8,414 results match your criteria Pseudomembranous Colitis


[Obstructive tracheobronchitis due to Aspergillus fumigatus in an immunocompetent patient].

Rev Iberoam Micol 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Universitario Puerta del Mar, Cádiz, España; Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Cádiz (INiBICA), Cádiz, España.

Background: Aspergillus tracheobronchitis (ATB) is an uncommon type of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in which fungal involvement is limited to the tracheobronchial tree. While the more severe forms, such as pseudomembranous and ulcerative ATB, occur almost exclusively in immunocompromised patients, the milder obstructive form may occur in patients without immune deficiency.

Case Report: The case of a 32 year-old man with no previous history of illness, who was evaluated for recurrent right lower lobe pneumonia, is presented. Read More

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

Severe Dry Eye With Combined Mechanisms is Involved in the Ocular Sequelae of SJS/TEN at the Chronic Stage.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018 Nov;59(14):DES80-DES86

Department of Ophthalmology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.

Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), and its more severe variant, toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), are life-threatening diseases of the skin and mucous membranes. After the acute-stage damage subsides, serious visual impairment and severe dry eye remains as ocular sequelae. At the acute stage, ocular complications occur in 77% of SJS/TEN patients. Read More

View Article
November 2018
6 Reads

Apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells restricts Clostridium difficile infection in a model of pseudomembranous colitis.

Nat Commun 2018 11 19;9(1):4846. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Internal Medicine, Ghent University, Ghent, B-9052, Belgium.

Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of pseudomembranous colitis in hospitalized patients. C. difficile enterotoxins TcdA and TcdB promote this inflammatory condition via a cytotoxic response on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Read More

View Article
November 2018
4 Reads

Current Evidence in Delivery and Therapeutic Uses of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Human Diseases-Clostridium difficile Disease and Beyond.

Am J Med Sci 2018 Nov 5;356(5):424-432. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

University of Alabama at Birmingham, Division of Infectious Diseases, Birmingham, Alabama. Electronic address:

The use of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was first described in China in the 4th century by Ge Hong when "yellow soup," a fecal slurry, was administered for the treatment of severe food poisoning and diarrhea, a practice that continued for centuries. Bedouin groups also consumed stools of their camels as a remedy for dysentery. FMT was also applied in veterinary medicine in Europe in the 16th century. Read More

View Article
November 2018
4 Reads

Scurvy: an unusual complication of paediatric cancer treatment.

Skeletal Radiol 2018 Oct 29. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Department of Radiology, Our Lady's Children's Hospital, Crumlin, Dublin 12, Ireland.

Scurvy is a disease that is rarely encountered in modern medicine. A condition that was classically associated with sailors, its incidence has decreased dramatically since the discovery of its association with vitamin C deficiency. We present the case of a 2-year-old boy, whose treatment for neuroblastoma was complicated by gastrointestinal disease, which necessitated enteral feeding. Read More

View Article
October 2018
10 Reads

H, C and N resonance assignments and structure prediction of translation initiation factor 1 from Clostridium difficile.

Biomol NMR Assign 2018 Oct 28. Epub 2018 Oct 28.

Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Edinburg, TX, USA.

Clostridium difficile is a gram-positive, toxin-producing, anaerobic bacterium whose virulence factors and mechanisms of pathogenesis require further investigation. C. difficile infections (CDI) result in the severe and potentially fatal gastrointestinal diseases pseudomembranous colitis and toxic megacolon following extensive broad spectrum antibiotic treatment. Read More

View Article
October 2018
4 Reads

MRI findings of metronidazole neurotoxicity in a pediatric patient with chronic diarrhea.

Radiol Case Rep 2019 Jan 22;14(1):75-78. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Department of Radiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75390, USA.

Neurotoxicity is a rare side effect of metronidazole therapy. Shown here are findings of metronidazole toxicity in a patient, who received chronic metronidazole as prophylaxis for pseudomembranous colitis following bowel resection as an infant. Findings depicted include increased T2 signal in the dentate nuclei and brainstem. Read More

View Article
January 2019
1 Read

Diagnostic point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) for gastrointestinal pathology: state of the art from basics to advanced.

World J Emerg Surg 2018 15;13:47. Epub 2018 Oct 15.

2Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, UAE University, Al-Ain, 17666 United Arab Emirates.

The use of point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) by non-radiologists has dramatically increased. POCUS is completely different from the routine radiological studies. POCUS is a Physiological, On spot, extension of the Clinical examination, that is Unique, and Safe. Read More

View Article
October 2018
8 Reads

Efficacy and safety of concurrent anti-Cancer and anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy in Cancer patients with active Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a retrospective study.

BMC Cancer 2018 Oct 12;18(1):975. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

Departments of Infectious Diseases, Osaka Habikino Medical Center, 3-7-1 Habikino, Habikino City, Osaka, 583-8588, Japan.

Background: In our previous study, colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with active Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) tolerated concurrent anti-cancer chemotherapy (anti-CCT) and anti-MTB chemotherapy. In this study, we retrospectively confirmed the efficacy and safety of concurrent chemotherapy in a greater number of patients with different types of malignancies.

Methods: We enrolled 30 patients who were treated concurrently with anti-CCT and anti-MTB regimens between January 2006 and February 2016. Read More

View Article
October 2018
5 Reads

Sub-lethal doses of surotomycin and vancomycin have similar effects on Clostridium difficile virulence factor production in vitro.

J Med Microbiol 2018 Dec 11;67(12):1689-1697. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

1​Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Boise, ID, USA.

Purpose: Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic spore-forming bacterial pathogen that causes a spectrum of illness severity ranging from mild diarrhoea to severe life-threatening pseudomembranous colitis. C. difficile infection (CDI) is antibiotic-associated and primarily mediated by two exotoxins, Toxins A and B. Read More

View Article
December 2018
2 Reads

Clostridium difficile toxin B induces senescence in enteric glial cells: A potential new mechanism of Clostridium difficile pathogenesis.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res 2018 Dec 6;1865(12):1945-1958. Epub 2018 Oct 6.

Department of Medicine, University of Perugia Medical School, Perugia, Italy; Gastroenterology and Hepatology Section, Santa Maria della Misericordia Hospital, Perugia, Italy.

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) causes nosocomial/antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis, with dramatic incidence/mortality worldwide. C. difficile virulence factors are toxin A and toxin B (TcdB) which cause cytopathic/cytotoxic effects and inflammation. Read More

View Article
December 2018
4 Reads

Evaluation of risk factors for a fulminant Clostridium difficile infection after cardiac surgery: a single-center, retrospective cohort study.

BMC Anesthesiol 2018 Sep 27;18(1):133. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

University Department for Cardiac Surgery, Heart Center Leipzig, Struempellstr. 39, 04289, Leipzig, Germany.

Background: Clostridium difficile (CD) is the most common pathogen causing nosocomial diarrhea. The clinical presentation ranges from mild diarrhea to severe complications, including pseudomembranous colitis, toxic megacolon, sepsis, and multi-organ failure. When the disease takes a fulminant course, death ensues rapidly in severe and complex cases. Read More

View Article
September 2018
1 Read

Variable spectrum of disease and risk factors of peripartum Clostridium difficile infection: report of 14 cases from French hospitals and literature review.

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2018 Dec 3;37(12):2293-2299. Epub 2018 Sep 3.

Service de Biologie, Unité de Microbiologie, Centre Hospitalier de Versailles, Le Chesnay, France.

Our aim was to study Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in peripartum women in France and compare them to cases published in the literature. We characterize these infections regarding clinico-biological features and specific risk factors in order to raise awareness for obstetricians and midwifes. Eight antepartum and six post-partum CDI cases were retrospectively studied in 6 French centers during the period between 2008 and 2013. Read More

View Article
December 2018
5 Reads

colitis and zoonotic origins-a narrative review.

Gastroenterol Rep (Oxf) 2018 Aug 28;6(3):157-166. Epub 2018 Jun 28.

General Surgery Department, Liverpool Hospital, Elizabeth St, Liverpool, NSW, Australia.

is a major cause of hospital-associated diarrhoea, and in severe cases leads to pseudomembranous colitis and toxic megacolon. The frequency of infection (CDI) has increased in recent decades, with 453 000 cases identified in 2011 in the USA. This is related to antibiotic-selection pressure, disruption of normal host intestinal microbiota and emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains. Read More

View Article
August 2018
9 Reads

Wild mice in and around the city of Utrecht, the Netherlands, are carriers of Clostridium difficile but not ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, Salmonella spp. or MRSA.

Lett Appl Microbiol 2018 Nov 19;67(5):513-519. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Mice in buildings are a hygiene hazard because they harbour several zoonoses and animal diseases. The aim of this study was to gather information on specific bacteria in house mice caught in the urban environment. Mice caught in snap traps during pest control activities were collected in and around the city of Utrecht, the Netherlands, during May-June 2014, October-November 2015 and September-November 2016. Read More

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

Prevalence and Strain Characterization of in Representative Regions of Germany, Ghana, Tanzania and Indonesia - A Comparative Multi-Center Cross-Sectional Study.

Front Microbiol 2018 7;9:1843. Epub 2018 Aug 7.

Institute of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Göttingen Göttingen, Germany.

infections (CDI) are considered worldwide as emerging health threat. Uptake of spores may result in asymptomatic carrier status or lead to CDI that could range from mild diarrhea, eventually developing into pseudomembranous colitis up to a toxic megacolon that often results in high mortality. Most epidemiological studies to date have been performed in middle- and high income countries. Read More

View Article
August 2018
2 Reads

Outcomes of Clostridium difficile-suspected diarrhea in a French university hospital.

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2018 Nov 17;37(11):2123-2130. Epub 2018 Aug 17.

Sanofi Pasteur, Lyon, France.

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) produces a variety of clinical presentations ranging from mild diarrhea to severe infection with fulminant colitis, septic shock, and death. CDI puts a heavy burden on healthcare systems due to increased morbidity and mortality, and higher costs. We evaluated the clinical impact of CDI in terms of complications and mortality in a French university hospital compared with patients with diarrhea unrelated to CDI. Read More

View Article
November 2018
14 Reads

Fidaxomicin vs Vancomycin for the Treatment of a First Episode of Clostridium Difficile Infection: A Meta-analysis and Systematic Review.

Cureus 2018 Jun 11;10(6):e2778. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

Department of Gastroenterology, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, USA.

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) continues to possess a significant disease burden in the United States (US) as well as all over the world. Given the increase in severity and recurrence rate, the decrease in cure rate, and the fact that the virulent ribotype 027 strain remains one of the most commonly identified strains in the US, the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) published a clinical practice guideline in February 2018 moving away from metronidazole as the first-line treatment for initial CDI and recommending either oral vancomycin or fidaxomicin. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical data available comparing the efficacy of primary treatment of CDI between those two antibiotics. Read More

View Article
June 2018
2 Reads

Characterization of Bacteriophages Infecting Clinical Isolates of .

Front Microbiol 2018 31;9:1701. Epub 2018 Jul 31.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

is recognized as a problematic pathogen, causing severe enteric diseases including antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. The emergence of antibiotic resistant has driven a search for alternative anti-infection modalities. A promising strategy for controlling bacterial infection includes the use of bacteriophages and their gene products. Read More

View Article

Fecal microbiota transplantation for the treatment of recurrent and severe Clostridium difficile infection in solid organ transplant recipients: A multicenter experience.

Am J Transplant 2018 Aug 7. Epub 2018 Aug 7.

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) is recommended for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) treatment; however, use in solid organ transplantation (SOT) patients has theoretical safety concerns. This multicenter, retrospective study evaluated FMT safety, effectiveness, and risk factors for failure in SOT patients. Primary cure and overall cure were defined as resolution of diarrhea or negative C difficile stool test after a single FMT or after subsequent FMT(s) ± anti-CDI antibiotics, respectively. Read More

View Article
August 2018
7 Reads

Clostridium difficile, the Difficult "Kloster" Fuelled by Antibiotics.

Curr Microbiol 2018 Aug 6. Epub 2018 Aug 6.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet at Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, 141, Stockholm, Sweden.

Clostridium difficile is normally present in low numbers in a healthy adult gastro-intestinal tract (GIT). Drastic changes in the microbial population, e.g. Read More

View Article
August 2018
12 Reads

Signet Ring Carcinoma of the Appendix Presenting as Crohn's Disease in a Young Male.

Case Rep Gastroenterol 2018 May-Aug;12(2):277-285. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

University of Split, School of Medicine, Split, Croatia.

Primary signet ring cell carcinoma is a rare event in surgery. It looks like acute appendicitis and it is difficult to diagnose it on clinical grounds alone. The diagnosis is always confirmed by histopathology of a surgically removed appendix. Read More

View Article
June 2018
11 Reads

[Clostridium difficile in the intensive care unit].

Med Klin Intensivmed Notfmed 2018 Jul 11. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

Klinik für Innere Medizin IV (Gastroenterologie, Hepatologie, Infektiologie, Interdisziplinäre Endoskopie), Universitätsklinikum Jena, Am Klinikum 1, 07740, Jena, Deutschland.

Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) are encountered in about 1-2% of patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) and pose a special challenge to those who provide care. Only little data regarding severity and management of CDI in ICU patients in Europe are available. Extrapolation of results from one patient population to another is often difficult. Read More

View Article
July 2018
6 Reads

Clinical and laboratorial features of oral candidiasis in HIV-positive patients.

Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2018 May-Jun;51(3):352-356

Curso de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS, Brasil.

Introduction: We describe the clinical and laboratorial features of oral candidiasis in 66 HIV-positive patients.

Methods: Polymerase chain reaction-based techniques were performed for differentiation of Candida spp. isolated from patients at a public teaching hospital in Midwest Brazil. Read More

View Article
July 2018
1 Read

Establishment of an Endogenous Rat Infection Model and Evaluation of the Effects of MIYAIRI 588 Probiotic Strain.

Front Microbiol 2018 18;9:1264. Epub 2018 Jun 18.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

is well known as an agent responsible for pseudomembranous colitis and antibiotic-associated diarrhea. The hamster model utilizing an oral route for infection of has been considered to be the standard model for analysis of infection (CDI) but this model exhibits differences to human CDI, most notably as most hamsters die without exhibiting diarrhea. Therefore, we attempted to develop a new non-lethal and diarrheal rat CDI model caused by endogenous using metronidazole (MNZ) and egg white. Read More

View Article
June 2018
2 Reads

Frailty Predicts Morbidity and Mortality after Colectomy for Clostridium difficile Colitis.

Am Surg 2018 May;84(5):628-632

Department of Surgery, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA.

Frailty has been noted as a powerful predictive preoperative tool for 30-day postoperative complications. We sought to evaluate the association between frailty and postoperative outcomes after colectomy for Clostridium difficile colitis. The National Surgical Quality and Improvement Program cross-institutional database was used for this study. Read More

View Article
May 2018
5 Reads

Development of vaccine for Clostridium difficile infection using membrane fraction of nontoxigenic Clostridium difficile.

Microb Pathog 2018 Oct 27;123:42-46. Epub 2018 Jun 27.

Department of Bacteriology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Musashimurayama, Tokyo, Japan.

Although standard antibiotic therapy is performed for diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis caused by Clostridium difficile, a high recurrence rate of C. difficile infection (CDI) remains a major problem. We previously showed that a membrane fraction of nontoxigenic C. Read More

View Article
October 2018
1 Read

[The role of microbiota in chronic pharyngitis].

Vestn Otorinolaringol 2018;83(3):61-64

L.I. Sverzhevskiy Research Institute of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Moscow Health Department, Moscow, Russia, 117152.

This article describes the modern approaches to the diagnostics and treatment of fungoid conditions of the pharynx with special reference to the main methods for the detection of pharyngomycosis and its clinical manifestations based on the results of analysis of the investigations carried out during the period from 2012 till 2016. Among the 3,465 patients presenting with chronic inflammatory pathology of the pharynx who sought medical advice and treatment at the clinical departments of the Institute, 861 ones (25%) were found to have mycotic lesions of the pharynx. Erythematous (atrophic) chronic pharyngitis was the predominant form of the disease documented in 2,059 patients whereas the remaining 1, 406 ones presented with the hypertrophic forms. Read More

View Article
October 2018
13 Reads

Presence of Candida spp. and candidiasis in liver transplant patients.

An Bras Dermatol 2018 Jun;93(3):356-361

Department of Clinical and Surgical Nursing, Escola Paulista de Enfermagem, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Background: Candidiasis is the most common opportunistic fungal infection of the oral cavity caused by fungi of the genus Candida and usually associated with immunosuppressed individuals.

Objectives: To evaluate the presence of oral candidiasis and identify the presence of Candida spp. in liver transplant recipients and assess the association between the presence of the fungus and sociodemographic variables, dietary habits and environmental exposure. Read More

View Article
June 2018
33 Reads

A prospective cross sectional study of detection of toxin in patients with antibiotic associated diarrhoea.

Iran J Microbiol 2018 Feb;10(1):1-6

Department of Microbiology, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Center, Kochi, Kerala, India.

Background And Objectives: infections (CDI) include self-limiting antibiotic associated diarrhoea (AAD), antibiotic-associated colitis, and pseudomembranous colitis. The present study aimed at detecting toxin in stool samples of patients with AAD and analyzing the antibiotic use and presence of other risk factors in these patients.

Materials And Methods: In this study, which was conducted on 660 samples, a 2- step strategy was used. Read More

View Article
February 2018
2 Reads

Chlorhexidine bathing and Clostridium difficile infection in a surgical intensive care unit.

J Surg Res 2018 Aug 3;228:107-111. Epub 2018 Apr 3.

Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, Texas; Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, Texas.

Background: Clostridium difficile is the most common causative pathogen for hospital-acquired infections in the intensive care unit. This study evaluated the effect of chlorhexidine bathing every other day in preventing hospital-acquired C. difficile infection (CDI) using data from the CHlorhexidine Gluconate BATHing (CHG-BATH) randomized trial. Read More

View Article
August 2018
11 Reads

Risk factors of the Clostridium difficile infection in patients with chronic kidney disease.

Adv Clin Exp Med 2018 Aug;27(8):1081-1084

Research and Development Center, Provincial Specialist Hospital in Wrocław, Poland.

Background: Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a Gram-positive bacillus responsible for diarrhea and colitis, mainly among hospitalized patients. It is a leading cause of nosocomial infections. Read More

View Article
August 2018
2 Reads

Clostridium difficile co-infection in inflammatory bowel disease is associated with significantly increased in-hospital mortality.

Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 09;30(9):1041-1046

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Alameda Health System, Highland Hospital, Oakland, California, USA.

Objective: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients with Clostridium difficile co-infection (CDCI) have an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. We aim to evaluate the impact of CDCI on in-hospital outcomes among adults with IBD hospitalized in the USA.

Patients And Methods: Using the 2007-2013 Nationwide Inpatient Sample, hospitalizations among US adults with Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC) and CDCI were identified using ICD-9 coding. Read More

View Article
September 2018
9 Reads

Technical Aspects of Fecal Microbial Transplantation (FMT).

Curr Gastroenterol Rep 2018 Jun 9;20(7):30. Epub 2018 Jun 9.

Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, University of Louisville, 550 S. Jackson St., Ambulatory Care Building 3nd Floor, Louisville, KY, 40202, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) has become established as an effective therapeutic modality in the treatment of antibiotic-refractory recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis. A number of formulations and methods of delivery of FMT are currently available, each with distinct advantages. This review aims to review donor and patient selection for FMT as well as procedural aspects of FMT to help guide clinical practice. Read More

View Article
June 2018
8 Reads

Randomised clinical trial: faecal microbiota transplantation by colonoscopy plus vancomycin for the treatment of severe refractory Clostridium difficile infection-single versus multiple infusions.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2018 Jul 30;48(2):152-159. Epub 2018 May 30.

Internal Medicine, Gastroenterology and Liver Unit, Gastroenterology and Oncology Area, Fondazione Policlinico Gemelli, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy.

Background: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a highly effective treatment against recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Far less evidence exists on the efficacy of FMT in treating severe Clostridium difficile infection refractory to antibiotics.

Aim: To compare the efficacy of two FMT-based protocols associated with vancomycin in curing subjects with severe Clostridium difficile infection refractory to antibiotics. Read More

View Article
July 2018
5 Reads

Is infection a real threat in patients with ulcerative colitis? A prospective, multicenter study in Korea.

Intest Res 2018 Apr 30;16(2):267-272. Epub 2018 Apr 30.

Department of Internal Medicine, St. Vincent's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon, Korea.

Background/aims: infection (CDI) has been reported to be a cause of flare-ups in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). We evaluated the prevalence and clinical outcomes of CDI in patients with UC hospitalized for flare-ups.

Methods: This was a prospective, multicenter study including 7 academic teaching hospitals in Korea. Read More

View Article
April 2018
3 Reads

Prevalence of Clostridium difficile in raw cow, sheep, and goat meat in Jazan, Saudi Arabia.

Authors:
Marwah Bakri

Saudi J Biol Sci 2018 May 4;25(4):783-785. Epub 2016 Aug 4.

Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia.

has been shown to be a nosocomial infection associated with diarrhoea and pseudomembranous colitis in hospitalized patients especially old patients. In my previous studies, it was shown the occurrence of in animals feces and vegetables which may act as a source of infection to humans. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of in retail raw cow, sheep, and goat, meat in Jazan, Saudi Arabia. Read More

View Article
May 2018
2 Reads

Oxygenator performance and artificial-native lung interaction.

J Thorac Dis 2018 Mar;10(Suppl 5):S596-S605

U.O.C. Anestesia e Rianimazione 1, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy.

During extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), oxygen (O) transfer (V'O) and carbon dioxide (CO) removal (V'CO) are partitioned between the native lung (NL) and the membrane lung (ML), related to the patient's metabolic-hemodynamic pattern. The ML could be assimilated to a NL both in a physiological and a pathological way. ML O transfer (V'OML) is proportional to extracorporeal blood flow and the difference in O content between each ML side, while ML CO removal (V'COML) can be calculated from ML gas flow and CO concentration at sweep gas outlet. Read More

View Article
March 2018
2 Reads

The pyrin inflammasome: from sensing RhoA GTPases-inhibiting toxins to triggering autoinflammatory syndromes.

Pathog Dis 2018 04;76(3)

Centre International de Recherche en Infectiologie (CIRI), Inserm U1111, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR5308, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, F-69007 Lyon, France.

Numerous pathogens including Clostridium difficile and Yersinia pestis have evolved toxins or effectors targeting GTPases from the RhoA subfamily (RhoA/B/C) to inhibit or hijack the host cytoskeleton dynamics. The resulting impairment of RhoA GTPases activity is sensed by the host via an innate immune complex termed the pyrin inflammasome in which caspase-1 is activated. The cascade leading to activation of the pyrin inflammasome has been recently uncovered. Read More

View Article
April 2018
1 Read

Clostridium difficile cure with fecal microbiota transplantation in a child with Pompe disease: a case report.

Authors:
D E Dow P C Seed

J Med Case Rep 2018 Apr 28;12(1):112. Epub 2018 Apr 28.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Evanston, USA.

Background: Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection is a growing problem among children due to both the increasing survival of medically fragile children with complicated chronic medical conditions resulting in prolonged antibiotic exposure and hospitalization and the emergence of strains of Clostridium difficile that are hypervirulent and associated with high rates of relapse.

Case Presentation: This case describes a medically complex 21-month-old Hispanic girl with Pompe disease and B cell immunodeficiency with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection refractory to antimicrobial management. She presented with nine recurrent episodes of Clostridium difficile infection including fever, foul smelling diarrhea, and respiratory distress with failed sustained responses to compliant treatment using metronidazole and pulsed vancomycin therapy. Read More

View Article
April 2018
6 Reads

Feasibility of a Drink in the Intensive Care Unit for Prevention of Antibiotic Associated Diarrhea and .

Nutrients 2018 Apr 26;10(5). Epub 2018 Apr 26.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Edmonton, AB T5H 3V9, Canada.

Over 70% of patients are prescribed antibiotics during their intensive care (ICU) admission. The gut microbiome is dramatically altered early in an ICU stay, increasing the risk for antibiotic associated diarrhea (AAD) and infections (CDI). Evidence suggests that some probiotics are effective in the primary prevention of AAD and CDI. Read More

View Article

Point-of-care Abdominal Ultrasound.

Authors:
Jiro Hata

Masui 2017 May;66(5):503-507

Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) in the diagnoses of postoperative complications is discussed. POCUS is useful in many situations such as abdominal distension, elevated liver enzymes, abdominal pain, and fever, which are the common complications encountered after surgical operations. In the patients with abdominal distention, bowel distention or ascites can be easily detected by POCUS. Read More

View Article
May 2017
2 Reads

- From Colonization to Infection.

Front Microbiol 2018 10;9:646. Epub 2018 Apr 10.

Extracorporeal Immunomodulation Unit, Fraunhofer Institute for Cell Therapy and Immunology, Rostock, Germany.

is the most frequent cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea. The incidence of infection (CDI) has been rising worldwide with subsequent increases in morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. Asymptomatic colonization with is common and a high prevalence has been found in specific cohorts, e. Read More

View Article
April 2018
2 Reads

The CDI-DaySyms: Content Development of a New Patient-Reported Outcome Questionnaire for Symptoms of Clostridium difficile Infection.

Value Health 2018 04 7;21(4):441-448. Epub 2017 Nov 7.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:

Objectives: To develop a patient-reported outcome (PRO) questionnaire for symptoms of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) following the US Food and Drug Administration PRO guidelines.

Methods: Patients' experiences of CDI symptoms were elicited in open-ended discussions with patients and nurses at five US sites (stage 1). A draft PRO measure was developed after demonstration of concept saturation. Read More

View Article
April 2018
1 Read

Pseudomembranous Invasive Tracheobronchial Aspergillosis with Fulminant Hepatitis and Hemophagocytic Syndrome.

Intern Med 2018 Aug 30;57(16):2371-2375. Epub 2018 Mar 30.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan.

Invasive tracheobronchial aspergillosis (ITBA), a rare form of invasive pulmonary Aspergillus infection (IPA), is predominantly confined to the tracheobronchial tree. We herein report a case of ITBA with severe necrotic pseudomembrane in a 57-year-old woman with fulminant hepatitis and hemophagocytic syndrome. Bronchoscopic findings revealed a widespread pseudomembranous formation of the trachea and bronchi. Read More

View Article
August 2018
10 Reads

Successful Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in a Patient with Severe Complicated Infection after Liver Transplantation.

Case Rep Gastroenterol 2018 Jan-Apr;12(1):76-84. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

Department of Medicine III, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Aachen, Germany.

infection (CDI) represents one of the most common healthcare-associated infections. Due to increasing numbers of recurrences and therapy failures, CDI has become a major disease burden. Studies have shown that fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) can both be a safe and highly efficacious therapy for patients with therapy-refractory CDI. Read More

View Article
February 2018
2 Reads

[Radiological imaging of acute infectious and non-infectious enterocolitis].

Authors:
J Wessling

Radiologe 2018 Apr;58(4):302-311

Klinik für diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Clemenshospital Münster, Düesbergweg 124, 48153, Münster, Deutschland.

Background: Computed tomography (CT) is often used as the initial diagnostic test in patients with inflammatory and infectious types of enterocolitis. The differential diagnosis is broad, including infectious, non-infectious and vascular causes, which have substantially different management strategies. Although a definitive diagnosis often relies on endoscopic biopsy results, stool culture results or other clinical features, radiologists often help to guide the diagnosis. Read More

View Article
April 2018
2 Reads

[Treatment of acute and recurrent Clostridium difficile infections : What is new?]

Internist (Berl) 2018 May;59(5):505-513

Fachbereich Infektions- und Tropenmedizin, Klinik und Poliklinik für Gastroenterologie und Rheumatologie, Department für Innere Medizin, Neurologie und Dermatologie, Universitätsklinikum Leipzig, Liebigstr. 20, 04103, Leipzig, Deutschland.

The incidence of clostridium difficile infections (CDI) remains on a high level globally. In Germany, the number of severe or even lethal cases continues to increase. The main risk factor for the development of CDI is exposure to broad spectrum antibiotics, which disturb the physiological microbiome and therefore enable colonization with C. Read More

View Article
May 2018
5 Reads

Pleiotropic roles of Clostridium difficile sin locus.

PLoS Pathog 2018 03 12;14(3):e1006940. Epub 2018 Mar 12.

Division of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, United Sates of America.

Clostridium difficile is the primary cause of nosocomial diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. It produces dormant spores, which serve as an infectious vehicle responsible for transmission of the disease and persistence of the organism in the environment. In Bacillus subtilis, the sin locus coding SinR (113 aa) and SinI (57 aa) is responsible for sporulation inhibition. Read More

View Article
March 2018
5 Reads

Effect of Faecal Microbiota Transplantation for Treatment of Clostridium difficile Infection in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies.

J Crohns Colitis 2018 May;12(6):710-717

Department of Colorectal Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

Background: Evidence concerning the effect of faecal microbiota transplantation [FMT] in Clostridium difficile infection [CDI] patients with inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] has not been firmly established. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate FMT treatment outcomes in patients with IBD treated for CDI.

Methods: An electronic search of four databases was conducted until November 1, 2017. Read More

View Article
May 2018
11 Reads