668 results match your criteria Progress in retinal and eye research[Journal]


Immune privilege in corneal transplantation.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2019 Apr 20. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

Department of Innovative Visual Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.

Corneal transplantation is the most successful solid organ transplantation performed in humans. The extraordinary success of orthotopic corneal allografts, in both humans and experimental animals, is related to the phenomenon of "immune privilege". Inflammation is self-regulated to preserve ocular functions because the eye has immune privilege. Read More

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April 2019
1 Read

Retinal oximetry: Metabolic imaging for diseases of the retina and brain.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.

Retinal oximetry imaging of retinal blood vessels measures oxygen saturation of hemoglobin. The imaging technology is non-invasive and reproducible with remarkably low variability on test-retest studies and in healthy cohorts. Pathophysiological principles and novel biomarkers in several retinal diseases have been discovered, as well as possible applications for systemic and brain disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.preteyeres.2019.04.001DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

ELOVL4: Very long-chain fatty acids serve an eclectic role in mammalian health and function.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2019 03 25;69:137-158. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Oklahoma Center for Neurosciences, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA; Dean McGee Eye Institute, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA; Department of Ophthalmology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA; Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA; Harold Hamm Diabetes Center, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA. Electronic address:

ELOngation of Very Long chain fatty acids-4 (ELOVL4) is an elongase responsible for the biosynthesis of very long chain (VLC, ≥C28) saturated (VLC-SFA) and polyunsaturated (VLC-PUFA) fatty acids in brain, retina, skin, Meibomian glands, and testes. Fascinatingly, different mutations in this gene have been reported to cause vastly different phenotypes in humans. Heterozygous inheritance of seven different mutations in the coding sequence and 5' untranslated region of ELOVL4 causes autosomal dominant Stargardt-like macular dystrophy (STGD3), while homozygous inheritance of three more mutant variants causes severe seizures with ichthyosis, hypertonia, and even death. Read More

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March 2019
3 Reads

Human vitreous in proliferative diabetic retinopathy: Characterization and translational implications.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2019 Apr 2. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, Italy. Electronic address:

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of visual impairment in the working-age population. DR is a progressive eye disease caused by long-term accumulation of hyperglycaemia-mediated pathological alterations in the retina of diabetic patients. DR begins with asymptomatic retinal abnormalities and may progress to advanced-stage proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), characterized by neovascularization or preretinal/vitreous haemorrhages. Read More

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April 2019
3 Reads

Photoreceptor cell replacement in macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa: A pluripotent stem cell-based approach.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2019 Mar 16. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Institut de la Vision, Sorbonne Université, INSERM, CNRS, F-75012, Paris, France. Electronic address:

The human retina fails to regenerate and cell-based therapies offer options for treatment of blinding retinal diseases, such as macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. The last decade has witnessed remarkable advances in generation of retinal cells and retinal tissue from human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). The development of 3D culture systems allowing generation of human retinal organoids has substantially increased the access to human material for future clinical applications aiming at replacing the lost photoreceptors in retinal degenerative diseases. Read More

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March 2019
3 Reads

Retinal capillary perfusion: Spatial and temporal heterogeneity.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Centre for Ophthalmology and Visual Science, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia; Lions Eye Institute, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia.

The central role of the cardiovascular system is to maintain adequate capillary perfusion. The spatially and temporally heterogeneous nature of capillary perfusion has been reported in some organs. However, such heterogeneous perfusion properties have not been sufficiently explored in the retina. Read More

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February 2019
6 Reads

Insights into photoreceptor ciliogenesis revealed by animal models.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2018 Dec 25. Epub 2018 Dec 25.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Utah Health Sciences, Salt Lake City, UT, 84132, USA.

Photoreceptors are polarized neurons, with very specific subcellular compartmentalization and unique requirements for protein expression and trafficking. Each photoreceptor contains an outer segment, the site of photon capture that initiates vision, an inner segment that houses the biosynthetic machinery and a synaptic terminal for signal transmission to downstream neurons. Outer segments and inner segments are connected by a connecting cilium (CC), the equivalent of a transition zone (TZ) of primary cilia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.preteyeres.2018.12.004DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

On the origin of proteins in human drusen: The meet, greet and stick hypothesis.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, University College London, London, UK; Centre for Experimental Medicine, School of Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical Sciences, Queen's University, Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK.

Retinal drusen formation is not only a clinical hallmark for the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) but also for other disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and renal diseases. The initiation and growth of drusen is poorly understood. Attention has focused on lipids and minerals, but relatively little is known about the origin of drusen-associated proteins and how they are retained in the space between the basal lamina of the retinal pigment epithelium and the inner collagenous layer space (sub-RPE-BL space). Read More

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December 2018
14 Reads

Immune cells in the retina and choroid: Two different tissue environments that require different defenses and surveillance.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.

In the eye immune defenses must take place in a plethora of differing microenvironments ranging from the corneal and conjunctival epithelia facing the external environment to the pigmented connective tissue of the uveal tract containing smooth muscle, blood vessels and peripheral nerves to the innermost and highly protected neural retina. The extravascular environment of the neural retina, like the brain parenchyma, is stringently controlled to maintain conditions required for neural transmission. The unique physiological nature of the neural retina can be attributed to the blood retinal barriers (BRB) of the retinal vasculature and the retinal pigment epithelium, which both tightly regulate the transport of small molecules and restrict passage of cells and macromolecules from the circulation into the retina in a similar fashion to the blood brain barrier (BBB). Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Posterior staphyloma in pathologic myopia.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Ophthalmology, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Ruprecht-Karls-University of Heidelberg, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167, Mannheim, Germany. Electronic address:

A posterior staphyloma is an outpouching of a circumscribed region of the posterior fundus and has been considered a hallmark of pathologic myopia. Occurring in highly myopic eyes, it is histologically characterized by a relatively abrupt scleral thinning starting at the staphyloma edge, a pronounced de-arrangement of scleral collagen fibrils and a marked choroidal thinning, which is the most marked at the staphyloma edge and which occurs in addition to the axial elongation-associated choroidal thinning. Besides in highly myopic eyes, a posterior staphyloma can be found in non-highly myopic eyes in association with retinitis pigmentosa or localized defects of Bruch's membrane in the cases of which it is not associated with a marked choroidal thinning. Read More

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December 2018
17 Reads

Wnt Signaling in vascular eye diseases.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Department of Ophthalmology, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA, 02115, United States. Electronic address:

The Wnt signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in vascular morphogenesis in various organs including the eye. Wnt ligands and receptors are key regulators of ocular angiogenesis both during the eye development and in vascular eye diseases. Wnt signaling participates in regulating multiple vascular beds in the eye including regression of the hyaloid vessels, and development of structured layers of vasculature in the retina. Read More

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December 2018
19 Reads

Reconsidering the central role of mucins in dry eye and ocular surface diseases.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Hôpital Bicêtre, APHP, South Paris University, Ophthalmology, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France.

Mucins are key actors in tear film quality and tear film stability. Alteration of membrane-bound mucin expression on corneal and conjunctival epithelial cells and/or gel-forming mucin secretion by goblet cells (GCs) promotes in ocular surface diseases and dry eye disease (DED). Changes in the mucin layer may lead to enhanced tear evaporation eventually contributing to tear hyperosmolarity which has been associated with ocular surface inflammation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.preteyeres.2018.11.007DOI Listing
November 2018
22 Reads

Return of function after CNS axon regeneration: Lessons from injury-responsive intrinsically photosensitive and alpha retinal ganglion cells.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2018 Nov 17. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

Neuroscience and Ophthalmology, Institute of Inflammation and Ageing, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK. Electronic address:

This review addresses issues relating to the survival and axon regeneration of both intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGC) and αRGC, and possible ensuing patterns of functional recovery after optic nerve crush, all of which are broadly relevant to recovery from injury in the central nervous system (CNS) as whole. Although much needs to be clarified about the connectivity, function and patterns of myelination of regenerated CNS axons, the results of recent research on activity-induced αRGC axon regeneration associated with functional restitution have highlighted key focal obstacles to recovery including neurotrophic support, axon misguidance, target recognition failure and dysmyelination. Pan RGC survival/axon regeneration requires receptor binding and downstream signalling by a cocktail of growth factors, more generally defined in the CNS by the individual trophic requirements of neuronal subsets within a given disconnected centre. Read More

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November 2018
11 Reads

Corneal pain and experimental model development.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2018 Nov 16. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tufts University, 4 Colby Street, Medford, MA, 02155, USA. Electronic address:

The cornea is a valuable tissue for studying peripheral sensory nerve structure and regeneration due to its avascularity, transparency, and dense innervation. Somatosensory innervation of the cornea serves to identify changes in environmental stimuli at the ocular surface, thereby promoting barrier function to protect the eye against injury or infection. Due to regulatory demands to screen ocular safety of potential chemical exposure, a need remains to develop functional human tissue models to predict ocular damage and pain using in vitro-based systems to increase throughput and minimize animal use. Read More

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November 2018
27 Reads

Transplantation of photoreceptors into the degenerative retina: Current state and future perspectives.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2019 03 13;69:1-37. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

CRTD/Center for Regenerative Therapies Dresden, Center for Molecular and Cellular Bioengineering (CMCB), Technische Universität Dresden, Fetscherstraße 105, 01307, Dresden, Germany. Electronic address:

The mammalian retina displays no intrinsic regenerative capacities, therefore retinal degenerative diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) or retinitis pigmentosa (RP) result in a permanent loss of the light-sensing photoreceptor cells. The degeneration of photoreceptors leads to vision impairment and, in later stages, complete blindness. Several therapeutic strategies have been developed to slow down or prevent further retinal degeneration, however a definitive cure i. Read More

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March 2019
16 Reads

Biomechanics of the human lens and accommodative system: Functional relevance to physiological states.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2018 Nov 12. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Clifton Campus, Clifton Lane, Nottingham, NG11 8NS, UK. Electronic address:

The ability of the human lens to accommodate is mediated by the ciliary muscle and zonule; the manifest optical power changes depend on the shape and material properties of the lens. The latter are difficult to measure with accuracy and, given the dynamic aspects of accommodation and the ageing of cells and tissues, the biomechanics of the lens is neither fixed nor constant. A range of techniques have been developed to measure both ageing trends and spatial variations in the mechanical properties and these have yielded a diverse array of findings and respective conclusions. Read More

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November 2018
20 Reads

Metabolomics in the study of retinal health and disease.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2019 03 10;69:57-79. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

Retina Service, Massachusetts Eye and Ear, Harvard Medical School, 243 Charles Street, Boston, MA, 02114, United States. Electronic address:

Metabolomics is the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the metabolites (small molecules < 1.5 kDa) in body fluids. The metabolites are the downstream of the genetic transcription and translation processes and also downstream of the interactions with environmental exposures; thus, they are thought to closely relate to the phenotype, especially for multifactorial diseases. Read More

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March 2019
22 Reads

Stemming retinal regeneration with pluripotent stem cells.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2019 03 9;69:38-56. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Laboratory for Retinal Regeneration, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Kobe, Hyogo, 650-0047, Japan.

Cell replacement therapy is a promising treatment for irreversible retinal cell death in diverse diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), Stargardt's disease, retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and glaucoma. These diseases are all characterized by the degeneration of one or two retinal cell types that cannot regenerate spontaneously in humans. Aberrant retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells can be observed through optical coherence tomography (OCT) in AMD patients. Read More

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March 2019
16 Reads

Myopic maculopathy: Current status and proposal for a new classification and grading system (ATN).

Prog Retin Eye Res 2019 03 1;69:80-115. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Red Temática de Investigación Cooperativa en Salud: "Prevención, detección precoz, y tratamiento de la patología ocular prevalente, degenerativa y crónica" (RD16/0008/0021), Spanish Ministry of Health, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Spain; Puerta de Hierro-Majadahonda University Hospital, Madrid, Spain; Department of Ophthalmology, Castilla La Mancha University, Albacete, Spain; Vissum Corporation, Spain. Electronic address:

Myopia is a highly frequent ocular disorder worldwide and pathologic myopia is the 4th most common cause of irreversible blindness in developed countries. Pathologic myopia is especially common in East Asian countries. Ocular alterations associated with pathologic myopia, especially those involving the macular area-defined as myopic maculopathy-are the leading causes of vision loss in patients with pathologic myopia. Read More

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March 2019
2 Reads

The role of placental growth factor (PlGF) and its receptor system in retinal vascular diseases.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2019 03 30;69:116-136. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Centre for Experimental Medicine, Queen's University Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK. Electronic address:

Placental growth factor (PlGF) is a member of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family. Upon binding to VEGF- and neuropilin-receptor sub-types, PlGF modulates a range of neural, glial and vascular cell responses that are distinct from VEGF-A. As PlGF expression is selectively associated with pathological angiogenesis and inflammation, its blockade does not affect the healthy vasculature. Read More

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March 2019
3 Reads

Immune regulation in the aging retina.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2019 03 20;69:159-172. Epub 2018 Oct 20.

Centre for Experimental Medicine, School of Medicine, Dentistry & Biomedical Sciences, Queen's University Belfast, UK; Aier Eye Institute, Aier School of Ophthalmology, Central South University, China. Electronic address:

The retina is an immune privileged tissue, which is protected from external and internal insults by its blood-retina barriers and immune suppressive microenvironment. Apart from the avoidance and tolerance strategies, the retina is also protected by its own defense system, i.e. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6373845PMC
March 2019
14 Reads

3D cell-laden polymers to release bioactive products in the eye.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2019 01 18;68:67-82. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Gloriana Therapeutics, Inc, 225 Chapman St., Providence, RI, USA. Electronic address:

Millions of people worldwide suffer from debilitating, progressive, and often permanent loss of vision without any viable treatment options. The complex physiological barriers of the eye contribute to the difficulty in developing novel therapies by limiting our ability to deliver therapeutics in a sustained and controlled manner; especially when attempting to deliver drugs to the posterior eye or trying to regenerate the diseased retina. Cell-based therapies offer a significant potential advancement in these situations. Read More

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January 2019
24 Reads
8.733 Impact Factor

The clinical relevance of visualising the peripheral retina.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2019 01 10;68:83-109. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Centre for Experimental Medicine, Queen's University, Belfast, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Recent developments in imaging technologies now allow the documentation, qualitative and quantitative evaluation of peripheral retinal lesions. As wide field retinal imaging, capturing both the central and peripheral retina up to 200° eccentricity, is becoming readily available the question is: what is it that we gain by imaging the periphery? Based on accumulating evidence it is clear that findings in the periphery do not always associate to those observed in the posterior pole. However, the newly acquired information may provide useful clues to previously unrecognised disease features and may facilitate more accurate disease prognostication. Read More

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January 2019
15 Reads
8.733 Impact Factor

Presbyopia: Effectiveness of correction strategies.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2019 01 19;68:124-143. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Ophthalmic Research Group, Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, B4 7ET, UK.

Presbyopia is a global problem affecting over a billion people worldwide. The prevalence of unmanaged presbyopia is as high as 50% of those over 50 years of age in developing world populations, due to a lack of awareness and accessibility to affordable treatment, and is even as high as 34% in developed countries. Definitions of presbyopia are inconsistent and varied, so we propose a redefinition that states "presbyopia occurs when the physiologically normal age-related reduction in the eye's focusing range reaches a point, when optimally corrected for distance vision, that the clarity of vision at near is insufficient to satisfy an individual's requirements". Read More

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January 2019
8 Reads

New concepts in the diagnosis and management of choroidal metastases.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2019 01 19;68:144-176. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Department of Radiation Therapy, Centre François Baclesse - ARCHADE, Unicaen - Normandie University, 14000, Caen, France. Electronic address:

The most frequent site of ocular metastasis is the choroid. The occurrence of choroidal metastases has increased steadily due to the longer survival of metastatic patients and the improvement of diagnostic tools. Fundoscopy, ultrasonography, and fluorescein angiography are now complemented by indocyanine green angiography and optical coherence tomography. Read More

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January 2019
13 Reads

Patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells for modelling genetic retinal dystrophies.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2019 01 11;68:54-66. Epub 2018 Sep 11.

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, USA; Center for Stem Cell Biology and Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, USA.

The human retina is a highly complex tissue that makes up an integral part of our central nervous system. It is astonishing that our retina works seamlessly to provide one of our most critical senses, and it is equally devastating when a disease destroys a portion of the retina and robs people of their vision. After decades of research, scientists are beginning to understand retinal cells in a way that can benefit the millions of individuals suffering from inherited blindness. Read More

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January 2019
2 Reads

The peripheral eye: A neurogenic area with potential to treat retinal pathologies?

Prog Retin Eye Res 2019 01 8;68:110-123. Epub 2018 Sep 8.

Instituto de Neurociencias (CSIC-UMH), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas-Universidad Miguel Hernández, Campus San Juan, Av. Ramón y Cajal s/n, Alicante, 03550, Spain. Electronic address:

Numerous degenerative diseases affecting visual function, including glaucoma and retinitis pigmentosa, are produced by the loss of different types of retinal cells. Cell replacement therapy has emerged as a promising strategy for treating these and other retinal diseases. The retinal margin or ciliary body (CB) of mammals has been proposed as a potential source of cells to be used in degenerative conditions affecting the retina because it has been reported it might hold neurogenic potential beyond embryonic development. Read More

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January 2019
2 Reads

Gene therapy for visual loss: Opportunities and concerns.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2019 01 29;68:31-53. Epub 2018 Aug 29.

Centre for Eye Research Australia, Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, East Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Ophthalmology, Department of Surgery, University of Melbourne, East Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia; Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China. Electronic address:

Many clinical trials using gene therapy have shown significant therapeutic benefits and exceptional safety records. Increasing evidence is verifying the long sought-after promise that gene therapy will genetically 'cure' some severely disabling diseases. In particular, the first gene therapy bioproduct for RPE65-associated Leber's congenital amaurosis, which was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2017, has provided tremendous encouragement to the field of gene therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.preteyeres.2018.08.003DOI Listing
January 2019
46 Reads

Adaptive optics imaging of the human retina.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2019 01 27;68:1-30. Epub 2018 Aug 27.

800E. Atwater S, School of Optometry, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, United States.

Adaptive Optics (AO) retinal imaging has provided revolutionary tools to scientists and clinicians for studying retinal structure and function in the living eye. From animal models to clinical patients, AO imaging is changing the way scientists are approaching the study of the retina. By providing cellular and subcellular details without the need for histology, it is now possible to perform large scale studies as well as to understand how an individual retina changes over time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.preteyeres.2018.08.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6347528PMC
January 2019
8 Reads

Corrigendum to molecular genetics and emerging therapies for retinitis pigmentosa: Basic research and clinical perspective progress in retinal and eye research (2018) Vol 63,107-131.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2018 09 11;66:220-221. Epub 2018 Aug 11.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA; Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA; Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA; Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA. Electronic address:

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September 2018
2 Reads

Artificial intelligence in retina.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2018 11 1;67:1-29. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

Christian Doppler Laboratory for Ophthalmic Image Analysis, Vienna Reading Center, Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Vienna, Spitalgasse 23, 1090, Vienna, Austria.

Major advances in diagnostic technologies are offering unprecedented insight into the condition of the retina and beyond ocular disease. Digital images providing millions of morphological datasets can fast and non-invasively be analyzed in a comprehensive manner using artificial intelligence (AI). Methods based on machine learning (ML) and particularly deep learning (DL) are able to identify, localize and quantify pathological features in almost every macular and retinal disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.preteyeres.2018.07.004DOI Listing
November 2018
5 Reads

Sigma 1 receptor: A novel therapeutic target in retinal disease.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2018 11 1;67:130-149. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University, Augusta, GA, USA; The James and Jean Culver Vision Discovery Institute, Augusta University, Augusta, GA, USA; Department of Ophthalmology, Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University 30912, Augusta, GA, USA.

Retinal degenerative diseases are major causes of untreatable blindness worldwide and efficacious treatments for these diseases are sorely needed. A novel target for treatment of retinal disease is the transmembrane protein Sigma 1 Receptor (Sig1R). This enigmatic protein is an evolutionary isolate with no known homology to any other protein. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

OCT angiography and evaluation of the choroid and choroidal vascular disorders.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2018 11 27;67:30-55. Epub 2018 Jul 27.

Department of Ophthalmology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA; Doheny Image Reading Center, Doheny Eye Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA. Electronic address:

The recent introduction of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) has remarkably expanded our knowledge of the choroid through in vivo investigation of the anatomical and pathological features of this important vascular layer. New insights elucidating the morphological features of the choroid, in both physiological and pathological conditions, indicate that this vascular structure plays a crucial role in many chorioretinal disorders. In this article, a review of the salient histological and anatomical features of the choroid, essential for the proper interpretation of in vivo imaging, is followed by a discussion of the fundamental principles of OCTA and the application of this advanced imaging modality to study and understand the choroid. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.preteyeres.2018.07.002DOI Listing
November 2018
14 Reads

Adaptive optics ophthalmoscopy: Application to age-related macular degeneration and vascular diseases.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2018 09 17;66:1-16. Epub 2018 Jul 17.

Centre Hospitalier National d'Ophtalmologie des Quinze-Vingts, INSERM-DHOS Clinical Investigation Center, 1423, Paris, France.

Adaptive optics (AO)-enhanced en face retinal imaging, termed here AO ophthalmoscopy (AOO) has reached a level of robustness which fuels its increasing use in research and clinical centers. Here we will review the contribution of clinical AOO to the understanding and monitoring of 1) age-related macular degeneration and 2) vascular diseases. The main contributions of AOO to the phenotyping of AMD are a better identification of drusen, a better delineation of the limits of atrophy, and the identification of novel features such as punctate hyperreflectivity and mobile melanin-containing clumps. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.preteyeres.2018.07.001DOI Listing
September 2018
17 Reads

The dynamic receptive fields of retinal ganglion cells.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2018 11 23;67:102-117. Epub 2018 Jun 23.

Departments of Ophthalmology and Physiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, United States. Electronic address:

Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were one of the first classes of sensory neurons to be described in terms of a receptive field (RF). Over the last six decades, our understanding of the diversity of RGC types and the nuances of their response properties has grown exponentially. We will review the current understanding of RGC RFs mostly from studies in mammals, but including work from other vertebrates as well. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.preteyeres.2018.06.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6235744PMC
November 2018
6 Reads

NAD and sirtuins in retinal degenerative diseases: A look at future therapies.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2018 11 12;67:118-129. Epub 2018 Jun 12.

Department of Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA; Neuroscience Graduate Program, Division of Biology and Biomedical Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA; Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA; Department of Developmental Biology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA. Electronic address:

Retinal degenerative diseases are a major cause of morbidity in modern society because visual impairment significantly decreases the quality of life of patients. A significant challenge in treating retinal degenerative diseases is their genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity. However, despite this diversity, many of these diseases share a common endpoint involving death of light-sensitive photoreceptors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.preteyeres.2018.06.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6235699PMC
November 2018
5 Reads

Regulation of calcium homeostasis in the outer segments of rod and cone photoreceptors.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2018 11 6;67:87-101. Epub 2018 Jun 6.

Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA. Electronic address:

Calcium plays important roles in the function and survival of rod and cone photoreceptor cells. Rapid regulation of calcium in the outer segments of photoreceptors is required for the modulation of phototransduction that drives the termination of the flash response as well as light adaptation in rods and cones. On a slower time scale, maintaining proper calcium homeostasis is critical for the health and survival of photoreceptors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.preteyeres.2018.06.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6235702PMC
November 2018
2 Reads

Pathogenesis of Keratoconus: The intriguing therapeutic potential of Prolactin-inducible protein.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2018 11 13;67:150-167. Epub 2018 Jul 13.

Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 975 NE 10th Street, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, United States; Department of Ophthalmology/Dean McGee Eye Institute, University of Oklahoma Health Science Center, 608 Stanton L. Young Blvd, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, United States. Electronic address:

Keratoconus (KC) is the most common ectatic corneal disease, with clinical findings that include discomfort, visual disturbance and possible blindness if left untreated. KC affects approximately 1:400 to 1:2000 people worldwide, including both males and females. The aetiology and onset of KC remains a puzzle and as a result, the ability to treat or reverse the disease is hampered. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.preteyeres.2018.05.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6235698PMC
November 2018
4 Reads

The Drosophila light-activated TRP and TRPL channels - Targets of the phosphoinositide signaling cascade.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2018 09 5;66:200-219. Epub 2018 May 5.

Departments of Medical Neurobiology, The Institute of Medical Research Israel-Canada (IMRIC) and the Edmond and Lily Safra Center for Brain Sciences (ELSC), Faculty of Medicine of the Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91120, Israel. Electronic address:

The Drosophila light-activated Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channel is the founding member of a large and diverse family of channel proteins. It is now established that TRP channels are evolutionarily conserved and are found in many organisms and tissues. This review outlines the progress made in our understanding of Drosophila phototransduction with a focus on the light sensitive TRP channels. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.preteyeres.2018.05.001DOI Listing
September 2018
5 Reads

A new perspective on lipid research in age-related macular degeneration.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2018 11 4;67:56-86. Epub 2018 May 4.

Centre for Experimental Medicine, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

There is an urgency to find new treatment strategies that could prevent or delay the onset or progression of AMD. Different classes of lipids and lipoproteins metabolism genes have been associated with AMD in a multiple ways, but despite the ever-increasing knowledge base, we still do not understand fully how circulating lipids or local lipid metabolism contribute to AMD. It is essential to clarify whether dietary lipids, systemic or local lipoprotein metabolismtrafficking of lipids in the retina should be targeted in the disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.preteyeres.2018.04.006DOI Listing
November 2018
14 Reads

The pupillary light responses of animals; a review of their distribution, dynamics, mechanisms and functions.

Authors:
Ronald H Douglas

Prog Retin Eye Res 2018 09 1;66:17-48. Epub 2018 May 1.

Division of Optometry & Visual Science City, University of London, Northampton Square, London, EC1V 0HB, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

The timecourse and extent of changes in pupil area in response to light are reviewed in all classes of vertebrate and cephalopods. Although the speed and extent of these responses vary, most species, except the majority of teleost fish, show extensive changes in pupil area related to light exposure. The neuromuscular pathways underlying light-evoked pupil constriction are described and found to be relatively conserved, although the precise autonomic mechanisms differ somewhat between species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.preteyeres.2018.04.005DOI Listing
September 2018
3 Reads

Zika and the Eye: Pieces of a Puzzle.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2018 09 24;66:85-106. Epub 2018 Apr 24.

Vision Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, Paulista Medical School, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Brazilian Institute of Fight Against Blindness, Assis and Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus mainly transmitted to humans by mosquitoes from Aedes genus. Other ways of transmission include the perinatal and sexual routes, blood transfusion, and laboratory exposure. Although the first human cases were registered in 1952 in African countries, outbreaks were only reported since 2007, when entire Pacific islands were affected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.preteyeres.2018.04.004DOI Listing
September 2018
25 Reads

Neurotrophic keratopathy.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2018 09 23;66:107-131. Epub 2018 Apr 23.

Department of Ophthalmology III, Quinze-Vingts Hospital, DHU Sight Restore, INSERM-DHOS CIC, and Vision Institute, INSERM, U968, Sorbonne Universités, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Neurotrophic Keratopathy (NK) refers to a condition where corneal epitheliopathy leading to frank epithelial defect with or without stromal ulceration (melting) is associated with reduced or absent corneal sensations. Sensory nerves serve nociceptor and trophic functions, which can be affected independently or simultaneously. Loss of trophic function and consequent epithelial breakdown exposes the stroma making it susceptible to enzymatic degradation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.preteyeres.2018.04.003DOI Listing
September 2018
19 Reads

Anterior segment optical coherence tomography.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2018 09 7;66:132-156. Epub 2018 Apr 7.

Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore; Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences Academic Clinical Program, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore; Center for Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Medical University of Vienna, Austria; Christian Doppler Laboratory for Ocular and Dermal Effects of Thiomers, Medical University of Vienna, Austria; Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Vienna, Austria; Department of Ophthalmology, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. Electronic address:

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides non-contact, rapid in vivo imaging of ocular structures, and has become a key part of evaluating the anterior segment of the eye. Over the years, improvements to technology have increased the speed of capture and resolution of images, leading to the increasing impact of anterior segment OCT imaging on clinical practice. In this review, we summarize the historical development of anterior segment OCT, and provide an update on the research and clinical applications of imaging the ocular surface, cornea, anterior chamber structures, aqueous outflow system, and most recently anterior segment vessels. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.preteyeres.2018.04.002DOI Listing
September 2018
5 Reads

The coma in glaucoma: Retinal ganglion cell dysfunction and recovery.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2018 07 6;65:77-92. Epub 2018 Apr 6.

Centre for Eye Research Australia, Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, VIC, Australia; Ophthalmology, University of Melbourne, Department of Surgery, VIC, Australia. Electronic address:

Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration causes vision loss in patients with glaucoma, and this has been generally considered to be irreversible due to RGC death. We question this assertion and summarise accumulating evidence that points to visual function improving in glaucoma patients with treatment, particularly in the early stages of disease. We propose that prior to death, RGCs enter periods of dysfunction but can recover with relief of RGC stress. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.preteyeres.2018.04.001DOI Listing
July 2018
7 Reads

The primate fovea: Structure, function and development.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2018 09 30;66:49-84. Epub 2018 Mar 30.

Paul Flechsig Institute of Brain Research, Medical Faculty, University of Leipzig, 04103 Leipzig, Germany. Electronic address:

A fovea is a pitted invagination in the inner retinal tissue (fovea interna) that overlies an area of photoreceptors specialized for high acuity vision (fovea externa). Although the shape of the vertebrate fovea varies considerably among the species, there are two basic types. The retina of many predatory fish, reptilians, and birds possess one (or two) convexiclivate fovea(s), while the retina of higher primates contains a concaviclivate fovea. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.preteyeres.2018.03.006DOI Listing
September 2018
8 Reads

Non-syndromic retinitis pigmentosa.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2018 09 27;66:157-186. Epub 2018 Mar 27.

Department of Ophthalmology, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) encompasses a group of inherited retinal dystrophies characterized by the primary degeneration of rod and cone photoreceptors. RP is a leading cause of visual disability, with a worldwide prevalence of 1:4000. Although the majority of RP cases are non-syndromic, 20-30% of patients with RP also have an associated non-ocular condition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.preteyeres.2018.03.005DOI Listing
September 2018
18 Reads

CRISPR-Cas9 genome engineering: Treating inherited retinal degeneration.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2018 07 22;65:28-49. Epub 2018 Mar 22.

Institute for Vision Research, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, United States. Electronic address:

Gene correction is a valuable strategy for treating inherited retinal degenerative diseases, a major cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Single gene defects cause the majority of these retinal dystrophies. Gene augmentation holds great promise if delivered early in the course of the disease, however, many patients carry mutations in genes too large to be packaged into adeno-associated viral vectors and some, when overexpressed via heterologous promoters, induce retinal toxicity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.preteyeres.2018.03.003DOI Listing
July 2018
8 Reads

Ocular treatment of choroidal melanoma in relation to the prevention of metastatic death - A personal view.

Authors:
Bertil Damato

Prog Retin Eye Res 2018 09 20;66:187-199. Epub 2018 Mar 20.

Ocular Oncology Service, Department of Ophthalmology, University of California San Francisco, 10 Koret Way, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA. Electronic address:

About 50% of patients with choroidal melanoma develop metastatic disease, despite successful eradication of the primary tumor. Patient care is complicated by the fact that we do not know whether ocular treatment ever influences survival and if so in whom. Some authorities believe that metastatic spread is never preventable, because it has always occurred by the time the ocular tumor is detected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.preteyeres.2018.03.004DOI Listing
September 2018
11 Reads

Epigenetic control of gene regulation during development and disease: A view from the retina.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2018 07 12;65:1-27. Epub 2018 Mar 12.

Neurobiology-Neurodegeneration & Repair Laboratory, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA. Electronic address:

Complex biological processes, such as organogenesis and homeostasis, are stringently regulated by genetic programs that are fine-tuned by epigenetic factors to establish cell fates and/or to respond to the microenvironment. Gene regulatory networks that guide cell differentiation and function are modulated and stabilized by modifications to DNA, RNA and proteins. In this review, we focus on two key epigenetic changes - DNA methylation and histone modifications - and discuss their contribution to retinal development, aging and disease, especially in the context of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.preteyeres.2018.03.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6054546PMC
July 2018
7 Reads