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    3268 results match your criteria Prolactinoma

    1 OF 66

    Comparison of MRI techniques for detecting microadenomas in Cushing's disease.
    J Neurosurg 2017 Apr 28:1-7. Epub 2017 Apr 28.
    Department of Neurological Surgery and.
    OBJECTIVE Many centers use conventional and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DMRI) sequences in patients with Cushing's disease. The authors assessed the utility of the 3D volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination, a spoiled-gradient echo 3D T1 sequence (SGE) characterized by superior soft tissue contrast and improved resolution, compared with DMRI and conventional MRI (CMRI) for detecting microadenomas in patients with Cushing's disease. METHODS This study was a blinded assessment of pituitary MRI in patients with proven Cushing's disease. Read More

    The Role of p16 and MDM2 Gene Polymorphisms in Prolactinoma: MDM2 Gene Polymorphisms May Be Associated with Tumor Shrinkage.
    In Vivo 2017 May-Jun;31(3):357-363
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Bezmialem Vakif University, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Aim: Prolactinomas are thought to arise from clonal expansion of a single mutated cell which is subjected to growth stimuli of several permissive factors, although the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying tumorigenesis remain unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the role of p16 (540C→G and 580C→T) and mouse double minute 2 (MDM2) (SNP309T→G) gene polymorphisms in tumorigenesis and characteristics of prolactinoma.

    Patients And Methods: A total of 74 patients with prolactinoma and 100 age- and gender-matched healthy individuals were enrolled in the study. Read More

    Clinical Importance of Somatostatin Receptor 2 (SSTR2) and Somatostatin Receptor 5 (SSTR5) Expression in Thyrotropin-Producing Pituitary Adenoma (TSHoma).
    Med Sci Monit 2017 Apr 23;23:1947-1955. Epub 2017 Apr 23.
    Department of Clinical Laboratory, People's Hospital of Weifang, Weifang, Shandong, China (mainland).
    BACKGROUND Thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas (TSHomas) are a rare cause of hyperthyroidism. Somatostatin analogs have proved to be effective for inhibiting pituitary hormones secretion, working via interactions with somatostatin receptors (SSTRs). Moreover, antiproliferative activity of somatostatin analog is now demonstrated in several studies. Read More

    A novel "total pituitary hormone index" as an indicator of postoperative pituitary function in patients undergoing resection of pituitary adenomas.
    Oncotarget 2017 Mar 7. Epub 2017 Mar 7.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Fuzhou General Hospital, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, P. R. China.
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between pre- and postoperative pituitary hormone levels in patients undergoing surgical resection of pituitary adenoma and to identify factors associated with preoperative hypopituitarism.Data from 81 patients with histologically confirmed functioning and non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA) who underwent transsphenoidal resection from January 2011 to December 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Logistic regression was applied to analyze factors associated with preoperative hypopituitarism. Read More

    Expression of Stem Cell Markers and Dopamine D2 Receptors in Human and Rat Prolactinomas.
    Med Sci Monit 2017 Apr 15;23:1827-1833. Epub 2017 Apr 15.
    Department of Neurosurgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China (mainland).
    BACKGROUND Dopamine agonists (DAs) are the first-line treatment for prolactinomas. DAs primarily target the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R). Tumor stem-like cells (TSLCs) are associated with the tolerance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Read More

    Paeoniflorin and liquiritin, two major constituents in Chinese herbal formulas used to treat hyperprolactinemia-associated disorders, inhibits prolactin secretion in prolactinoma cells by different mechanisms.
    J Ethnopharmacol 2017 Apr 7. Epub 2017 Apr 7.
    Department of Pharmacy, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China; Guangdong Key Laboratory of New Drug Screening, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China. Electronic address:
    Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Paeoniflorin and liquiritin are major constituents in some Chinese herbal formulas, such as Yiru Tiaojing (YRTJ) Granule (a hospitalized preparation) and Peony-Glycyrrhiza Decoction, used for hyperprolactinemia-associated disorders.

    Aim Of The Study: To investigate the effect of paeoniflorin and liquiritin on prolactin secretion.

    Materials And Methods: The effect of YRTJ Granule on metoclopramide-induced hyperprolactinemia was tested in rats. Read More

    N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) promoter methylation and expression in pituitary adenoma.
    Diagn Pathol 2017 Apr 8;12(1):33. Epub 2017 Apr 8.
    Neuroscience Institute, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Eiveniu str.4, LT-50009, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Background: Pituitary adenoma (PA) is a benign primary tumor that arises from the pituitary gland and is associated with ophthalmological, neurological and endocrinological abnormalities. However, causes that increase tumor progressing recurrence and invasiveness are still undetermined. Several studies have shown N-myc downstream regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) as a tumor suppressor gene, but the role of NDRG2 gene in pituitary adenoma pathogenesis has not been elucidated. Read More

    Progressive visual disturbance and enlarging prolactinoma caused by melanoma metastasis: A case report and literature review.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Apr;96(14):e6483
    aDepartment of Neurosurgery of the Second Affiliated Hospital bInstitute of Cancer Stem Cell cDepartment of Endocrinology of Affiliated Dalian Municipal Central Hospital, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning Province dDepartment of Neurosurgery of Yantaishan Hospital, Yantai, Shandong Province, PR China.
    Rationale: Melanoma metastases to the pituitary adenoma (MMPA) are extremely rare, with only 1 reported case. To date, the melanoma metastasis to the existing prolactinoma has not been reported in literatures.

    Patient Concerns: We report a case of 62-year-old woman presented with progressive visual disturbance and hyperprolactinemia. Read More

    Xanthogranuloma of the sellar region diagnosed by frozen section.
    Open Med (Wars) 2016 11;11(1):426-428. Epub 2016 Nov 11.
    Departments of Neurosurgery, The Second Clinical Medical School of Inner Mongolia University for the Nationalities (Inner Mongolia General Forestry Hospital), Yakeshi 022150, Inner Mongolia, China.
    Xanthogranuloma (XG) of the sellar region is uncommon and is difficult to diagnose based on intraoperative frozen sections. This study is a case presentation and review of the literature, highlighting the need to explore underlying diseases in order to guarantee an accurate patient diagnosis. Herein, we presented the case of a 43-year-old woman who was afflicted with xanthogranuloma of the sellar region; the patient had a history of headache and lengthened menstrual cycles over the 6 months prior to presentation. Read More

    Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Surgical versus Medical Treatment of Prolactinomas.
    J Neurol Surg B Skull Base 2017 Apr 27;78(2):125-131. Epub 2016 Sep 27.
    Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States.
    Background Few studies address the cost of treating prolactinomas. We performed a cost-utility analysis of surgical versus medical treatment for prolactinomas. Materials and Methods We determined total hospital costs for surgically and medically treated prolactinoma patients. Read More

    Pituitary Adenoma and Hyperprolactinemia Accompanied by Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis.
    Case Rep Endocrinol 2017 22;2017:3974291. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
    General Surgery Department, Liv Hospital, Ulus, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare chronic inflammatory disease of the breast, and its etiology remains not fully elucidated. IGM is observed more often in patients with autoimmune disease. Hyperprolactinemia is observed during pregnancy, lactation, and a history of oral contraceptive use. Read More

    Breast carcinoma associated with prolactinoma: A case report.
    Cancer Biol Ther 2017 Mar 17;18(3):132-136. Epub 2017 Feb 17.
    a Department of Breast Surgery , Zhejiang Cancer Hospital , Hangzhou , China.
    We report a 28-year-old woman who presented with a 6-year history of milk-like discharge from both of her nipples and was diagnosed with prolactinoma based on computed tomography (CT) findings and serum prolactin level. Further breast examination revealed a mass located in the upper outer region of the left breast. She underwent subtotal pituitary tumor resection. Read More

    Therapeutic effects of Schisandra chinensis on the hyperprolactinemia in rat.
    Int J Oncol 2017 Apr 17;50(4):1448-1454. Epub 2017 Feb 17.
    Department of Biomaterials Science, College of Natural Resources and Life Science, Pusan National University, Miryang‑si, Gyeongsangnam‑do, Republic of Korea.
    Prolactin (PRL) is secreted from the pituitary gland in response to eating, mating, and ovulation. Increased serum concentration of PRL during pregnancy contributes to enlargement of the mammary glands of the breasts and prepares for production of milk. However, high PRL levels derived from prolactinoma and hyperprolactinemia induce physiological disorders such as infertility and early menopause. Read More

    Clozapine Treatment for Cabergoline-Induced Psychosis in a Patient With a Giant Prolactinoma.
    J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 2017 Feb 27:appineuropsych16110313. Epub 2017 Feb 27.
    From the Department of Neuropsychiatry, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía, Mexico City, Mexico (RP-E, PA-G, JR-B); the Laboratory of Experimental Psychiatry, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía, Mexico City, Mexico (RP-E); and the Department of Neuroendocrinology, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía, Mexico City, Mexico (CAR-G, GGA-R, LP-O).

    Long-term cardiac (valvulopathy) safety of cabergoline in prolactinoma.
    Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2017 Jan-Feb;21(1):154-159
    Department of Endocrinology, Seth G S Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
    Background: Clinical relevance of association of cabergoline use for hyperprolactinemia and cardiac valvulopathy remains unclear.

    Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of valvular heart abnormalities in patients taking cabergoline for the treatment of prolactinoma and to explore any associations with the cumulative dose of drug used.

    Design: A cross-sectional echocardiographic study was performed in patients who were receiving cabergoline therapy for prolactinoma. Read More

    Cluster headache and macroprolactinoma: Case report of a rare, but potential important causality.
    J Clin Neurosci 2017 Feb 10. Epub 2017 Feb 10.
    Department of Endocrinology, Universtiy Hospital Basel, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address:
    While headache is not an uncommon symptom in patients suffering from pituitary adenomas, cluster headache (CH) has rarely been reported in such cases. Headache associated with hyperprolactinemia has been reported to be responsive to dopamine agonists (DA agonists) in many patients. We report on a patient with refractory CH secondary to a macroprolactinoma who showed immediate and permanent clinical and radiologic recovery following medical treatment with DA agonists. Read More

    Giant Prolactinoma Presenting As a Base of Skull Tumor With Nasopharyngeal Extension: A Potential Diagnostic Pitfall in Neuroendocrine Lesions of the Base of Skull.
    Head Neck Pathol 2017 Feb 14. Epub 2017 Feb 14.
    Department of Pathology, University Health Network, 200 Elizabeth Street, Toronto, ON, M5G 2C4, Canada.
    Pituitary adenomas presenting in uncommon anatomical locations are commonly misdiagnosed. Dramatic clinical presentation with hemorrhage and infarction, along with a lack of endocrine symptoms may further confound the diagnosis in some patients as illustrated in one of our two previously reported cases of non-small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the sinonasal tract and nasopharynx. This report presents the clinical progress of case number 2, which has a revised diagnosis of giant lactotroph pituitary adenoma. Read More

    Diagnosis and Treatment of Pituitary Adenomas: A Review.
    JAMA 2017 Feb;317(5):516-524
    Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Molecular Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois.
    Importance: Pituitary adenomas may hypersecrete hormones or cause mass effects. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment are important.

    Observations: Prevalence of pituitary adenomas ranges from 1 in 865 adults to 1 in 2688 adults. Read More

    Global expression profile of tumor stem-like cells isolated from MMQ rat prolactinoma cell.
    Cancer Cell Int 2017 31;17:15. Epub 2017 Jan 31.
    Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100050 China.
    Background: Cancer stem cells (CSCs), which have been isolated from various malignancies, were closely correlated with the occurrence, progression, metastasis and recurrence of the malignant cancer. Little is known about the tumor stem-like cells (TSLCs) isolated from benign tumors. Here we want to explore the global expression profile of RNA of tumor stem-like cells isolated from MMQ rat prolactinoma cells. Read More

    An Economic Analysis of Bromocriptine Versus Trans-Sphenoidal Surgery for the Treatment of Prolactinoma.
    J Craniofac Surg 2017 Jan 31. Epub 2017 Jan 31.
    *Key Laboratory of Endocrinology, Ministry of Health; Department of Endocrinology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences †Department of Clinical Medicine, Peking Union Medical College ‡Department of National Health Accounts and Policy Studies, China National Health Development Research Center, Beijing, China.
    Prolactinomas account for ∼40% of all pituitary adenomas and are important causes of infertility and gonadal dysfunction. In general, most prolactinomas are treated medically with dopaminergic agonists, while surgery is reserved for patients intolerant or nonresponsive to these medications. The aim of this study was to carry out a comparative analysis of the cost-effectiveness of medical therapy with bromocriptine and surgical therapy with trans-sphenoidal surgery. Read More

    A combined opiate agonist and antagonist treatment reduces prolactin secreting pituitary tumor growth.
    J Cell Commun Signal 2017 Jan 31. Epub 2017 Jan 31.
    Endocrine Program, Department of Animal Sciences, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 67 Poultry Farm Lane, New Brunswick, NJ, 08901, USA.
    Prolactin secreting pituitary adenomas (prolactinomas) is the most common pituitary tumors in humans. Animal studies have identified aggressive prolactinoma development in fetal alcohol exposed rats. We have recently identified a combination treatment of a μ opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone and a δ opioid receptor agonist D-Ala2-,N-Me-Phe4,Gly-ol Enkephalin (DPDPE) increases innate immune function. Read More

    Bromocriptine Induces Autophagy-Dependent Cell Death in Pituitary Adenomas.
    World Neurosurg 2017 Apr 27;100:407-416. Epub 2017 Jan 27.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Binzhou Medical University Hospital, Binzhou, China.
    Background: Bromocriptine (BRC) is effective in patients with prolactinoma. However, the cytotoxic mechanism of BRC remains unknown.

    Methods: Slices for immunohistochemical pathology were randomly selected from 37 paraffin-embedded prolactinoma tissue sections. Read More

    Endovascular therapy using flow diversion for giant internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm arising in the setting of an invasive pituitary macroadenoma.
    Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent) 2017 Jan;30(1):47-49
    Departments of Diagnostic and Neurointerventional Radiology, Baylor University Medical Center at Dallas. Dr. Saad is now with Stanford University, and Dr. Marashi is now with University of Utah, Salt Lake City.
    This report illustrates the unusual occurrence of a pseudoaneurysm arising in the setting of a skull base mass and describes the first reported use of endovascular flow diversion therapy in such a setting. A 63-year-old man with occasional headaches during the preceding month presented with the acute onset of severe left retroorbital headache and oculomotor nerve palsy. Computed tomography (CT) and CT angiogram revealed a destructive skull base mass with an associated giant probable pseudoaneurysm of the cavernous segment of the left internal carotid artery. Read More

    Identification of M2 macrophages in anterior pituitary glands of normal rats and rats with estrogen-induced prolactinoma.
    Cell Tissue Res 2017 May 24;368(2):371-378. Epub 2017 Jan 24.
    Jichi Medical University, Tochigi, Japan.
    Macrophages are present throughout the anterior pituitary gland. However, the features and function of macrophages in the gland are poorly understood. Recent studies have indicated that there are two main macrophage classes: M1 (classically activated) and M2 (alternatively activated). Read More

    Relationship between expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and the proliferation of prolactinomas.
    Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2017 02 14;153:102-106. Epub 2016 Dec 14.
    The First Affiliated Hospital of BengBu Medical College, Department of Neurosurgery, China. Electronic address:
    Objective: Prolactinomas are the most common functional hormone-producing pituitary lesions, accounting for 30-40% of all pituitary tumors, while in autopsy series their incidence reaches 50%. However, patients with prolactinoma had a higher recurrence percentage and rate than patients with acromegaly or Cushing's disease. Furthermore, prolactinomas have the highest rate of recurrence post-surgery as compared with other pituitary adenomas. Read More

    The birth and rise of a craniopharyngioma: the radiological evolution of an incidental craniopharyngioma detected on serial MRI during medical treatment of a macroprolactinoma.
    Clin Case Rep 2017 Jan 20;5(1):14-17. Epub 2016 Nov 20.
    Radiology Department of Medical Sciences University of Cagliari Cagliari Italy.
    This case demonstrates the rare coexistence of a prolactinoma with craniopharyngioma and documents its radiological growth. This case suggests that patients with pituitary neoplasms should be followed closely and although prolactinomas can often be managed medically, a coexistent other lesion may require surgery for histological assessment and to reduce mass effect. Read More

    Sex differences in the development of prolactinoma in mice overexpressing hCGβ: role of TGFβ1.
    J Endocrinol 2017 Mar 17;232(3):535-546. Epub 2017 Jan 17.
    Instituto de Biología y Medicina ExperimentalConsejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Female transgenic mice that overexpress the human chorionic gonadotrophin β subunit (hCGβ+) develop prolactinomas, whereas hCGβ+ males do not. The high levels of circulating hCG induce massive luteinization in the ovary of hCGβ+ females, and progesterone becomes the primary steroid hormone produced, but estradiol remains at physiological level. The involvement of high levels of progesterone in lactotroph proliferation is not clearly understood; hence, the pathogenesis of prolactinomas in hCGβ+ females remains unclear. Read More

    Delayed Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea After Gamma Knife Radiosurgery with or without Preceding Transsphenoidal Resection for Pituitary Pathology.
    World Neurosurg 2017 Apr 9;100:201-207. Epub 2017 Jan 9.
    Department of Neurologic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA; Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA. Electronic address:
    Background: Skull base cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak after gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) is a very rare complication. In patients who were treated with both GKRS and transsphenoidal resection (TSR) for pituitary lesions, early CSF leak occurs at a comparable rate with the general TSR population (4%). Delayed CSF leak occurring more than a year after TSR, GKRS, or dual therapy is exceedingly rare. Read More

    Surgical treatment for male prolactinoma: A retrospective study of 184 cases.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Jan;96(2):e5833
    Department of Neurosurgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Science, Beijing, China.
    A total of 184 cases of surgically treated male prolactinoma were analyzed retrospectively to summarize the outcome of this surgical intervention. We analyzed the general characteristics, clinical manifestations, hormone levels, imaging features, preoperative treatments, surgical outcomes, pathology results, and follow-up records for all included patients. The most common clinical manifestations included sexual dysfunction (47. Read More

    Transdifferentiation of Neuroendocrine Cells: Gangliocytoma Associated With Two Pituitary Adenomas of Different Lineage in MEN1.
    Am J Surg Pathol 2017 Jan 10. Epub 2017 Jan 10.
    Departments of *Endocrinology †Radiology ‡Neurosurgery, Pitié Salpêtrière-Charles Foix Hospital §Department of Neuropathology Raymond-Escourolle, Pitié Salpêtrière-Charles Foix Hospital, INSERM U1127, CNRS UMR 7225, UPMC-Sorbonne University, Brain and Spine Institute ††INSERM U1016, CNRS UMR8104, Paris Descartes University, Cochin Institute, Paris ∥Endocrinology Federation, GH East, Civil Hospital of Lyon, Bron Cedex ¶INSERM U1028, CNRS UMR5292, Lyon 1 University, Neuroscience Center, Lyon **Department of Pathological Cytology and Anatomy, Foch Hospital, Suresnes, France #Department of Endocrinology, CHU de Liège, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium.
    Gangliocytomas are rare and benign neuronal cell tumors, mostly found in the hypothalamic and sellar regions. Their histogenesis is still the subject of discussions. Herein we present a unique case of a pituitary gangliocytoma associated with a prolactinoma and a corticotroph adenoma in a patient affected by MEN1. Read More

    MRI follow-up is unnecessary in patients with macroprolactinomas and long-term normal prolactin levels on dopamine agonist treatment.
    Eur J Endocrinol 2017 Mar 10;176(3):323-328. Epub 2017 Jan 10.
    Aix Marseille UniversityAssistance Publique Hopitaux de Marseille, La Conception Hospital, Marseille, France
    Objective: Both antitumor and antisecretory efficacies of dopamine agonists (DA) make them the first-line treatment of macroprolactinomas. However, there is no guideline for MRI follow-up once prolactin is controlled. The aim of our study was to determine whether a regular MRI follow-up was necessary in patients with long-term normal prolactin levels under DA. Read More

    ESR1 and its antagonist fulvestrant in pituitary adenomas.
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 2017 Mar 31;443:32-41. Epub 2016 Dec 31.
    Key Laboratory of Central Nervous System Injury Research, Center of Brain Tumor of Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100050, China. Electronic address:
    Estrogen has a key role in the pathogenesis of pituitary adenomas (PAs). The study was to evaluate the estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) level in 289 PAs cases, its association with clinicopathologic features and serving as a target of cancer treatment. In this study, the ESR1 level was evaluated by tissue microarray (TMA). Read More

    Differentiated thyroid cancer in patients with prolactinoma.
    Turk J Med Sci 2016 Nov 17;46(5):1360-1365. Epub 2016 Nov 17.
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Faculty of Medicine, Yıldırım Beyazıt University, Ankara, Turkey.
    Background/aim: Increasing evidence is available about the role of prolactin in the development of various cancers. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the frequency of thyroid cancer in patients with prolactinoma followed at a single site.

    Materials And Methods: The medical records of 182 patients diagnosed with prolactinoma were reviewed retrospectively. Read More

    Pregnancy and tumor outcomes in infertile women with macroprolactinoma on cabergoline therapy.
    Gynecol Endocrinol 2017 Apr 2;33(4):270-273. Epub 2016 Dec 2.
    a Department of Endocrinology , Post Graduate Institute of Medical education and Research (PGIMER) , Chandigarh, 160012 , India.
    Hyperprolactinemia and prolactinomas cause infertility in significant number of women. But, pregnancy may lead to post-partum remission of hyperprolactinemia. The data on pregnancy and tumor outcome in women with macroprolactinoma conceiving on Cabergoline (CAB) therapy is increasing but still less than with Bromocriptine. Read More

    Interactions between prolactin and kisspeptin to control reproduction.
    Arch Endocrinol Metab 2016 Nov-Dec;60(6):587-595. Epub 2016 Nov 24.
    Departamento de Anatomia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, USP, São Paulo, SP, Brasil.
    Prolactin is best known for its effects of stimulating mammary gland development and lactogenesis. However, prolactin is a pleiotropic hormone that is able to affect several physiological functions, including fertility. Prolactin receptors (PRLRs) are widely expressed in several tissues, including several brain regions and reproductive tract organs. Read More

    Prolactinoma and pregnancy - a series of cases including pituitary apoplexy.
    J Obstet Gynaecol 2017 Apr 21;37(3):284-287. Epub 2016 Nov 21.
    a Centro Hospitalar do Porto - Centro Materno Infantil do Norte , Porto , Portugal.
    The objective of this article is to evaluate the impact of pregnancy in women with prolactinoma, the possible consequences of therapy maintenance/discontinuation during pregnancy and to assess the type of delivery and maternal-foetal obstetrical outcome. A retrospective study of all pregnant women with prolactinoma in our Centre between 2006 and 2014 was made. We had 35 cases of pregnant women with prolactinoma, two of which had an episode of pituitary apoplexy during the second trimester. Read More

    A macroprolactinoma becoming resistant to cabergoline and developing atypical pathology.
    Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2016 18;2016. Epub 2016 Oct 18.
    Department of Endocrinology , Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Churchill Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford , UK.
    Pituitary adenomas are a common intracranial neoplasm, usually demonstrating a benign phenotype. They can be classified according to pathological, radiological or clinical behaviour as typical, atypical or carcinomas, invasive or noninvasive, and aggressive or nonaggressive. Prolactinomas account for 40-60% of all pituitary adenomas, with dopamine agonists representing the first-line treatment and surgery/radiotherapy reserved for drug intolerance/resistance or in neuro-ophthalmological emergencies. Read More

    Late presentation of acromegaly in medically controlled prolactinoma patients.
    Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2016 17;2016. Epub 2016 Oct 17.
    Department of Endocrinology , Diabetes and Metabolism.
    Co-secretion of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) from a single pituitary adenoma is common. In fact, up to 25% of patients with acromegaly may have PRL co-secretion. The prevalence of acromegaly among patients with a newly diagnosed prolactinoma is unknown. Read More

    Endocr Pract 2017 Mar 16;23(3):266-370. Epub 2016 Nov 16.
    Objective: The aim of this study to was to evaluate the effect of fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator nuclear κB ligand (RANKL), and vitamin D hormones on bone loss in patients with hyperprolactinemia due to pituitary prolactinoma.

    Methods: We recruited 46 premenopausal female patients with prolactinoma and age and sex-matched healthy controls (Group 3, n = 20) for this cross-sectional study. Prolactinoma patients were divided into 2 groups as patients newly diagnosed (Group 1, n = 26) and those under cabergoline treatment (Group 2, n = 20). Read More

    Cabergoline and prolactinomas: lack of association between DRD2 polymorphisms and response to treatment.
    Pituitary 2016 Nov 15. Epub 2016 Nov 15.
    Neuroendocrine Unit, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hospital das Clínicas & Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Endocrinology LIM-25, University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Background: About 80% of prolactinomas respond to dopamine agonists (DA) with hormonal normalization and tumor shrinkage. Mechanisms of DA resistance include reduction of dopamine receptor subtype 2 (DRD2) expression, short and long isoform ratio and post-receptor mechanisms. It was suggested that polymorphisms in the gene encoding dopamine receptor subtype 2 gene (DRD2) could be associated with variable effectiveness of cabergoline (CAB). Read More

    A novel truncating AIP mutation, p.W279*, in a familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA) kindred.
    Hormones (Athens) 2016 07;15(3):441-444
    Section on Endocrinology and Genetics, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.
    Familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) constitute 2-3% of pituitary tumours. AIP is the most commonly mutated gene in FIPA. We herein report a novel germline mutation of the AIP gene in a family with FIPA. Read More

    Effect of bisphenol a on occurrence and progression of prolactinoma and its underlying mechanisms.
    Am J Transl Res 2016 15;8(10):4195-4204. Epub 2016 Oct 15.
    Department of Endocrinology, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University Jinan 250012, China.
    Objective: To investigate the effects of Bisphenol A (BPA) on prolactin (PRL) release, pituitary cell proliferation, prolactinoma formation in estrogen-sensitive Fischer 344 (F344) rats.

    Materials And Methods: Four-week-old female F344 rats were orally administered with different concentrations of BPA or intraperitoneal injection of estradiol benzoate (estradiolbenzoate, E2) for 12 weeks. Bodyweight, blood RPL level and pituitary weights were observed and recorded. Read More

    Successful treatment of a child with a prolactin secreting macroadenoma with temozolomide.
    J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2016 Dec;29(12):1413-1415
    Prolactinomas are a rare subset of brain tumors in pediatrics. We report a child with a prolactin secreting macroadenoma which was refractory to initial treatment with a dopamine antagonist. Given the location of her tumor she was ineligible for surgical resection. Read More

    Management of prolactinomas: a survey of physicians from the Middle East and North Africa.
    Pituitary 2017 Apr;20(2):231-240
    Saint-Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon.
    Background: Prolactinomas are the commonest functional tumors of the pituitary gland. There are still controversies regarding medical therapy in specific clinical situations. Patients may be managed by different specialists in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region and no data exist on patterns of clinical management. Read More

    Pituitary tumors in MEN1: do not be misled by borderline elevated prolactin levels.
    Pituitary 2016 Dec;19(6):601-604
    Division of Endocrinology Metabolism and Molecular Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 645 N. Michigan Avenue, Suite 530, Chicago, IL, 60611, USA.
    Purpose: The objective of this case report is to demonstrate that the simple expedient of measuring periodic prolactin levels in patients with MEN1 who have modest hyperprolactinemia and normal pituitary MRI scans is insufficient to monitor for the development of pituitary adenomas.

    Methods: Review of relevant literature and chart review.

    Results: A 25 year old man with known MEN1 manifested by hyperparathyroidism and a gastrin-producing neuroendocrine tumor was found to have a prolactin [PRL] level of 20. Read More

    Long-Term Follow-Up of Primary Medical Versus Surgical Treatment of Prolactinomas in Men: Effects on Hyperprolactinemia, Hypogonadism, and Bone Health.
    World Neurosurg 2017 Jan 20;97:595-602. Epub 2016 Oct 20.
    Department of Endocrinology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland. Electronic address:
    Objective: In men with prolactinomas, impaired bone density is the principle consequence of hyperprolactinemia-induced hypogonadism. Although dopamine agonists (DAs) are the first-line approach in prolactinomas, surgery can be considered in selected cases. In this study, we aimed to investigate the long-term control of hyperprolactinemia, hypogonadism, and bone health comparing primary medical and surgical therapy in men who had not had prior DA treatment. Read More

    Significance of surgical management for cystic prolactinoma.
    Pituitary 2017 Apr;20(2):225-230
    Department of Neurosurgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, 390-8621, Japan.
    Purpose: It is generally accepted that dopamine agonists (DA) represent the first-line treatment for most patients with prolactinoma, and patients become candidates for surgical intervention when DA is contraindicated. Surgical indication for cystic prolactinoma remains controversial. This study was performed to investigate the significance of surgery for cystic prolactinoma. Read More

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