PLoS One 2018 27;13(3):e0194821. Epub 2018 Mar 27.
Department of Human Nutrition and Metabolism, Braun School of Public Health, Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel.
: Following its publication in 2008, the Global Nutritional Index (GNI) which captures the triple burden of malnutrition, has been updated to assess the overall nutritional status and nutritional trends of countries, regions and the world, including both under-nutrition and over-nutrition.Methods
: The GNI was modeled on the Human Development Index, using geometric means of three normalized indicators: protein-energy malnutrition (PEM, measured by Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) from PEM), micronutrient deficiency (MID, measured by DALYs from MID), and penalizing obesity (percent female obesity). GNI (range 0-1) was calculated from 1990-2015 for 186 countries, in seven World Bank income and WHO region groupings. Read More