Endocrine 2014 Aug 27;46(3):370-86. Epub 2013 Nov 27.
Division of Endocrinology, Department of Clinical and Molecular Sciences, Umberto I Hospital, Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona, Italy.
Functional hypercortisolism (FH) is caused by conditions able to chronically activate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and usually occurs in cases of major depression, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, alcoholism, diabetes mellitus, simple obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, shift work, and end-stage renal disease. Most of these states belong to pseudo-Cushing disease, a condition which is difficult to distinguish from Cushing's syndrome and characterized not only by biochemical findings but also by objective ones that can be attributed to hypercortisolism (e.g. Read More