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    1 OF 68

    Iran Pituitary Tumor Registry: Description of the Program and Initial Results.
    Arch Iran Med 2017 Dec 31;20(12):746-751. Epub 2017 Dec 31.
    Endocrine Research Center, Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Tehran, Iran.
    Background: This study was designed to present initial results on clinical presentation, therapeutic modalities, and outcome information of patients with pituitary tumors registered in Iran Pituitary Tumor Registry (IPTR).

    Methods: We collected data from a web-based electronic medical records of patients with various pituitary tumors referred to four tertiary care centers in the country. Retrospective analysis was performed on demographic, clinical, and therapeutic information of 298 patients including 51 clinically nonfunctioning adenoma (CNFA), 85 acromegaly, 135 prolactinoma, and 27 Cushing's disease (CD). Read More

    Interpretation of serum gonadotropin levels in hyperprolactinemia.
    Neuroendocrinology 2018 Apr 16. Epub 2018 Apr 16.

    Background/Aims: Hyperprolactinemia is a common cause of amenorrhea due to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Prolactin is hypothesized to impede the reproductive axis through an inhibitory action at the hypothalamus. However, limited data exists to aid the interpretation of serum gonadotropins in the context of hyperprolactinemia. Read More

    Management of cystic prolactinomas: a review.
    Pituitary 2018 Apr 13. Epub 2018 Apr 13.
    Institute of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Rambam Health Care Campus, HaAliya HaShniya Street 8, 3109601, Haifa, Israel.
    Introduction: Cystic prolactinoma is a variant of prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma. The strategies for the management of cystic prolactinoma have not been addressed thoroughly in clinical guidelines.

    Methods: A literature search was performed using Pubmed to review the current approaches to the treatment of cystic prolactinoma. Read More

    Current Challenges in the Management of Prolactinomas.
    Eur Endocrinol 2015 Apr 11;11(1):39-40. Epub 2015 Apr 11.
    Head, Division of Endocrinology; Professor of Medicine, Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium.
    Although the diagnosis of prolactinoma is often straightforward and the treatment strategy has been well defined in recent guidelines, several challenging issues persist in their management. The differential diagnosis of a large pituitary tumour with moderately elevated prolactin (PRL) concentrations is sometimes difficult, and prolonged treatment with a dopamine agonist may be inappropriate when the diagnosis of a prolactinoma is not sufficiently well substantiated. Also, timely withdrawal of dopamine agonist treatment and the remaining indications of transsphenoidal surgery are still matters of debate. Read More

    Olfactory marker protein regulates prolactin secretion and production by modulating Ca and TRH signaling in lactotrophs.
    Exp Mol Med 2018 Apr 6;50(4):15. Epub 2018 Apr 6.
    Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea.
    Olfactory marker protein (OMP) is a marker of olfactory receptor-mediated chemoreception, even outside the olfactory system. Here, we report that OMP expression in the pituitary gland plays a role in basal and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)-induced prolactin (PRL) production and secretion. We found that OMP was expressed in human and rodent pituitary glands, especially in PRL-secreting lactotrophs. Read More

    Isolation and characterisation of CD9-positive pituitary adult stem/progenitor cells in rats.
    Sci Rep 2018 Apr 3;8(1):5533. Epub 2018 Apr 3.
    Institute for Reproduction and Endocrinology, Meiji University, 1-1-1 Higashi-mita, Tama-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, 214-8571, Japan.
    S100β protein and SOX2-double positive (S100β/SOX2-positive) cells have been suggested to be adult pituitary stem/progenitor cells exhibiting plasticity and multipotency. The aim of the present study was to isolate S100β/SOX2-positive cells from the adult anterior lobes of rats using a specific antibody against a novel membrane marker and to study their characteristics in vitro. We found that cluster of differentiation (CD) 9 is expressed in the majority of adult rat S100β/SOX2-positive cells, and we succeeded in isolating CD9-positive cells using an anti-CD9 antibody with a pluriBead-cascade cell isolation system. Read More

    Long term Outcome of Non-functioning and Hormonal-active Pituitary Adenoma after Gamma Knife Radio Surgery.
    World Neurosurg 2018 Mar 21. Epub 2018 Mar 21.
    Department of Neurosurgery, LSU-HSC, Shreveport, Louisiana, USA. Electronic address:
    Introduction: Stereotactic radiosurgery [SRS], particularly Gamma knife radiosurgery [GKRS] is an established treatment option for residual and recurrent pituitary adenoma tumors. It helps in the preservation of surrounding normal neuronal, vascular and hormone producing structures and cause less neurological deficits. The aim of the research is to evaluate the efficacy and define the role of GKRS for the treatment of non-functioning [NFA] and hormonal-active [HAA] pituitary adenoma. Read More

    [Atypical presentation of a giant prolactinoma in a 15-year-old boy].
    Arch Argent Pediatr 2018 Apr;116(2):e325-e330
    Servicio de Endocrinología, Hospital de Pediatría "Profesor Dr. Juan P. Garrahan", Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Giant prolactinomas are rare pituitary adenomas characterized by their great local invasion. In this paper, we report a 15-year-old male with left retro-ocular pain and ipsilateral exophthalmos of 4 months of evolution, secondary to a tumour in the base of the skull that invaded the orbit. Hormonal studies revealed serum prolactin of 6913,7 ng/ml (normal value < 20), confirming the diagnosis of giant prolactinoma. Read More

    Clinical Outcomes After Endoscopic Endonasal Resection of Giant Pituitary Adenomas.
    World Neurosurg 2018 Mar 12. Epub 2018 Mar 12.
    Department of Neurological Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA; Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Electronic address:
    Background: Giant pituitary adenomas represent a surgical challenge. We present the results of the endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) for giant pituitary adenomas.

    Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 55 patients with giant pituitary adenomas (>4 cm in maximum diameter) who underwent surgery with an EEA between 2008 and 2016. Read More

    Combination treatment with bromocriptine and metformin in patients with bromocriptine-resistant prolactinomas: a pilot study.
    World Neurosurg 2018 Mar 9. Epub 2018 Mar 9.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, P.R. China 100730. Electronic address:
    Background: Prolactinomas are the most common functional pituitary adenomas, and dopamine agonists (DAs) are the primary therapy. However, some patients are resistant to DAs. Recently, metformin has been proposed as a cancer treatment. Read More

    Pituitary Apoplexy during Treatment of Prolactinoma with Cabergoline.
    Asian J Neurosurg 2018 Jan-Mar;13(1):93-95
    Department of Neurosurgery, Sina Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Pituitary apoplexy is a rare clinical presentation caused by infarction of the pituitary gland or adenoma with or without hemorrhage. Although pituitary apoplexy is usually spontaneous, one of the predisposing factors is treatment with dopamine agonists, especially bromocriptine. The occurrence of apoplexy during cabergoline therapy is reported much less frequently. Read More

    Natural and molecular history of prolactinoma: insights from a mouse model.
    Oncotarget 2018 Jan 27;9(5):6144-6155. Epub 2017 Dec 27.
    Unité INSERM 1185, Faculté de Médecine Paris Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France.
    Lactotroph adenoma, also called prolactinoma, is the most common pituitary tumor but little is known about its pathogenesis. Mouse models of prolactinoma can be useful to better understand molecular mechanisms involved in abnormal lactotroph cell proliferation and secretion. We have previously developed a prolactin receptor deficient ( ) mouse, which develops prolactinoma. Read More

    Clinicopathological significance of baseline T2-weighted signal intensity in functional pituitary adenomas.
    Pituitary 2018 Feb 19. Epub 2018 Feb 19.
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Capa, Department of Internal Medicine, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, 34090, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Purpose: To assess baseline T2-weighted signal intensity (T2-WSI) of functional pituitary adenomas (FPA), and to investigate the relationship of baseline T2-WSI with clinical features, histopathological granulation patterns, and response to treatment in patients with acromegaly, prolactinoma and Cushing's disease (CD).

    Methods: Somatotroph adenomas (n = 87), prolactinomas (n = 78) and corticotroph adenomas (n = 29) were included in the study. Baseline T2-WSI findings (grouped as hypo-, iso- and hyperintense) were compared with hormone levels, tumor diameter, granulation patterns and response to treatment. Read More

    Clinical Features and Response to Treatment of Prolactinomas in Children and Adolescents: A Retrospective Single-Centre Analysis and Review of the Literature.
    Horm Res Paediatr 2018 16;89(3):157-165. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    Division of Paediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Paediatrics, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Background: Paediatric prolactinomas are rare. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical features and outcome of paediatric patients with prolactinomas.

    Methods: In this single-centre retrospective analysis, clinical, biochemical, and radiological features of all paediatric patients with pituitary adenomas diagnosed between 2000 and 2016 were evaluated. Read More

    Transnasal Transsphenoidal Elevation of Optic Chiasm in Secondary Empty Sella Syndrome Following Prolactinoma Treatment.
    World Neurosurg 2018 Apr 6;112:250-253. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Duke University Hospitals, Durham, North Carolina, USA.
    Background: Prolactinomas are typically treated nonsurgically with a dopamine agonist. Once the tumor shrinks, adjacent eloquent structures, such as the optic apparatus, can become skeletonized and herniate into the dilated parasellar space.

    Case Description: A 48-year-old man with a prolactin-secreting macroadenoma treated with cabergoline presented with progressive bitemporal hemianopsia. Read More

    [Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea in primary treatment of large and giant prolactinomas with dopamine agonists].
    Zh Vopr Neirokhir Im N N Burdenko 2017;81(6):32-39
    Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute, Moscow, Russia, 125047.
    At present, pharmacological therapy of prolactinomas with dopamine agonists (DAs) is considered the treatment of choice. In most cases, giant prolactinomas respond to treatment with dopamine agonists and decrease in size during the first months of the treatment. One of the rare but dangerous complications of conservative treatment of prolactinomas with invasive growth is cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea. Read More

    The prolactin-release inhibitor paeoniflorin suppresses proliferation and induces apoptosis in prolactinoma cells via the mitochondria-dependent pathway.
    J Cell Biochem 2018 Feb 1. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    Endocrinology and Metabolism Group, Sydney Institute of Health Sciences/Sydney Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine, New South Wales, Australia.
    Prolactinomas are the most prevalent functional pituitary adenomas that cause chronic pathological hyperprolactinemia. Prolactin is known to promote cell growth and inhibit apoptosis in cells. Paeoniflorin is the principal component of radix Paeoniae alba (the main ingredient in some traditional herbal formulas clinically used for hyperprolactinemia-associated disorders). Read More

    Treatment of aggressive prolactinoma with temozolomide: A case report and review of literature up to date.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Nov;96(47):e8733
    Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province.
    Rationale: Aggressive pituitary adenomas and pituitary carcinomas are rare and demand multiple treatment strategies. Temozolomide, an orally active alkylating chemotherapeutic agent, has recently been recommended as a salvage medication for refractory pituitary adenomas or carcinomas.

    Patient Concerns: A 17-year-old male presenting with aggressive prolactinoma that continued to progress despite surgery, gamma knife, and dopamine agonists. Read More

    Ectopic Prolactinoma Presenting as Bacterial Meningitis: A Diagnostic Conundrum.
    World Neurosurg 2018 Apr 31;112:227-231. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Department of Otoloryngology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida, USA.
    Background: Prolactinomas may rarely present with meningitis and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea secondary to erosion of the wall of the sella turcica. It is even more uncommon for this abnormal communication to be caused by an ectopic prolactinoma arising from the sphenoid sinus and eroding into the sella. This atypical growth pattern makes diagnosis very difficult because there may be no displacement of the normal pituitary gland. Read More

    Multiple Eyelid Cysts (Apocrine and Eccrine Hidrocystomas, Trichilemmal Cyst, and Hybrid Cyst) in a Patient With a Prolactinoma.
    Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2018 Jan 18. Epub 2018 Jan 18.
    David G. Cogan Laboratory of Ophthalmic Pathology, Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.
    A 53-year-old man presented with smooth-domed, variegated cysts (polycystic disease) of all 4 eyelids, worse on the left side. Some of the cysts were clear, while others were creamy-white colored. In addition, multiple, very fine vesicopapules were noted along the eyelid margins. Read More

    Characteristics of pericytes in diethylstilbestrol (DES)-induced pituitary prolactinoma in rats.
    Med Mol Morphol 2018 Jan 17. Epub 2018 Jan 17.
    Division of Histology and Cell Biology, Department of Anatomy, Jichi Medical University, School of Medicine, 3311-1 Yakushiji, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, 329-0498, Japan.
    Prolactinomas are the most common tumor of the human pituitary. They result in excessive prolactin secretion and important changes in the vasculature. Pericytes are perivascular cells associated with capillaries and have crucial roles in physiological and pathological neovascularization. Read More

    Up- and Down-regulated Leukemia-related Protein 16 Affects ERα Expression and Prolactin Secretion by GH3 Cells.
    Biomed Environ Sci 2017 Dec;30(12):938-942
    Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853, China.
    Prolactinoma is an estrogen-related tumor and leukemia-related protein 16 (LRP16) is correlated with the progression of estrogen-related tumors, but the regulatory mechanism between LRP16 and prolactinoma remain unclear. This study demonstrates a variation in LRP16 with estrogen receptor α (ERα) in prolactinoma models and the up and downregulation effects of LRP16 on prolactin secretion of pituitary adenomas cells (GH3 cells). In our study, 50 male SD rats (30-day-old) were randomly divided into five groups of 10 rats each. Read More

    Broad clinical spectrum and diverse outcomes of prolactinoma with pediatric onset: medication-resistant and recurrent cases.
    Endocr J 2018 Mar 27;65(3):307-315. Epub 2017 Dec 27.
    Department of Pediatrics, Asan Medical Center Children's Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    Prolactinoma is a benign tumor of the pituitary gland that rarely occurs in children and adolescents; thus, the clinical spectrum and long-term prognosis in these patients remain unknown. This study was performed to investigate the long-term outcomes of medical treatment and the prognostic factors for remission and relapse in children and adolescents with prolactinoma. Three male subjects and four female subjects between the ages of 7- and 17-years-old were included in this study. Read More

    Cabergoline Tapering Is Almost Always Successful in Patients With Macroprolactinomas.
    J Endocr Soc 2017 Mar 16;1(3):221-230. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Service d'Endocrinologie et des Maladies de la Reproduction and Centre de Référence des Maladies Endocriniennes Rares de la Croissance, and.
    Context: Cabergoline (CAB) is very effective in the treatment of macroprolactinomas, but there are few data on the CAB dose necessary to achieve and maintain normal prolactin (PRL) levels.

    Design And Patients: We retrospectively studied 260 patients. CAB was introduced at a mean dose of 0. Read More

    Case Report of a Prolactinoma in a Patient With a Novel Mutation and Bilateral Pheochromocytomas.
    J Endocr Soc 2017 Nov 23;1(11):1401-1407. Epub 2017 Oct 23.
    Neuroendocrine Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114.
    Pheochromocytomas are neuroendocrine tumors that can arise sporadically or be inherited as a familial disease, and they may occur in isolation or as part of a multitumor syndrome. Familial disease typically presents in younger patients with a higher risk of multifocality. Recently, the tumor suppressor MYC-associated factor X () gene has been implicated as a cause of familial isolated pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Read More

    Nonfunctional pancreatic endocrine tumor in the peripancreatic region in a Chinese patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1.
    J Int Med Res 2018 Feb 14;46(2):908-915. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    1 Department of Endocrinology, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Heping District, Tianjin, China.
    Nonfunctional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NF-pNETs) in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), which results from a mutation in the MEN1 gene, are commonly small, multiple tumors located in the pancreatic head and inside the pancreatic parenchyma. We herein describe a 35-year-old woman with bone pain and a 7-year history of a prolactinoma. She was clinically diagnosed with MEN1 based on the presence of the prolactinoma and parathyroid hyperplasia. Read More

    P21 and p27 are correlated with the development and invasion of prolactinoma.
    J Neurooncol 2018 Feb 11;136(3):485-494. Epub 2017 Dec 11.
    Key Laboratory of Central Nervous System Injury Research, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Capital Medical University, Tiantanxili 6#, Beijing, 100050, China.
    Cell cycle control can prevent excessive proliferative response in the pituitary homeostasis. Cyclin dependent kinases (Cdks) are modulated by cyclins or Cdk inhibitors, such as p21 and p27, which can regulate cell cycle progression from the G1 to S phases. This study was conducted to evaluate the levels and the promoter region methylation status of p21 and p27 in prolactinomas (PRL) and analyze their association with clinicopathologic features. Read More

    Prolactinoma through the female life cycle.
    Endocrine 2018 Jan 24;59(1):16-29. Epub 2017 Nov 24.
    Multidisciplinary Pituitary and Skull Base Tumor Center, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Ave, Box 419, New York, NY, 10065, USA.
    Prolactinomas are the most common secretory pituitary adenoma. They typically occur in women in the 3rd-6th decade of life and rarely in the pediatric population or after menopause. Most women present with irregular menses and/or infertility. Read More

    Repair of Cerebrospinal Fluid Leakage Using a Transfrontal, Radial Adipofascial Flap: An Individual Approach Supported by Three-Dimensional Printing for Surgical Planning.
    World Neurosurg 2018 Feb 23;110:315-318. Epub 2017 Nov 23.
    Department of Orofaciallary Surgery, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.
    Background: Leakage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) because of large prolactinomas represents a complex issue. Because of limited anatomic space, multiple leakage sites, and scarce locally available tissue for repair, surgical possibilities are limited. We report an initial case of using a radial fasciocutaneous flap applied subfrontally to cover a large skull base defect, supported by preoperative three-dimensional (3D) printing for surgical planning. Read More

    Pediatric prolactinoma: initial presentation, treatment, and long-term prognosis.
    Eur J Pediatr 2018 Jan 22;177(1):125-132. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
    Department of Pediatrics and Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Klinikum Oldenburg AöR, Medical Campus University Oldenburg, Rahel-Straus-Strasse 10, 26133, Oldenburg, Germany.
    Prolactinoma is a rare pituitary adenoma secreting prolactin. Studies on diagnostics, treatment, and prognosis in pediatric prolactinoma patients are rare. We analyzed clinical presentation, response to treatment, and prognosis of 27 pediatric prolactinoma patients (10 m/17 f. Read More

    [Valvular heart disease in relation to the treatment of hyperprolactinemia with dopamine agonists].
    Vnitr Lek Fall 2017;63(9):561-565
    Adverse effect of dopamine agonists on the heart valves aroused much attention some time ago. Gradually, as data accumulated, the approach to the problem was rationalised and further examinations were only recommended in indicated cases. The paper reviews the current knowledge about the treatment of hyperprolactinemia with dopamine agonists and the risk of valvular disease. Read More

    Pituitary atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor in a patient with prolactinoma: A unique description.
    Neuropathology 2017 Nov 6. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Unit of Neurosurgery, Department of Biomedical and Dental Sciences and Morphofunctional Imaging, University of Messina, Messina, Italy.
    Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is an aggressive tumor of the CNS and characteristically occurs in the pediatric age. In adulthood, ATRT is rare and it is mainly localized in the cerebral hemispheres. Only 16 cases of ATRT have been described in the sellar region up to now. Read More

    A novel "total pituitary hormone index" as an indicator of postoperative pituitary function in patients undergoing resection of pituitary adenomas.
    Oncotarget 2017 Oct 7;8(45):79111-79125. Epub 2017 Mar 7.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Fuzhou General Hospital, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, P. R. China.
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between pre- and postoperative pituitary hormone levels in patients undergoing surgical resection of pituitary adenoma and to identify factors associated with preoperative hypopituitarism. Data from 81 patients with histologically confirmed functioning and non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA) who underwent transsphenoidal resection from January 2011 to December 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Logistic regression was applied to analyze factors associated with preoperative hypopituitarism. Read More

    Relation among Aromatase P450 and Tumoral Growth in Human Prolactinomas.
    Int J Mol Sci 2017 Nov 1;18(11). Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, INCyL and IBSAL, University of Salamanca, 37007 Salamanca, Spain.
    The pituitary gland is part of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, which controls development, reproduction, and aging in humans and animals. In addition, the pituitary gland is regulated mainly by hormones and neurotransmitters released from the hypothalamus and by systemic hormones secreted by target glands. Aromatase P450, the enzyme responsible for the catabolization of aromatizable androgens to estrogens, is expressed in different parts of body, including the pituitary gland. Read More

    Pituitary Adenoma Associated With Rathke's Cleft Cyst: Report of 15 Cases.
    Can J Neurol Sci 2018 Jan 6;45(1):68-75. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    1Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital,Capital Medical University,Beijing,China.
    Objective: The concomitant presence of pituitary adenoma (PA) with Rathke's cleft cyst (RCC) is rare, and most of the literature published is case reports. RCC's clinicopathological features have not been well described.

    Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the data of 15 patients with PA associated with RCC. Read More

    Cabergoline-induced fibrosis of prolactinomas: a neurosurgical perspective.
    BMJ Case Rep 2017 Nov 3;2017. Epub 2017 Nov 3.
    Division of Neurosurgery, National University Hospital (NUH), Singapore.
    Presently, the standard of care for prolactinomas, a type of pituitary adenoma, is dopaminergic agents such as bromocriptine and cabergoline. However, dopaminergic agents may induce fibrosis of cardiac valves leading to valvular insufficiency, necessitating surgical treatment of prolactinoma. Fibrosis of prolactinoma can be induced by prolonged medical treatment with bromocriptine, and this usually occurs after years of treatment. Read More

    [Indications for surgical treatment of prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas].
    Zh Vopr Neirokhir Im N N Burdenko 2017;81(5):117-124
    Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute named, Moscow, Russia.
    Prolactinomas account for about 40% of all pituitary adenomas. The main treatment for prolactinomas is undoubtedly therapy with dopamine agonists (DAs). However, prolonged conservative treatment (for many years or even throughout life) that is necessary for permanent control of the disease makes some patients refuse pharmacological treatment for various reasons. Read More

    mutations in Brazilian patients with sporadic pituitary adenomas: a single-center evaluation.
    Endocr Connect 2017 Nov 26;6(8):914-925. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    Department of Internal Medicine and Endocrine UnitMedical School and Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein () gene mutations () are the most frequent germline mutations found in apparently sporadic pituitary adenomas (SPA). Our aim was to evaluate the frequency of among young Brazilian patients with SPA. We performed an observational cohort study between 2013 and 2016 in a single referral center. Read More

    Sex differences in the pituitary TGFβ1 system: The role of TGFβ1 in prolactinoma development.
    Front Neuroendocrinol 2017 Oct 24. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, V. Obligado 2490, 1428 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address:
    Prolactinomas are the most frequent functioning pituitary adenomas, and sex differences in tumor size, behavior and incidence have been described. These differences have been associated with earlier diagnosis in woman, as well as with serum estradiol levels. Experimental models of prolactinomas in rodents also show a higher incidence in females, and recent findings suggest that gender differences in the transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) system might be involved in the sex-specific development of prolactinomas in these models. Read More

    Novel Germline p.Gly42Val Mutation in a Family with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 - Excellent Response of Prolactinoma to Cabergoline.
    Ann Clin Lab Sci 2017 Sep;47(5):606-610
    Endocrinology, William Harvey Research Institute, Bart's and the London School of Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK
    We report on a 27-year-old male patient presenting with renal colic secondary to hyperparathyroidism. Further investigations confirmed a diagnosis of type 1 multiple endocrine neoplasia and revealed a 2.0 cm pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour as well as a pituitary macroadenoma with significantly elevated prolactin levels. Read More

    Males with prolactinoma are at increased risk of incident cardiovascular disease.
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2018 Jan 8;88(1):71-76. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.
    Objective: To investigate whether the risk of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increased in patients with prolactinoma.

    Design: Population-based, retrospective, open-cohort study using The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database.

    Patients: A total of 2233 patients with prolactinoma and 10 355 matched controls (1:5 ratio) from UK General Practices contributing to THIN were included. Read More

    Optimal timing of dopamine agonist withdrawal in patients with hyperprolactinemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Endocrine 2018 Jan 17;59(1):50-61. Epub 2017 Oct 17.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 200025, Shanghai, China.
    Purpose: Dopamine agonists (DAs) are recommended as first-line treatment for patients with hyperprolactinemia. Generally, it is accepted that patients with hyperprolactinemia do not need lifelong medication, but the optimal timing for DA withdrawal has not been determined. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to assess the impact of DA withdrawal on the clinical outcomes of patients with hyperprolactinemia, and to explore possible factors affecting successful DA withdrawal. Read More

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