Background: Contemporary potentially malignant disorder management is based upon provisional histological diagnosis followed by interventional surgery to excise or ablate 'high-risk' mucosal lesions. Although the majority of patients achieve disease-free status post-treatment, others develop further or persistent disease unresponsive to intervention.
Methods: A detailed, retrospective clinico-pathological review of treatment resistant potentially malignant lesions, from a 590 patient cohort treated by CO2 laser surgery and followed for a mean of 7. Read More
Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage and is commonly preceded by oral premalignant lesions. The mortality rates have remained unchanged (50% within 5 years after diagnosis), and it is related to tobacco smoking and alcohol intake. Novel molecular markers for early diagnosis are urgently needed. Read More
Background: Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) is a progressive, multifocal, exophytic form of leukoplakia with high rates of malignant transformation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a cohort of patients with PVL in a single tertiary referral clinic.
Method: Cases meeting accepted diagnostic criteria were reviewed with regard to their pathology, demographic characteristics, management, and outcomes. Read More
There have been several additions and deletions in Chapter 4 on Tumours of the oral cavity and mobile tongue in the 2017 fourth edition of the World Health Organization Classification of Tumours of the Head and Neck. This chapter excludes the oropharynx, which now is a stand-alone chapter acknowledging the uniqueness of the oropharynx from the oral cavity. New entries in Chapter 4 include rhabdomyoma, haemangioma, schwannoma, neurofibroma and myofibroblastic sarcoma in the section titled Soft tissue and neural tumours. Read More
Introduction: Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia is a multifocal and progressive lesion of the oral mucosa, with unknown etiology, and commonly resistant to all therapy attempts with frequent recurrences. It is characterized by a high rate of oral squamous cell carcinoma and verrucou carcinoma transformations.
Objective: To analyze the studies about Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia and develop a concise update. Read More
Oral lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology or pathogenesis with varied disease severity that waxes and wanes over a long period of time. Although a common oral mucosal disease, accurate diagnosis is often challenging due to the overlapping clinical and histopathological features of oral lichen planus and other mucosal diseases. Other immune-mediated mucocutaneous diseases can exhibit lichenoid features including mucous membrane pemphigoid, chronic graft-versus-host disease, and discoid lupus erythematosus. Read More
Squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity and lips consistently have a high incidence (they constitute the fifth most common form of cancer in France) and carry a heavy prognosis, particularly if diagnosed late. According to different studies, between 10 and 80% of such carcinomas occur in a pre-existing or precancerous lesion. The World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends the use of two terms for such lesions: precursor lesions, i. Read More
Isadora Luana Flores, Alan Roger Santos-Silva, Ricardo Della Coletta, Marcio Ajudarte Lopes, Oral Diagnosis Department, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, São Paulo 13414-903, Brazil.
Aim: To elucidate the profile of the salivary proteome.
Methods: Unstimulated whole mouth saliva was collected from 30 volunteers [15 proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) patients and 15 controls] and proteins were submitted for mass spectrometry-based proteomics using the discovery approach, followed by analyses of variance and logistic regression tests.
Results: A total of two hundred and eighty-three proteins were confidently identified in saliva. Read More
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a lethal disease, with rising incidence. There were 6767 new OSCC cases and 2056 deaths in the UK in 2011. Cancers are preceded by oral potentially malignant disorders (PMDs), recognizable mucosal diseases harbouring increased SCC risk, offering clinicians a 'therapeutic window' to intervene. Read More
Verruco-papillary lesions (VPLs) of the oral cavity described in the literature involve a spectrum of conditions including squamous papilloma, verruca vulgaris, focal epithelial hyperplasia, condyloma, proliferative verrucous leukoplakia and verrucous carcinoma. A majority of the VPLs are slow growing, benign in nature and have a viral aetiology. Virus associated benign mucosal outgrowths are not too difficult to diagnose either clinically or by microscopy. Read More
Background: Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are generally associated with negative prognostic factors. This study compares the clinicopathologic impact of CAFs in oral squamous cell carcinoma in patients with a history of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (p-scca) and patients with conventional squamous cell carcinoma of the buccal mucosa, gingiva, and palate (c-scca).
Methods: A retrospective clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis of 97 tumor specimens from 78 patients (13 patients with proliferative verrucous leukoplakia-associated squamous cell carcinoma (n = 32) and conventional squamous cell carcinoma from the buccal mucosa, gingiva, and palate (n = 65) was conducted. Read More
Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) is a rare form of oral leukoplakia, which was first described in 1985 by Hansen et al. Since then, various published case series have presented PVL as a disease with aggressive biological behavior due to its high probability of recurrence and a high rate of malignant transformation, usually higher than 70%. PVL is a long-term progressive condition, which is observed more frequently in elderly women, over 60 years at the time of diagnosis. Read More
Laser first came into light in 1960 and had been used extensively in various fields of medicine. Laser has been experimented in the various dental field, and its utility is being recognized and established well in the dentistry. Lasers are widely used for a number of procedures such as cavity preparation, scaling, and root planning, surgical procedures like excision of soft tissue growths, etc. Read More
Background: Was to describe 14 cases of a proliferative verrucous leukoplakia as a clinical evolution of oral lichen planus.
Material And Methods: The clinical and histopathological characteristics of 14 cases of OLP that progress towards a plaque-like and verrucous form were indicated, with monitoring over a period of six to 24.3 years. Read More
Ann Dermatol Venereol 2016 Mar 29;143(3):187-96. Epub 2016 Jan 29.
Service d'odontologie, hôpital de la Timone, Assistance publique-Hôpitaux de Marseille, 264, rue Saint-Pierre, 13005 Marseille, France; Centre massilien de la face, 24, avenue du Prado, 13006 Marseille, France. Electronic address:
Background: The aim of this study was to collect epidemiological, aetiopathogenic, clinical, histological and therapeutic data concerning proliferative verrucous leucoplakia (PVL) and to report three new cases.
Patients And Methods: A literature review performed using the Medline database enabled us to collate 39 studies involving 607 cases. Three new cases were added. Read More
Marcio Ajudarte Lopes, Patricia Feio, Alan Roger Santos-Silva, Pablo Agustin Vargas, Oral Diagnosis Department, Semiology and Oral Pathology, Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, Sao Paulo 13083-970, Brazil.
Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia is an intriguing disease, which occurs particularly in women aged greater than 60 years, is not associated with tobacco and alcohol, and has a high risk of recurrence and malignant transformation. Although it is well known that the typical presentation is characterized by multifocal and verrucous white lesions, there is no description that its initial clinical presentation may simulate a lichenoid reaction. Read More
Oral verrucous carcinoma (VC) is a variant of well differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) characterized by exophytic over growth. Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a potentially malignant disorder associated with chronic betel nut chewing habit. The development of OSCC is seen in one-third of the OSMF patients, but the development of VC is rare in such patients. Read More
Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia is a distinct precancerous condition with a high rate of recurrence and malignant transformation over time. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia has no specific histopathologic presentation; therefore, emphases must be on clinical presentation and history to make a diagnosis; giving the need for a high clinical suspicion. This condition is very important for the general dentist to recognize. Read More
Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia is a distinct precancerous condition with a high rate of recurrence and malignant transformation over time. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia has no specific histopathologic presentation; therefore, emphases must be on clinical presentation and history to make a diagnosis giving the need for a high clinical suspicion. This condition is very important for the general dentist to recognize. Read More
Background: Cytokines and chemokines have been analysed in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma and potentially malignant disorders. We selected interleukin-6 (IL-6) because it is a multifunctional interleukin reported to be altered in potentially malignant oral disorders and in malignant lesions. To date, this has not been evaluated or tested in proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL), however. Read More
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are epitheliotropic viruses with an affinity for keratinocytes and are principally found in the anogenital tract, urethra, skin, larynx, tracheobronchial and oral mucosa. On the basis of high, but variable frequency of HPV in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), malignant potential of HPV infection has been hypothesized but not definitely confirmed. The aim of this review was to highlight the genomic structure and possible mechanism of infection and carcinogenesis by HPV in the oral mucosa and to review the frequency of HPV prevalence in OSCC and oral potentially malignant disorders. Read More
Objective: Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) is a rare and recalcitrant form of leukoplakia. The purpose of this review is to further characterize the risk factors, clinical course, and optimal treatment for this highly aggressive, premalignant lesion.
Data Sources: Twenty-six articles on PVL with a total of 329 PVL cases. Read More
Abstract: The main purpose of this paper was to assess the current state of science on oral leukoplakia. Although it is considered a potentially malignant disorder the overall malignant progression of oral leukoplakia is of the order of 5% and even more. Nowadays there are no currently accepted markers to distinguish those that may progress to cancer from those that may not. Read More
Objective: Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL), a potentially malignant disorder, often undergoes malignant transformation to oral squamous cell carcinoma. The aim of our study was to document and compare the histologic, immunohistochemical, and clinical features and the survival rates of carcinoma arising in patients with PVL (p-scca) with conventional squamous cell carcinoma (c-scca) in order to determine if p-scca should be categorized as a separate clinical entity.
Materials And Methods: A retrospective review of 11 patients with PVL, 38 with p-scca tumors and 49 with c-scca tumors: buccal mucosa (n = 28) and gingiva or palate (n = 21). Read More
Área de Genómica y Salud de la Fundación para el Fomento de la Investigación Sanitaria y Biomédica de la Comunidad Valenciana (FISABIO)-Salud Pública, Valencia, Spain; Institut Cavanilles de Biodiversitat i Biologia Evolutiva, Universitat de València, Valencia, Spain; CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain.
Objective: This study aimed to survey the presence of known oncoviruses in oral biopsies from patients diagnosed with the aetiologically undetermined proliferative verrucous leukoplakia and compare results to those from milder oral leukoplakia (OL) cases, oral squamous cell carcinoma, a common outcome of the lesions of interest, and healthy controls.
Design: Blind, retrospective, case-control study.
Setting: A stomatology unit in an academic Hospital and a Public Health laboratory. Read More
Aims: About 60% of the oral cancer arise on a pre-existent potentially malignant disorder of oral mucosa like the oral proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. The treatment with the photodynamic therapy of these lesions represents, in the last years, an innovative, non-invasive and effective therapeutic possibility to achieve the secondary prevention of oral cancer. In the last decade, case reports have described patients with similar treated through a photochemical reaction induced by laser light. Read More
Unlabelled: Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia (PVL) is a multifocal form of progressive leukoplakia with a high rate of malignant transformation that requires early recognition by oral health care providers for proper management.
Background And Purpose: PVL will frequently appear as an innocuous white lesion or lesions that can easily be overlooked or considered clinically insignificant, yet it has a high rate of malignant transformation. There is limited in-depth knowledge about the pathobiology of PVL. Read More
Purpose: There is a subset of patients who develop multiple primary squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to better characterize this group of patients and determine whether there are any associated risk factors.
Materials And Methods: This is a retrospective review of all patients treated for oral SCCs at the University of Maryland Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery from November 1989 to February 2013. Read More
Proliferative verrucous leucoplakia (PVL) is a distinct, particularly aggressive form of oral leucoplakia. Given the low prevalence of PVL, data are sparse and are mostly from case reports, case series and only a few case-control studies, meaning that the literature is able to provide only weak evidence. The present systematic literature review aims to collate the available evidence on the following issues: patient demographics, aetiology, lesion location(s), malignant potential, location and histopathological features of transformed lesions, disease-specific survival rates and treatment response. Read More
The majority of conventional leukoplakia remains constant and only a subset progress to high-grade dysplasia or invasive carcinoma. A less recognized form known as proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) represents a unique progressive and elusive variant. Identifying patients with this form can only be achieved through the keen clinical observation of the temporal gross and histologic progression in individual patients with squamous cell carcinoma. Read More
Departments of *Head and Neck Surgery ‡Pathology §Medical Oncology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center †Department of Diagnostic Sciences, The University of Texas School of Dentistry at Houston, Houston, TX.
Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) is a rare less recognized form of oral leukoplakia. Patients with this condition represent a unique clinically and pathologically progressive characteristic from conventional leukoplakia. Because of the lack of defined pathologic lesions, identifying patients with the early diagnosis of PVL is challenging. Read More
White lesions both physiologic as well as pathologic are relatively frequent in the oral cavity, the most common pathology being oral leukoplakia (OL). There are many variants of OL, one of which is oral proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (OPVL). OPVL is a rare clinico-pathological entity, which is slow growing, long-term progressive lesion, but remains an enigmatic and difficult to define. Read More
Since its introduction in the literature in 1985, the term proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) has been the subject of an ongoing discussion with regard to its definition. Widespread or multifocal occurrence of oral leukoplakia is not just synonymous to PVL. In the present treatise the proposal is made to require the involvement of more than two oral oral subsites, a total added seizeof the leukoplakic areas of at least 3 centimeters, and a well documented period of at least five years of disease evolution being characterized by spreading and the occurrence of one or more recurrences in a previously treated area. Read More
Objective: The purpose of this report was to describe a clinical case of conservative management of extensive proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) using a carbon dioxide laser, as an alternative to complete glossectomy, which led to a sustained successful outcome over a 12-year follow-up period.
Background Data: Patients with oral PVL, a high risk premalignant condition, are often treated by wide surgical excision. This approach can lead to significant morbidity and compromised quality of life. Read More
Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia, a lesion of unknown origin with no strictly defined diagnostic criteria, is worthy of great clinical concern and scrutiny. Treatment options vary, with no consensus regarding the most efficient and effective strategy. Further complicating the unusual biology and behavior of this lesion is its usual multifocal presentation and progression, with lifelong vigilance required after treatment. Read More
To date, the term oral leukoplakia (OL) should be used to recognize 'predominantly white plaques of questionable risk, having excluded (other) known diseases or disorders that carry no increased risk of cancer'. In this review, we addressed four controversial topics regarding oral leukoplakias (OLs): (i) Do tobacco and alcohol cause OLs?, (ii) What percentage of OLs transform into oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC)?, (iii) Can we distinguish between premalignant and innocent OLs?, and (iv) Is proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) a specific entity or just a form of multifocal leukoplakia? Results of extensive literature search suggest that (i) no definitive evidence for direct causal relationship between smoked tobacco and alcohol as causative factors of OLs, (ii and iii) the vast majority of OLs follow a benign course and do not progress into a cancer, and no widely accepted and/or validated clinical and/or biological factors can predict malignant transformation, and (iv) the distinction between multifocal/multiple leukoplakias and PVL in their early presentation is impossible; the temporal clinical progression and the high rate of recurrences and development of cancer of PVL are the most reliable features for diagnosis. Read More
Aims: To assess the DNA content of cases of oral proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) and correlate the DNA ploidy findings with the expression of Mcm2, geminin, and Ki67, and with clinicopathological data.
Methods And Results: DNA quantification was performed by image cytometry using the ACIS III Automated Cellular Imaging System. Expression of Ki67, Mcm2 and geminin was determined by immunohistochemistry. Read More
Aims: Oral verrucous lesions, typically presenting as slowly enlarging, grey or white, warty, exophytic overgrowths on the buccal mucosa or gingiva may be verrucous carcinoma (VC), verrucous hyperplasia (VH), proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL), or may show the conventional invasive pattern of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). This study was undertaken with the aim to report the demography of different types of oral verrucous lesions and evaluate their long-term outcome.
Material & Methods: This clinical study comprised 15 patients with verrucous lesions of the oral cavity who underwent biopsy for confirmation of diagnosis. Read More