8,391 results match your criteria Pseudomembranous Colitis


On the potential significance of the intrinsically disordered regions in the Clostridiodes difficile toxins A and B.

Curr Protein Pept Sci 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Molecular Medicine, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33612, USA.

Background: Clostridiodes (or Clostridium) difficile is a spore-forming, Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium which may cause symptoms ranging from diarrhea to pseudomembranous colitis. During the C. difficile infection (CDI), the two primary bacterial toxins, toxin A (TcdA) or toxin B (TcdB), disrupt host cell function mainly through the inactivation of small GTPases that regulate the actin cytoskeleton. Read More

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Laboratory diagnosis of Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection in domestic animals: A short review.

Anaerobe 2022 Apr 25;75:102574. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Veterinary School, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Avenida Antônio Carlos, 6627. Belo Horizonte, MG, CEP, 31270-901, Brazil. Electronic address:

Despite the known importance of Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection (CDI) in animals, there are no published guidelines for the diagnosis of CDI. The performance of the available commercial methods, all standardized for human stool samples, can vary according to the animal species. Thus, the aim of the present study was to review the literature on the detection of C. Read More

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Novel structural insights for a pair of monoclonal antibodies recognizing non-overlapping epitopes of the glucosyltransferase domain of toxin B.

Curr Res Struct Biol 2022 7;4:96-105. Epub 2022 Apr 7.

Sanofi Pasteur, 38 Sidney Street, Cambridge, MA, 02139, USA.

toxins are the primary causative agents for hospital-acquired diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. Numerous monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting different domains of toxin have been reported. Here we report the crystal structures of two mAbs, B1 and B2, in complex with the glycosyltransferase domain (GTD) of the toxin B (TcdB). Read More

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Hyperimmune yolk extract with Immunoglobulin Y basic active principle as a possible adjuvant treatment in patients who need/benefit from neurorehabilitation, with () enterocolitis as intercurrent comorbidity - a systematic literature review.

J Med Life 2022 Feb;15(2):162-167

Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania.

The study aims to add a new and beneficial perspective using Immunoinstant G food supplement as an adjuvant treatment. It is essential to study the bibliographic resources in the field to identify the current stage of knowledge on this topic. For this purpose, we have prepared a systematic literature review, focusing on the possibilities of improving the treatment of () enterocolitis in patients who need/benefit from neurorehabilitation. Read More

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February 2022

Regulatory transcription factors of pathogenesis with a focus on toxin regulation.

Crit Rev Microbiol 2022 Apr 7:1-16. Epub 2022 Apr 7.

Department of Molecular Medicine, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA.

(CD), a nosocomial gut pathogen, produces two major exotoxins, TcdA and TcdB, which disrupt the gut epithelial barrier and induce inflammatory/immune responses, leading to symptoms ranging from mild diarrhoea to pseudomembranous colitis and potentially to death. The expression of toxins is regulated by various transcription factors (TFs) which are induced in response to CD physiological life stages, nutritional availability, and host environment. This review summarises our current understanding on the regulation of toxin expression by TFs that interconnect with pathways of flagellar synthesis, quorum sensing, motility, biofilm formation, sporulation, and phase variation. Read More

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Polymicrobial bacteraemia with and in an elderly man following antibiotic use.

BMJ Case Rep 2022 Apr 6;15(4). Epub 2022 Apr 6.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

is a micro-organism well known to cause pseudomembranous colitis with rare extraintestinal manifestations. We present the case of an elderly male with multiple comorbidities who presented with acute onset of fever/chills and hypotension, found to have polymicrobial bacteraemia with and He was treated with piperacillin/tazobactam for bacteraemia, oral vancomycin for colitis and intravenous, followed by oral metronidazole for bacteraemia. cleared after 1 day, and cleared after 4 days. Read More

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The Essential Role of Rac1 Glucosylation in Toxin B-Induced Arrest of G1-S Transition.

Front Microbiol 2022 7;13:846215. Epub 2022 Mar 7.

Institute for Toxicology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

infection (CDI) in humans causes pseudomembranous colitis (PMC), which is a severe pathology characterized by a loss of epithelial barrier function and massive colonic inflammation. PMC has been attributed to the action of two large protein toxins, Toxin A (TcdA) and Toxin B (TcdB). TcdA and TcdB mono-O-glucosylate and thereby inactivate a broad spectrum of Rho GTPases and (in the case of TcdA) also some Ras GTPases. Read More

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A Case of Pseudomembranous Colitis of Unknown Etiology.

Cureus 2022 Feb 4;14(2):e21914. Epub 2022 Feb 4.

Internal Medicine, St. Joseph's University Medical Center, Paterson, USA.

Pseudomembranous colitis (PC) is a nonspecific bowel injury resulting from decreased oxygenation, endothelial damage, and impaired blood flow to the mucosa. Although the most well-known cause of PC is , several diseases and medications can cause or predispose individuals to PC, such as microscopic colitis, infectious organisms, inflammatory conditions, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and chemotherapy agents. Here, we present the case of a patient who completed treatment for infection but developed worsening PC of unknown etiology. Read More

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February 2022

Acute Responses to Infectious and Inflammatory Disorders of the Gastrointestinal System.

AACN Adv Crit Care 2022 Mar;33(1):85-98

Eleanor R. Fitzpatrick is Clinical Nurse Specialist, Surgical Intensive Care Unit, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, 111 S 11th Street, 4141 Gibbon Building, Philadelphia, PA 19107

Infectious and inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal system are life-threatening and occur frequently in hospitalized adults. Inflammatory and inflammation-related diseases of the gastrointestinal tract seen in the acutely and critically ill have numerous causes. In acute pancreatitis and toxic infections caused by the bacterium Clostridium difficile, where severe infections can develop, inflammation plays a causative and crucial role. Read More

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High rate of Clostridioides difficile colonization in patients admitted to intensive care: A prospective cohort study.

Anaerobe 2022 Apr 21;74:102538. Epub 2022 Feb 21.

Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Medical Science Post-Graduation Program, Ramiro Barcelos, 2400, Porto Alegre, RS, 90035003, Brazil; Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Infectious Diseases Service, Ramiro Barcelos, 2350, Porto Alegre, RS, 90035903, Brazil. Electronic address:

Here, we evaluated the frequency of C. difficile colonization and its impact on clinical outcomes in patients admitted to intensive care units in Brazil. From ninety-two patients screened 16 (17. Read More

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Drug-induced bowel complications and toxicities: imaging findings and pearls.

Abdom Radiol (NY) 2022 04 23;47(4):1298-1310. Epub 2022 Feb 23.

Department of Internal Medicine, Pratumtani Hospital, 7 Ladlumkaew Muang district, Pratumtani, 12000, Thailand.

The use of diverse types of drugs can result in a variety of acute and chronic complications that affect almost any organ. The bowel is one of the organs impacted by the side effects of medications. Imaging frequently plays a crucial role in the detection and characterization of complications occurring in the bowel. Read More

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Flagellum and toxin phase variation impacts intestinal colonization and disease development in a mouse model of infection.

Gut Microbes 2022 Jan-Dec;14(1):2038854

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

is a major nosocomial pathogen that can cause severe, toxin-mediated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. Recent work has shown that exhibits heterogeneity in swimming motility and toxin production through phase variation by site-specific DNA recombination. The recombinase RecV reversibly inverts the flagellar switch sequence upstream of the operon, leading to the ON/OFF expression of flagellum and toxin genes. Read More

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Glucosyltransferase-dependent and independent effects of Clostridioides difficile toxins during infection.

PLoS Pathog 2022 02 17;18(2):e1010323. Epub 2022 Feb 17.

Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America.

Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is the leading cause of nosocomial diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis in the USA. In addition to these symptoms, patients with CDI can develop severe inflammation and tissue damage, resulting in life-threatening toxic megacolon. CDI is mediated by two large homologous protein toxins, TcdA and TcdB, that bind and hijack receptors to enter host cells where they use glucosyltransferase (GT) enzymes to inactivate Rho family GTPases. Read More

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February 2022

Outcomes of total versus partial colectomy in fulminant Clostridium difficile colitis: a propensity matched analysis.

World J Emerg Surg 2022 02 13;17(1):11. Epub 2022 Feb 13.

Office of Research Administration, Jersey Shore University Medical Center, Neptune, NJ, USA.

Background: The Total Abdominal Colectomy (TAC) is the recommended procedure for Fulminant Clostridium Difficile Colitis (FCDC), however, occasionally, FCDC is also treated with partial colectomies. The purpose of the study was to identify the outcomes of partial colectomy in FCDC cases.

Method: The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was accessed and eligible patients from 2012 through 2016 were reviewed. Read More

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February 2022

Seeing C diff differently.

Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2022 03;7(3):207

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Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Severe or Fulminant Infection: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

J Can Assoc Gastroenterol 2022 Feb 23;5(1):e1-e11. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Division of Gastroenterology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta,Canada.

Background: Severe or fulminant infection (SFCDI) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Emerging evidence suggests fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) may be a promising therapy for SFCDI.

Aim: This systematic review determines the safety and efficacy of FMT in medically refractory SFCDI. Read More

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February 2022

Persistent Clostridium Difficile Diarrhea, Thinking Beyond Pseudomembranous Colitis: A Case Report.

Cureus 2021 Dec 26;13(12):e20704. Epub 2021 Dec 26.

Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, SAU.

The prevalence of infection (CDI) is increasing along with the availability of diagnostic tests and is becoming a common nosocomial infection. CDI is the cause of nearly all occurrences of pseudomembranous colitis as well as 10-25% of antibiotic-related diarrhea. In patients presenting with persistent diarrhea, the most common cause is the recurrence of pseudomembranous colitis but other differential diagnoses may need to be considered. Read More

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December 2021

A Case of Ischemic Colitis Complicated by Clostridioides Difficile Infection Treated with Fecal Microbiota Transplantation.

Clin Endosc 2022 Jan 20. Epub 2022 Jan 20.

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, International St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic Kwandong University, College of Medicine, Incheon, Korea.

Ischemic colitis is an inflammatory condition of the colon that results from insufficient blood supply commonly caused by enterocolitis, vessel occlusion, or shock. In contrast, pseudomembranous colitis is a clinical manifestation of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). Ischemic colitis caused by CDI has rarely been reported. Read More

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January 2022

The growth of faecal microbiota transplantation in the UK: time for a registry?

Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2022 02;7(2):112-114

University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham B15 2GW, UK; University of Birmingham Microbiome Treatment Centre, Birmingham, UK; Institute of Microbiology and Infection, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.

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February 2022

Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Clostridium difficile among hospitalized diarrheal patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2022 13;17(1):e0262597. Epub 2022 Jan 13.

Department of Medical Microbiology, School of Biomedical and Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of infectious diarrhea that develops in patients after hospitalization during antibiotic administration. It has also become a big issue in community-acquired diarrhea. The emergence of hypervirulent strains of C. Read More

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February 2022

A Rare Case of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Enterocolitis Treated With Oral Vancomycin.

Cureus 2021 Dec 3;13(12):e20143. Epub 2021 Dec 3.

Internal Medicine, St. Joseph's Regional Medical Center, Paterson, USA.

Historically, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was thought to be the primary pathogen in pseudomembranous enterocolitis associated with antibiotic use or recent abdominal surgery; however, was later identified as another more common pathogen. Since the eclipse of the workup of hospital-acquired diarrhea now utilizes nucleic acid amplification rather than stool cultures and longer includes the investigation of other less common pathogens. Consequently, the diagnosis of MRSA enterocolitis has faded. Read More

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December 2021

A Rare Case of Pseudomembranous Colitis Presenting with Pleural Effusion and Ascites with Literature Review.

Case Rep Gastrointest Med 2021 31;2021:6019068. Epub 2021 Dec 31.

Medical Student, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

infection usually results from long-term and irregular antibiotic intake. The high-risk individuals for this infection include the patients undergoing chemotherapy due to malignancy, immunocompromised patients, and hospitalized patients receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics. The most common clinical manifestation of infection is diarrhea. Read More

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December 2021

Increased clostridium difficile infection in the era of preoperative chemotherapy for pancreatic cancer.

Pancreatology 2022 Mar 23;22(2):258-263. Epub 2021 Dec 23.

Department of Surgery, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Science, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan.

Background: In recent trend of preoperative chemotherapy, postoperative clostridium difficile infection (CDI) might be increasing in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients. This study aimed to elucidate the inducement of postoperative CDI in the new era of preoperative chemotherapy.

Methods: Eligible patients were those who received pancreaticoduodenectomy for PDAC. Read More

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Colitis caused by Clostridioides difficile infection in a domestic dog: A case report.

Anaerobe 2022 Feb 4;73:102511. Epub 2022 Jan 4.

Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, IMPG, Departamento. de Microbiologia Médica, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address:

Clostridioides difficile has been identified as one of the primary etiologic agents of nosocomial diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis in humans and other mammals associated following broad-spectrum antibiotics use. In Rio de Janeiro, Brazil we describe a case of C. difficile infection (CDI) in a 13-year-old male dog. Read More

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February 2022

Subtractive genomic approach toward introduction of novel immunogenic targets against Clostridioides difficile: Thinking out of the box.

Microb Pathog 2022 Jan 22;162:105372. Epub 2021 Dec 22.

Department of Bacteriology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran; Microbiology Research Center (MRC), Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Clostridioides difficile is one of the major causatives of nosocomial infections worldwide. Antibiotic-associated diarrhea, pseudomembranous colitis, and toxic megacolon are the most common forms of C. difficile infection (CDI). Read More

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January 2022

The Compound U18666A Inhibits the Intoxication of Cells by Toxins TcdA and TcdB.

Front Microbiol 2021 29;12:784856. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ulm University Medical Center, Ulm, Germany.

The intestinal pathogen is a major cause of diarrhea both in hospitals and outpatient in industrialized countries. This bacterium produces two large exotoxins, toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB), which are directly responsible for the onset of clinical symptoms of -associated diseases (CDADs), such as antibiotics-associated diarrhea and the severe, life-threatening pseudomembranous colitis. Both toxins are multidomain proteins and taken up into host eukaryotic cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis. Read More

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November 2021

Pseudomembranous Colitis Caused by Haemophilus Parainfluenzae.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2022 Mar;28(4):e55-e56

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Tai'an Central Hospital, Tai'an, China.

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The potential of microbiome replacement therapies for Clostridium difficile infection.

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2022 01;38(1):1-6

Healthcare-Associated Infections Group, Leeds Institute of Medical Research, Faculty of Medicine and Health.

Purpose Of Review: There is a paradox when treating Clostridium difficile infection (CDI); treatment antibiotics reduce C. difficile colonization but cause further microbiota disruption and can lead to recurrent disease. The success of faecal microbiota transplants (FMT) in treating CDI has become a new research area in microbiome restorative therapies but are they a viable long-term treatment option?

Recent Findings: C. Read More

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January 2022

Klebsiella oxytoca Complex: Update on Taxonomy, Antimicrobial Resistance, and Virulence.

Clin Microbiol Rev 2022 01 1;35(1):e0000621. Epub 2021 Dec 1.

Center of Infectious Diseases, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Klebsiella oxytoca is actually a complex of nine species-Klebsiella grimontii, Klebsiella huaxiensis, Klebsiella michiganensis, K. oxytoca, Klebsiella pasteurii, Klebsiella spallanzanii, and three unnamed novel species. Phenotypic tests can assign isolates to the complex, but precise species identification requires genome-based analysis. Read More

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January 2022