de Biología del Desarrollo (CABD), Universidad Pablo de Olavide-CSIC-Junta de Andalucía, Sevilla, Spain.
Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes formed and activated after exposure to pathogenic microbes and host danger signals that control the maturation and production of IL-1β and IL-18. Their implication in different diseases such as cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, psychiatric, and metabolic diseases opens a door to developing new therapeutic perspectives. However, the rapid increase in the knowledge about inflammasomes is associated with their involvement in clinical practice. Read More
Neuropsychol Rev 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.
Department of Psychiatry, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, PA3.227, PO box 22660, 1100DD, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
It is important to find new treatments for addiction due to high relapse rates despite current interventions and due to expansion of the field with non-substance related addictive behaviors. Neuromodulation may provide a new type of treatment for addiction since it can directly target abnormalities in neurocircuits. We review literature on five neuromodulation techniques investigated for efficacy in substance related and behavioral addictions: transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), (repetitive) transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), EEG, fMRI neurofeedback and deep brain stimulation (DBS) and additionally report on effects of these interventions on addiction-related cognitive processes. Read More