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    1 OF 69

    Giant pituitary adenoma: histological types, clinical features and therapeutic approaches.
    Endocrine 2018 Jun 16. Epub 2018 Jun 16.
    Department of Endocrinology. Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain.
    Giant pituitary adenomas comprise about 6-10% of all pituitary tumors. They are mostly clinically non-functioning adenomas and occur predominantly in males. The presenting symptoms are usually secondary to compression of neighboring structures, but also due to partial or total hypopituitarism. Read More

    Clinical Presentation and Management of Headache in Pituitary Tumors.
    Curr Pain Headache Rep 2018 Jun 15;22(8):55. Epub 2018 Jun 15.
    Department of Neurology, MedStar Georgetown University Hospital, Washington DC, USA.
    Purpose Of Review: This article provides an overview of headache in the setting of pituitary adenoma. The purpose of this article is to educate providers on the association, possible pathophysiology, and the clinical presentation of headache in pituitary tumor.

    Recent Findings: Recent prospective evaluations indicate that risk factors for development of headache in the setting of pituitary adenoma include highly proliferative tumors, cavernous sinus invasion, and personal or family history of headache. Read More

    Relation of RANKL and OPG Levels with Bone Resorption in Patients with Acromegaly and Prolactinoma.
    Horm Metab Res 2018 Jun 12. Epub 2018 Jun 12.
    Hacettepe Medical School, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.
    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of hyperprolactinemia and high levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) on bone resorption and their relation with receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in patients with prolactinoma and acromegaly. Thirty-one patients with acromegaly, 28 patients with prolactinoma, and 33 healthy individuals were included in the study. Serum concentrations of RANKL, OPG, bone alkaline phosphatase (bone ALP), osteocalcin (OC), C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX), procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP) and urine deoxypyridinoline (DPD) levels were detected and bone mineral density (BMD) was measured. Read More

    Metabolic Syndrome in Hyperprolactinemia.
    Front Horm Res 2018 5;49:29-47. Epub 2018 Apr 5.
    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a conglomerate of clinical findings that convey into increased morbidity and mortality from type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and cardiovascular disease. Hyperprolactinemia (hyperPRL) is associated with components of MetS, especially during pregnancy. Endogenous levels of sex steroids are high during pregnancy in contrast to untreated or replaced hypogonadism in most patients with a prolactinoma and hypogonadism may confer increased risk of MetS in hyperPRL. Read More

    Impact of menopause on outcomes in prolactinomas after dopamine agonist treatment withdrawal.
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2018 Jun 12. Epub 2018 Jun 12.
    Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, B15 2TT, Birmingham, UK.
    Objective: Discontinuation of dopamine agonist (DA) treatment in women with prolactinoma after menopause is a potential approach; studies systematically assessing long-term outcomes are lacking. Our aim was to investigate the natural history of prolactinoma in this group.

    Design/patients: Retrospective cohort study of women with prolactinoma diagnosed before menopause and who after menopause were not on DA. Read More

    A case of secondary SUNCT syndrome.
    Ideggyogy Sz 2017 Sep;70(9-10):355-357
    Bakirkoy Prof. Dr. Mazhar Osman Mental and Neurological Diseases Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.
    SUNCT syndrome, a rare form of primary headaches, may be secondary to pituitary tumours. The secondary forms usually related with prolactinomas. The response of dopamin agonists could be variable. Read More

    Myasthenia gravis imitating pituitary apoplexy in macroprolactinoma.
    Hormones (Athens) 2018 Jun 2. Epub 2018 Jun 2.
    Center for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Hypothalamic-Pituitary Disorders (Pituitary Unit), IRCCS Institute of Neurological Sciences of Bologna, Via Altura, 3, 40141, Bologna, Italy.
    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease affecting neuromuscular transmission that manifests with muscle weakness and typically involves the eye muscles, often producing diplopia and ptosis. Recent studies suggest that hyperprolactinaemia may have a role in the development of MG, although its association with prolactinoma is extremely rare. We report the unusual case of a 71-year-old male affected with macroprolactinoma, who presented at our Center 2 weeks after starting cabergoline treatment because of acute onset of headache, diplopia, and ptosis. Read More

    Pituitary adenomas in children and young adults.
    Childs Nerv Syst 2018 May 30. Epub 2018 May 30.
    Department of Neurosurgery, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.
    Purpose: Pituitary adenomas are rare in the pediatric population. We present a recent cohort of children operated transsphenoidally on pituitary adenoma from a single center.

    Methods: Inclusion criteria were age < 21 years and histopathological diagnosis of adenoma after transsphenoidal surgery. Read More

    Clinical characteristics, classification and surgical treatment of periductal mastitis.
    J Thorac Dis 2018 Apr;10(4):2420-2427
    Department of Breast Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100730, China.
    Background: This study aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of periductal mastitis (PDM), propose the practical clinical classification system and evaluate the results of different surgical treatments in different type of PDM patients.

    Methods: A retrospective study was carried out at department of breast surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, China. A total of 152 patients with the diagnosis of PDM were reviewed from March 2012 to December 2016. Read More

    The value of prolactin in predicting prolactinοma in hyperprolactinaemic polycystic ovarian syndrome.
    Eur J Clin Invest 2018 May 29:e12961. Epub 2018 May 29.
    Warwickshire Institute for the Study of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism (WISDEM), University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire NHS Trust, Coventry, UK.
    Background: To identify a serum prolactin (PRL) cut-off value indicative of a PRL-producing adenoma in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and hyperprolactinaemia and characterize such patients.

    Materials And Methods: In the present retrospective case-control study, the medical records of 528 PCOS women were reviewed. Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in PCOS patients with PRL levels ≥94. Read More

    Endoscopic Trans-Sphenoidal surgery; Efficacy and response in Pituitary Adenoma.
    Pak J Med Sci 2018 Mar-Apr;34(2):412-417
    Dr. Saleem Shah, FCPS PG Trainee (NS). Department of Neurosurgery, Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Centre/ Jinnah Sindh Medical University, Karachi, Pakistan.
    Objectives: The purpose of the study was to access the efficacy and response of the endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery in pituitary adenomas.

    Methods: It was descriptive case study, conducted at Neurosurgery Department in collaboration with the Endocrine Unit (Medical Unit-II) Of Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Center Karachi from January 2015 to July 2017. Patients with sellar, supra sellar and para sellar tumors were enrolled in the study. Read More

    Prenatal alcohol exposure increases the susceptibility to develop aggressive prolactinomas in the pituitary gland.
    Sci Rep 2018 May 16;8(1):7720. Epub 2018 May 16.
    The Endocrine Program, Department of Animal Sciences, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 67 Poultry Lane, New Brunswick, NJ, 08901, USA.
    Excess alcohol use is known to promote development of aggressive tumors in various tissues in human patients, but the cause of alcohol promotion of tumor aggressiveness is not clearly understood. We used an animals model of fetal alcohol exposure that is known to promote tumor development and determined if alcohol programs the pituitary to acquire aggressive prolactin-secreting tumors. Our results show that pituitaries of fetal alcohol-exposed rats produced increased levels of intra-pituitary aromatase protein and plasma estrogen, enhanced pituitary tissue growth, and upon estrogen challenge developed prolactin-secreting tumors (prolactinomas) that were hemorrhagic and often penetrated into the surrounding tissue. Read More

    Controversial issues in the management of hyperprolactinemia and prolactinomas - An overview by the Neuroendocrinology Department of the Brazilian Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism.
    Arch Endocrinol Metab 2018 Mar-Apr;62(2):236-263
    Serviço de Endocrinologia, Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (FMUSP), São Paulo, SP, Brasil.
    Prolactinomas are the most common pituitary adenomas (approximately 40% of cases), and they represent an important cause of hypogonadism and infertility in both sexes. The magnitude of prolactin (PRL) elevation can be useful in determining the etiology of hyperprolactinemia. Indeed, PRL levels > 250 ng/mL are highly suggestive of the presence of a prolactinoma. Read More

    Pituitary somatolactotropes evade an oncogenic response to Ras.
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 2018 May 9. Epub 2018 May 9.
    Program in Integrated Physiology and Reproductive Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, United States; Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Diabetes, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, United States; Departments of Medicine and of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, United States. Electronic address:
    Distinct cell types have been shown to respond to activated Ras signaling in a cell-specific manner. In contrast to its pro-tumorigenic role in some human epithelial cancers, oncogenic Ras triggers differentiation of pheochromocytoma cells and medullary thyroid carcinoma cells. Furthermore, we have previously demonstrated that in pituitary somatolactotropes, activated Ras promotes differentiation and is not sufficient to drive tumorigenesis. Read More

    IGF-1 levels may increase paradoxically with dopamine agonist treatment for prolactinomas.
    Pituitary 2018 May 4. Epub 2018 May 4.
    Institute of Endocrinology, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Hospital, 4941492, Petach Tikva, Israel.
    Objective: Hyperprolactinemia is common in acromegaly and in these patients, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 level may decrease with dopamine agonist. We report a series of patients with prolactinoma and a paradoxical increase of IGF-1 levels during cabergoline treatment.

    Methods: Clinical characteristics and response to treatment of patients with prolactinomas, in whom normal or slightly elevated baseline IGF-1 levels increased with cabergoline. Read More

    The Balance of PI3K and ERK Signaling Is Dysregulated in Prolactinoma and Modulated by Dopamine.
    Endocrinology 2018 Jun;159(6):2421-2434
    Program in Integrated Physiology and Reproductive Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado.
    Prolactin-secreting adenomas, or prolactinomas, cause hypogonadism, osteoporosis, and infertility. Although dopamine agonists (DAs) are used clinically to treat prolactinoma and reduce prolactin secretion via cAMP inhibition, the precise mechanism by which DAs inhibit lactotrope proliferation has not been defined. In this study, we report that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signals through AKT and mTOR to drive proliferation of pituitary somatolactotrope GH4T2 cells. Read More

    Endocr Pract 2018 Apr 30. Epub 2018 Apr 30.
    Mount Sinai Center for Transgender Medicine and Surgery, Mount Sinai Health System and Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10128 USA.
    Context: Existing transgender treatment guidelines suggest that for transfeminine hormone treatment there is a need to monitor prolactin levels. Also, recent studies suggest that use of cyproterone acetate as an adjunctive anti-androgen during transgender hormone treatment may elevate serum prolactin.

    Objective: We sought to determine whether the reported relationship between transfeminine estradiol treatment and hyperprolactinemia would be evident when the regimen used spironolactone as the adjunctive anti-androgen. Read More

    Iran Pituitary Tumor Registry: Description of the Program and Initial Results.
    Arch Iran Med 2017 Dec 31;20(12):746-751. Epub 2017 Dec 31.
    Endocrine Research Center, Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Tehran, Iran.
    Background: This study was designed to present initial results on clinical presentation, therapeutic modalities, and outcome information of patients with pituitary tumors registered in Iran Pituitary Tumor Registry (IPTR).

    Methods: We collected data from a web-based electronic medical records of patients with various pituitary tumors referred to four tertiary care centers in the country. Retrospective analysis was performed on demographic, clinical, and therapeutic information of 298 patients including 51 clinically nonfunctioning adenoma (CNFA), 85 acromegaly, 135 prolactinoma, and 27 Cushing's disease (CD). Read More

    Interpretation of serum gonadotropin levels in hyperprolactinemia.
    Neuroendocrinology 2018 Apr 16. Epub 2018 Apr 16.

    Background/Aims: Hyperprolactinemia is a common cause of amenorrhea due to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Prolactin is hypothesized to impede the reproductive axis through an inhibitory action at the hypothalamus. However, limited data exists to aid the interpretation of serum gonadotropins in the context of hyperprolactinemia. Read More

    Management of cystic prolactinomas: a review.
    Pituitary 2018 Apr 13. Epub 2018 Apr 13.
    Institute of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Rambam Health Care Campus, HaAliya HaShniya Street 8, 3109601, Haifa, Israel.
    Introduction: Cystic prolactinoma is a variant of prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma. The strategies for the management of cystic prolactinoma have not been addressed thoroughly in clinical guidelines.

    Methods: A literature search was performed using Pubmed to review the current approaches to the treatment of cystic prolactinoma. Read More

    Olfactory marker protein regulates prolactin secretion and production by modulating Ca and TRH signaling in lactotrophs.
    Exp Mol Med 2018 Apr 6;50(4):15. Epub 2018 Apr 6.
    Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea.
    Olfactory marker protein (OMP) is a marker of olfactory receptor-mediated chemoreception, even outside the olfactory system. Here, we report that OMP expression in the pituitary gland plays a role in basal and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)-induced prolactin (PRL) production and secretion. We found that OMP was expressed in human and rodent pituitary glands, especially in PRL-secreting lactotrophs. Read More

    Isolation and characterisation of CD9-positive pituitary adult stem/progenitor cells in rats.
    Sci Rep 2018 Apr 3;8(1):5533. Epub 2018 Apr 3.
    Institute for Reproduction and Endocrinology, Meiji University, 1-1-1 Higashi-mita, Tama-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, 214-8571, Japan.
    S100β protein and SOX2-double positive (S100β/SOX2-positive) cells have been suggested to be adult pituitary stem/progenitor cells exhibiting plasticity and multipotency. The aim of the present study was to isolate S100β/SOX2-positive cells from the adult anterior lobes of rats using a specific antibody against a novel membrane marker and to study their characteristics in vitro. We found that cluster of differentiation (CD) 9 is expressed in the majority of adult rat S100β/SOX2-positive cells, and we succeeded in isolating CD9-positive cells using an anti-CD9 antibody with a pluriBead-cascade cell isolation system. Read More

    Long-Term Outcome of Nonfunctioning and Hormonal Active Pituitary Adenoma After Gamma Knife Radiosurgery.
    World Neurosurg 2018 Jun 21;114:e824-e832. Epub 2018 Mar 21.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, Louisiana, USA. Electronic address:
    Introduction: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), particularly Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) is an established treatment option for residual and recurrent pituitary adenoma tumors. It helps in the preservation of surrounding normal neuronal, vascular, and hormone-producing structures and causes fewer neurologic deficits. The aim of this research was to evaluate the efficacy and define the role of GKRS in the treatment of nonfunctioning (NFA) and hormonal active (HAA) pituitary adenoma. Read More

    [Atypical presentation of a giant prolactinoma in a 15-year-old boy].
    Arch Argent Pediatr 2018 Apr;116(2):e325-e330
    Servicio de Endocrinología, Hospital de Pediatría "Profesor Dr. Juan P. Garrahan", Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Giant prolactinomas are rare pituitary adenomas characterized by their great local invasion. In this paper, we report a 15-year-old male with left retro-ocular pain and ipsilateral exophthalmos of 4 months of evolution, secondary to a tumour in the base of the skull that invaded the orbit. Hormonal studies revealed serum prolactin of 6913,7 ng/ml (normal value < 20), confirming the diagnosis of giant prolactinoma. Read More

    Clinical Outcomes After Endoscopic Endonasal Resection of Giant Pituitary Adenomas.
    World Neurosurg 2018 Jun 12;114:e447-e456. Epub 2018 Mar 12.
    Department of Neurological Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA; Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Electronic address:
    Background: Giant pituitary adenomas represent a surgical challenge. We present the results of the endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) for giant pituitary adenomas.

    Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 55 patients with giant pituitary adenomas (>4 cm in maximum diameter) who underwent surgery with an EEA between 2008 and 2016. Read More

    Combination treatment with bromocriptine and metformin in patients with bromocriptine-resistant prolactinomas: a pilot study.
    World Neurosurg 2018 Mar 9. Epub 2018 Mar 9.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, P.R. China 100730. Electronic address:
    Background: Prolactinomas are the most common functional pituitary adenomas, and dopamine agonists (DAs) are the primary therapy. However, some patients are resistant to DAs. Recently, metformin has been proposed as a cancer treatment. Read More

    Pituitary Apoplexy during Treatment of Prolactinoma with Cabergoline.
    Asian J Neurosurg 2018 Jan-Mar;13(1):93-95
    Department of Neurosurgery, Sina Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Pituitary apoplexy is a rare clinical presentation caused by infarction of the pituitary gland or adenoma with or without hemorrhage. Although pituitary apoplexy is usually spontaneous, one of the predisposing factors is treatment with dopamine agonists, especially bromocriptine. The occurrence of apoplexy during cabergoline therapy is reported much less frequently. Read More

    Natural and molecular history of prolactinoma: insights from a mouse model.
    Oncotarget 2018 Jan 27;9(5):6144-6155. Epub 2017 Dec 27.
    Unité INSERM 1185, Faculté de Médecine Paris Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France.
    Lactotroph adenoma, also called prolactinoma, is the most common pituitary tumor but little is known about its pathogenesis. Mouse models of prolactinoma can be useful to better understand molecular mechanisms involved in abnormal lactotroph cell proliferation and secretion. We have previously developed a prolactin receptor deficient ( ) mouse, which develops prolactinoma. Read More

    Clinicopathological significance of baseline T2-weighted signal intensity in functional pituitary adenomas.
    Pituitary 2018 Feb 19. Epub 2018 Feb 19.
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Capa, Department of Internal Medicine, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, 34090, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Purpose: To assess baseline T2-weighted signal intensity (T2-WSI) of functional pituitary adenomas (FPA), and to investigate the relationship of baseline T2-WSI with clinical features, histopathological granulation patterns, and response to treatment in patients with acromegaly, prolactinoma and Cushing's disease (CD).

    Methods: Somatotroph adenomas (n = 87), prolactinomas (n = 78) and corticotroph adenomas (n = 29) were included in the study. Baseline T2-WSI findings (grouped as hypo-, iso- and hyperintense) were compared with hormone levels, tumor diameter, granulation patterns and response to treatment. Read More

    Clinical Features and Response to Treatment of Prolactinomas in Children and Adolescents: A Retrospective Single-Centre Analysis and Review of the Literature.
    Horm Res Paediatr 2018 16;89(3):157-165. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    Division of Paediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Paediatrics, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Background: Paediatric prolactinomas are rare. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical features and outcome of paediatric patients with prolactinomas.

    Methods: In this single-centre retrospective analysis, clinical, biochemical, and radiological features of all paediatric patients with pituitary adenomas diagnosed between 2000 and 2016 were evaluated. Read More

    Transnasal Transsphenoidal Elevation of Optic Chiasm in Secondary Empty Sella Syndrome Following Prolactinoma Treatment.
    World Neurosurg 2018 Apr 6;112:250-253. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Duke University Hospitals, Durham, North Carolina, USA.
    Background: Prolactinomas are typically treated nonsurgically with a dopamine agonist. Once the tumor shrinks, adjacent eloquent structures, such as the optic apparatus, can become skeletonized and herniate into the dilated parasellar space.

    Case Description: A 48-year-old man with a prolactin-secreting macroadenoma treated with cabergoline presented with progressive bitemporal hemianopsia. Read More

    [Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea in primary treatment of large and giant prolactinomas with dopamine agonists].
    Zh Vopr Neirokhir Im N N Burdenko 2017;81(6):32-39
    Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute, Moscow, Russia, 125047.
    At present, pharmacological therapy of prolactinomas with dopamine agonists (DAs) is considered the treatment of choice. In most cases, giant prolactinomas respond to treatment with dopamine agonists and decrease in size during the first months of the treatment. One of the rare but dangerous complications of conservative treatment of prolactinomas with invasive growth is cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea. Read More

    The prolactin-release inhibitor paeoniflorin suppresses proliferation and induces apoptosis in prolactinoma cells via the mitochondria-dependent pathway.
    J Cell Biochem 2018 Jul 14;119(7):5704-5714. Epub 2018 Mar 14.
    Endocrinology and Metabolism Group, Sydney Institute of Health Sciences/Sydney Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine, New South Wales, Australia.
    Prolactinomas are the most prevalent functional pituitary adenomas that cause chronic pathological hyperprolactinemia. Prolactin is known to promote cell growth and inhibit apoptosis in cells. Paeoniflorin is the principal component of radix Paeoniae alba (the main ingredient in some traditional herbal formulas clinically used for hyperprolactinemia-associated disorders). Read More

    Treatment of aggressive prolactinoma with temozolomide: A case report and review of literature up to date.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Nov;96(47):e8733
    Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province.
    Rationale: Aggressive pituitary adenomas and pituitary carcinomas are rare and demand multiple treatment strategies. Temozolomide, an orally active alkylating chemotherapeutic agent, has recently been recommended as a salvage medication for refractory pituitary adenomas or carcinomas.

    Patient Concerns: A 17-year-old male presenting with aggressive prolactinoma that continued to progress despite surgery, gamma knife, and dopamine agonists. Read More

    Ectopic Prolactinoma Presenting as Bacterial Meningitis: A Diagnostic Conundrum.
    World Neurosurg 2018 Apr 31;112:227-231. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Department of Otoloryngology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida, USA.
    Background: Prolactinomas may rarely present with meningitis and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea secondary to erosion of the wall of the sella turcica. It is even more uncommon for this abnormal communication to be caused by an ectopic prolactinoma arising from the sphenoid sinus and eroding into the sella. This atypical growth pattern makes diagnosis very difficult because there may be no displacement of the normal pituitary gland. Read More

    Multiple Eyelid Cysts (Apocrine and Eccrine Hidrocystomas, Trichilemmal Cyst, and Hybrid Cyst) in a Patient With a Prolactinoma.
    Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2018 May/Jun;34(3):e83-e85
    Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA and Associate Eye Physicians and Surgeons, Quincy, Massachusetts, U.S.A.
    A 53-year-old man presented with smooth-domed, variegated cysts (polycystic disease) of all 4 eyelids, worse on the left side. Some of the cysts were clear, while others were creamy-white colored. In addition, multiple, very fine vesicopapules were noted along the eyelid margins. Read More

    Characteristics of pericytes in diethylstilbestrol (DES)-induced pituitary prolactinoma in rats.
    Med Mol Morphol 2018 Jan 17. Epub 2018 Jan 17.
    Division of Histology and Cell Biology, Department of Anatomy, Jichi Medical University, School of Medicine, 3311-1 Yakushiji, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, 329-0498, Japan.
    Prolactinomas are the most common tumor of the human pituitary. They result in excessive prolactin secretion and important changes in the vasculature. Pericytes are perivascular cells associated with capillaries and have crucial roles in physiological and pathological neovascularization. Read More

    Up- and Down-regulated Leukemia-related Protein 16 Affects ERα Expression and Prolactin Secretion by GH3 Cells.
    Biomed Environ Sci 2017 Dec;30(12):938-942
    Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853, China.
    Prolactinoma is an estrogen-related tumor and leukemia-related protein 16 (LRP16) is correlated with the progression of estrogen-related tumors, but the regulatory mechanism between LRP16 and prolactinoma remain unclear. This study demonstrates a variation in LRP16 with estrogen receptor α (ERα) in prolactinoma models and the up and downregulation effects of LRP16 on prolactin secretion of pituitary adenomas cells (GH3 cells). In our study, 50 male SD rats (30-day-old) were randomly divided into five groups of 10 rats each. Read More

    Broad clinical spectrum and diverse outcomes of prolactinoma with pediatric onset: medication-resistant and recurrent cases.
    Endocr J 2018 Mar 27;65(3):307-315. Epub 2017 Dec 27.
    Department of Pediatrics, Asan Medical Center Children's Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    Prolactinoma is a benign tumor of the pituitary gland that rarely occurs in children and adolescents; thus, the clinical spectrum and long-term prognosis in these patients remain unknown. This study was performed to investigate the long-term outcomes of medical treatment and the prognostic factors for remission and relapse in children and adolescents with prolactinoma. Three male subjects and four female subjects between the ages of 7- and 17-years-old were included in this study. Read More

    Cabergoline Tapering Is Almost Always Successful in Patients With Macroprolactinomas.
    J Endocr Soc 2017 Mar 16;1(3):221-230. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Service d'Endocrinologie et des Maladies de la Reproduction and Centre de Référence des Maladies Endocriniennes Rares de la Croissance, and.
    Context: Cabergoline (CAB) is very effective in the treatment of macroprolactinomas, but there are few data on the CAB dose necessary to achieve and maintain normal prolactin (PRL) levels.

    Design And Patients: We retrospectively studied 260 patients. CAB was introduced at a mean dose of 0. Read More

    Case Report of a Prolactinoma in a Patient With a Novel Mutation and Bilateral Pheochromocytomas.
    J Endocr Soc 2017 Nov 23;1(11):1401-1407. Epub 2017 Oct 23.
    Neuroendocrine Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114.
    Pheochromocytomas are neuroendocrine tumors that can arise sporadically or be inherited as a familial disease, and they may occur in isolation or as part of a multitumor syndrome. Familial disease typically presents in younger patients with a higher risk of multifocality. Recently, the tumor suppressor MYC-associated factor X () gene has been implicated as a cause of familial isolated pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Read More

    Nonfunctional pancreatic endocrine tumor in the peripancreatic region in a Chinese patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1.
    J Int Med Res 2018 Feb 14;46(2):908-915. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    1 Department of Endocrinology, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Heping District, Tianjin, China.
    Nonfunctional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NF-pNETs) in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), which results from a mutation in the MEN1 gene, are commonly small, multiple tumors located in the pancreatic head and inside the pancreatic parenchyma. We herein describe a 35-year-old woman with bone pain and a 7-year history of a prolactinoma. She was clinically diagnosed with MEN1 based on the presence of the prolactinoma and parathyroid hyperplasia. Read More

    P21 and p27 are correlated with the development and invasion of prolactinoma.
    J Neurooncol 2018 Feb 11;136(3):485-494. Epub 2017 Dec 11.
    Key Laboratory of Central Nervous System Injury Research, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Capital Medical University, Tiantanxili 6#, Beijing, 100050, China.
    Cell cycle control can prevent excessive proliferative response in the pituitary homeostasis. Cyclin dependent kinases (Cdks) are modulated by cyclins or Cdk inhibitors, such as p21 and p27, which can regulate cell cycle progression from the G1 to S phases. This study was conducted to evaluate the levels and the promoter region methylation status of p21 and p27 in prolactinomas (PRL) and analyze their association with clinicopathologic features. Read More

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