1,831 results match your criteria Prolactin Deficiency

Evaluation of the effect of vitamin D supplementation on spermatogram, seminal and serum levels of oxidative stress indices in asthenospermia infertile men: a study protocol for a triple-blind, randomized controlled trial.

Nutr J 2021 Jun 2;20(1):49. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Health education group, Jahad Daneshgahi, Ahvaz, Khuzestan, Iran.

Background: It is suggested that vitamin D may have a beneficial role in male reproduction. The male reproductive system is a target tissue for vitamin D. This study will aim to evaluate the effects of vitamin D supplementation on sperm parameters, seminal and serum levels of oxidative stress and serum endocrine factors in asthenospermia infertile men. Read More

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Vitamin D status determines the impact of metformin on circulating prolactin levels in premenopausal women.

J Clin Pharm Ther 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland.

What Is Known And Objective: Metformin was found to normalize secretory function of overactive pituitary cells. Its effect on circulating thyrotropin levels was more pronounced in women receiving exogenous vitamin D. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether vitamin D status determines the impact of metformin on prolactin levels in premenopausal women with hyperprolactinaemia. Read More

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Delayed Postnatal Growth and Anterior Pituitary Development in Growth-Retarded () Female Mice.

Zoolog Sci 2021 Jun;38(3):238-246

Division of Life Science, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570, Japan.

Growth-retarded () mice display primary congenital hypothyroidism due to the hyporesponsiveness of their thyroid glands to thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). We examined somatic growth, anterior pituitary development, and hormonal profiles in female mice and normal ones. Although growth in females was suppressed 2 weeks after birth, the measured growth parameters and organ weights gradually increased and finally reached close to the normal levels. Read More

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The Role of HIV Infection in the Pathophysiology of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy.

Wendy N Phoswa

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 12;8:613930. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Life and Consumer Sciences, University of South Africa (UNISA), Science Campus, Florida, South Africa.

The main objective of this study is to investigate mechanisms associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) in HIV infected pregnant women by looking how placental hormones such as (progesterone and prolactin) and basic haemostatic parameters are regulated in HIV infected pregnancies. HIV/AIDS are a major global obstetric health burden that lead to increased rate of morbidity and mortality. HIV/AIDS has been associated with the pathophysiology of GDM and HDP. Read More

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Non-functioning pituitary adenomas and pregnancy: one-center experience and review of the literature.

Arch Endocrinol Metab 2021 May;64(5):614-622

División Endocrinología, Hospital General de Agudos Dr. Carlos G. Durand, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

The usual clinical presentation of non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) consists of symptoms of mass effect and hypopituitarism. NFPA is a rare condition in young women and an uncommon complication during pregnancy. We present the outcome of three patients with NFPA during pregnancy. Read More

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Early hormonal recovery following endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for silent non-functioning pituitary adenomas with hormone dysfunction.

J Neurooncol 2021 Jun 17;153(2):343-350. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Tumor Center, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: The role of transsphenoidal surgery in the recovery of preexisting hormone dysfunction from pituitary tumors remains controversial. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of hormone dysfunction among asymptomatic non-functioning pituitary adenomas and their recovery following endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery.

Methods: Eligibility criteria included age under 80 years, presence of a non-functioning pituitary adenoma compressing the normal gland resulting in deviation of the stalk, absence of visual symptoms, and availability for regular follow-up using MRI and pre- and post-operative endocrinological assessments. Read More

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Blood, urine and cerebrospinal fluid analysis in TH and AADC deficiency and the effect of treatment.

Mol Genet Metab Rep 2021 Jun 26;27:100762. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Radboud university medical center, Department of Neurology (943), Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Background: Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) deficiency are rare inherited disorders of monoamine neurotransmitter synthesis which are typically diagnosed using cerebrospinal fluid examination of monoamine neurotransmitter metabolites. Until now, it has not been systematically studied whether analysis of monamine neurotransmitter metabolites in blood or urine has diagnostic value as compared to cerebrospinal fluid examination, or whether monoamine neurotransmitter metabolites in these peripheral body fluids is useful to monitor treatment efficacy.

Methods: Assessment, both by literature review and retrospective analysis of our local university hospital database, of monoamine neurotransmitter metabolites in urine, blood and cerebrospinal fluid, and serum prolactin levels, before and during treatment in patients with AADC and TH deficiency. Read More

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The Interaction of Insulin and Pituitary Hormone Syndromes.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 28;12:626427. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Clinical Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Pituitary hormone axes modulate glucose metabolism and exert direct or indirect effects on insulin secretion and function. Cortisol and growth hormone are potent insulin-antagonistic hormones. Therefore impaired glucose tolerance, elevated fasting glucose concentrations and diabetes mellitus are frequent in Cushing's disease and acromegaly. Read More

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Role of Oxidative Stress and the Identification of Biomarkers Associated With Thyroid Dysfunction in Schizophrenics.

Front Pharmacol 2021 29;12:646287. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Schizophrenia is associated with a deficiency of dietary antioxidants like vitamin B6, B9, and B12 resulting in defective methylation leading to hyperhomocysteinemia. Hyperhomocysteinemia causes mitochondrial DNA damage, oxidative stress, vascular damage, and lipid peroxidation. Oxidative stress and increase in reactive oxygen species result in 8-oxodG production which induces apoptosis of both astrocytes and thyrocytes thus predisposing them to thyroid dysfunction and neurodegeneration. Read More

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Clinical and Biochemical Features of Hypopituitarism Among Brazilian Children With Zika Virus-Induced Microcephaly.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 May 3;4(5):e219878. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Pediatrics, Ribeirao Preto Medical School, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Importance: The Zika virus infects progenitor neuron cells, disrupts cerebral development, and, in mice, drives hypothalamic defects. Patients with microcephaly caused by congenital Zika infection present with midline cerebral defects, which may result in hypopituitarism.

Objective: To analyze postnatal growth and the presence of clinical and biochemical features associated with hypopituitarism in children with congenital Zika infections. Read More

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A mutation of the β-domain in POU1F1 causes pituitary deficiency due to dominant PIT-1β expression.

Eur J Endocrinol 2021 May 21;185(1):1-12. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Pediatrics, Asahikawa Medical University, Asahikawa, Japan.

Background: POU1F1 encodes both PIT-1α, which plays pivotal roles in pituitary development and GH, PRL and TSHB expression, and the alternatively spliced isoform PIT-1β, which contains an insertion of 26-amino acids (β-domain) in the transactivation domain of PIT-1α due to the use of an alternative splice acceptor at the end of the first intron. PIT-1β is expressed at much lower levels than PIT-1α and represses endogenous PIT-1α transcriptional activity. Although POU1F1 mutations lead to combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD), no patients with β-domain mutations have been reported. Read More

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Effect of prolactin on normal and keratoconus human corneal stromal fibroblasts in vitro.

PLoS One 2021 1;16(4):e0249344. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Purpose: To examine the effect of prolactin (PRL) on human corneal stromal fibroblasts (CSFs), derived from healthy individuals and from keratoconus (KC) patients, in vitro, specifically assessing physiological and elevated PRL concentrations as apparent during pregnancy.

Methods: Eye bank corneas of 3 female and 3 male healthy individuals as well as the corneal buttons of 3 female and 3 male KC patients were utilized for this study. The endothelium of the cornea was removed with sterile surgical scalpels, the probes were washed repeatedly with Dulbecco's PBS and corneoscleral rims were trimmed off. Read More

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Association of Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis With Panhypopituitarism Due to Pituitary Macroadenoma: A Case Report.

J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep 2021 Jan-Dec;9:2324709621999956

University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL, USA.

Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) commonly occurs in overweight or obese adolescents, but can also be associated with endocrine disorders including hypothyroidism, pituitary tumors, and growth hormone deficiency. In this article, we present a case of panhypopituitarism that initially presented with SCFE. A 16-year-old male presented with right SCFE. Read More

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PRL Mutation Causing Alactogenesis: Insights into Prolactin Structure and Function Relationships.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

Context: Isolated prolactin deficiency is a rare disorder manifesting as absence of puerperal lactation. We identified a two-generation family with 3 women experiencing alactogenesis.

Objective: We hypothesized a heterozygous genetic mutation. Read More

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POU1F1 mutations in combined pituitary hormone deficiency: differing spectrum of mutations in a Western-Indian cohort and systematic analysis of world literature.

Pituitary 2021 Mar 20. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Department of Endocrinology, IndiaSeth G.S. Medical College & KEM Hospital, Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra, 400012, India.

Context: POU1F1 mutations are prevalent in Indian CPHD cohorts. Genotype-phenotype correlation is not well-studied.

Aim: To describe phenotypic and genotypic spectrum of POU1F1 mutations in our CPHD cohort and present systematic review as well as genotype-phenotype analysis of all mutation-positive cases reported in world literature. Read More

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Congenital Hypopituitarism During the Neonatal Period: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Therapeutic Options, and Outcome.

Front Pediatr 2020 2;8:600962. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London, United Kingdom.

Congenital hypopituitarism (CH) is characterized by a deficiency of one or more pituitary hormones. The pituitary gland is a central regulator of growth, metabolism, and reproduction. The anterior pituitary produces and secretes growth hormone (GH), adrenocorticotropic hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin. Read More

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February 2021

Do sex hormone imbalances contribute to idiopathic condylar resorption?

Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2021 Feb 23. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Oral Surgery, Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology and Shanghai Research Institute of Stomatology, National Clinical Research Center of Stomatology, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Idiopathic condylar resorption (ICR) is an aggressive form of temporomandibular joint disease that most frequently presents in adolescent girls during the pubertal growth spurt. Although numerous studies have indicated that the etiopathogenesis of ICR may be related to estrogen deficiency, the decisive role of estrogens remains controversial, and other sex hormone disturbances have not yet been investigated in this regard. Therefore, the aim of this study was to ascertain the role of serum estrogen levels and also the roles of other sex hormones in the pathogenesis of ICR. Read More

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February 2021

Effects of oral macimorelin on copeptin and anterior pituitary hormones in healthy volunteers.

Pituitary 2021 Feb 22. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, University Hospital Basel, Petersgraben 4, 4031, Basel, Switzerland.

Purpose: The test with the highest diagnostic accuracy for diabetes insipidus is copeptin measurement after hypertonic saline infusion. However, the procedure is cumbersome and unpleasant due to rapid sodium increase. An oral stimulation test would be highly desirable. Read More

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February 2021

Estrogens in schizophrenia: progress, current challenges and opportunities.

Curr Opin Psychiatry 2021 May;34(3):228-237

University of Groningen, Department of Biomedical Sciences of Cells and Systems, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen.

Purpose Of Review: Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder with a different, but not necessarily milder clinical presentation in women as compared to men. These sex differences have largely been attributed to the protective role of estrogens. This article reviews the current state of estrogen research in schizophrenia. Read More

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The effect of pestle acupuncture for patients with lactation insufficiency after cesarean section: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jan;100(3):e23808

Nursing School, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine.

Introduction: Cesarean section is a common operation in obstetrics, and the incidence of insufficient breast milk is high in parturients undergoing cesarean section. Studies have shown that acupuncture or massage at related acupoints can promote the secretion and excretion of milk. These external treatments are quick, safe, and effective. Read More

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January 2021

The Effect of Recombinant Human Follicle-Stimulating Hormone on Sperm Quality, Chromatin Status and Clinical Outcomes of Infertile Oligozoospermic Men Candidate for Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Int J Fertil Steril 2021 Jan 19;15(1):1-7. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Reproductive Biotechnology, Reproductive Biomedicine Research Center, Royan Institute for Biotechnology, ACECR, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) plays a crucial role in spermatogenesis; in this study, we assessed the effect of recombinant human FSH (rhFSH) on sperm parameters, chromatin status and clinical outcomes of infertile oligozoospermic men candidates for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).

Materials And Methods: This interventional randomized clinical trials (IRCT) included 40 infertile oligozoospermic men undergoing ICSI. These individuals were randomized into two groups: 20 men received rhFSH drug for three months and the other 20 men who did not receive rhFSH drug were considered the control group. Read More

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January 2021

Case Report: Pituitary Morphology and Function Are Preserved in Female Patients With Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Under Pharmacological Treatment.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2020 8;11:613054. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Section of Medical Pathophysiology, Food Science and Endocrinology, Department of Experimental Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension is a neurological disorder primarily affecting overweight women of childbearing age. It is often characterized by radiologic evidence of empty sella (ES), which is in turn frequently associated with pituitary dysfunction, with the somatotropic axis most commonly affected. No recent evidence is available relative to the presence of pituitary hormone deficiencies in adult patients with Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH) under pharmacological therapy. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 Pneumonia Affects Male Reproductive Hormone Levels: A Prospective, Cohort Study.

J Sex Med 2021 02 27;18(2):256-264. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Department of Urology, Istanbul University, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey.

Background: SARS-CoV-2 which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) binds to angiotensin-converting enyzme 2 (ACE2) and enters the host cell. ACE2 protein is expressed highly in the testis.

Aim: The aim of this study was to compare male reproductive hormones such as total testosterone (TT), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicular stimulant hormone (FSH), and prolactin between patients with COVID-19, age-matched cases with non-COVID-19 respiratory tract infection, and age-matched controls. Read More

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February 2021

GPR10 gene deletion in mice increases basal neuronal activity, disturbs insulin sensitivity and alters lipid homeostasis.

Gene 2021 Mar 12;774:145427. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of the Czech Academy of Sciences, 16610 Prague, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

G-protein-coupled receptor GPR10 is expressed in brain areas regulating energy metabolism. In this study, the effects of GPR10 gene deficiency on energy homeostasis in mice of both sexes fed either standard chow or a high-fat diet (HFD) were studied, with a focus on neuronal activation of PrRP neurons, and adipose tissue and liver metabolism. GPR10 deficiency in males upregulated the phasic and tonic activity of PrRP neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract. Read More

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Sheehan Syndrome Presenting with Psychotic Manifestations Mimicking Schizophrenia in a Young Female: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Case Rep Endocrinol 2020 4;2020:8840938. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Diabetes and Endocrine Unit, National Hospital of Sri Lanka, Colombo 10, Sri Lanka.

Introduction: Sheehan syndrome presents with features of multiple hormone deficiencies including lactation failure and amenorrhoea as well as with features of central hypothyroidism and adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency. Psychiatric manifestations are mostly limited to cognitive impairment. Psychotic presentations are rare and limited to case reports. Read More

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December 2020

Retrospective analysis of 19 patients with 6-Pyruvoyl Tetrahydropterin Synthase Deficiency: Prolactin levels inversely correlate with growth.

Mol Genet Metab 2020 12 18;131(4):380-389. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Division of Medical Genetics/Pediatrics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; ARUP Laboratories, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; Department of Pathology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.. Electronic address:

Background: Pyruvoyl Tetrahydropterin Synthase (PTPS) Deficiency is the most common form of BH4 deficiency resulting in hyperphenylalaninemia. It can have variable clinical severity and there is limited information on the clinical presentation, natural history and effectiveness of newborn screening for this condition.

Methods: Retrospective data (growth and clinical parameters, biochemical and genetic testing results, treatment) were collected from 19 patients with PTPS deficiency in different centers, to evaluate biochemical and clinical outcomes. Read More

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December 2020

Mex3c mutation affects lactation through impairing milk ejection in female mice.

Biosci Rep 2020 12;40(12)

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, General Hospital, Ningxia Medical University, Ningxia 750004, China.

Mouse Mex3c encodes RNA-binding proteins of variant length through alternative splicing. Its mutation results in multiple defects including growth retardation, perturbed energy balance, and defective antiviral innate immunity. Here we report that Mex3c mutation affects mammary gland development and lactation in female mice. Read More

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December 2020

Correction: .


Open Heart 2020 11;7(2)

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November 2020

Effect of Thyroxine Replacement on Leydig Cell and Sertoli Cell Function in Men with Hypothyroidism.

Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2020 May-Jun;24(3):265-269. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Endocrinology, JIPMER, Dhanvantri Nagar, Gorimedu, Puducherry, India.

Context: Thyroid hormones play an important role in reproductive and sexual function in both sexes. Comprehensive information on the ill-effects of hypothyroidism on Leydig cell, Sertoli cell and germ cell function is lacking in the existing literature.

Aims: To investigate the effect of primary hypothyroidism and its treatment on testicular function - Sertoli cell, Leydig cells, seminal fluid and spermatozoa. Read More

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CGRP-Mediated Prolactin Upregulation: a Possible Pathomechanism in IgG4-Related Disease.

Inflammation 2021 Apr 16;44(2):536-548. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Department of Pathology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China.

Similar to other immune-mediated diseases, IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is the disease that develops in genetically susceptible individuals exposed to external or endogenous antigens. In the present study, it was confirmed that MAG (myelin-associated glycoprotein) antibodies (IgG, IgG4, and IgM) were detected by immunofluorescence (IFA) in serum of the patients with IgG4-RD. In vivo, the levels of prolactin and Th2 cytokines in CGRP rats were higher than those in wild-type. Read More

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