3,962 results match your criteria Prolactinoma

Pituitary apoplexy in an adolescent male with macroprolactinoma presenting as middle cerebral artery territory infarction.

Ann Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2022 May 16. Epub 2022 May 16.

Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Variety Children Hospital, King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Pituitary apoplexy typically presents with acute headache, vomiting, visual disturbance and confusion. We report a rare presentation of ischaemic stroke due to pituitary apoplexy. A 16. Read More

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Forskolin Stimulates Estrogen Receptor (ER) Transcriptional Activity and Protects ER from Degradation by Distinct Mechanisms.

Int J Endocrinol 2022 9;2022:7690166. Epub 2022 May 9.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA.

Estradiol action is mediated by estrogen receptors (ERs), and . Estradiol binding initiates ER-mediated transcription and ER degradation, the latter of which occurs via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Inhibition of proteasome activity prevents estradiol-induced ER degradation and transactivation. Read More

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Quantitative Evaluation of Pupil Responses in Patients with Prolactinomas Being Treated with Dopamine Agonists.

Neuroophthalmology 2022 25;46(3):154-158. Epub 2022 Jan 25.

Department of Ophthalmology, Dicle University School of Medicine, Diyarbakır, Turkey.

The aim of this study was to determine whether the dopamine agonist (DA) drug cabergoline used in the treatment of prolactinoma causes autonomic dysfunction by measuring static and dynamic pupillary responses. The study included 25 eyes from 25 patients who were receiving DA for the treatment of prolactinoma and 25 eyes from 25 healthy individuals. Static and dynamic pupillary responses were measured by automatic quantitative pupillometry. Read More

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January 2022

The value of intraoperative MRI for resection of functional pituitary adenomas-a critical assessment of a consecutive single-center series of 114 cases.

Neurosurg Rev 2022 May 14. Epub 2022 May 14.

Department of Neurosurgery, Heidelberg University Hospital, Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.

This series sought to evaluate the role of intraoperative MRI (iMRI) for resection of functional pituitary adenomas (FPAs). We retrospectively reviewed clinical data of 114 consecutive FPAs with excessive hormone secretion treated with transsphenoidal surgery and iMRI during 01/2010-12/2017. We focused on iMRI findings, extend of resection and postoperative hormonal remission. Read More

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Macroprolactinoma-Induced Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuresis and Its Reversal with Dopamine Agonist Therapy.

Amnon Schlegel

Lab Med 2022 May 13. Epub 2022 May 13.

Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, Department of Internal Medicine, Spencer Fox Eccles School of Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City.

Hyponatremia is an uncommon manifestation of pituitary adenomas. Herein, I report a case of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIAD) caused by a macroprolactinoma that rapidly resolved with dopamine agonist therapy. A 29-year-old White woman presented with euvolemic, hypotonic hyponatremia, normal thyroid and glucocorticoid axes, and inappropriately concentrated urine. Read More

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Paraneoplastic cast nephropathy associated with malignant prolactinoma: A case report and literature review.

Clin Nephrol 2022 May 10. Epub 2022 May 10.

Malignant prolactinomas are very rare and are diagnosed when a prolactin-producing pituitary adenoma has metastasized. We report on a 54-year-old man with a history of macroprolactinoma transforming into a pituitary carcinoma secreting both prolactin and growth hormone with metastases to the stomach, bone, lungs, retroperitoneum, and kidney. Reviewing the literature, this case is the first reporting of a pituitary carcinoma with biopsy-proven paraneoplastic cast nephropathy. Read More

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Mild hyperprolactinemia in a couple: What impact on fertility?

Dominique Maiter

Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 2022 May 5. Epub 2022 May 5.

Service d'Endocrinologie et Nutrition, UCLouvain Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, avenue Hippocrate 10, 1200 Bruxelles, Belgium. Electronic address:

Mild-to-moderate hyperprolactinemia is a frequent finding in young women presenting with infertility. Prolactin (PRL) concentration should be determined accurately, whether or not the patient has other symptoms suggestive of excess PRL such as galactorrhea or menstrual cycle disorder. After confirmation of persistent hyperprolactinemia on a second blood sample (avoiding conditions known to raise prolactin) and exclusion of macroprolactinemia, prolactinoma and other identifiable non-tumoral causes of hyperprolactinemia must be ruled out. Read More

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Exploring stem cell biology in pituitary tumors and derived organoids.

Endocr Relat Cancer 2022 Apr 1. Epub 2022 Apr 1.

H Vankelecom, Department of Development and Regeneration, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Pituitary tumorigenesis is highly prevalent and causes major endocrine disorders. Hardly anything is known on the behavior of the local stem cells in this pathology. Here, we explored the stem cells' biology in mouse and human pituitary tumors using transcriptomic, immunophenotyping and organoid approaches. Read More

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Aggressive giant prolactinoma: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2022 Apr 30;16(1):170. Epub 2022 Apr 30.

Endocrinology Unit, Medical Department, Sarawak General Hospital, Kuching Sarawak, Malaysia.

Background: Managing treatment-resistant aggressive giant prolactinoma can be challenging, as the diagnosis is often complex, and treatment beyond dopamine agonists, surgery, and radiotherapy is limited.

Case Presentation: A 21-year-old Malay woman first presented to our hospital at the age of 16 years with 1-year history of reduced vision and 2 years of amenorrhea. Her baseline prolactin level was 255,894 µIU/mL with secondary hypogonadism, and pituitary magnetic resonance imaging revealed a giant prolactinoma (2. Read More

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The role of endoscopic endonasal surgery in the management of prolactinomas based on their invasiveness into the cavernous sinus.

Pituitary 2022 Apr 25. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Purpose: To review our institutional experience with the surgical management of prolactinomas through the endoscopic endonasal approach with specific focus on cavernous sinus invasion.

Methods: Clinical and radiographic data were collected retrospectively from the electronic medical record of 78 consecutive patients with prolactinomas undergoing endoscopic endonasal resection from 2002 to 2019. Immediate and late post-operative remission were defined as prolactin < 20 ng/mL within 14 days and 1-year of surgery without adjuvant therapy, respectively. Read More

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Long delay in diagnosis of a case with MEN1 due to concomitant presence of AIMAH with insulinoma: a case report and literature review.

BMC Endocr Disord 2022 Apr 21;22(1):108. Epub 2022 Apr 21.

Prevention of Metabolic Disorders Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, No. 24, Parvaneh Street, Velenjak, Tehran, Iran.

Background: ACTH-independent macronodular hyperplasia (AIMAH) is an uncommon disorder characterized by massive enlargement of both adrenal glands and hypersecretion of cortisol. Concomitant AIMAH and multiple endocrine neoplasia type1 (MEN1) is rare to our knowledge.

Case Presentation: Herein, we describe a 32 year old woman with long history of prolactinoma and secondary ammonhrea presented with not-severe manifestation of hypoglycemia due to concomitant presence of insulinoma with AIMAH leading to 12 years delay of MEN1 diagnosis. Read More

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Endocrinological aspects of pituitary adenoma surgery in Europe.

Sci Rep 2022 Apr 20;12(1):6529. Epub 2022 Apr 20.

Department of Neurosurgery and Neurooncology, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and Military University Hospital, U Vojenske Nemocnice 1200, 169 02, Prague 6, Czech Republic.

Hormone-secreting adenomas are treated in many neurosurgical centers within Europe. The goal of the survey is to understand variance in practice management of pituitary tumors amongst neurosurgical centers. A list of departments performing pituitary surgery was created. Read More

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The side effects of dopamine receptor agonist drugs in Chinese prolactinoma patients: a cross sectional study.

BMC Endocr Disord 2022 Apr 11;22(1):97. Epub 2022 Apr 11.

Department of Endocrinology, State Key Laboratory of Complex Severe and Rare Diseases, Dongcheng District, Key Laboratory of Endocrinology of National Health Commission, Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, No. 1 Shuaifuyuan, PekingBeijing, 100730, China.

Background: Recently, side effects from Dopamine Receptor Agonist Drugs (DAs) in treating pituitary prolactinoma have raised widespread concern. This study explores the incidence and influencing factors of DAs-related side effects in Chinese prolactinoma patients.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted. Read More

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Are dopamine agonists still the first-choice treatment for prolactinoma in the era of endoscopy? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Chin Neurosurg J 2022 Apr 8;8(1). Epub 2022 Apr 8.

School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, China.

Background: For prolactinoma patients, dopamine agonists (DAs) are indicated as the first-line treatment and surgery is an adjunctive choice. However, with the development of surgical technique and equipment, the effect of surgery has improved. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of surgery versus DAs in patients with different types of prolactinomas. Read More

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Clinical Biology of the Pituitary Adenoma.

Endocr Rev 2022 Apr 8. Epub 2022 Apr 8.

The Garvan Institute of Medical Research and St. Vincents Hospital, Sydney, Australia.

All endocrine glands are susceptible to neoplastic growth, yet the health consequences of these neoplasms differ between endocrine tissues. Pituitary neoplasms are highly prevalent and overwhelmingly benign, exhibiting a spectrum of diverse behaviors and impact on health. To understand the clinical biology of these common yet often innocuous neoplasms, we review pituitary physiology, and adenoma epidemiology, pathophysiology, behavior, and clinical consequences. Read More

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A scoping review to understand the indications, effectiveness, and limitations of cabergoline in radiological and biochemical remission of prolactinomas.

Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2021 Nov-Dec;25(6):493-506. Epub 2022 Feb 17.

Department of Neurosurgery, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Cabergoline has long been used in the medical management of prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas. However, there is contradicting and inadequate evidence on the efficacy of cabergoline in achieving radiological and biochemical remission in prolactinoma. This article presents scoping review of evidence in cabergoline achieving radiological and biochemical remission in cases of prolactinoma. Read More

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February 2022

Prolactinoma Outcome After Pregnancy and Lactation: A Cohort Study.

Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2021 Nov-Dec;25(6):559-562. Epub 2022 Feb 17.

Sher-I-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

Context: Prolactinoma is the most frequent pituitary tumor among women of childbearing age. Fewer studies have addressed the outcome of prolactinomas after gestation.

Objective: The aim was to study the spontaneous remission rate and change in tumor size after pregnancy and/or lactation in women with prolactinomas. Read More

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February 2022

Molecular genetic testing in the management of pituitary disease.

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2022 Mar 29. Epub 2022 Mar 29.

Centre for Endocrinology, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.

Objective: Most pituitary tumours occur sporadically without a genetically identifiable germline abnormality, a small but increasing proportion present with a genetic defect that predisposes to pituitary tumour development, either isolated (e.g., aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein, AIP) or as part of a tumour-predisposing syndrome (e. Read More

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The Prolactin per Unit Tumor Volume Ratio Accurately Distinguishes Prolactinomas From Secondary Hyperprolactinemia due to Stalk Effect.

Endocr Pract 2022 Mar 24. Epub 2022 Mar 24.

Neuroendocrine Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Objective: The prolactin levels alone are insufficient to distinguish between some cases of prolactinomas and stalk effect. We aimed to formally characterize the relationship between serum prolactin and prolactinoma volume, determine a cutoff for prolactin/mm that accurately distinguishes prolactinomas from stalk effect, and validate this cutoff in a cohort selected to include ambiguous prolactin values ranging from 50 to 150 ng/mL.

Methods: We used the Research Patient Data Registry and transsphenoidal surgery database in our institution to retrospectively identify adult patients with clinically nonfunctioning (NF) tumors (primary analysis, n = 279; validation cohort, n = 10) and prolactinomas (primary analysis, n = 94; validation cohort, n = 18). Read More

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Oophorectomy improves pituitary activin inhibitory function preventing lactotroph hyperplasia development.

Endocr Relat Cancer 2022 May 11;29(6):359-373. Epub 2022 May 11.

Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental (IBYME), CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Among pituitary adenomas, prolactinomas are the most frequently diagnosed (about 50%). Dopamine agonists are generally effective in the treatment of prolactinomas. However, a subset of about 25% of patients does not respond to these agents. Read More

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MEN4, the MEN1 mimicker; a case series of 3 phenotypically heterogenous patients with unique CDKN1B mutations.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2022 Mar 22. Epub 2022 Mar 22.

Hereditary Cancer Service, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Context: Germline CDKN1B pathogenic variants result in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 4, an autosomal dominant hereditary tumor syndrome variably associated with primary hyperparathyroidism, pituitary adenoma and duodenopancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

Objective: To report the phenotype of three unrelated cases each with a unique germline CDKN1B variant (of which two are novel) and compare these cases to those described in the current literature.

Design/methods: Three case studies, including clinical presentation, germline and tumor genetic analysis and family history. Read More

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Distinct clinical phenotypes in a family with a novel truncating MEN1 frameshift mutation.

BMC Endocr Disord 2022 Mar 14;22(1):64. Epub 2022 Mar 14.

Department of Internal Medicine 1, Goethe-University Hospital Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

Background: MEN1 mutations can inactivate or disrupt menin function and are leading to multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, a rare heritable tumor syndrome.

Case Presentation: We report on a MEN1 family with a novel heterozygous germline mutation, c.674delG; p. Read More

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[Exposure to dopamine agonists for treatment of restless legs syndrome led to suffering of ICD].

Lakartidningen 2022 03 14;119. Epub 2022 Mar 14.

överläkare, medicinledningsansvarig, Wemind psykiatri, Stockholm.

Impulse control disorders (ICD) may occur with the use of dopamine agonists (DAA), a class of medication usually prescribed for Parkinson's disease but also restless legs syndrome (RLS) and prolactinoma.  We describe a case that illustrates, in consistence with international literature, how exposure to DAA for treatment of RLS can lead to suffering of ICD with devastating consequences. Discontinuation of the dopaminergic agent (and potentially switching to another medication of a different class) can be an effective management strategy, and we suggest that it is very important to improve the knowledge of this phenomenon among clinicians and prompt active screening for ICD in this population. Read More

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Dopamine agonist for the rapid improvement of visual field defects in giant and macro-prolactinomas.

J Fr Ophtalmol 2022 May 7;45(5):511-518. Epub 2022 Mar 7.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Istanbul University, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Çapa, Istanbul, Turkey.

Purpose: To evaluate effect of first-line dopamine agonist (DA) therapy as an alternative to surgery for visual field defect (VFD) recovery in giant and macro-prolactinoma.

Methods: In this retrospective study, 125 patients with giant and macro-prolactinoma, except those with a history of previous surgery or radiotherapy, were evaluated. Those who underwent visual field examinations using the Humphrey Visual Field analyser upon initial assessment and after treatment were included for analysis. Read More

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Withdrawal of dopamine agonist treatment in patients with hyperprolactinaemia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2022 Mar 9. Epub 2022 Mar 9.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Objective: To estimate the proportion of patients with persistent normoprolactinaemia following dopamine agonist (DA) withdrawal and to identify predictors of successful withdrawal in patients with hyperprolactinaemia.

Design, Patients, And Measurements: A systematic review of observational eligible studies were identified by searching PubMed and Embase. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with normoprolactinaemia after cessation of DA treatment. Read More

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Co-aggregation and secondary nucleation in the life cycle of human prolactin/galanin functional amyloids.

Elife 2022 Mar 8;11. Epub 2022 Mar 8.

Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, India.

Synergistic-aggregation and cross-seeding by two different proteins/peptides in the amyloid aggregation are well evident in various neurological disorders including Alzheimer's disease. Here, we show co-storage of human Prolactin (PRL), which is associated with lactation in mammals, and neuropeptide galanin (GAL) as functional amyloids in secretory granules (SGs) of the female rat. Using a wide variety of biophysical studies, we show that irrespective of the difference in sequence and structure, both hormones facilitate their synergic aggregation to amyloid fibrils. Read More

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Prolactinoma: Medical and Surgical Considerations.

Otolaryngol Clin North Am 2022 Apr 4;55(2):305-314. Epub 2022 Mar 4.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Henry Ford Hospital, 2799 West Grand Boulevard, Detroit, MI 48202, USA. Electronic address:

Prolactinomas are the most common secretory tumor of the pituitary gland. Clinical symptoms may be due to prolactin oversecretion, localized mass effect, or a combination of both. Although the mainstay of prolactinoma management is medical therapy with dopamine agonists, endoscopic endonasal or transcranial surgery, radiation therapy, or a combination of these is an important treatment option in select cases. Read More

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Histopathology of Pituitary Lesions.

Otolaryngol Clin North Am 2022 Apr 4;55(2):265-285. Epub 2022 Mar 4.

Department of Pathology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine, Rutgers, New Jersey Medical School, 185 South Orange Avenue, MSB C525, Newark, NJ 07103, USA. Electronic address:

This article reviews the histopathology and classification of neoplasms that arise from the adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary), the neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary) as well as other common miscellaneous lesions that arise within or secondarily involve the pituitary gland. Read More

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Metoclopramide Test in Hyperprolactinemic Women With Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: Old Wine Into New Bottles?

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022 18;13:832361. Epub 2022 Feb 18.

Aix Marseille Univ, APHM, Marseille Medical Genetics, Inserm U1251 and Hôpital de la Conception, Service d'Endocrinologie, Marseille, France.

Introduction: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most frequent etiology of anovulation, hyperandrogenism and infertility in women. Its pathophysiology remains poorly elucidated. Hyperprolactinemia (hPRL) is common in women of reproductive age and may partially mimic the clinical phenotype of PCOS. Read More

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